WorldWideScience

Sample records for high proton energies

  1. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  2. High-energy proton scattering on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K

    1973-01-01

    High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).

  3. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two high energy photons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event where two energetic photons ("gammas") are produced in a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. Many events of this type are produced by well-understood Standard Model processes ("backgrounds") which do not involve Higgs particles. A small excess of events of this type with similar masses could indicate evidence for Higgs particle production, but any specific event is most likely to be from the background. The photons are indicated, in the different projections and views, by the clusters of energy shown in yellow.

  4. High energy proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is restricted to an overall global criticism of what has been produced, experimentally and theoretically, during the past ten years, concerning elastic proton scattering at intermediate energy: theoretical models and approximations, phenomenological analysis, criticisms and suggestions on experimental methods

  5. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conesa del Valle, Z.; Corcella, G.; Fleuret, F.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kopeliovich, B.; Lansberg, J.P.; Lourenco, C.; Martinez, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Satz, H.; Scomparin, E.; Ullrich, T.; Teryaev, O.; Vogt, R.; Wang, J.X.

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  6. Low energy current accumulator for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1977-01-01

    Building current in high-energy p-p colliding beam machines is most appropriately done in a low-energy (small circumference) current accumulator. Three significant factors favor such a procedure: First, large rings tend to be susceptible to unstable longitudinal density oscillations. These can be avoided by pumping up the beam in the accumulator. When the current stack is injected into the storage ring, potentially harmful instability is essentially neutralized. Second, high-field magnets characteristic of future high energy proton rings are designed with superconducting coils within the iron magnetic shield. This means coil construction and placement errors propagate rapidly within the beam aperture. An intermediate ''stacking ring'' allows the minimum use of the superconducting ring aperture. Finally, the coils are vulnerable to radiation heating and possible magnet quenching. By minimizing beam manipulaion in the superconducting environment and using only the central portion of the beam aperture, coil vulnerability can be put at a minimum

  7. Biological effectiveness of high-energy protons - Target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, F.A.; Katz, R.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.; Shinn, J.; Hajnal, F.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy protons traversing tissue produce local sources of high-linear-energy-transfer ions through nuclear fragmentation. The contribution of these target fragments to the biological effectiveness of high-energy protons using the cellular track model is examined. The effects of secondary ions are treated in terms of the production collision density using energy-dependent parameters from a high-energy fragmentation model. Calculations for mammalian cell cultures show that at high dose, at which intertrack effects become important, protons deliver damage similar to that produced by gamma rays, and with fragmentation the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons increases moderately from unity. At low dose, where sublethal damage is unimportant, the contribution from target fragments dominates, causing the proton effectiveness to be very different from that of gamma rays with a strongly fluence-dependent RBE. At high energies, the nuclear fragmentation cross sections become independent of energy. This leads to a plateau in the proton single-particle-action cross section, below 1 keV/micron, since the target fragments dominate. 29 refs

  8. Correlation between the pionization region and the fragmentation region in high energy proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C

    1973-01-01

    Measurements are reported of two-particle correlations in high energy proton-proton collisions with one particle in the pionization region and the other a proton in the fragmentation region. The correlation function is independent of x of the fragmentation proton for 0.55energy-independent function of x. The measurements for two values of the rapidity of the pionization particle give similar results. (11 refs).

  9. Correlations between high momentum particles in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbink, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes an experiment performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The experiment studies the reaction p+p→h 1 +h 2 +X at two centre-of-mass energies, √s=44.7 GeV and √s=62.3 GeV. Two of the outgoing particles (h 1 and h 2 ) are detected in opposite c.m.s. hemispheres at small polar angles with respect to the direction of two incident protons. The remaining particles produced (X) are not detected. The hadrons hsub(i) are identified mesons (π + , π - , K + , K - ) or baryons (p, Λ) with relatively large longitudinal psub(L) and small transverse momentum psub(T). The aim of the experiment is twofold. The first aim is to study whether the momentum distributions of the fast particles hsub(i) are correlated and thereby to constrain the possible interaction mechanisms responsible for the production of high psub(L), low psub(T) particles. The second aim is to establish to what extent the production of pions and kaons in inclusive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→π+X, X=all other particles) resembles the production of pions and kaons in diffractive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→p+π+X, in which the final-state proton has a momentum close to its maximum possible value). (Auth.)

  10. Radiation protection around high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    1996-01-01

    Proton accelerators are intense radiation sources because of the particle beam itself, secondary radiation and structure activation. So radiation protection is required around these equipment during running time but even during downtime. This article presents some estimated values about structure and air activation and applies the Moyer model to get dose rate behind shielding. (A.C.)

  11. A new impact picture for low and high energy proton-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Wu, Tai Tsun

    1978-05-01

    The impact picture that was used several years ago to predict the increase of total and integrated differential cross sections at high energies was improved significantly. The major improvements consist of the following: (1) the dependence of the Pomeron term on the momentum transfer is taken from a modified version of the relation between matter distribution and charge distribution; (2) Regge backgrounds are properly taken into account; and (3) a simple non-trivial form is used for the hadronic matter current in the proton. For proton-proton elastic scattering, the phenomenological differential cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data in the laboratory momentum range of 14 GeV/c to 2000 GeV/c, and is predicted for ISABELLE energy. Because of the third improvement, predictions are obtained for both polarization and R parameters for proton-proton elastic scattering

  12. High-energy test of proton radiography concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.F.; Atencio, L.G.; Espinoza, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of high energy protons to produce radiographs of heavy metal test objects. The authors executed a proof-of-principle experiment using GeV proton beams available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The experiment produced proton radiographs of a suitably dense, unclassified test object. The experiment tested capabilities in data collection, image reconstruction, and hydro-code simulation and validated models of high-energy proton radiography. A lens was designed using existing quadrupole magnets, constructed on the A1 beam line of the AGS and used to image 10-GeV protons. The results include: (1) images made with an integrating detector, (2) measurements of the background and measurements of the resolution functions, and (3) forward model fits to the transmission data. In all cases the results agree with initial estimates and provide strong support for the utility of proton radiography as a new hydrotest diagnostic

  13. Investigation of high-energy-proton effects in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, C.J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Todosow, M.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of 1100 aluminum were exposed to several fluences of 23.5-GeV protons at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Although this energy is above those currently being proposed for spallation-neutron applications, the results can be viewed as indicative of trends and other microstructural evolution with fluence that take place with high-energy proton exposures such as those associated with an increasing ratio of gas generation to dpa. TEM investigation showed significantly larger bubble size and lower density of bubbles compared with lower-energy proton results. Additional testing showed that the tensile strength increased with fluence as expected, but the microhardness decreased, a result for which an intepretation is still under investigation

  14. Superconducting Magnet Technology for Future High Energy Proton Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Interest in high field dipoles has been given a boost by new proposals to build a high-energy proton-proton collider to follow the LHC and programs around the world are taking on the task to answer the need. Studies aiming toward future high-energy proton-proton colliders at the 100 TeV scale are now being organized. The LHC and current cost models are based on technology close to four decades old and point to a broad optimum of operation using dipoles with fields between 5 and 12T when site constraints, either geographical or political, are not a factor. Site geography constraints that limit the ring circumference can drive the required dipole field up to 20T, which is more than a factor of two beyond state-of-the-art. After a brief review of current progress, the talk will describe the challenges facing future development and present a roadmap for moving high field accelerator magnet technology forward. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, High Energy Physics, US Department of Energy, under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  15. High yield of low-energy pions from a high-energy primary proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, A.; Capponi, S.; De Castro, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first measurement on the yield of pions with momentum smaller than 220 MeV/c, produced by a 300 GeV/c proton beam. The measurements, performed at the CERN super proton synchrotron using tungsten production targets of different lengths, are discussed referring to the possibility of extending to high-energy laboratories the access to fundamental research involving low-energy pions and muons

  16. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  17. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Barlow, R. J.; Molson, J. G.; Serluca, M.; Toader, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC.

  18. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, R.B. [University of Manchester, The Cockcroft Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom); Barlow, R.J.; Toader, A. [The University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Molson, J.G. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, LAL, Orsay (France); Serluca, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC. (orig.)

  19. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.

    2006-01-01

    New generalization of z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematical characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x 1 and x 2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, the x 1 and x 2 are functions of the momentum fractions y a and y b of the scattered and recoil constituents carried out by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the z are established to obtain energy, angular and multiplicity independence of the ψ(z). The scheme allows unique description of data on inclusive cross sections of charged particles, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and lambdas at high energies. The obtained results are of interest to use z-scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and high multiplicity region at the proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC

  20. Triple parton scatterings in high-energy proton-proton collisions arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2017-01-01

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (pp) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS. The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5±4.5  mb. Estimates for triple charm (cc¯) and bottom (bb¯) production in pp collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single cc¯, bb¯ cross sections. At s≈100  TeV, about 15% of the pp collisions produce three cc¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  1. A new description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics); Goldberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both √s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production. (orig.)

  2. New description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshay, S; Goldberg, J

    1987-10-15

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both ..sqrt..s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production.

  3. Comparison of proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B.; Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris; Leader, E.

    1985-09-01

    The ISR results on the differential cross-sections for pp and anti-pp show unambiguously that the crossing-odd amplitude is still important at very high energies. Comparison of ISR and CERN collider anti-pp data suggests that the crossing-odd amplitude is growing maximally fast with energy. We explore the phenomenological consequences of such a ''maximal odderon'' behaviour at TeV energies

  4. Timing Comparisons for GLEs and High-energy Proton Events using GPS Proton Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, V.; Winter, L. M.; Carver, M.; Morley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The newly released LANL GPS particle sensor data offers a unique snapshot of access of relativistic particles into the geomagnetic field. Currently, 23 of the 31 operational GPS satellites host energetic particle detectors which can detect the arrival of high-energy solar protons associated with Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). We compare the timing profiles of solar energetic proton detections from GPS satellites as well as from ground-based Neutron Monitors and GOES spacecraft at geostationary orbit in order to understand how high-energy protons from the Sun enter the geomagnetic field and investigate potential differences in arrival time of energetic protons at GPS satellites as a function of location. Previous studies could only use one or two spacecraft at a similar altitude to track the arrival of energetic particles. With GPS data, we can now test whether the particles arrive isotropically, as assumed, or whether there exist differences in the timing and energetics viewed by each of the individual satellites. Extensions of this work could lead to improvements in space weather forecasting that predict more localized risk estimates for space-based technology.

  5. Neural network model for proton-proton collision at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, M.Y.; El-Metwally, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Developments in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and their applications to physics have made it feasible to develop and implement new modeling techniques for high-energy interactions. In particular, AI techniques of artificial neural networks (ANN) have recently been used to design and implement more effective models. The primary purpose of this paper is to model the proton-proton (p-p) collision using the ANN technique. Following a review of the conventional techniques and an introduction to the neural network, the paper presents simulation test results using an p-p based ANN model trained with experimental data. The p-p based ANN model calculates the multiplicity distribution of charged particles and the inelastic cross section of the p-p collision at high energies. The results amply demonstrate the feasibility of such new technique in extracting the collision features and prove its effectiveness

  6. High-energy polarized proton beams a modern view

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffstaetter, Georg Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This monograph begins with a review of the basic equations of spin motion in particle accelerators. It then reviews how polarized protons can be accelerated to several tens of GeV using as examples the preaccelerators of HERA, a 6.3 km long cyclic accelerator at DESY / Hamburg. Such techniques have already been used at the AGS of BNL / New York, to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV. But for acceleration to energies of several hundred GeV as in RHIC, TEVATRON, HERA, LHC, or a VLHC, new problems can occur which can lead to a significantly diminished beam polarization. For these high energies, it is necessary to look in more detail at the spin motion, and for that the invariant spin field has proved to be a useful tool. This is already widely used for the description of high-energy electron beams that become polarized by the emission of spin-flip synchrotron radiation. It is shown that this field gives rise to an adiabatic invariant of spin-orbit motion and that it defines the maximum time average polarizat...

  7. Proton multiplicity distributions in high-energy hadron-nuclei collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The fast proton emission process is analyzed in high-energy hadron-nuclei collisions. The formula describing the proton multiplicity distributions is derived. It describes well enough the proton multiplicity distribution of pion-nuclei and proton-nuclei collisions at 200 and 400 GeV

  8. QCD in high-energy proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, R.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical investigation of nucleon-nucleon collisions at high energies allows to explore the structure of the nucleon by large momentum transfer (deep-inelastic) processes. In these lectures the structure of the nucleon from momentum scales Q > 1 GeV/c ( -16 cm) is discussed. In the first lecture the basic concepts of the parton model and of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are introduced, and applied to deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. The following lectures cover large transverse momentum, psub(T), hadronic processes, massive dilepton production and production of prompt real photons at large psub(T). The present status of the theoretical understanding of these processes is summarized. (Auth.)

  9. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  10. Neutron-proton elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-09-06

    The most recent measurements of the differential and total cross sections of neutron-proton elastic scattering from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been explained by using rho as a simple pole and pomeron as a dipole. The predictions are also made regarding the energy dependence of dip and bump structure in angular distribution.

  11. LRSPC, Proton High-Energy Loss in Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The LRSPC program is designed to estimate the energy loss, due to ionization and excitation, and the range of charged particles passing through matter. The code treats protons in elements or mixtures composed of elements with atomic numbers ranging from 1 to 100. The results for protons are generally valid from 1 MeV to 100 GeV. The code may be extended to treat other charged particles such as muons, pions, hyperons, deuterons, tritons and alphas by changing the particle mass, charge and range at 2 MeV. 2 - Method of solution: Stopping power is calculated from the Bethe-Bloch equation with shell and density corrections included. Range is calculated by integrating the reciprocal of the stopping power from an initial value at 2 MeV. The K-shell correction is taken from Walske's data. The L-shell and higher shell corrections are adjusted to fit low energy measurements fro 30 elements. The density correction is calculated by a method similar to that of Sternheimer, differing chiefly in the large number of electron shells considered. LRSPC computes improved proton range and stopping power data for use in the proton penetration code, LPPC (CCC-0051). It is packages separately and may be requested independently. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Number of elements in mixture ≤ 10, Atomic number of element ≤ 100, Number of energy points ≤ 500

  12. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  13. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  14. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  15. Observation of high energy electrons and protons in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly by Ohzora Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, K.; Murakami, H.; Nakamoto, A.; Hasebe, N.; Kikuche, J.; Doke, T.

    1988-01-01

    Observed results of the high energy electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.58 - 35 MeV) of the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly are presented. Two silicon Δ E-E telescopes on the ohzora satellite (EXOS-C, 1984-15A) were used to observe the high energy particle and the maximum intensity of electrons and protons. The powers of energy spectra above 1 MeV have different values from energy region below 1 MeV. The electron and proton intensities are greatest at pitch angle maximized at 90 0 . (author) [pt

  16. Radiation damage in silicon exposed to high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Gordon; Hayama, Shusaku; Murin, Leonid; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Sengupta, Asmita; Davia, Cinzia; Karpenko, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Photoluminescence, infrared absorption, positron annihilation, and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) have been used to investigate the radiation damage produced by 24 GeV/c protons in crystalline silicon. The irradiation doses and the concentrations of carbon and oxygen in the samples have been chosen to monitor the mobility of the damage products. Single vacancies (and self-interstitials) are introduced at the rate of ∼1 cm -1 , and divacancies at 0.5 cm -1 . Stable di-interstitials are formed when two self-interstitials are displaced in one damage event, and they are mobile at room temperature. In the initial stages of annealing the evolution of the point defects can be understood mainly in terms of trapping at the impurities. However, the positron signal shows that about two orders of magnitude more vacancies are produced by the protons than are detected in the point defects. Damage clusters exist, and are largely removed by annealing at 700 to 800 K, when there is an associated loss of broad band emission between 850 and 1000 meV. The well-known W center is generated by restructuring within clusters, with a range of activation energies of about 1.3 to 1.6 eV, reflecting the disordered nature of the clusters. Comparison of the formation of the X centers in oxygenated and oxygen-lean samples suggests that the J defect may be interstitial related rather than vacancy related. To a large extent, the damage and annealing behavior may be factorized into point defects (monitored by sharp-line optical spectra and DLTS) and cluster defects (monitored by positron annihilation and broadband luminescence). Taking this view to the limit, the generation rates for the point defects are as predicted by simply taking the damage generated by the Coulomb interaction of the protons and Si nuclei

  17. Transverse-energy distribution in proton-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the model of nuclear-collision geometry, the independent N - N collision picture and participant contribution picture are used to describe the transverse-energy distribution in p-A collisions at high energy. In the independent N - N collision picture, the energy loss of leading proton in each p-N collision is considered. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data of p-Al, p-Cu, p-U collisions at 200 GeV/c. (author)

  18. High energy collisions and the proton structure: an ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out an ambiguity in the determination of the sign of the imaginary part of the proton-proton elastic-scattering amplitude for ]t]>]t min . Some implications of such and ambiguity concerning the proton structure are discussed and finally, an experimental analysis which could solve it is suggested. (L.C.) [pt

  19. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  20. Single event upset and charge collection measurements using high energy protons and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Ness, J.D.; Majewski, P.P.; Wender, S.; Gavron, A.

    1994-01-01

    RAMs, microcontrollers and surface barrier detectors were exposed to beams of high energy protons and neutrons to measure the induced number of upsets as well as energy deposition. The WNR facility at Los Alamos provided a neutron spectrum similar to that of the atmospheric neutrons. Its effect on devices was compared to that of protons with energies of 200, 400, 500, and 800 MeV. Measurements indicate that SEU cross sections for 400 MeV protons are similar to those induced by the atmospheric neutron spectrum

  1. Monte carlo calculation of energy deposition and ionization yield for high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.; McDonald, J.C.; Coyne, J.J.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Recent calculations of event size spectra for neutrons use a continuous slowing down approximation model for the energy losses experienced by secondary charged particles (protons and alphas) and thus do not allow for straggling effects. Discrepancies between the calculations and experimental measurements are thought to be, in part, due to the neglect of straggling. A tractable way of including stochastics in radiation transport calculations is via the Monte Carlo method and a number of efforts directed toward simulating positive ion track structure have been initiated employing this technique. Recent results obtained with our updated and extended MOCA code for charged particle track structure are presented here. Major emphasis has been on calculating energy deposition and ionization yield spectra for recoil proton crossers since they are the most prevalent event type at high energies (>99% at 14 MeV) for small volumes. Neutron event-size spectra can be obtained from them by numerical summing and folding techniques. Data for ionization yield spectra are presented for simulated recoil protons up to 20 MeV in sites of diameters 2-1000 nm

  2. ENERGY CORRECTION FOR HIGH POWER PROTON/H MINUS LINAC INJECTORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAPARIA, D.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    High-energy proton/H minus energy (> GeV) linac injector suffer from energy jitter due to RF amplitude and phase stability. Especially in high power injectors this energy jitter result beam losses more than 1 W/m that require for hand on maintenance. Depending upon the requirements for next accelerator in the chain, this energy jitter may or may not require to be corrected. This paper will discuss the sources of this energy jitter, correction schemes with specific examples.

  3. Study of the proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies through eikonal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Alvaro Favinha

    1995-01-01

    The proton-proton elastic scattering in the center of mass energy region 23 to 63 GeV is investigated through a multiple diffraction model. As an introduction to the subject, a detailed review of the fundamental basis of the Multiple Diffraction Formalism and a survey of the multiple diffraction models (geometrical) currently used are presented. The goal of this investigation is to reformulate one of these models, which makes use of an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude purely imaginary and is not able to predict the ρ-parameter (the ratio of the forward real and imaginary parts of the hadronic amplitude). Introducing a real part for the elementary amplitude proportional to the imaginary part, improvements in the formalism are obtained. It is shown that this new approach is able to reproduce all experimental data on differential and integrated cross sections (total, elastic and inelastic), but not the ρ-parameter as function of the energy. Then, starting from fitting of this parameter an overall reproduction of the physical observables is obtained, with the exception of the dip region (diffractive minimum in the differential cross section) overall description are also not firmly reached in all these models. Finally, alternatives to improve the results in a future research are suggested and discussed. (author)

  4. Acceleration of polarized proton in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In low to medium energy accelerators, betatron tune jumps and vertical orbit harmonic correction methods have been used to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. At high energy accelerators, snakes are needed to preserve polarization. The author analyzes the effects of snake resonances, snake imperfections, and overlapping resonances on spin depolarization. He discusses also results of recent snake experiments at the IUCF Cooler Ring. The snake can overcome various kinds of spin depolarization resonances. These experiments pointed out further that partial snake can be used to cure the imperfection resonances in low to medium energy accelerators

  5. Thermalization in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedemann, R.S.

    1988-03-01

    A relativistic proton-nucleus collision using the intranuclear cascade model is studied. The purpose is to verify the equilibration hypothesis at fragmentation time made by many nuclear fragmentation models. (author)

  6. High energy electron and proton observations in the South Atlantic geomagnetic anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nagata, K.; Kohno, T.; Murakami, H.

    1988-01-01

    The method developed by researchers of cooperation agreement between Japan and Brazil, to observe high energy particles in the South Atlantic Geomagnetic Anomaly, is described. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and protons, using silicon detectors of good energy resolution and two spectrometers with different geometrical factors, on board of the OHZORA satellite, were determined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  8. Operation of the LHC with Protons at High Luminosity and High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, Giulia; Alemany-Fernandez, Reyes; Crockford, Guy; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Giachino, Rossano; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hemelsoet, Georges-Henry; Höfle, Wolfgang; Jacquet, Delphine; Lamont, Mike; Nisbet, David; Normann, Lasse; Pojer, Mirko; Ponce, Laurette; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Suykerbuyk, Ronaldus; Uythoven, Jan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) entered the first year in its second long Run, after a 2-year shutdown that prepared it for high energy. The first two months of beam operation were dedicated to setting up the nominal cycle for proton-proton operation at 6.5 TeV/beam, and culminated with the first physics with 3 nominal bunches/ring at 13 TeV CoM on 3 June. The year continued with a stepwise intensity ramp up that allowed reaching 2244 bunches/ring for a peak luminosity of ~5·10³³ cm⁻²s^{−1} and a total of just above 4 fb-1 delivered to the high luminosity experiments. Beam operation was shaped by the high intensity effects, e.g. electron cloud and macroparticle-induced fast losses (UFOs), which on a few occasions caused the first beam induced quenches at high energy. This paper describes the operational experience with high intensity and high energy at the LHC, together with the issues that had to be tackled along the way.

  9. Spatial distribution of moderated neutrons along a Pb target irradiated by high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Kulakov, B.A.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Sosnin, A.N.; Debeauvais, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Zamani Valasiadou, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy protons in the range of 0.5-7.4 GeV have irradiated an extended Pb target covered with a paraffin moderator. The moderator was used in order to shift the hard Pb spallation neutron spectrum to lower energies and to increase the transmutation efficiency via (n,γ) reactions. Neutron distributions along and inside the paraffin moderator were measured. An analysis of the experimental results was performed based on particle production by high-energy interactions with heavy targets and neutron spectrum shifting by the paraffin. Conclusions about the spallation neutron production in the target and moderation through the paraffin are presented. The study of the total neutron fluence on the moderator surface as a function of the proton beam energy shows that neutron cost is improved up to 1 GeV. For higher proton beam energies it remains constant with a tendency to decline

  10. High-energy and high-fluence proton irradiation effects in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Taylor, S.J.; Yang, M.; Matsuda, S.; Kawasaki, O.; Hisamatsu, T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined proton irradiation damage in high-energy (1 endash 10 MeV) and high-fluence (approx-gt 10 13 cm -2 ) Si n + -p-p + structure space solar cells. Radiation testing has revealed an anomalous increase in short-circuit current I sc followed by an abrupt decrease and cell failure, induced by high-fluence proton irradiation. We propose a model to explain these phenomena by expressing the change in carrier concentration p of the base region as a function of the proton fluence in addition to the well-known model where the short-circuit current is decreased by minority-carrier lifetime reduction after irradiation. The reduction in carrier concentration due to majority-carrier trapping by radiation-induced defects has two effects. First, broadening of the depletion layer increases both the generation endash recombination current and also the contribution of the photocurrent generated in this region to the total photocurrent. Second, the resistivity of the base layer is increased, resulting in the abrupt decrease in the short circuit current and failure of the solar cells. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Recent research on nuclear reaction using high-energy proton and neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Tokushi [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1997-11-01

    The presently available high-energy neutron beam facilities are introduced. Then some interesting research on nuclear reaction using high-energy protons are reported such as the intermediate mass fragments emission and neutron spectrum measurements on various targets. As the important research using high-energy neutron, the (p,n) reactions on Mn, Fe, and Ni, the elastic scattering of neutrons, and the shielding experiments are discussed. (author)

  12. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  13. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yukio

    2005-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of these data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality factors to consider the consistency between radiation weighting factors and Q-L relationship. The effective dose conversion coefficients obtained in this work were in good agreement with those recently evaluated by using FLUKA code for photons and electrons with all energies, and neutrons and protons below 500 MeV. There were some discrepancy between two data owing to the difference of cross sections in the nuclear reaction models. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalents for high energy radiations based on Q-L relation in ICRP Publication 60 were evaluated only in this work. The previous comparison between effective dose and effective dose equivalent made it clear that the radiation weighting factors for high energy neutrons and protons were overestimated and the modification was required. (author)

  14. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  15. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}energy spectrum broadening by RT instability is controlled and high quality proton beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  16. Observation of gaseous nitric acid production at a high-energy proton accelerator facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, Y; Nakajima, H

    2005-01-01

    High-energy protons and neutrons produce a variety of radionuclides as well as noxious and oxidative gases, such as ozone and nitric acid, in the air mainly through the nuclear spallation of atmospheric elements. Samples were collected from the surfaces of magnets, walls, and floors in the neutrino beamline tunnel and the target station of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron facility by wiping surfaces with filter paper. Considerably good correlations were found between the amounts of nitrate and tritium and between those of nitrate and /sup 7/Be. This finding gives evidence that at high-energy proton facilities, nitric acid is produced in the radiolysis of air in beam- loss regions. Also, the nitric acid on the surfaces was found to be desorbed and tended to be more uniform throughout the tunnel due to air circulation. The magnitude of diminishing from the surfaces was in the order of tritium>nitrate>/sup 7/Be1).

  17. Determination of kinetic coefficients for proton-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    From the effective proton dynamics, the approximations in the context of high energy collisions which lead to the Boltzmann equation, are established. From this equation, general expressions for the kinetic coefficients are deduced. Using a simple model, analytical expressions for kinetic coefficients are obtained. The importance of the effect of Pauli blocking is also shown. (author) [pt

  18. Ionization of multielectronic atoms by proton impact at high and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.; Ponce, V.H.; Rivarola, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is studied Ne ionization by proton impact at high and intermediate energies using the CDW-EIS model. Calculations on simple and double differential cross sections are presented. The results are compared to available experimental data. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  19. High energy proton simulation of 14-MeV neutron damage in Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; Bunch, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-energy protons are a potentially useful tool for simulating the radiation damage produced by 14-MeV neutrons in CTR materials. A comparison is given of calculations and measurements of the relative damage effectiveness of these two types of radiation in single-crystal Al 2 O 3 . The experiments make use of the prominent absorption band at 206 nm as an index to lattice damage, on the assumption that peak absorption is proportional to the concentration of lattice vacancies. The induced absorption is measured for incident proton energies ranging from 5 to 15 MeV and for 14-MeV neutrons. Recoil-energy spectra are calculated for elastic and inelastic scattering using published angular distributions. Recoil-energy spectra also are calculated for the secondary alpha particles and 12 C nuclei produced by (p,p'α) reactions on 16 O. The recoil spectra are converted to damage-energy spectra and then integrated to yield the damage-energy cross section at each proton energy and for 14 MeV neutrons. A comparison of the calculations with experimental results suggests that damage energy, at least at high energies, is a reasonable criterion for estimating this type of radiation damage. (auth)

  20. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  1. High energy proton induced radiation damage of rare earth permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanz, M.; Endres, M.; Löwe, K.; Lienig, T.; Deppert, O.; Lang, P. M.; Varentsov, D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2017-12-01

    Permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are an alternative to common electromagnetic quadrupoles especially for fixed rigidity beam transport scenarios at particle accelerators. Using those magnets for experimental setups can result in certain scenarios, in which a PMQ itself may be exposed to a large amount of primary and secondary particles with a broad energy spectrum, interacting with the magnetic material and affecting its magnetic properties. One specific scenario is proton microscopy, where a proton beam traverses an object and a collimator in which a part of the beam is scattered and deflected into PMQs used as part of a diagnostic system. During the commissioning of the PRIOR (Proton Microscope for Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) high energy proton microscope facility prototype at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in 2014, a significant reduction of the image quality was observed which was partially attributed to the demagnetization of the used PMQ lenses and the corresponding decrease of the field quality. In order to study this phenomenon, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and spare units manufactured from the same magnetic material—single wedges and a fully assembled PMQ module—were deliberately irradiated by a 3.6 GeV intense proton beam. The performed investigations have shown that in proton radiography applications the above described scattering may result in a high irradiation dose in the PMQ magnets. This did not only decrease the overall magnetic strength of the PMQs but also caused a significant degradation of the field quality of an assembled PMQ module by increasing the parasitic multipole field harmonics which effectively makes PMQs impractical for proton radiography applications or similar scenarios.

  2. Dose conversion coefficients for high-energy photons, electrons, neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Sato, O; Tanaka, S I; Tsuda, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, N

    2003-01-01

    In the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990 Recommendations, radiation weighting factors were introduced in the place of quality factors, the tissue weighting factors were revised, and effective doses and equivalent doses of each tissues and organs were defined as the protection quantities. Dose conversion coefficients for photons, electrons and neutrons based on new ICRP recommendations were cited in the ICRP Publication 74, but the energy ranges of theses data were limited and there are no data for high energy radiations produced in accelerator facilities. For the purpose of designing the high intensity proton accelerator facilities at JAERI, the dose evaluation code system of high energy radiations based on the HERMES code was developed and the dose conversion coefficients of effective dose were evaluated for photons, neutrons and protons up to 10 GeV, and electrons up to 100 GeV. The dose conversion coefficients of effective dose equivalent were also evaluated using quality fact...

  3. Possibilities of polarized protons in Sp anti p S and other high energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for collisions with polarized protons in hadron colliders above 200 GeV are listed and briefly discussed. Particular attention is given to the use of the ''Siberan snake'' to eliminate depolarizing resonances, which occur when the spin precession frequency equals a frequency contained in the spectrum of the field seen by the beam. The Siberian snake is a device which makes the spin precession frequency essentially constant by using spin rotators, which precess the spin by 180 0 about either the longitudinal or transverse horizontal axis. It is concluded that operation with polarized protons should be possible at all the high energy hadron colliders

  4. High energy proton-induced radioactivity in HgI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, E.; Ferrero, J.L.; Sanchez, F.; Ruiz, J.A.; Lei, F.

    1995-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) semiconductor crystals are generating a lot of interest as room temperature solid state detectors for hard X-ray astronomy observations. For these applications one of the most important background sources is the cosmic proton induced radioactivity in the detector material. In order to study this background noise contribution a 1x1x1 cm HgI 2 crystal was irradiated with high energy protons. The resulting long-lived unstable isotopes and their production rates have been identified and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. ((orig.))

  5. Three-hadron angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions from perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Ortiz, Antonio; Paic, Guy; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    We study three-hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider at midrapidity. We use the leading-order parton matrix elements for 2→3 processes and include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using the modified fragmentation function approach. For the case when the produced hadrons have either the same or not too different momenta, we observe two away-side peaks at 2π/3 and 4π/3. We consider the dependence of the angular correlations on energy loss parameters that have been used in studies of single inclusive hadron production at RHIC. Our results on the angular dependence of the cross section agree well with preliminary data by the PHENIX Collaboration. We comment on the possible contribution of 2→3 processes to dihadron angular correlations and how a comparison of the two processes may help characterize the plasma further.

  6. Study of events with a high transverse momentum particle at proton-proton interactions with 63 GeV c.m. energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panter, M.

    1982-01-01

    In proton-proton interactions at a c.m. energy of 63 GeV events with an identified high transverse momentum particle were studied. The inclusive invariant cross section for the production of charged pions was measured in the transverse momentum range from 3 to 13 GeV/c. (orig.) [de

  7. Technical development of high intensity proton accelerators in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1995-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency decided 'Options making extra gains of actinides and fission products (OMEGA)' and to promote the related researches. Also in JAERI, the research on the group separation method for separating transuranic elements, strontium and cesium from high level radioactive wastes has been carried out since the beginning of 1970s. Also the concept of the fast reactors using minor actinide mixture fuel is being established, and the accelerator annihilation treatment utilizing the nuclear spallation reaction by high energy protons has been examined. In this report, from the viewpoint of the application of accelerators to atomic energy field, the annihilation treatment method by the nuclear spallation reaction utilizing high intensity proton accelerators, the plan of the various engineering utilization of proton beam, and the development of accelerators in JAERI are described. The way of thinking on the annihilation treatment of radioactive waste, the system using fast neutrons, the way of thinking on the development of high intensity proton accelerator technology, the steps of the development, the research and development for constructing the basic technology accelerator, 2 MeV beam acceleration test, the basic technology accelerator utilization facility and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Medium energy high intensity proton accelerator (MEHIPA): Reference Design Report (RDR) Ver. 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in accelerator technology has made it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce nuclear energy. In an accelerator-driven system (ADS), a high-intensity proton accelerator is used to produce protons of around 1 GeV energy, which strike a target such as lead or tungsten to produce spallation neutrons. ADS can be used to produce power, incinerate minor actinides and long-lived fission products, and for the utilization of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. The accelerator for ADS has to produce high energy (1 GeV) protons, and deliver tens of milli amperes of beam current with minimum (< 1 nA/m) beam loss for hands-on maintenance of the accelerator. This makes the development of accelerators for ADS very challenging. In India, it is planned to take a staged approach towards development of the requisite accelerator technology, and it is planned to develop the accelerator in three phases: 20 MeV, 200 MeV and 1 GeV. This report presents a reference design report for the Medium Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (MEHIPA) which will accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The linac consists of a 3 MeV normal conducting RFQ followed by three families of superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSR) to accelerate the beam to 200 MeV. The major elements of the physics design of MEHIPA, as well as layouts and specifications of the major accelerator sub-systems are presented in this report. (author)

  9. Study of the proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies through eikonal models; Estudo do espalhamento elastico proton-proton a altas energias atraves de modelos eiconais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Alvaro Favinha

    1995-12-31

    The proton-proton elastic scattering in the center of mass energy region 23 to 63 GeV is investigated through a multiple diffraction model. As an introduction to the subject, a detailed review of the fundamental basis of the Multiple Diffraction Formalism and a survey of the multiple diffraction models (geometrical) currently used are presented. The goal of this investigation is to reformulate one of these models, which makes use of an elementary (parton-parton) amplitude purely imaginary and is not able to predict the {rho}-parameter (the ratio of the forward real and imaginary parts of the hadronic amplitude). Introducing a real part for the elementary amplitude proportional to the imaginary part, improvements in the formalism are obtained. It is shown that this new approach is able to reproduce all experimental data on differential and integrated cross sections (total, elastic and inelastic), but not the {rho}-parameter as function of the energy. Then, starting from fitting of this parameter an overall reproduction of the physical observables is obtained, with the exception of the dip region (diffractive minimum in the differential cross section) overall description are also not firmly reached in all these models. Finally, alternatives to improve the results in a future research are suggested and discussed. (author) 69 refs., 69 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Polarization of protons produced in diffractive disintegration of deuterons by high-energy pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.Yi.; Rekalo, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    For the process of diffractive disintegration of unpolarized deuterons by the high-energy pions, π + d → π + p + n, the polarization characteristics of produced protons are calculated. Using the vector nature of the Pomeron exchange, the general structure of all components of proton polarization vector is found for d (π, π p) n. By the Pomeron-photon analogy, the amplitude of the process P + d → n + p is approximated by the isoscalar contribution of four Born diagrams similar to the case of deuteron electrodisintegration. Unitarization of the amplitude is achieved by introducing in multipole amplitudes the corresponding phases of np-scattering. The numerical calculation of all components of the polarization vector of protons, produced in the case of noncomplanar kinematics of the reaction π + d → π + p + n, is realized

  11. Study of measurement method of tritium induced in concrete of high-energy proton accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, N.; Ishihama, S.; Kunifuda, T.; Hayasaka, N.; Miura, T.

    2001-01-01

    Various long-loved radionuclides, 3 H, 7 Be, 22 Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 56 Co, 57 Co, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 152 Eu and 154 Eu, have been produced in the shielding concrete of high energy proton accelerator facility through both nuclear spallation reactions and thermal neutron capture reactions of concrete elements, during machine operation. Tritium is the most important nuclide from the radiation protection. There were, however, few measurements of tritium concentration induced in the shielding concrete. In this study, the conditions of measurement method of tritium concentration induced in shielding concrete have been investigated using the activated shielding concrete of the 12 GeV proton beam-line tunnel at KEK and the standard rock (JG-1) irradiated of thermal neutron at the reactor. And the depth profiles of tritium induced in the shielding concrete of slow extracted proton beam line at KEK were determined using this method. (author)

  12. Carbon filament beam profile monitor for high energy proton-antiproton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of the evolution of the transverse profile of the stored beams in high energy proton storage rings such as the p-anti p colliders at CERN and at FNAL is of considerable importance. In the present note, a simple monitor is discussed which will allow almost non-destructive measurement of the profile of each individual proton and antiproton bunch separately. It is based on the flying wire technique first used at CEA and more recently at the CPS. A fine carbon filament is passed quickly through the beam, acting as a target for secondary particle production. The flux of secondary particles is measured by two scintillator telescopes, one for protons and one for antiprotons, having an angular acceptance between 30 and 100 mrad. Measurements of secondary particle production performed at FNAL in this angular range show that a very respectable flux can be expected

  13. High energy protons application for radiotherapy of the esophagus affected with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, A.I.; Astrakhan, B.V.; Kulakov, G.A.; Makarova, G.V.; Zhuravleva, N.T.

    1975-01-01

    As in radiation therapy of tumours located elsewhere, local radiation treatment of an esophagus tumour is often aggravated by the development, after some time, of a trophic ulcer as a result of decreased regenerative ability of the irradiated sound tissues and also of newly formed hystostructures which have replaced the destroyed tumorous tissue. It has been established that the number of complications increases with the total focal dose, but at the same time (up to a certain point) the number of local curings increases as well. Some promise was shown by high-energy protons with their physical advantages unique for radiation therapy, such as the strictly controlled free path length of particles in the tissues, the presence of the Bragg peak, the absence of lateral scattering, i.e. features which permit of a high dose in the target with a minimum injury to the sound tissues surrounding the tumour. Proton therapy of esophagus cancer was carried out by two techniques, static and shuttle-rotary. The results of proton therapy of esophagus cancer indicate that the use of high-energy protons for treating esophagus cancer holds promise

  14. Study of proton-nucleus collisions at high energies based on the hydrodynamical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, N.; Weiner, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    We study proton-nucleus collisions at high energies using the one-dimensional hydrodynamical model of Landau with special emphasis on the effect of the size of the target nucleus and of the magnitude of velocity of sound of excited hadronic matter. We convert a collision problem of a proton and a nucleus with a spherical shape into that of a proton and a one-dimensional nuclear tunnel whose length is determined from the average impact parameter. By extending the methods developed by Milekhin and Emelyanov, we obtain the solutions of the hydrodynamical equations of proton-nucleus collisions for arbitrary target tunnel length and arbitrary velocity of sound. The connection between these solutions and observable physical quantities is established as in the work of Cooper, Frye, and Schonberg. Extensive numerical analyses are made at E/sub lab/ = 200 GeV and for the velocity of sound u = 1/√3 of a relativistic ideal Bose gas and u = 1/(7.5)/sup 1/2/ of an interacting Bose gas. In order to compare proton-nucleus collisions with proton-proton collisions, all the analyses are made in the equal-velocity frame. We find the following results. (1) In comparing the number of secondary particles produced in p-A collisions N/sub p/A with those in p-p collisions N/sub p/p, while most of the excess of N/sub p/A over N/sub p/p is concentrated in the backward rapidity region, there exists also an increase of N/sub p/A with A in the forward rapidity region. This result is at variance with the predictions of the energy-flux-cascade model and of the coherent-production model. (2) The excess energies are contained exclusively in the backward region. We also find evidence for new phenomena in proton-nucleus collisions. (3) The existence of an asymmetry of average energies of secondary particles between forward and backward regions, in particular, >> for larger nuclear targets. Thus, energetic particles are predominantly produced in the backward region

  15. Radiation protection of the operation of accelerator facilities. On high energy proton and electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the radiation protection raised by accelerated particles with energy higher than several hundreds MeV in strong accelerator facilities were discussed in comparison with those with lower energy in middle- and small-scale facilities. The characteristics in the protection in such strong accelerator facilities are derived from the qualitative changes in the interaction between the high energy particles and materials and from quantitative one due to the beam strength. In the former which is dependent on the emitting mechanism of the radiation, neutron with broad energy spectrum and muon are important in the protection, and in the latter, levels of radiation and radioactivity which are proportional to the beam strength are important. The author described details of the interaction between high energy particles and materials: leading to the conclusion that in the electron accelerator facilities, shielding against high energy-blemsstrahlung radiation and -neutron is important and in the proton acceleration, shielding against neutron is important. The characteristics of the radiation field in the strong accelerator facilities: among neutron, ionized particles and electromagnetic wave, neutron is most important in shielding since it has small cross sections relative to other two. Considerations for neutron are necessary in the management of exposure. Multiplicity of radionuclides produced: which is a result of nuclear spallation reaction due to high energy particles, especially to proton. Radioactivation of the accelerator equipment is a serious problem. Other problems: the interlock systems, radiation protection for experimenters and maintenance of the equipment by remote systems. (K.H.). 11 refs

  16. A plausible picture of high-energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.O.

    1976-01-01

    Results experimentally obtained from jets of E(p)=10-10 3 GeV in nuclear emulsion show that the target nucleus in proton-nucleus collisions seems to present ''limiting fragmentation''. In the same energy range, proton-nucleus collisions resemble closely proton-proton collisions and asymmetric shape of rapidities is only caused by the break-up products of heavy targets [fr

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of high energy protons for a human melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, I.; Ristic-Fira, A.; Todorovic, D.; Valastro, I.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G.

    2005-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the survival of human melanoma cells induced by high linear energy transfer (LET) protons was investigated. Exponentially growing HTB140 cells were irradiated close to the Bragg peak maximum of the 62 MeV protons, as well as with 60 Co γ-rays, over single doses, ranging from 8-24 Gy. Clonogenic survival and cell viability were assessed up to 48 h post-irradiation, therefore considered as early inactivation effects. Dose dependent cell inactivation induced by high LET protons was observed. Surviving fractions have shown great overlapping with estimated cell viability, both with the increase of dose and with prolonged cell incubation. Evaluated RBEs were higher with the rise of dose, being in the range from 2 to 3. All analyzes performed have demonstrated a very radio-resistant nature of HTB140 melanoma cells. However, high LET protons are able to inactivate these cells in a larger extent compared to the effects of γ-rays. (author)

  18. Inclusive spectra of mesons with large transverse momenta in proton-nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykasov, G.I.; Sherkhonov, B.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Basing on the proposed earlier quark model of hadron-nucleus processes with large transverse momenta psub(perpendicular) the spectra of π +- , K +- meson production with large psub(perpendicular) in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies are calculated. The performed comparison of their dependence of the nucleus-target atomic number A with experimental data shows a good agreement. Theoretical and experimental ratios of inclusive spectra of K +- and π +- mesons in the are compared. Results of calculations show a rather good description of experimental data on large psub(perpendicular) meson production at high energies

  19. High energy nuclear data evaluations for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Chang, Jong Hwa; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Jeong Yeon; Han, Yinlu; Sukhovitski, Efrem Sh.

    2001-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is building high energy neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced nuclear data libraries for energies up to hundreds MeV in response to nuclear data needs from various R and Ds and applications. The librares provide nuclear data needed for the accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste and radiation transport simulations of cancer radiotherapy. The neutron library currently has 10 isotopes such as C-12, N-14, O-16, Al-27, Si-28, Ca-40, Fe-56, Ni-58, Zr-90, Sn-120, and Pb-208 for energies from 20 up to 400 MeV. The proton nuclear data were evaluated in a consistent manner with the neutron case, using the same nuclear model parameters. In addition to the same isotopes included in the neutron library, the proton library has 70 extra isotopes of 24 elements ranging from nitrogen to lead up to 150 MeV for which the evaluations are focused on the medical and activation analyses applications. The photonuclear data library has been built along with international collaboration by participating in the IAEA's Coordinated Research Project (CRP) which ended last year. Currently the KAERI photonuclear library includes 143 isotopes of 39 elements

  20. The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron as a tool to study high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Brugger, M; Assmann, R; Shutov, A V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov3, V E

    2008-01-01

    An experimental facility named HiRadMat, will be constructed at CERN to study the impact of the 450 GeV c−1 proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) on solid targets. This is designed to study damage caused to the equipment including absorbers, collimators and others in case of an accidental release of the beam energy. This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations of target behavior irradiated by the SPS beam. These numerical simulations have shown that the target will be completely destroyed in such an accident, thereby generating high energy density (HED) matter. This study therefore suggests that this facility may also be used for carrying out dedicated experiments to study HED states in matter.

  1. Study of the effects of high-energy proton beams on escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious risks to public health care today. However, discouragingly, the development of new antibiotics has progressed little over the last decade. There is an urgent need for alternative approaches to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel methods, which include photothermal therapy based on gold nano-materials and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, have been reported. Studies of the effects of high-energy proton radiation on bacteria have mainly focused on Bacillus species and its spores. The effect of proton beams on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been limitedly reported. Escherichia coli is an important biological tool to obtain metabolic and genetic information and is a common model microorganism for studying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. In addition, E. coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal tract of mammals. In this research, the morphological and the physiological changes of E. coli after proton irradiation were investigated. Diluted solutions of cells were used for proton beam radiation. LB agar plates were used to count the number of colonies formed. The growth profile of the cells was monitored by using the optical density at 600 nm. The morphology of the irradiated cells was observed with an optical microscope. A microarray analysis was performed to examine the gene expression changes between irradiated samples and control samples without irradiation. E coli cells have observed to be elongated after proton irradiation with doses ranging from 13 to 93 Gy. Twenty-two were up-regulated more than twofold in proton-irradiated samples (93 Gy) compared with unexposed one.

  2. High temperature tensile testing of modified 9Cr-1Mo after irradiation with high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Hamilton, M.L.; Maloy, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effect of tensile test temperatures ranging from 50 to 600 deg. C on the tensile properties of a modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel after high energy proton irradiation at about 35-67 deg. C to doses from 1 to 3 dpa and 9 dpa. For the specimens irradiated to doses between 1 and 3 dpa, it was observed that the yield strength and ultimate strength decreased monotonically as a function of tensile test temperature, whereas the uniform elongation (UE) remained at approximately 1% for tensile test temperatures up to 250 deg. C and then increased for tensile test temperatures up to and including 500 deg. C. At 600 deg. C, the UE was observed to be less than the values at 400 and 500 deg. C. UE of the irradiated material tensile tested at 400-600 deg. C was observed to be greater than the values for the unirradiated material at the same temperatures. Tensile tests on the 9 dpa specimens followed similar trends

  3. Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M

    2001-01-01

    We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge state...... of the precursor from n = 7 to n = 11 and then remains constant when n increases further. The absolute size of the cross section ranges from 100 to 200 A2. The electron loss is modeled as an electron transfer process between lysozyme cations and molecular oxygen....

  4. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  5. Development of an Abort Gap Monitor for High-Energy Proton Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the 'abort gap', and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  6. Charge- and transverse momentum dependence of correlations in proton-proton interactions at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1977-07-01

    The charge- and momentum dependence of correlations between secondaries emitted in pp-collisions at √s = 52 GeV was investigated using the Split-Field-Magnet spectrometer at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). For nondiffractive inelastic events the central particle production is characterized by local conservation of charge and global compensation of transverse momenta. Strong short range correlations due to cluster decay and Bose-Einstein effects are observed. A consistent description of the correlations is given in the framework of cluster models. Local conservation of charge is also detected in events, where a particle of high transverse momentum is produced. The observations are in good agreement with the predictions of a simple quark parton model. (orig.) [de

  7. Irradiation of optically activated SI-GaAs high-voltage switches with low and high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Ennio; Mettivier, G; Russo, P; Bisogni, M G; Bottigli, U; Fantacci, M E; Stefanini, A; Cola, A; Quaranta, F; Vasanelli, L; Stefanini, G

    1999-01-01

    Semi-Insulating Gallium Arsenide (SI-GaAs) devices have been tested for radiation hardness with 3-4 MeV or 24 GeV proton beams. These devices can be operated in dc mode as optically activated electrical switches up to 1 kV. Both single switches (vertical Schottky diodes) and multiple (8) switches (planar devices) have been studied, by analyzing their current-voltage (I-V) reverse characteristics in the dark and under red light illumination, both before and after irradiation. We propose to use them in the system of high-voltage (-600 V) switches for the microstrip gas chambers for the CMS experiment at CERN. Low energy protons (3-4 MeV) were used in order to produce a surface damage below the Schottky contact: their fluence (up to 2.6*10/sup 15/ p/cm/sup 2/) gives a high-dose irradiation. The high energy proton irradiation (energy: 24 GeV, fluence: 1.1*10/sup 14/ p/cm/sup 2/) reproduced a ten years long proton exposure of the devices in CMS experiment conditions. For low energy irradiation, limited changes of ...

  8. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  9. Can high-energy proton events in solar wind be predicted via classification of precursory structures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallerberg, Sarah [Chemnitz University of Technology (Germany); Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Shock waves in the solar wind associated with solar coronal mass ejections produce fluxes of high-energy protons and ions with energies larger than 10 MeV. These fluxes present a danger to humans and electronic equipment in space, and also endanger passengers of over-pole air flights. The approaches that have been exploited for the prediction of high-energy particle events so far consist in training artificial neural networks on catalogues of events. Our approach towards this task is based on the identification of precursory structures in the fluxes of particles. In contrast to artificial neural networks that function as a ''black box'' transforming data into predictions, this classification approach can additionally provide information on relevant precursory events and thus might help to improve the understanding of underlying mechanisms of particle acceleration.

  10. High energy physics program of KEK proton synchrotron in FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumegi, Asao; Watase, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Yoshio.

    1981-01-01

    In this report, the experimental program with the KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron in FY 1980 is described. Main experiments have been carried out in two low momentum, separated beam lines, K 2 and K 3, together with the internal target beam line, π 2. At the same time, new beam lines, hyperon beam line N 1 and high momentum unseparated beam line π 1, have been under construction in this year. The research E 10 (KDECAY) searched for a rare decay mode of K + , but did not find any candidate for the decay. The expected upper limit of the branching ratio was reduced from the world average value. The polarization measurement E 34 of K + N elastic and charge exchange reactions was carried out in the K 2 beam line. The phase shift analysis has been under way by this group, and the polarization measurement E 75 of PN elastic scattering provided with the data for the phase shift analysis of a two-nucleon system. In the high energy hadron-nucleus experiment E 71 in the π 2 beam line, the multiplicity of charged particles emerged from a nucleus target and the correlation of these particles were measured. In the KEK 1-m bubble chamber, the films for three experiments E 57, E 62 and E 79 were taken with the beams of protons, pions and anti-protons. The records of the experiments carried out and accelerator operation are attached. (Kako, I.)

  11. Bounds on the maximum attainable equilibrium spin polarization of protons at high energy in HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, M.

    2000-12-01

    For some years HERA has been supplying longitudinally spin polarised electron and positron (e ± ) beams to the HERMES experiment and in the future longitudinal polarisation will be supplied to the II1 and ZEUS experiments. As a result there has been a development of interest in complementing the polarised e ± beams with polarised protons. In contrast to the case of e ± where spin flip due to synchrotron radiation in the main bending dipoles leads to self polarisation owing to an up-down asymmetry in the spin flip rates (Sokolov-Ternov effect), there is no convincing self polarisation mechanism for protons at high energy. Therefore protons must be polarised almost at rest in a source and then accelerated to the working energy. At HERA, if no special measures are adopted, this means that the spins must cross several thousand ''spin-orbit resonances''. Resonance crossing can lead to loss of polarisation and at high energy such effects are potentially strong since spin precession is very pronounced in the very large magnetic fields needed to contain the proton beam in HERA-p. Moreover simple models which have been successfully used to describe spin motion at low and medium energies are no longer adequate. Instead, careful numerical spin-orbit tracking simulations are needed and a new, mathematically rigorous look at the theoretical concepts is required. This thesis describes the underlying theoretical concepts, the computational tools (SPRINT) and the results of such a study. In particular strong emphasis is put on the concept of the invariant spin field and its non-perturbative construction. The invariant spin field is then used to define the amplitude dependent spin tune and to obtain numerical non-perturbative estimates of the latter. By means of these two key concepts the nature of higher order resonances in the presence of snakes is clarified and their impact on the beam polarisation is analysed. We then go on to discuss the special aspects of the HERA-p ring

  12. Long-duration high-energy proton events observed by GOES in October 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anttila

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the prolonged injection of the high-energy (>10 MeV protons during the three successive events observed by GOES in October 1989. We apply a solar-rotation-stereoscopy approach to study the injection of the accelerated particles from the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves in order to find out how the effectiveness of the particle acceleration and/or escape depends on the angular distance from the shock axis. We use an empirical model for the proton injection at the shock and a standard model of the interplanetary transport. The model can reproduce rather well the observed intensity–time profiles of the October 1989 events. The deduced proton injection rate is highest at the nose of the shock; the injection spectrum is always harder near the Sun. The results seem to be consistent with the scheme that the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves accelerate a seed particle population of coronal origin.Key words. Interplanetary physics · Energetic particles · Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy · Flares and mass ejections

  13. The neutron/proton ratio of squeezed-out nucleons and the high density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Gaochan; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    Within a transport model it is shown that the neutron/proton ratio of squeezed-out nucleons perpendicular to the reaction plane, especially at high transverse momenta, in heavy-ion reactions induced by high energy neutron-rich nuclei can be a useful tool for studying the high density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy

  14. An improved simulation routine for modelling coherent high-energy proton interactions with bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2210072; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano

    The planes in crystalline solids can constrain the directions that charged particles take as they pass through. Physicists can use this "channelling" property of crystals to steer particle beams. In a bent crystal, for example, channelled particles follow the bend and can change their direction. Experiments are being carried out to study in detail this phenomenon. The UA9 collaboration is using high energy protons and heavy ions beams from the SPS accelerator at CERN to verify the possibility of using bent crystals as primary collimators in high energy hadron colliders like the LHC. Simulations have been developed to model the coherent interaction with crystal planes. The goal of the thesis is indeed to analyze the data and develop an improved simulation routine to better describe the data’s subtleties, in particular the transition between the volume reflection and amorphous modes of beam interaction with the crystal.

  15. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  16. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model. (author)

  17. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model.

  18. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalev, Ju.I.; Petrovich, I.K.; Strel'cova, V.N.

    1964-01-01

    The paper gives the results of comparative experiments on the effects of fast neutrons and high-energy protons (500 MeV) on life expectancy, peripheral blood, incidence and rate of appearance of tumours in the rat as a function of administered dose and time of observation. The neutron experiment was performed on 573 and the proton experiment on 490 white rats. The animals irradiated with fast neutrons were given doses between 8.5 and 510 rad, and those irradiated with protons received doses between 28 and 1008 rad. The effective doses for the acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of sickness were established for fast neutrons and for protons. LD 50/30 for neutrons was 408 and for protons 600 rad, and the corresponding LD 50 / 120 values were 380 and 600 rad. The conditions governing rat mortality were analysed both in the early and the later stages of the experiment. It is shown that the average life expectancy of rats irradiated with fast neutrons does not depend on sex. The shape of the dose-effect curve for the various peripheral-blood indexes is strongly dependent not only on the radiosensitivity of the blood cells in question but also on the time of observation. It may change greatly in time for one and the same index. A considerable time after irradiation with either fast neutrons or protons, benign and malignant tumours appear in different tissues of the rats, including the haemopoeitic tissues, mammary glands, pituitary, uterus, ovaries, prostate gland, testicles, liver, kidneys, lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, urinary bladder, etc. The over-all incidence of tumours and the number of cases of multi centred neoplasms in females are two to three times higher than in males. The minimum tumour dose for the mammary glands with neutron irradiation is apparently rather less than 42.5 rad. The maximum incidence of tumours of the pituitary is found after irradiation with a dose of 42.5 rad.- At this same dose leucosis and tumour of the

  19. [Neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts under the influence of high-energy protons and gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh

    2004-01-01

    Oncoginic transformations of mouse fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 after exposure to proton energies 150 and 584 MeV were compared with fibroblast effects of gamma-radiation. Prior to exposure, cell populations (2.7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) were inoculated in plastic vials with the surface area of 75 cm2 and cultivated 11 days. Survivability was determined by comparing the number of cell colonies in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) vials. Transformation rate was calculated by dividing the total transformation focus number by the number of survived cells in a vial. Rate of oncogenic transformations after gamma- and proton (584 MeV) irradiation was essentially identical, i.e. the parameter grew rapidly at the doses 1 Gy. In the dose interval between 1 and 5 Gy, transformation rate for proton energy 150 MeV was found low compared with gamma-radiation and proton energy 584 MeV. It is hypothesized that the different transformation rate after exposure to proton energy 150 MeV is linked with the high linear energy transfer as compared with the proton energy of 584 MeV and gamma-radiation.

  20. Proton-induced fission cross sections on "2"0"8Pb at high kinetic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Vargas, J.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.F.; Pellereau, E.; Casarejos, E.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Total fission cross sections of "2"0"8Pb induced by protons have been determined at 370 A, 500 A, and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed at GSI Darmstadt where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to determine these cross sections with an uncertainty below 6%. This result was achieved by an accurate beam selection and registration of both fission fragments in coincidence which were also clearly distinguished from other reaction channels. These data solve existing discrepancies between previous measurements, providing new values for the Prokofiev systematics. The data also allow us to investigate the fission process at high excitation energies and small deformations. In particular, some fundamental questions about fission dynamics have been addressed, which are related to dissipative and transient time effects. (authors)

  1. 90 deg.Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Foglio-Para, A; Mitaroff, W A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 2 sup + lead ions at 40 GeV/c per nucleon and 158 GeV/c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90 deg.with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that--for such high energy heavy ion beams--a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0...

  2. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  3. Baryon, charged hadron, Drell-Yan and J/ψ production in high energy proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Kapusta, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    We show that the distributions of outgoing protons and charged hadrons in high energy proton-nucleus collisions are described rather well by a linear extrapolation from proton-proton collisions. The only adjustable parameter required is the shift in rapidity of a produced charged meson when it encounters a target nucleon. Its fitted value is 0.16. Next, we apply this linear extrapolation to precisely measured Drell-Yan cross sections for 800 GeV protons incident on a variety of nuclear targets which exhibit a deviation from linear scaling in the atomic number A. We show that this deviation can be accounted for by energy degradation of the proton as it passes through the nucleus if account is taken of the time delay of particle production due to quantum coherence. We infer an average proper coherence time of 0.4±0.1 fm/c, corresponding to a coherence path length of 8±2 fm in the rest frame of the nucleus. Finally, we apply the linear extrapolation to measured J/ψ production cross sections for 200 and 450 GeV/c protons incident on a variety of nuclear targets. Our analysis takes into account energy loss of the beam proton, the time delay of particle production due to quantum coherence, and absorption of the J/ψ on nucleons. The best representation is obtained for a coherence time of 0.5 fm/c, which is consistent with Drell-Yan production, and an absorption cross section of 3.6 mb, which is consistent with the value deduced from photoproduction of the J/ψ on nuclear targets

  4. Review of high energy diffraction in real and virtual photon proton scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, G.

    2009-07-15

    The electron-proton collider HERA at DESY opened the door for the study of diffraction in real and virtual photon-proton scattering at center-of-mass energies W up to 250 GeV and for large negative mass squared -Q{sup 2} of the virtual photon up to Q{sup 2}=1600 GeV{sup 2}. At W = 220 GeV and Q{sup 2}=4 GeV{sup 2}, diffraction accounts for about 15% of the total virtual photon proton cross section decreasing to {approx}5% at Q{sup 2}=200 GeV{sup 2}. An overview of the results obtained by the experiments H1 and ZEUS on the production of neutral vector mesons and on inclusive diffraction up to the year 2008 is presented. (orig.)

  5. Efficiency of steel-concrete compositions in a side shielding of high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.B.; Kryuchkov, V.P.; Lebedev, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Aiming at the study of efficiency of application of heavy concretes with the density up to 6.3 g/cm -3 with iron-ore aggregate and steel scrap with shot the calculational study on high-energy radiation attenuation in the accelerator side shield has been carried out. The calculation is made for five concretes with the density 2.38; 3.66; 4.68; 5.34; 6.30 g x cm -3 and for pure iron. The real chemical composition of each concrete, including hydrogen, is taken into account. The real spectrum of hadron generated in the materiai of evacuated ionguide wall under the effect of the 70 GeV proton beam incident on the wall at a narrow angle THETA -3 ensuring the same ratio of the dose or hadron fluence with the energy > 20 MeV attenuation is accepted as a relative shield efficiency of the material. It is shown, that for steel-concrete compositions with the density > 5.6 gxcm -3 the relative shield efficiency decreases sharply. It is also shown, that aplication of concretes with the density 3.6-3.7 gxcm -3 is expedient and economically profitable

  6. Multiple collision effects on the antiproton production by high energy proton (100 GeV - 1000 GeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    Antiproton production rates which take into account multiple collision are calculated using a simple model. Methods to reduce capture of the produced antiprotons by the target are discussed, including geometry of target and the use of a high intensity laser. Antiproton production increases substantially above 150 GeV proton incident energy. The yield increases almost linearly with incident energy, alleviating space charge problems in the high current accelerator that produces large amounts of antiprotons

  7. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  8. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netrakanti, P.K.; Mishra, D.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider facility has reported results for the cumulants and their ratios from the net-proton distributions upto the fourth order cumulants at various collision energies. These measurements were carried to look for the signatures of the possible critical point (CP) in the phase diagram for a system undertaking strong interactions. The results show an intriguing dependence of the cumulant ratios C 3 /C 2 and C 4 /C 2 as a function of beam energy. The beam energy dependence appears to be non-monotonic in nature. However the experiment also reports that the energy dependence is observed to be consistent with expectation from an approach based on the independent production of proton and anti-protons in the collisions. In this paper we emphasize the need to have a proper baseline for appropriate interpretation of the cumulant measurements and argue that the comparison to independent production approach needs to be done with extreme caution

  9. Particle size of radioactive aerosols generated during machine operation in high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kanda, Yukio; Kondo, Kenjiro; Endo, Akira

    2000-01-01

    In high-energy accelerators, non-radioactive aerosols are abundantly generated due to high radiation doses during machine operation. Under such a condition, radioactive atoms, which are produced through various nuclear reactions in the air of accelerator tunnels, form radioactive aerosols. These aerosols might be inhaled by workers who enter the tunnel just after the beam stop. Their particle size is very important information for estimation of internal exposure doses. In this work, focusing on typical radionuclides such as 7 Be and 24 Na, their particle size distributions are studied. An aluminum chamber was placed in the EP2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Aerosol-free air was introduced to the chamber, and aerosols formed in the chamber were sampled during machine operation. A screen-type diffusion battery was employed in the aerosol-size analysis. Assuming that the aerosols have log-normal size distributions, their size distributions were obtained from the radioactivity concentrations at the entrance and exit of the diffusion battery. Radioactivity of the aerosols was measured with Ge detector system, and concentrations of non-radioactive aerosols were obtained using condensation particle counter (CPC). The aerosol size (radius) for 7 Be and 24 Na was found to be 0.01-0.04 μm, and was always larger than that for non-radioactive aerosols. The concentration of non-radioactive aerosols was found to be 10 6 - 10 7 particles/cm 3 . The size for radioactive aerosols was much smaller than ordinary atmospheric aerosols. Internal doses due to inhalation of the radioactive aerosols were estimated, based on the respiratory tract model of ICRP Pub. 66. (author)

  10. Long-lived isotopes production in Pb-Bi target irradiated by high energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korovin, Y.A.; Konobeyev, A.Y.; Pereslavtsev, P.E. [Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    Concentration of long-lived isotopes has been calculated for lead and lead-bismuth targets irradiated by protons with energy 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.6 GeV. The time of irradiation is equal from 1 month up to 2 years. The data libraries BROND, ADL and MENDL have been used to obtain the rate of nuclide transmutation. All calculations have been performed using the SNT code.

  11. Influence of High-Energy Proton Irradiation on β-Ga2O3 Nanobelt Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gwangseok; Jang, Soohwan; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-11-22

    The robust radiation resistance of wide-band gap materials is advantageous for space applications, where the high-energy particle irradiation deteriorates the performance of electronic devices. We report on the effects of proton irradiation of β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts, whose energy band gap is ∼4.85 eV at room temperature. Back-gated field-effect transistor (FET) based on exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts were exposed to a 10 MeV proton beam. The proton-dose- and time-dependent characteristics of the radiation-damaged FETs were systematically analyzed. A 73% decrease in the field-effect mobility and a positive shift of the threshold voltage were observed after proton irradiation at a fluence of 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . Greater radiation-induced degradation occurs in the conductive channel of the β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelt than at the contact between the metal and β-Ga 2 O 3 . The on/off ratio of the exfoliated β-Ga 2 O 3 FETs was maintained even after proton doses up to 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . The radiation-induced damage in the β-Ga 2 O 3 -based FETs was significantly recovered after rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. The outstanding radiation durability of β-Ga 2 O 3 renders it a promising building block for space applications.

  12. Two-proton radioactivity in proton-rich fp shell nuclei at high spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Mamta [Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2006-07-15

    Two-proton radioactivity in extremely proton-rich fp shell nuclei at high spins is investigated in a theoretical framework. Separation energy and entropy fluctuate with spin and hence affect the location of the proton drip line.

  13. Two-proton radioactivity in proton-rich fp shell nuclei at high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2006-01-01

    Two-proton radioactivity in extremely proton-rich fp shell nuclei at high spins is investigated in a theoretical framework. Separation energy and entropy fluctuate with spin and hence affect the location of the proton drip line

  14. Effects of High-Energy Proton-Beam Irradiation on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Kue; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are still many problem for the application due to its unstable magnetism state and too small magnetization values. Here we investigate magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods after high-energy proton-beam irradiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement on temperature was made to identify intrinsic or extrinsic defects as well as to observe magnetic ordering after irradiation. Understanding the effects of proton beam irradiation on magnetic behavior may help to shed light on the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in this material. We have investigated proton-beam irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods. After irradiation a broad ESR line is observed, indicating emergence of ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature. In M-H curve, stronger coercive field is observed after irradiation.

  15. QCD suggested high-energy asymptotics of the diffraction proton-proton scattering and the cosmic ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, V.Z.; Nikolaev, N.N.; Potashnikova, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Asymptotics of nucleon-nucleon crosss sections is discussed within the perturbation quantum chromodynamics representations. At moderately high energies the perturbative two-gluon exchange satisfactorily reproduces the constant part of the total cross section. As the energy goes up, a series of the j-plane poles at Δ = j-1>0, dominates, the higher the energy, the bigger Δsub(eff). It is shown that the data on absorption of cosmic rays in atmosphere within the 10 5 - 10 6 TeV energy range need σsub(tot)sup(pp) approximately = 160-200 mbn which could be reproduced quantitatively, if only in asymptotics Δ approximately = 0.25-0.35. Standard one-pole description gives at these energies a sufficiently smaller cross section, approximately 100 mbn, and does not reproduce the cosmic ray data. The quoted in literature determinations from σsub(abs)(pAir) to σsub(tot)(pp) are erroneous. An important observation is that violation of the scaling of the fragment spectra is strongly correlated with the value of σsub(abs)(pAir). Making allowance for this dependence should essentially increase the reliability of σsub(abs)(pAir) determination

  16. Recent results of the STAR high-energy polarized proton-proton program at RHIC at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrow, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a spin physics program colliding transverse or longitudinal polarized proton beams at √(s) 200 - 500GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. These studies provide fundamental tests of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).One of the main objectives of the STAR spin physics program is the determination of the polarized gluon distribution function through a measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry, ALL, for various processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of ALL for inclusive jet production, neutral pion production and charged pion production at √(s) = 200GeV. In addition to these measurements involving longitudinal polarized proton beams, the STAR collaboration has performed several important measurements employing transverse polarized proton beams. New results on the measurement of the transverse single-spin asymmetry, AN, for forward neutral pion production and the first measurement of AN for mid-rapidity di-jet production will be discussed

  17. Study of crosslinking onset and hydrogen annealing of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Ford

    1997-09-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is used extensively in hip and knee endoprostheses. Radiation damage from the sterilization of these endoprostheses prior to surgical insertion results in polymer crosslinking and decreased oxidative stability. The motivation for this study was to determine if UHMW-PE could be crosslinked by low dose proton irradiation with minimal radiation damage and its subsequent deleterious effects. I found that low dose proton irradiation and post irradiation hydrogen annealing did crosslink UHMW-PE and limit post irradiation oxidation. Crosslinking onset was investigated for UHMW-PE irradiated with 2.6 and 30 MeV H+ ions at low doses from 5.7 × 1011-2.3 × 1014 ions/cm2. Crosslinking was determined from gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of 1,2,4 trichlorobenzene sol fractions and increased with dose. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed irradiation resulted in increased free radicals confirmed from increased carbonyl groups. Radiation damage, especially at the highest doses observed, also showed up in carbon double bonds and increased methyl end groups. Hydrogen annealing after ion irradiation resulted in 40- 50% decrease in FTIR absorption associated with carbonyl. The hydrogen annealing prevented further oxidation after aging for 1024 hours at 80oC. Hydrogen annealing was successful in healing radiation damage through reacting with the free radicals generated during proton irradiation. Polyethylenes, polyesters, and polyamides are used in diverse applications by the medical profession in the treatment of orthopedic impairments and cardiovascular disease and for neural implants. These artificial implants are sterilized with gamma irradiation prior to surgery and the resulting radiation damage can lead to accelerated deterioration of the implant properties. The findings in this study will greatly impact the continued use of these materials through the elimination of many problems associated with radiation

  18. Resistivity changes in superconducting-cavity-grade Nb following high-energy proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Hanson, A.; Greene, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Niobium superconducting rf cavities are proposed for use in the proton LINAC accelerators for spallation-neutron applications. Because of accidental beam loss and continual halo losses along the accelerator path, concern for the degradation of the superconducting properties of the cavities with accumulating damage arises. Residual-resistivity-ratio (RRR) specimens of Nb, with a range of initial RRR's were irradiated at room temperature with protons at energies from 200 to 2000 MeV. Four-probe resistance measurements were made at room temperature and at 4.2 K both prior to and after irradiation. Nonlinear increases in resistivity simulate expected behavior in cavity material after extended irradiation, followed by periodic anneals to room temperature: For RRR = 316 material, irradiations to (2 - 3) x 10 15 p/cm 2 produce degradations up to the 10% level, a change that is deemed operationally acceptable. Without. periodic warming to room temperature, the accumulated damage energy would be up to a factor of ten greater, resulting in unacceptable degradations. Likewise, should higher-RRR material be used, for the same damage energy imparted, relatively larger percentage changes in the RRR will result

  19. A high-energy (35-500 MeV) proton monitor for the Gravity Probe-B Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. E-mail: stil@may.ie; Rusznyak, Peter; Buchman, Sasha; Shestople, Paul; Thatcher, John

    2003-02-11

    An innovative fault tolerant, high-energy particle monitor designed to record protons in the range 35-500 MeV when in polar orbit aboard NASA's Gravity Probe B spacecraft, is described. This device, which is configured to provide continuous, reliable operation in the hostile particle environment traversed by the spacecraft, can potentially be used either as an onboard monitor or as a scientific experiment.

  20. Formation of proton-fragments in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, E.Kh.; Olimov, K.; Petrov, V.I.; Lutpullaev, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of production of protons in hadron- and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a key problem allowing one to establish the singularities of dynamics of nuclear interactions. The formation of proton-fragments at high energies of colliding particles proceeds within both the interaction of hadrons with nuclei and in the process of decay of the nucleus or its de-excitation at peripheral interactions. At different stages of interaction of impinging particle with target nucleus, the different mechanisms of formation of proton-fragments: the direct knock-out of intranuclear nucleons in the process of high energy cascade of an initial hadron, intranuclear cascade of produced particles, decay of the excited multi-nucleon fragments and of the thermalized remnant nucleus, and the coalescence of nuclear fragments to the new clusters are realized with the certain probability, connected to the interaction parameters (the interaction energy, the parameter of collision, the intranuclear density, the configuration of Fermi momentum of nucleons and clusters of target nucleus et al.). In its turn, the mechanisms of formation of the final nuclear fragments are closely related to the type of excitation of an initial nucleus. The peripheral interactions proceed at small transfers of the momentum of an impinging particle and represent the wide class of reactions covering the processes from diffractive or coulomb collective excitations of the whole nucleus to the direct quasi-elastic knock-out of the separate nucleons. Non-peripheral interactions are caused by comparatively high local transfers of momentum to the intranuclear clusters allowing the development of intranuclear cascade and the asymmetric redistribution of energy of an impinging particle. The central collisions causing the full decay of nucleus on nucleons or few-nucleon fragments, are the limiting case of the maximal development of the intranuclear cascade. The interaction of the initial particles with

  1. High-altitude cosmic ray neutrons: probable source for the high-energy protons of the earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, F.; Wilson, J.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Several High-altitude cosmic-ray neutron measurements were performed by the NASA Ames Laboratory in the mid-to late-1970s using airplanes flying at about 13km altitude along constant geomagnetic latitudes of 20, 44 and 51 degrees north. Bonner spheres and manganese, gold and aluminium foils were used in the measurements. In addition, large moderated BF-3 counters served as normalizing instruments. Data analyses performed at that time did not provide complete and unambiguous spectral information and field intensities. Recently, using our new unfolding methods and codes, and Bonner-sphere response function extensions for higher energies, 'new' neutron spectral intensities were obtained, which show progressive hardening of neutron spectra as a function of increasing geomagnetic latitude, with substantial increases in the energy region iron, 1 0 MeV to 10 GeV. For example, we found that the total neutron fluences at 20 and 51 degrees magnetic north are in the ratio of 1 to 5.2 and the 10 MeV to 10 GeV fluence ratio is 1 to 18. The magnitude of these ratios is quite remarkable. From the new results, the derived absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the main source of the high-energy protons trapped in the Earth's inner radiation belt. In addition, the results, depending on the extrapolation scheme used, indicate that the neutron dose equivalent rate may be as high as 0.1 mSv/h near the geomagnetic north pole and thus a significant contributor to the radiation exposures of pilots, flight attendants and the general public. (author)

  2. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G.F.; Salamone, S.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Palumbo, G. Parasiliti; Russo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  3. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  4. Dose equivalent near the bone-soft tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Poston, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    During manned space missions, high-energy nucleons of cosmic and solar origin collide with atomic nuclei of the human body and produce a broad linear energy transfer spectrum of secondary particles, called target fragments. These nuclear fragments are often more biologically harmful than the direct ionization of the incident nucleon. That these secondary particles increase tissue absorbed dose in regions adjacent to the bone-soft tissue interface was demonstrated in a previous publication. To assess radiological risks to tissue near the bone-soft tissue interface, a computer transport model for nuclear fragments produced by high energy nucleons was used in this study to calculate integral linear energy transfer spectra and dose equivalents resulting from nuclear collisions of 1-GeV protons transversing bone and red bone marrow. In terms of dose equivalent averaged over trabecular bone marrow, target fragments emitted from interactions in both tissues are predicted to be at least as important as the direct ionization of the primary protons-twice as important, if recently recommended radiation weighting factors and "worst-case" geometry are used. The use of conventional dosimetry (absorbed dose weighted by aa linear energy transfer-dependent quality factor) as an appropriate framework for predicting risk from low fluences of high-linear energy transfer target fragments is discussed.

  5. Polarization measurements in high energy elastic scattering of pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons on protons and comparison with Regge phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidot, A.; Bruneton, C.; Bystricky, J.; Cozzika, G.; Deregel, J.; Ducros, Y.; Khantine-Langlois, F.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Merlo, J.P.; Miyashita, S.; Movchet, J.; Pierrard, J.; Raoul, J.C.; Van Rossum, L.; Kanavets, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    The polarization parameter P has been measured for elastic scattering on polarized protons, of π - , K - and anti-p at 40GeV/c and of π + , K + and p at 45GeV/c. Four-momentum transfer ranges from -0.08 to -1.8(GeV/c) 2 for π - p and pp, and from -0.08 to -1.2(GeV/c) 2 for π + , K + or K - and anti-p [fr

  6. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)

  7. Irradiation effects in beryllium exposed to high energy protons of the NuMI neutrino source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuksenko, V., E-mail: viacheslav.kuksenko@materials.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ammigan, K.; Hartsell, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia (United States); Densham, C. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hurh, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia (United States); Roberts, S. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    A beryllium primary vacuum-to-air beam ‘window’ of the 'Neutrinos at the Main Injector' (NuMI) beamline at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, USA, has been irradiated by 120 GeV protons over 7 years, with a maximum integrated fluence at the window centre of 2.06 10{sup 22} p/cm{sup 2} corresponding to a radiation damage level of 0.48 dpa. The proton beam is pulsed at 0.5 Hz leading to an instantaneous temperature rise of 40 °C per pulse. The window is cooled by natural convection and is estimated to operate at an average of around 50 °C. The microstructure of this irradiated material was investigated by SEM/EBSD and Atom Probe Tomography, and compared to that of unirradiated regions of the beam window and that of stock material of the same PF-60 grade. Microstructural investigations revealed a highly inhomogeneous distribution of impurity elements in both unirradiated and irradiated conditions. Impurities were mainly localised in precipitates, and as segregations at grain boundary and dislocation lines. Low levels of Fe, Cu, Ni, C and O were also found to be homogeneously distributed in the beryllium matrix. In the irradiated materials, up to 440 appm of Li, derived from transmutation of beryllium was homogeneously distributed in solution in the beryllium matrix.

  8. Proton-beam energy analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belan, V.N.; Bolotin, L.I.; Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a magnetic analyzer for measurement of proton-beam energy in the range from 100 keV to 25 MeV. The beam is deflected in a uniform transverse magnetic field and is registered by photographing a scintillation screen. The energy spectrum of the beam is constructed by microphotometry of the photographic film

  9. The two-proton halo nucleus {sup 17}Ne studied in high-energy nuclear breakup reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Chulkov, Leonid [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Savran, Deniz [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    We report on exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of highly-energetic (500 MeV) unstable {sup 17}Ne beams impinging on light targets in an experiment at the R{sup 3}B-LAND complete-kinematics reaction setup at GSI. Focusing on the properties of beam-like {sup 15}O-p (={sup 16}F) systems produced in one-proton-removal reactions, we are presenting a comprehensive analysis of the s-/d-wave configuration mixing of the {sup 17}Ne valence-proton pair that is used to quantify its halo-nature. The results include the {sup 15}O-p relative-energy spectrum, {sup 16}F momentum distributions, and their corresponding momentum profile.

  10. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  11. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne,T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Roberts, S.; Kuksenko, V.; Butcher, M.; Calviani, M.; Guinchard, M.; Losito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  12. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  13. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  14. Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

  15. A Study of High Transverse Energy Events in Proton Proton and Proton - Nucleus Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 27.4-GeV.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Richard Scott [Maryland U.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide information on the constituents of particles such as protons achieve their probes of very small distances by studying events in which a large momentum transfer takes place. Because partons (quarks and gluons) seem to be confined inside composite particles, it is not possible to observe directly the outcome of a hard parton-parton scatter. Instead, one expects the reaction products to materialize as ordinary particles travelling approximately in the original parton direction, with large momentum components in the plane transverse to the direction of the incoming projectile....

  16. Radiation environment in the tunnel of a high-energy proton accelerator at energies near 1 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Sun, R.K.S.; Swanson, W.P.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron energy spectra, fluence distributions and rates in the FNAL Tevatron tunnel are summarized. This work has application to radiation damage to electronics and research equipment at high energy accelerators, as well as to radiological protection. 7 refs., 4 figs

  17. Some aspects of radiation protection near high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Tuyn, Jan Willem Nicolaas

    1977-01-01

    The CERN site near Geneva borders Satigny and Meyrin in Switzerland and Saint-Genis-Pouilly and Prevention in France. The 600 MeV proton synchrocyclotron (SC) has been in operation since 1957, the 28 GeV proton synchrotron (PS) since 1960, and the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) since 1971. A fourth large accelerator, the 400 GeV super proton synchrotron (SPS), will soon be in service. The internal and external radiation protection problems caused by these machines, together with the solutions, are reviewed in the light of experience. (5 refs).

  18. Evaluation of internal and external doses from $^{11}C$ produced in the air in high energy proton accelerator tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Kanda, Y; Oishi, T; Kondo, K

    2001-01-01

    Air has been irradiated with high energy protons at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron to obtain the following parameters essential for the internal dose evaluation from airborne /sup 11/C produced through nuclear spallation reactions: the abundance of gaseous and particulate /sup 11/C, chemical forms, and particle size distribution. It was found that more than 98% of /sup 11/C is present as gas and the rest is aerosol. The gaseous components were only /sup 11/CO and /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and their proportions were approximately 80% and 20%, respectively. The particulate /sup 11/C was found to be sulphate and/or nitrate aerosols having a log-normal size distribution; the measurement using a diffusion battery showed a geometric mean radius of 0.035 mu m and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8 at a beam intensity of 6.8*10/sup 11/ proton.pulse /sup -1/ and an irradiation time of 9.6 min. By taking the chemical composition and particle size into account, effective doses both from internal and from external exposures pe...

  19. One photon exchange processes and the calibration of polarization of high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, B.; Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Polarization phenomena in small momentum transfer high energy one-photon exchange processes in the reaction p + A → X + A where A is a complex nucleus and X is anything are examined. It is shown that these polarizations can be related directly to photoproduction polarization effects in the reaction γ + p → X at low energies. Explicit formulae are written for polarization effects in the case where X → π 0 + p

  20. Radiation effects for high-energy protons and X-ray in integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.A.G.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Medina, N.H.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lima, J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cirne, K.H. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Electronic circuits are strongly influenced by ionizing radiation. The necessity to develop integrated circuits (IC's) featuring radiation hardness is largely growing to meet the stringent environment in space electronics [1]. This work aims to development a test platform to qualify electronic devices under the influence of high radiation dose, for aerospace applications. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for changes in devices exposed to ionizing radiation several kinds of radiation should then be considered, among them heavy ions, alpha particles, protons, gamma and X-rays. Radiation effects on the ICs are usually divided into three categories: Total Ionizing Dose (TID), a cumulative dose that shifts the threshold voltage and increases transistor's off-state current; Single Events Effects (SEE), a transient effect which can deposit charge directly into the device and disturb the properties of electronic circuits and Displacement Damage (DD) which can change the arrangement of the atoms in the lattice [2]. In this study we are investigating the radiation effects in rectangular-gate and circular-gate MOSFETs, manufactured with standard CMOS fabrication process, using particle beams produced in electrostatic tandem accelerators and X-rays. Initial tests for TID effects were performed using the 1.7 MV 5SDH tandem Pelletron accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da USP with a proton beam of 2.6 MeV. The devices were exposed to different doses, varying the beam current, and irradiation time with the accumulated dose reaching up to Grad. To study the effect of X-rays on the electronic devices, an XRD-7000 (Shimadzu) X-ray setup was used as a primary X-ray source. The devices were irradiated with a total dose from krad to Grad using different dose rates. The results indicate that changes of the I-V characteristic curve are strongly dependents on the geometry of the devices. [1] Duzellier, S., Aerospace Science and Technology 9, p. 93

  1. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford

    2017-02-10

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  2. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, Ana; Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo; Kacperek, Andrzej; Vondracek, Vladimir; Royle, Gary; Palmans, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  3. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Ana, E-mail: am.lourenco@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Kacperek, Andrzej [National Eye Proton Therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Vondracek, Vladimir [Proton Therapy Center, Budinova 1a, Prague 8 CZ-180 00 (Czech Republic); Royle, Gary [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Palmans, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  4. Investigating the fission process at high excitation energies through proton induced reactions on 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Casajeros, E.; Alvarez Pol, H.; Paradela, C.; Perez-Loureido, D.; Tarrio, D.; Bacquias, A.; Boudard, A.; Kezzar, K.; Leray, S.; Enqvist, T.; Foehr, V.; Kelic, A.; Pleskac, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we have investigated the total fission cross section of 181 Ta + 1 H at FRS (Fragment Separator - GSI) at 1, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.3 GeV with a specific setup, providing high accuracy measurements of the cross section values. the comparison of our data with previous results reveals a good agreement at high energies. However the situation remains unclear at lower energies. In general, our results covering a wide range of energy, are smoother. We have also compared the results obtained in this experiment, with several calculations performed with the intra-nuclear cascade model (INCL v4.1) coupled to de-excitation code (ABLAv3p), according to two different models describing fission process at high-excitation energies: statistical model of Bohr and Wheeler and the dynamical description of the fission process. We have showed that a simple statistical description largely over-predict the measured cross-section. Only a dynamical description of the fission, involving the role of the viscosity of the nuclear matter, provides a realistic result.

  5. High-energy proton irradiation of C57Bl6 mice under hindlimb unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Marc; Todd, Paul; Orschell, Christie; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Farr, Jonathan; Klein, Susan; Sokol, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) pose substantial risk for crewmembers on deep space missions. It has been shown that low gravity and ionizing radiation both produce transient anemia and immunodeficiencies. We utilized the C57Bl/6 based hindlimb suspension model to investigate the consequences of hindlimb-unloading induced immune suppression on the sensitivity to whole body irradiation with modulated 208 MeV protons. Eight-week old C57Bl/6 female mice were conditioned by hindlimb-unloading. Serial CBC and hematocrit assays by HEMAVET were accumulated for the hindlimb-unloaded mice and parallel control animals subjected to identical conditions without unloading. One week of hindlimb-unloading resulted in a persistent, statistically significant 10% reduction in RBC count and a persistent, statistically significant 35% drop in lymphocyte count. This inhibition is consistent with published observations of low Earth orbit flown mice and with crewmember blood analyses. In our experiments the cell count suppression was sustained for the entire six-week period of observation and persisted for at least 7 days beyond the period of active hindlimb-unloading. C57Bl/6 mice were also irradiated with 208 MeV Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) protons at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. We found that at 8.5 Gy hindlimb-unloaded mice were significantly more radiation sensitive with 35 lethalities out of 51 mice versus 15 out of 45 control (non-suspended) mice within 30 days of receiving 8.5 Gy of SOBP protons (p =0.001). Both control and hindlimb-unloaded stocktickerCBC analyses of 8.5 Gy proton irradiated and control mice by HEMAVET demonstrated severe reductions in WBC counts (Lymphocytes and PMNs) by day 2 post-irradiation, followed a week to ten days later by reductions in platelets, and then reductions in RBCs about 2 weeks post-irradiation. Recovery of all blood components commenced by three weeks post-irradiation. CBC analyses of 8

  6. Structure of proton-proton events at high center-of-mass energy with an identified particle of large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, P.

    1977-01-01

    At the CERN-ISR events of pp-collisions, in which particles of large transverse momentum psub(T) are produced, were studied at √S = 52 GeV center-of-mass energy, using the 'Split-Field'-magnetspectrometer. The lorentz-invariant production cross-section of positive particles with high psub(T) was measured in the fragmentation region (average* approximately 20 0 ). In the same kinematical region the pion-fraction of produced particles for both charges was determined. In these events the effect of 'strangeness'-conservation on the dynamics of additionally produced particles was investigated. The comparison of events with negative pions and events with heavier particles - mainly kaons - at high psub(T) indicates, that the compensation of transverse momentum does not depend on the 'strangeness' of the particle at high psub(T). The quantum-number conservation rather influences the particle-content from the hadronic rest inside longitudinal phase-space. This was shown by reconstruction of decay-vertices of neutral kaons. The results obtained can be interpreted by 'constituent'-models of the proton-structure. (orig.) [de

  7. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  8. High intensity proton accelerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihiko; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nishida, Takahiko

    1991-06-01

    Industrial applications of proton accelerators to the incineration of the long-lived nuclides contained in the spent fuels have long been investigated. Department of Reactor Engineering of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has formulated the Accelerator Program through the investigations on the required performances of the accelerator and its development strategies and also the research plan using the accelerator. Outline of the Program is described in the present report. The target of the Program is the construction of the Engineering Test Accelerators (ETA) of the type of a linear accelerator with the energy 1.5 GeV and the proton current ∼10 mA. It is decided that the construction of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA) is necessary as an intermediate step, aiming at obtaining the required technical basis and human resources. The Basic Technology Accelerator with the energy of 10 MeV and with the current of ∼10 mA is composed of the ion source, RFQ and DTL, of which system forms the mock-up of the injector of ETA. Development of the high-β structure which constitutes the main acceleration part of ETA is also scheduled. This report covers the basic parameters of the Basic Technology Accelerator (BTA), development steps of the element and system technologies of the high current accelerators and rough sketch of ETA which can be prospected at present. (J.P.N.)

  9. High energy proton irradiation effects on SiC Schottky rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, S.; Kim, Jihyun; Ren, F.; Chung, G.Y.; MacMillan, M.F.; Dwivedi, R.; Fogarty, T.N.; Wilkins, R.; Allums, K.K.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Williams, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    4H-SiC Schottky rectifiers with dielectric overlap edge termination were exposed to 40 MeV protons at fluences from 5x10 7 -5x10 9 cm -2 . The reverse breakdown voltage decreased from ∼500 V in unirradiated devices to ∼-450 V after the highest proton dose. The reverse leakage current at -250 V was approximately doubled under these conditions. The forward current at -2 V decreased by ∼1% (fluence of 5x10 7 cm -2 ) to ∼42% (fluence of 5x10 9 cm -2 ), while the current at lower biases was increased due to the introduction of defect centers. The ideality factor, on-state resistance, and forward turn-on voltage showed modest increases for fluences of ≤5x10 8 cm -2 , but were more strongly affected (increase of 40%-75%) at the highest dose employed

  10. Laser-driven high-energy proton beam with homogeneous spatial profile from a nanosphere target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulanov, S.S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.; Bulanov, S.V.; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Haberer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2015), "061302-1"-"061302-6" ISSN 1098-4402 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ion accelerators * tumor-therapy * proton * beams * plasmas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2015

  11. Effects of high-energy proton irradiation on the superconducting properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylva, G.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.; Martinelli, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Pellegrino, L.; Putti, M.; Ghigo, G.; Gozzelino, L.; Torsello, D.; Grimaldi, G.; Leo, A.; Nigro, A.; Braccini, V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of 3.5 MeV proton irradiation on Fe(Se,Te) thin films grown on CaF2. In particular, we carry out an experimental investigation with different irradiation fluences up to 7.30 · 1016 cm‑2 and different proton implantation depths, in order to clarify whether and to what extent the critical current is enhanced or suppressed, what are the effects of irradiation on the critical temperature, resistivity, and critical magnetic fields, and finally what is the role played by the substrate in this context. We find that the effect of irradiation on superconducting properties is generally small compared to the case of other iron-based superconductors. The irradiation effect is more evident on the critical current density Jc, while it is minor on the transition temperature Tc, normal state resistivity ρ, and on the upper critical field Hc2 up to the highest fluences explored in this work. In more detail, our analysis shows that when protons implant in the substrate far from the superconducting film, the critical current can be enhanced up to 50% of the pristine value at 7 T and 12 K; meanwhile, there is no appreciable effect on critical temperature and critical fields together with a slight decrease in resistivity. On the contrary, when the implantation layer is closer to the film–substrate interface, both critical current and temperature show a decrease accompanied by an enhancement of the resistivity and lattice strain. This result evidences that possible modifications induced by irradiation in the substrate may affect the superconducting properties of the film via lattice strain. The robustness of the Fe(Se,Te) system to irradiation-induced damage makes it a promising compound for the fabrication of magnets in high-energy accelerators.

  12. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cipiccia, S.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fonseca, R.A.; Goddard, B.; Gross, M.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jolly, S.; Kempkes, P.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.R.; McKenzie, J.W.; Meddahi, M.; Militsyn, B.L.; Moschuering, N.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.A.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Petrenko, A.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Reimann, O.; Ruhl, H.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Silva, L.O.; Sosedkin, A.; Tarkeshian, R.; Trines, R.M.G.N.; Tuckmantel, T.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  13. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R; Gross, M; Bingham, R; Holloway, J; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Butterworth, A; Feldbaumer, E; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Buttenschön, B; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Jaroszynski, D; Fonseca, R A; Grulke, O; Kempkes, P; Huang, C; Jolly, S

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN—the AWAKE experiment—has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. (paper)

  14. Fabrication and characterization of microcavity lasers in rhodamine B doped SU8 using high energy proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal Rao, S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Vishnubhatla, K. C.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Narayana Rao, D.; Watt, F.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present their results on the characterization of individual dye-doped microcavity polymer lasers fabricated using a high energy proton beam. The lasers were fabricated in rhodamine B doped SU8 resist with a single exposure step followed by chemical processing. The resulting trapezoidal shaped cavities had dimensions of ˜250×250μm2. Physical characterization of these structures was performed using a scanning electron microscope while the optical characterization was carried out by recording the emission subsequent to pumping the lasers with 532nm, 6 nanosecond pulses. The authors observed intense, narrow emission near 624nm with the best emission linewidth full width at half maximum of ˜9nm and a threshold ˜150μJ/mm2.

  15. Calculations of the photon dose behind concrete shielding of high energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, D.; Tesch, K.; Zazula, J.M.

    1992-02-01

    The photon dose per primary beam proton behind lateral concrete shieldings was calculated by using an extension of the Monte Carlo particle shower code FLUKA. The following photon-producing processes were taken into account: capture of thermal neutrons, deexcitation of nuclei after nuclear evaporation, inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear reactions below 140 MeV, as well as photons from electromagnetic cascades. The obtained ratio of the photon dose to the neutron dose equivalent varies from 8% to 20% and it well compares with measurements performed recently at DESY giving a mean ratio of 14%. (orig.)

  16. A point kernel shielding code, PKN-HP, for high energy proton incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A point kernel integral technique code PKN-HP, and the related thick target neutron yield data have been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray dose equivalents in ordinary concrete and iron shields for fully stopping length C, Cu and U-238 target neutrons produced by 100 MeV-10 GeV proton incident in a 3-dimensional geometry. The comparisons among calculation results of the present code and other calculation techniques, and measured values showed the usefulness of the code. (author)

  17. Physico-chemical modification of polyethersulphone induced by high energy proton, C+ and Ne6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh Kumar, S.; Biswavarathi, V.; Jal, P.; Dey, K.; Krishna, J.B.M.; Saha, A.

    2004-01-01

    Polyehersulphone (PES) was irradiated with 4 MeV proton, 3.6 MeV C + and 145 MeV Ne 6+ ions at different ion fluences. The ion induced spectral changes were analyzed by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. The increase in optical absorption, which shifts gradually from near UV to the visible region with increase in fluence for the three different types of bombarding ions was observed. A significant loss in fluorescence intensity with increase in fluence for three different ions was observed. (author)

  18. Development of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Kusano, J.; Hasegawa, K.; Ouchi, N.; Oguri, H.; Kinsho, M.; Touchi, Y.; Honda, Y.; Mukugi, K.; Ino, H.; Noda, F.; Akaoka, N.; Kaneko, H.; Chishiro, E.; Fechner, B.

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 5.33mA has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. the NSP is aiming at exploring nuclear technologies for nuclear waste transmutation based on a proton induced spallation neutrons. The proposed accelerators facilities will be also used in the various basic research fields such as condensed matter physics in combination with a high intensity proton storage ring. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end of the proton accelerator. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting (SC) accelerator linac has been designed and developed as a major option. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Z-scaling in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.V.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Skoro, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    New scaling, z-scaling, in the inclusive particle production in pA collisions is studied. The scaling function H A (z) is expressed via the inclusive cross section of particle production Ed 3 σ/dq 3 and the particle multiplicity density dN/dη at pseudorapidity η=0 in the corresponding nucleon-nucleon (NN) center-of-mass (CMS) system. The dependence of H A (z) on scaling variable z, the center-of-mass energy √, and the detection angle θ is investigated. The available experimental data on inclusive particle production (π ± , K ± ) in pA interactions at high energies are used to verify the universality of z-scaling found in hadron-hadron collisions. The A-dependence of H A (z) for π + -meson production is studied. It is shown that the experimental data >from pd collisions confirm the scaling properties of the function H d (z). Some predictions for H au (z) concerning production of π + -mesons in pAu interaction using the HIJING Monte Carlo code have been made. The obtained results can be of interest for future experiments at RHI and LHC in searching the signals of quark-gluon plasma formation

  20. An improved simulation routine for modelling coherent high-energy proton interactions with bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Forcher, Francesco; Redaelli, Stefano; Zanetti, Marco; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    The planes in crystalline solids can constrain the directions that charged particles take as they pass through. Physicists can use this "channelling" property of crystals to steer particle beams. In a bent crystal, for example, channelled particles follow the bend and can change their direction. Several studies are on-going at CERN to verify the possibility of using bent crystals as primary collimators in high energy hadron colliders like the LHC. Simulations have been developed to model the coherent interaction with crystalline planes. The goal of this note is to analyze the data collected on extracted beam from the SPS and develop an improved model to simulate the data’s subtleties, in particular the transition between the volume reflection and amorphous interactions of the beam with crystals.

  1. Transverse and Longitudinal Beam Collimation in a High-Energy Proton Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N

    1998-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), particles from the beam halo might potentially impinge on the vacuum chamber, effecting harmful transitions of the superconducting magnets ("quenches"). This can be prevented by the collimation system which confines the particle losses to special, non superconducting sections of the machine. Due to the high energy and intensity of the LHC, any removal system must attain an unprecedented efficiency. The cleaning system was designed on the basis of purely geometric and optical models which neglect non linear effects and assume perfectly absorbing materials. In a second step, true scattering in matter is considered. A series of machine developments (MD) were carried out in 1996-7 with the principal aim of validating the design assumptions. A collimation system comparable to that of the LHC was employed. The predictions of the numerical model used to compute the LHC collimation system efficiency were compared with the data acquired during the measurement sessions. The experimen...

  2. In Bern high-energy physics shares proton beams with the hospital

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint venture bringing together public institutions and private companies is building a new facility on the campus of Inselspital, Bern’s university hospital. The facility will host a cyclotron for the production of radiopharmaceuticals for use in PET as well as in multidisciplinary research laboratories for the development of new products for medical imaging. The Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP) of Bern University, which is deeply involved in the project, will have access to a dedicated beam line and specialized labs.     Construction of the new facility is ongoing at Bern's University Hospital, where the cyclotron will be installed.   The first Bern Cyclotron symposium will take place on 6 and 7 June this year. The event is being organised by LHEP in collaboration with Bern’s Inselspital and will bring together experts – including several from CERN – to promote research activities at the new Bern Cyclotron Laboratory. &ld...

  3. High-efficiency deflection of high energy protons due to channeling along the 〈110〉 axis of a bent silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Scandale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A deflection efficiency of about 61% was observed for 400 GeV/c protons due to channeling, most strongly along the 〈110〉 axis of a bent silicon crystal. It is comparable with the deflection efficiency in planar channeling and considerably larger than in the case of the 〈111〉 axis. The measured probability of inelastic nuclear interactions of protons in channeling along the 〈110〉 axis is only about 10% of its amorphous level whereas in channeling along the (110 planes it is about 25%. High efficiency deflection and small beam losses make this axial orientation of a silicon crystal a useful tool for the beam steering of high energy charged particles.

  4. Which potentials have to be surface peaked to reproduce large angle proton scattering at high energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynal, J.

    1990-01-01

    Corrections to the usual form factors of the optical potential are studied with a view to getting a better fit for proton elastic scattering at large angles on 40 Ca at 497 and 800 MeV. When a real surface form factor is added to the central potential in the Schrodinger formalism, the experimental data are as well reproduced as in the standard Dirac formalism. Coupling to the strong 3 - collective state gives a better fit. The use of surface corrections to the imaginary Dirac potential also gives improved results. A slightly better fit is obtained by coupling to the 3 - state with, at the same time, a weakening of these corrections. Further corrections to the potential do not give significant improvements

  5. Studies and calculations of transverse emittance growth in high-energy proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.; Jackson, G.

    1989-03-01

    In the operation of proton-antiproton colliders, an important goal is to maximize the integrated luminosity. During such operations in the Fermilab Tevatron, the transverse beam emittances were observed to grow unexpectedly quickly, thus causing a serious reduction of the luminosity. We have studied this phenomenon experimentally and theoretically. A formula for the emittance growth rate, due to random dipole kicks, is derived. In the experiment, RF phase noise of known amplitude was deliberately injected into the Tevatron to kick the beam randomly, via dispersion at the RF cavities. Theory and experiment are found to agree reasonably well. We also briefly discuss the problem of quadrupole kicks. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Massive mercury target for thallium isotope production on the beam of high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novgorodov, A.F.; Kolachkovski, A.; Nguen Kong Chang.

    1980-01-01

    The yields of thallium radioisotopes in a massive mercury target irradiated with 660 MeV protons have been determined. The constancy of isotopic composition of radiothallium along the whole length (40 cm) of the target has been found. The yields of 200 Tl, 201 Tl and 202 Tl amount to 22.9+-2.8; 3.42+-0.45 and 0.459+-0.61 mCu/mkA h, respectively. It has been shown that the extraction of radioisotopes of thallium and some other elements from large amounts of mercury as well as their subsequent concentration may be carried out fully and relatavely fast when using dilute solutions of acetic acid

  7. Studies of absorbed dose determinations and spatial dose distributions for high energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    Absolute dose determinations were made with three types of ionization chamber and a Faraday cup. Methane based tissue equivalent (TE) gas, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air were used as an ionizing gas with flow rate of 10 ml per minute. Measurements were made at the entrance position of unmodulated beams and for a beam of a spread out Bragg peak at a depth of 17.3 mm in water. For both positions, the mean value of dose determined by the ionization chambers was 0.993 +- 0.014 cGy for which the value of TE gas was taken as unity. The agreement between the doses estimated by the ionization chambers and the Faraday cup was within 5%. Total uncertainty estimated in the ionization chamber and the Faraday cup determinations is 6 and 4%, respectively. Common sources of error in calculating the dose from ionization chamber measurements are depend on the factors of ion recombination, W value, and mass stopping power ratio. These factors were studied by both experimentally and theoretically. The observed values for the factors show a good agreement to the predicted one. Proton beam dosimetry intercomparison between Japan and the United States was held. Good agreement was obtained with standard deviation of 1.6%. The value of the TE calorimeter is close to the mean value of all. In the proton spot scanning system, lateral dose distributions at any depth for one spot beam can be simulated by the Gaussian distribution. From the Gaussian distributions and the central axis depth doses for one spot beam, it is easy to calculate isodose distributions in the desired field by superposition of dose distribution for one spot beam. Calculated and observed isodose curves were agreed within 1 mm at any dose levels. (J.P.N.)

  8. High and Low Energy Proton Radiation Damage in p/n InP MOCVD Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, George; Weinberg, Irv; Scheiman, Dave; Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Uribe, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    InP p(+)/n/n(+) solar cells, fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, (MOCVD) were irradiated with 0.2 MeV and 10 MeV protons to a fluence of 10(exp 13)/sq cm. The power output degradation, IV behavior, carrier concentration and defect concentration were observed at intermediate points throughout the irradiations. The 0.2 MeV proton-irradiated solar cells suffered much greater and more rapid degradation in power output than those irradiated with 10 MeV protons. The efficiency losses were accompanied by larger increases in the recombination currents in the 0.2 MeV proton-irradiated solar cells. The low energy proton irradiations also had a larger impact on the series resistance of the solar cells. Despite the radiation induced damage, the carrier concentration in the base of the solar cells showed no reduction after 10 MeV or 0.2 MeV proton irradiations and even increased during irradiation with 0.2 MeV protons. In a deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of the irradiated samples, the minority carrier defects H4 and H5 at E(sub v) + 0.33 and E(sub v) + 0.52 eV and the majority carrier defects E7 and El0 at E(sub c) - 0.39 and E(sub c) - 0.74 eV, were observed. The defect introduction rates for the 0.2 MeV proton irradiations were about 20 times higher than for the 10 MeV proton irradiations. The defect El0, observed here after irradiation, has been shown to act as a donor in irradiated n-type InP and may be responsible for obscuring carrier removal. The results of this study are consistent with the much greater damage produced by low energy protons whose limited range causes them to stop in the active region of the solar cell.

  9. Correlations associated with small angle protons produced in proton- proton collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C

    1973-01-01

    High energy inelastic protons with x=2 p/sub L//s/sup 1/2/>0.99 observed in 15.3/15.3 GeV proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR are accompanied by particles whose angular distribution is confined to a narrow cone in the opposite direction. In contrast, lower energy protons (0.72

  10. Analytical solutions for thermal transient profile in solid target irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Brazao, Nei G.; Sciani, Valdir

    2009-01-01

    There were obtained analytical solutions for thermal transient in solid targets, used in short half-life radioisotopes production, when irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons, in the cyclotron accelerator Cyclone 30 of the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The beam spatial profile was considered constant and the time depended heat distribution equation was resolved for a continuous particles flow entering the target. The problem was divided into two stages: a general solution was proposed which is the sum of two functions, the first one related to the thermal equilibrium situation and the second one related to a time dependent function that was determinate by the setting of the contour conditions and the initial conditions imposed by the real problem. By that one got an analytic function for a complete description of the heat transport phenomenon inside the targets. There were used both, numerical and symbolic computation methods, to obtain temperature maps and thermal gradients and the results showed an excellent agreement when compared with purely numerical models. The results were compared with obtained data from Gallium-67 and Thallium-201 irradiation routines conducted by the IPEN Cyclotrons accelerators center, showing excellent agreement. The objective of this paper is to develop solid targets irradiation systems (metals and oxides) so that one can operate with high levels of current beam, minimizing the irradiation time and maximizing the final returns. (author)

  11. Hypofractionated high-energy proton-beam irradiation is an alternative treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachogiannis, Pavlos; Gudjonsson, Olafur; Montelius, Anders; Grusell, Erik; Isacsson, Ulf; Nilsson, Kristina; Blomquist, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155). Eighty-four patients were treated post subtotal resection, 42 at tumour relapse and 44 with upfront radiotherapy after diagnosis based on the typical radiological image. Irradiation was given in a hypofractionated fashion (3-8 fractions, usually 5 or 6 Gy) with a mean dose of 21.9 Gy (range, 14-46 Gy). All patients were planned for follow-up with clinical controls and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after treatment. The median follow-up time was 84 months. Age, gender, tumour location, Simpson resection grade and target volume were assessed as possible prognostic factors for post-irradiation tumour progression and radiation related complications. The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 93% and 85% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 13.5%, while disease-specific mortality was 1.7% (3/170 patients). Older patients and patients with tumours located in the middle cranial fossa had a lower risk for tumour progression. Radiation-related complications were seen in 16 patients (9.4%), with pituitary insufficiency being the most common. Tumour location in the anterior cranial fossa was the only factor that significantly increased the risk of complications. Hypofractionated proton-beam radiation therapy may be used particularly in the treatment of larger World Health Organisation grade I meningiomas not amenable to total surgical resection. Treatment is associated with high rates of long-term tumour growth control and acceptable risk for

  12. X-ray diffraction patterns in high-energy proton implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Dluzewska, K.D.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon crystals implanted with 1 and 1.6 MeV protons were studied by means of conventional source double-crystal and synchrotron multi-crystal arrangements. Both the rocking curves and series of topographs were recorded in different parallel settings employing different reflections and wavelengths of radiation. A comparison of rocking curves in different regions of implanted areas was performed in synchrotron multi-crystal arrangement with a beam of a very small diameter. The rocking curves exhibited subsidiary interference maxima with increasing periodicity on the low angle side. The plane wave topographs taken at different angular setting revealed characteristic fringes whose number decreased with increasing distance from the main maximum. The fringe pattern did not depend on the direction of the diffraction vector. The number of fringes for equivalent angular distance from the maximum was larger for higher order of reflection. The shape of the rocking curve and other diffraction patterns were reasonably explained assuming the lattice parameter change depth distribution proportional to the profile obtained from the Biersack-Ziegler theory and lateral non-uniformity of ion dose. A good approximation of the experimental results was obtained using numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. (orig.)

  13. Proton scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, A.; Layly, V.; Schaeffer, R.

    1977-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of the most recent Saclay data of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on nuclei at incident energies around 1GeV ( 16 O, the Ca isotopes, the Ni isotopes, 90 Zr and 208 Pb). Various theories (Impulse or Glauber approximation) are comapred. It is shown that the reaction mechanism is very well understood at 1GeV and that, at these energies, absorption and distortion is small enough, so one can extract nuclear densities from the experiment. In particular, the shape of the neutron densities is given, and compared to the Hartree-Fock predictions. The uncertainties, especially in the determination of the neutron radii are discussed [fr

  14. The RaDIATE High-Energy Proton Materials Irradiation Experiment at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, Kavin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    The RaDIATE collaboration (Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments) was founded in 2012 to bring together the high-energy accelerator target and nuclear materials communities to address the challenging issue of radiation damage effects in beam-intercepting materials. Success of current and future high intensity accelerator target facilities requires a fundamental understanding of these effects including measurement of materials property data. Toward this goal, the RaDIATE collaboration organized and carried out a materials irradiation run at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The experiment utilized a 181 MeV proton beam to irradiate several capsules, each containing many candidate material samples for various accelerator components. Materials included various grades/alloys of beryllium, graphite, silicon, iridium, titanium, TZM, CuCrZr, and aluminum. Attainable peak damage from an 8-week irradiation run ranges from 0.03 DPA (Be) to 7 DPA (Ir). Helium production is expected to range from 5 appm/DPA (Ir) to 3,000 appm/DPA (Be). The motivation, experimental parameters, as well as the post-irradiation examination plans of this experiment are described.

  15. Multiparticle Collectivity from Initial State Correlations in High Energy Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusling, Kevin; Mace, Mark; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-01-01

    Qualitative features of multiparticle correlations in light-heavy ion (p +A ) collisions at RHIC and LHC are reproduced in a simple initial state model of partons in the projectile coherently scattering off localized domains of color charge in the heavy nuclear target. These include (i) the ordering of the magnitudes of the azimuthal angle n th Fourier harmonics of two-particle correlations vn{2 }, (ii) the energy and transverse momentum dependence of the four-particle Fourier harmonic v2{4 }, and (iii) the energy dependence of four-particle symmetric cumulants measuring correlations between different Fourier harmonics. Similar patterns are seen in an Abelian version of the model, where we observe v2{2 }>v2{4 }≈v2{6 }≈v2{8 } of two, four, six, and eight particle correlations. While such patterns are often interpreted as signatures of collectivity arising from hydrodynamic flow, our results provide an alternative description of the multiparticle correlations seen in p +A collisions.

  16. On the nucleon effective mass role to the high energy proton spallation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, B.M., E-mail: biank_ce@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, 24210-346 Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinheiro, A.R.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Acre, BR 364 km 04, 69920-900 Rio Branco, AC (Brazil); Gonçalves, M. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua General Severiano 90, 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cabral, R.G. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We explore the effect of the nucleon effective mass to the dynamic evolution of the rapid phase of proton–nucleus spallation reactions. The analysis of the relaxation time for the non-equilibrium phase is studied by variations in the effective mass parameter. We determine the final excitation energy of the hot residual nucleus at the end of cascade phase and the de-excitation of the nuclear system is carried out considering the competition of particle evaporation and fission processes. It was shown that the excitation energy depends of the hot compound residual nucleus at the end of the rapid phase on the changing effective mass. The multiplicity of particles was also analyzed in cascade and evaporation phase of the reaction. The use of nucleon effective mass during cascade phase can be considered as an effect of the many-body nuclear interactions not included explicitly in a treatment to the nucleon–nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. This procedure represents a more realistic scenario to obtain the neutron multiplicity generated in this reaction, which is a benchmark for the calculation of the neutronic in the ADS reactors.

  17. The EDDA experiment: proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberher, F.

    1996-01-01

    The EDDA experiment is designed to provide a high precision measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV of (lab) incident kinetic energy. It is an internal target experiment utilizing the proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY operated by KFA Juelich. The excitation functions are measured during the acceleration ramp of COSY. (author)

  18. Characterization of a proton beam driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagisaka, Akito; Daido, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Koichi; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Mori, Michiaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Yogo, Akifumi; Kado, Masataka; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Shu

    2007-01-01

    High-energy protons are observed with a 3 μm thick tantalum target irradiated with a high intensity laser. The maximum proton energy is ∼900 keV. The half angle of the generated proton beam (>500 keV) is about 10deg. Characterization of the proton beam will significantly contribute to the proton applications. (author)

  19. Observation of jets in high transverse energy events at the CERN proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Keeler, R.; Salvi, G.; Thompson, G.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, J.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Kryn, D.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bernabei, R.; Ceradini, F.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; D'Angelo, S.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Ellis, N.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Karimaeki, V.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, R.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pimia, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    With a segmented total absorption calorimeter of large acceptance, we have measured the total transverse energy spectrum for panti p collisions at ssup(1/2)=540 GeV up to μEsub(T)=130 GeV in the pseudo-rapidity range vertical strokeetavertical stroke 40 GeV, the fraction of events with two jets increases with μEsub(T); this event structure is dominant for μEsub(T)> 100 GeV. We measure the inclusive jet cross section up to Esub(T)(jet)=60 GeV and the two-jet mass distribution up to 120 GeV/c 2 . The measured cross sections are compatible with the predictions of hard scattering models based on QCD. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of calculated and experimental values of the yields of xenon isotopes in reactions with high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukolyukov, A.Yu.; Katargin, N.V.; Baishev, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    Calculations of the cumulative yields of isotopes of Xe have been carried out on the basis of the semi-empirical formula of Silverberg and Tsao for Ba- and Dy-targets and bombarding proton energies in the range 100-1050 MeV. Results are compared with experimental data for the yields of Xe isotopes, and domains of applicability of the semi-empirical formula are determined

  1. Measurements of activation reaction rate distributions on a mercury target bombarded with high-energy protons at AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ino, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Jerde, Eric; Glasgow, David [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A neutronics experiment was carried out using a thick mercury target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Reaction rate distributions around the target were measured by the activation technique at incident proton energies of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. Various activation detectors such as the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In, {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92m}Nb, and {sup 209}Bi(n,xn) reactions with threshold energies ranging from 0.3 to 70.5 MeV were employed to obtain the reaction rate data for estimating spallation source neutron characteristics of the mercury target. It was found from the measured {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115m}In reaction rate distribution that the number of leakage neutrons becomes maximum at about 11 cm from the top of hemisphere of the mercury target for the 1.6-GeV proton incidence and the peak position moves towards forward direction with increase of the incident proton energy. The similar result was observed in the reaction rate distributions of other activation detectors. The experimental procedures and a full set of experimental data in numerical form are summarized in this report. (author)

  2. Measurements of activation reaction rate distributions on a mercury target bombarded with high-energy protons at AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Jerde, Eric; Glasgow, David

    2000-02-01

    A neutronics experiment was carried out using a thick mercury target at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Reaction rate distributions around the target were measured by the activation technique at incident proton energies of 1.6, 12 and 24 GeV. Various activation detectors such as the 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 93 Nb(n,2n) 92m Nb, and 209 Bi(n,xn) reactions with threshold energies ranging from 0.3 to 70.5 MeV were employed to obtain the reaction rate data for estimating spallation source neutron characteristics of the mercury target. It was found from the measured 115 In(n,n') 115m In reaction rate distribution that the number of leakage neutrons becomes maximum at about 11 cm from the top of hemisphere of the mercury target for the 1.6-GeV proton incidence and the peak position moves towards forward direction with increase of the incident proton energy. The similar result was observed in the reaction rate distributions of other activation detectors. The experimental procedures and a full set of experimental data in numerical form are summarized in this report. (author)

  3. High luminosity polarized proton collisions at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides the unique opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at a center-of-mass energy of up to 500 GeV and luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 . Such high luminosity and high energy polarized proton collisions will open up the possibility of studying spin effects in hard processes. However, the acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. After successful operation of RHIC with gold beams polarized protons from the AGS have been successfully injected into RHIC and accelerated using a full Siberian snakes built from four superconducting helical dipoles. A new high energy proton polarimeter was also successfully commissioned. Operation with two snakes per RHIC ring is planned for next year

  4. High intensity circular proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1987-12-01

    Circular machines suitable for the acceleration of high intensity proton beams include cyclotrons, FFAG accelerators, and strong-focusing synchrotrons. This paper discusses considerations affecting the design of such machines for high intensity, especially space charge effects and the role of beam brightness in multistage accelerators. Current plans for building a new generation of high intensity 'kaon factories' are reviewed. 47 refs

  5. Investigation of the effects of high-energy proton-beam irradiation on metal-oxide surfaces by using methane adsorption isotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Junggil; Kim, Jaeyong; Kim, Kyeryung

    2012-01-01

    The creation of possible local defects on metal-oxide surfaces due to irradiation with a high-energy proton beam was investigated by using a series of gas adsorption isotherms for methane (CH 4 ) on a MgO powder surface. After a MgO powder surface having only a (100) surface had been irradiated with a 35-MeV proton beam, the second atomic layer of methane had completely disappeared while two distinct atomic layers were found in a layer-by-layer fashion on the surfaces of unirradiated samples. This subtle modification of the surface is evidenced by a change of the contrasts in the morphologies measured a using a transmission electron microscopy. Combined results obtained from an electron microscopy and methane adsorption isotherms strongly suggest that the high-energy proton-beam irradiation induced a local surface modification by imparting kinetic energy to the sample. The calculation of the 2-dimensional compressibility values, which are responsible for the formation of the atomic layers, confirmed the surface modification after irradiating surface-clean MgO powders with a proton beam.

  6. Proton-proton reaction rates at extreme energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Motohiko

    1993-01-01

    Results on proton-antiproton reaction rates (total cross-section) at collision energies of 1.8 TeV from experiments at Fermilab have suggested a lower rate of increase with energy compared to the extrapolation based on results previously obtained at CERN's proton-antiproton collider (CERN Courier, October 1991). Now an independent estimate of the values for the proton-proton total cross-section for collision energies from 5 to 30 TeV has been provided by the analysis of cosmic ray shower data collected over ten years at the Akeno Observatory operated by the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of University of Tokyo. These results are based on the inelastic cross-section for collisions of cosmic ray protons with air nuclei at energies in the range10 16-18 eV. A new extensive air shower experiment was started at Akeno, 150 km west of Tokyo, in 1979 with a large array of detectors, both on the ground and under a 1-metre concrete absorber. This measured the total numbers of electrons and muons of energies above 1GeV for individual showers with much better accuracy than before. Data collection was almost continuous for ten years without any change in the triggering criteria for showers above10 16 eV. The mean free path for proton-air nuclei collisions has been determined from the zenith angle of the observed frequency of air showers which have the same effective path length for development in the atmosphere and the same primary energy

  7. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described. The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods. It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan. When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  8. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-10-07

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT.

  9. Single-energy intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Cianchetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this note, an intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) technique, based on the use of high single-energy (SE-IMPT) pencil beams, is described.The method uses only the highest system energy (226 MeV) and only lateral penumbra to produce dose gradient, as in photon therapy. In the study, after a preliminary analysis of the width of proton pencil beam penumbras at different depths, SE-IMPT was compared with conventional IMPT in a phantom containing titanium inserts and in a patient, affected by a spinal chordoma with fixation rods.It was shown that SE-IMPT has the potential to produce a sharp dose gradient and that it is not affected by the uncertainties produced by metal implants crossed by the proton beams. Moreover, in the chordoma patient, target coverage and organ at risk sparing of the SE-IMPT plan resulted comparable to that of the less reliable conventional IMPT technique. Robustness analysis confirmed that SE-IMPT was not affected by range errors, which can drastically affect the IMPT plan.When accepting a low-dose spread as in modern photon techniques, SE-IMPT could be an option for the treatment of lesions (e.g. cervical bone tumours) where steep dose gradient could improve curability, and where range uncertainty, due for example to the presence of metal implants, hampers conventional IMPT. (note)

  10. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  11. Proton channeling in Au at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes, J.E.; Vargas, P.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author)

  12. Use of a low energy proton accelerator for calibrating a large NaI(Tl) array in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkbride, G.I.; O'Reilly, J.G.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a 500 keV Van de Graaff proton accelerator to produce γ-rays in the range 4 - 18 MeV via nuclear reactions for the purpose of calibrating a large NaI(Tl) crystal array is reported. Data analysis indicates an energy calibration to approx. 1% over this range

  13. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  14. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  15. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5×10^{20}  p/cm^{2}. The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (∼5×10^{18}

  16. Characteristics of the Biological Effects and the RBE of High Energy Protons; Caracteristiques des Effets Biologiques et EBR des Protons de Haute Energie; Osobennosti biologicheskogo dejstviya i obeh protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Caracteristicas de los Efectos Biologicos y de la EBR de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, Ju. G.; Darenskaja, N. G.; Domshlak, M. M.; Lebedinskij, A. V.; Nefedov, Ju. G.; Ryzhov, N. I.

    1964-03-15

    The characteristics of the biological effects of high-energy protons (120, 240 and 510 MeV) were studied in experiments on mice, rats and dogs. It was shown that together with a certain resemblance or identity in radiation damage due to the effects of X-rays and protons, there were certain differences in the case of proton irradiation. In the proton irradiation of dogs the haemorrhagic syndrome was more pronounced. Haemorrhage appeared earlier in the animals and was more abundant. A difference was found in proton RBE levels for small animals (rats, mice) and large animals (dogs). This difference is quite large and equals respectively 0.7 and 1.0 * 1.15. Some considerations are presented in the report on the cause of these differences. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les caracteristiques des effets biologiques des protons de haute energie (120, 240 et 510 MeV) au cours d'experiences sur des souris, des rats et des chiens. Ils montrent que si les dommages causes par les rayons X et les protons presentent une certaine ressemblance ou des caracteres identiques, on observe des differences dans le cas de l'irradiation par les protons. Chez les chiens exposes aux protons, le syndrome hemorragique etait plus prononce. L'hemorragie s'est manifestee plus tot chez ces animaux et etait plus abondante. Les auteurs ont decele une difference dans l*EBRdes protons pour les petits animaux (rats, souris) et pour les grands animaux (chiens). Cette difference etait importante: 0,7 dans le premier cas et de 1,0 a 1,15 dans le second cas. On trouve dans le memoire quelques considerations sur la cause de ces differences. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron las caracteristicas de los efectos biologicos de los protones de elevada energia (120, 240 y 510 MeV) mediante experimentos con ratones, ratas y perros. Comprobaron que a pesar de ciertas semejanzas en las radiolesiones causadas por los rayos X y los protones, los efectos de estos ultimos acusan algunas diferencias. El

  17. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  18. Do you want to build such a machine? : Designing a high energy proton accelerator for Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, E.

    2004-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to a skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather more broadly--at certain points--with the explicit ''struggle for the hearts and minds of

  19. Relativistic corrections to η{sub c}-pair production in high energy proton–proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, A.P., E-mail: a.p.martynenko@samsu.ru [Samara State University, Pavlov Street 1, 443011, Samara (Russian Federation); Samara State Aerospace University named after S.P. Korolyov, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, 443086, Samara (Russian Federation); Trunin, A.M., E-mail: amtrnn@gmail.com [Samara State Aerospace University named after S.P. Korolyov, Moskovskoye Shosse 34, 443086, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-10

    On the basis of perturbative QCD and the relativistic quark model we calculate relativistic corrections to the double η{sub c} meson production in proton–proton interactions at LHC energies. Relativistic terms in the production amplitude connected with the relative motion of heavy quarks and the transformation law of the bound state wave functions to the reference frame of moving charmonia are taken into account. For the gluon and quark propagators entering the amplitude we use a truncated expansion in relative quark momenta up to the second order. Relativistic corrections to the quark bound state wave functions are considered by means of the Breit-like potential. It turns out that the examined effects decrease total non-relativistic cross section more than two times and on 20 percents in the rapidity region of LHCb detector.

  20. Proton induced fission of {sup 232}Th at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gikal, K. B., E-mail: kgikal@mail.ru; Kozulin, E. M.; Bogachev, A. A. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Burtebaev, N. T.; Edomskiy, A. V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazhev, G. N. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kovalchuk, K. V.; Kvochkina, T. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Piasecki, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University (Poland); Rubchenya, V. A. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Sahiev, S. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics of Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakhstan); Trzaska, W. H. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Vardaci, E. [INFN Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell’Università di Napoli (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    The mass-energy distributions and cross sections of proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th have been measured at the proton energies of 7, 10, 13, 20, 40, and 55 MeV. Experiments were carried out at the proton beam of the K-130 cyclotron of the JYFL Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä and U-150m cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The yields of fission fragments in the mass range A = 60–170 a.m.u. have been measured up to the level of 10−4%. The three humped shape of the mass distribution up has been observed at higher proton energies. The contribution of the symmetric component grows up with increasing proton incident energy; although even at 55 MeV of proton energy the shoulders in the mass energy distribution clearly indicate the asymmetric fission peaks. Evolution of shell structure was observed in the fission fragment mass distributions even at high excitation energy.

  1. The production of photons with large transverse momentum in proton-proton interaction at high energy in the center of mass, at the ISR of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedinger, Michel.

    1977-01-01

    The production of photons with large transverse momentun emitted in pp interactions at high energy, at the ISR of CERN, is studied. The inclusive distributions of photons were measured in the interval 0.7 2 sigma sub(γ)/dpdΩ=Aexp(Bpsub(t)+Cpsub(t) 2 ). The π 0 cross sections were deduced from these photon cross sections. At psub(t)( 2 at 3GeV /c), than the approximately exp(-6psub(t)) decrease, as well as an increase with the energy √s. A fit of the π 0 cross-sections, compatible with a power-law behaviour is given [fr

  2. Applications of High Intensity Proton Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Rajendran; Mishra, Shekhar

    2010-06-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency linac development at Fermilab / S. D. Holmes -- Rare muon decay experiments / Y. Kuno -- Rare kaon decays / D. Bryman -- Muon collider / R. B. Palmer -- Neutrino factories / S. Geer -- ADS and its potential / J.-P. Revol -- ADS history in the USA / R. L. Sheffield and E. J. Pitcher -- Accelerator driven transmutation of waste: high power accelerator for the European ADS demonstrator / J. L. Biarrotte and T. Junquera -- Myrrha, technology development for the realisation of ADS in EU: current status & prospects for realisation / R. Fernandez ... [et al.] -- High intensity proton beam production with cyclotrons / J. Grillenberger and M. Seidel -- FFAG for high intensity proton accelerator / Y. Mori -- Kaon yields for 2 to 8 GeV proton beams / K. K. Gudima, N. V. Mokhov and S. I. Striganov -- Pion yield studies for proton driver beams of 2-8 GeV kinetic energy for stopped muon and low-energy muon decay experiments / S. I. Striganov -- J-Parc accelerator status and future plans / H. Kobayashi -- Simulation and verification of DPA in materials / N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov -- Performance and operational experience of the CNGS facility / E. Gschwendtner -- Particle physics enabled with super-conducting RF technology - summary of working group 1 / D. Jaffe and R. Tschirhart -- Proton beam requirements for a neutrino factory and muon collider / M. S. Zisman -- Proton bunching options / R. B. Palmer -- CW SRF H linac as a proton driver for muon colliders and neutrino factories / M. Popovic, C. M. Ankenbrandt and R. P. Johnson -- Rapid cycling synchrotron option for Project X / W. Chou -- Linac-based proton driver for a neutrino factory / R. Garoby ... [et al.] -- Pion production for neutrino factories and muon colliders / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Proton bunch compression strategies / V. Lebedev -- Accelerator test facility for muon collider and neutrino factory R&D / V. Shiltsev -- The superconducting RF linac for muon

  3. Quantitative PIXE at low proton energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Alicia

    1994-01-01

    The energy of the proton beam plays an important role in the type of analysis that is intended. The need to take into account energy loss of the particles beam inside the specimen, the energy variation of the ionisation cross section for K and L lines, secondary fluorescence, and the surface topography draws the line between thin and thick target analysis. We present here the difficulties, calibrations and calculations for the ionisation cross sections needed to quantify at proton energies below one MeV. As conclusion we show with an example the necessity of reliable standards. (author)

  4. Proton-90Zr interaction at sub-coulomb proton energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.E.; Flynn, D.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements have been made of proton elastic scattering differential cross sections for proton scattering at 135 0 and 165 0 from 2 to 7 MeV, of inelastic scattering cross sections for proton scattering from 3.9 to 5.7 MeV, and of the radiative capture cross sections from 1.9 to 5.7 MeV detecting primary and cascade gamma rays. Optical potentials with Hauser-Feshbach and coupled-channel models have been used to analyze the data. This analysis yields an energy dependent absorptive potential of W = 2.63+.73 whose mean value of 5 MeV at E/sub p/ = 4 MeV is consistent with previously reported, but anomalously small values. The diffuseness of the real potential is .54 fm, which is consistent with values found for 92 Zr and 94 Zr. The adopted model values are used to deduce a total proton strength function which displays the features of both the 3s and the 3p single particle resonances

  5. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, H. E. S.; Alme, J.; Biegun, A.; van den Brink, A.; Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D.; Meric, I.; Odland, O. H.; Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E.; Ullaland, K.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.; Röhrich, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  6. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, H.E.S., E-mail: helge.pettersen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Alme, J. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Biegun, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Brink, A. van den [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Meric, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bergen University College, Postbox 7030, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Odland, O.H. [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ullaland, K. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Wang, H. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yang, S. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, C. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Röhrich, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-07-11

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2–3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of beryllium from some transition metals produced in high energy proton irradiations of medium mass elements: measurement of (p,7Be) cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Spellerberg, S.; Qaim, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation of 7 Be formed in high energy proton irradiation of medium mass elements like Fe, Cu etc. The bulk of the target material was removed in a preseparation step. Thereafter beryllium was obtained in a high purity within a few minutes elution time using a mixture of 5 mM citric acid and 1.0 mM pyridinedicarboxylic acid as eluent and a SYKAM KO2 analytical cation-exchange column. The effect of Be-carrier on the quality of separation was investigated. The quality of separation deteriorated with the increasing Be-carrier column loading. A certain amount of Be-carrier was, however, necessary in order to quantitate the results. By using low Be-carrier amounts (∝100 μg) and determining the elution yield via a conductometric method, it was possible to obtain quantitative separation results. Besides the analytical column, a semi-preparative column was also used, and the Be separation yield determined gravimetrically. The cross sections for the (p, 7 Be) process on Cu obtained using the two separation columns (analytical and semipreparative) and the two separation yield determination methods agreed within 15%. (orig.)

  8. The quantification of wound healing as a method to assess late radiation damage in primate skin exposed to high-energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    In an experiment examining the effects of space radiations on primates, different groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were exposed to single whole-body doses of 32- or 55-MeV protons. Survivors of those exposures, together with age-matched controls, have been monitored continuously since 1964 and 1965. Late effects of nominal proton doses ranging from 2-6 Gray have been measured in vitro using skin fibroblasts from the animals. A logical extension of that study is reported here, and it involves observations of wound healing after 3-mm diameter dermal punches were removed from the ears (pinnae) of control and irradiated monkeys. Tendencies in the reduction of competence to repair cutaneous wound have been revealed by the initial examinations of animals that received doses greater than 2 Gy more than 2 decades earlier. These trends indicate that this method of assessing radiation damage to skin exposed to high-energy radiations warrants further study.

  9. Proton Radiography with CR-39 by Using the Protons from High Power Femto-second Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Il; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Byoung Hwi; Kim, Yong Kyun; Choi, Il Woo; Ko, Do Kyeong; Lee, Jong Min

    2008-01-01

    Proton radiography techniques are useful to obtain a high quality image of a thin object, because protons travel straight in matter. Generation of the high energy proton using conventional accelerator costs high and requires large accelerating facility. But proton radiography using high power femto-second(10-15 second) laser has been interested, because it can generate high energy protons at lower price than the conventional accelerator like a cyclotron. For this study, we used the CR-39 SSNTD (Solid State Nuclear Track Detector) as the proton radiography screen. Commonly, CR-39 is used to detect the tracks of energetic charged particles. Incident energetic charged particles left latent tracks in the CR-39, in the form of broken molecular chains and free radicals. These latent tracks show high chemical reactivity. After chemical etching with the caustic alkali solution such as NaOH or KOH, tracks are appeared to forms of hole. If protons with various energies enter the two targets with another thickness, number of protons passed through the target per unit area is different each other. Using this feature of protons, we can a proton radiographic image with CR-39. We studied proton radiography with CR-39 by using energetic protons from high power femto-second laser and evaluated potentiality of femto-second laser as new energetic proton generator for radiography

  10. Neutral escape at Mars induced by the precipitation of high-energy protons and hydrogen atoms of the solar wind origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shematovich, Valery I.

    2017-04-01

    One of the first surprises of the NASA MAVEN mission was the observation by the SWIA instrument of a tenuous population of protons with solar wind energies travelling anti-sunward near periapsis, at altitudes of 150-250 km (Halekas et al., 2015). While the penetration of solar wind protons to low altitude is not completely unexpected given previous Mars Express results, this population maintains exactly the same velocity as the solar wind observed. From previous studies it was known that some fraction of the solar wind can interact with the extended corona of Mars. By charge exchange with the neutral particles in this corona, some fraction of the incoming solar wind protons can gain an electron and become an energetic neutral hydrogen atom. Once neutral, these particles penetrate through the Martian induced magnetosphere with ease, with free access to the collisional atmosphere/ionosphere. The origin, kinetics and transport of the suprathermal O atoms in the transition region (from thermosphere to exosphere) of the Martian upper atmosphere due to the precipitation of the high-energy protons and hydrogen atoms are discussed. Kinetic energy distribution functions of suprathermal and superthermal (ENA) oxygen atoms formed in the Martian upper atmosphere were calculated using the kinetic Monte Carlo model (Shematovich et al., 2011, Shematovich, 2013) of the high-energy proton and hydrogen atom precipitation into the atmosphere. These functions allowed us: (a) to estimate the non-thermal escape rates of neutral oxygen from the Martian upper atmosphere, and (b) to compare with available MAVEN measurements of oxygen corona. Induced by precipitation the escape of hot oxygen atoms may become dominant under conditions of extreme solar events - solar flares and coronal mass ejections, - as it was shown by recent observations of the NASA MAVEN spacecraft (Jakosky et al., 2015). This work is supported by the RFBR project and by the Basic Research Program of the Praesidium of

  11. Transverse-momentum scaling in pi /sup +or-/, K/sup +or-/, p, p production in proton-proton inclusive reactions at very high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, R C

    1975-01-01

    Experimental measurements made on pp reactions at CERN ISR are discussed. The dependence on transverse momentum is approximately exponential for pi /sup +or-/ and K/sup +or-/ production, while for antiprotons and protons in the fragmentation region the dependence is better represented by a Gaussian form. It is shown that a generalised formalism can be set up, similar to KNO scaling, for the transverse momentum distribution of the produced particles and the production process can be either exponential or Gaussian. (11 refs).

  12. Do you want to build such a machine? : Designing a high energy proton accelerator for Argonne National Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, E.

    2004-04-05

    Argonne National Laboratory's efforts toward researching, proposing and then building a high-energy proton accelerator have been discussed in a handful of studies. In the main, these have concentrated on the intense maneuvering amongst politicians, universities, government agencies, outside corporations, and laboratory officials to obtain (or block) approval and/or funds or to establish who would have control over budgets and research programs. These ''top-down'' studies are very important but they can also serve to divorce such proceedings from the individuals actually involved in the ground-level research which physically served to create theories, designs, machines, and experiments. This can lead to a skewed picture, on the one hand, of a lack of effect that so-called scientific and technological factors exert and, on the other hand, of the apparent separation of the so-called social or political from the concrete practice of doing physics. An exception to this approach can be found in the proceedings of a conference on ''History of the ZGS'' held at Argonne at the time of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron's decommissioning in 1979. These accounts insert the individuals quite literally as they are, for the most part, personal reminiscences of those who took part in these efforts on the ground level. As such, they are invaluable raw material for historical inquiry but generally lack the rigor and perspective expected in a finished historical work. The session on ''Constructing Cold War Physics'' at the 2002 annual History of Science Society Meeting served to highlight new approaches circulating towards history of science and technology in the post-WWII period, especially in the 1950s. There is new attention towards the effects of training large numbers of scientists and engineers as well as the caution not to equate ''national security'' with military preparedness, but rather

  13. Development of a high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu; Kusano, Joichi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ito, Nobuo; Oguri, Hidetomo; Touchi, Yutaka; Mukugi, Ken; Ino, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The high-intensity proton linear accelerator with a beam power of 15 MW has been proposed for various engineering tests for the nuclear waste transmutation system as one of the research plans in the Neutron Science Research Program (NSRP) in JAERI. High intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beam generated from the proton spallation reaction will be utilized at these facilities in each research field. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the front-end part of the proton accelerator; ion source, RFQ, DTL and RF source. In the beam test, the current of 70 mA with a duty factor of 7% has been accelerated from the RFQ at the energy of 2 MeV. A hot test model of the DTL for the high power and high duty operation was fabricated and tested. For the high energy portion above 100 MeV, superconducting accelerating cavity is studied as a main option. The superconducting linac is expected to have several favourable characteristics for high intensity accelerator such as short accelerator length, large bore radius resulting in low beam losses and cost effectiveness for construction and operation. A test stand with equipment of cryogenics system, vacuum system, RF system and cavity processing and cleaning is prepared to test the physics issues and fabrication process. The proposed plan for accelerator design and construction will compose of two consecutive stages. The first stage will be completed in about 7 years with the beam power of 1.5 MW. As the second stage gradual upgrading of the beam power will be made up to 15 MW. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Antimatter production in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleymans, J.; Kabana, S.; Kraus, I.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking features of particle production at high beam energies is the near-equal abundance of matter and antimatter in the central rapidity region. In this paper we study how this symmetry is reached as the beam energy is increased. In particular, we quantify explicitly the energy dependence of the approach to matter-antimatter symmetry in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. Expectations are presented also for the production of more complex forms of antimatter such as antihypernuclei.

  15. Photoluminescence study of high energy proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bonhyeong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, June Hyuk [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Donghyeop [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahn, Byung Tae, E-mail: btahn@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byungha, E-mail: byungha@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the effect of proton irradiation on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films using photoluminescence (PL). We used a 10 MeV proton beam with varying doses from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. Intensity-dependent low temperature PL measurements suggest that the proton irradiation does not create a new defect level but instead changes the number of preexisting defects in the detection range of the PL system. By comparing PL spectra after the proton irradiation with those obtained after thermal annealing under inert gas as well as under hydrogen gas ambient, we find that the irradiation-induced change in the defect structure does not originate from the incorporation of hydrogen but from energetics of the irradiating particles. Electrical resistivity of the proton irradiated CIGS thin films is shown to decrease after the proton irradiation, and this is explained by the reduction of the concentration of compensating donor-like defects, specifically selenium vacancies, based on the PL results. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence study of 10 MeV proton irradiation on CIGS at 10 K. • Irradiation modified population of existing defects without introducing new levels. • Changes in CIGS by 10 MeV irradiation are due to energetics of irradiating protons.

  16. Induction of Cell Death through Alteration of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Epithelial Cells Exposed to High Energy Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    2012-01-01

    Radiation affects several cellular and molecular processes including double strand breakage, modifications of sugar moieties and bases. In outer space, protons are the primary radiation source which poses a range of potential health risks to astronauts. On the other hand, the use of proton radiation for tumor radiation therapy is increasing as it largely spares healthy tissues while killing tumor tissues. Although radiation related research has been conducted extensively, the molecular toxicology and cellular mechanisms affected by proton radiation remain poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we irradiated rat epithelial cells (LE) with different doses of protons and investigated their effects on cell proliferation and cell death. Our data showed an inhibition of cell proliferation in proton irradiated cells with a significant dose dependent activation and repression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase respectively as compared to control cells. In addition, apoptotic related genes such as caspase-3 and -8 activities were induced in a dose dependent manner with corresponding increased levels of DNA fragmentation in proton irradiated cells than control cells. Together, our results show that proton radiation alters oxidant and antioxidant levels in the cells to activate apoptotic pathway for cell death.

  17. Neutron transmission benchmark problems for iron and concrete shields in low, intermediate and high energy proton accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Katsumi [and others

    1996-09-01

    Benchmark problems were prepared for evaluating the calculation codes and the nuclear data for accelerator shielding design by the Accelerator Shielding Working Group of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics in JAERI. Four benchmark problems: transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43 MeV and 68 MeV protons through iron and concrete shields at TIARA of JAERI, neutron fluxes in and around an iron beam stop irradiated by 500 MeV protons at KEK, reaction rate distributions inside a thick concrete shield irradiated by 6.2 GeV protons at LBL, and neutron and hadron fluxes inside an iron beam stop irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN are compiled in this document. Calculational configurations and neutron reaction cross section data up to 500 MeV are provided. (author)

  18. Proton energy loss in multilayer graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan D.; Mery, Mario; Fierro, Bernardo; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Valdés, Jorge E.; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    Results of a study of electronic energy loss of low keV protons interacting with multilayer graphene targets are presented. Proton energy loss shows an unexpectedly high value as compared with measurements in amorphous carbon and carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, we observe a classical linear behavior of the energy loss with the ion velocity but with an apparent velocity threshold around 0.1 a.u., which is not observed in other carbon allotropes. This suggests low dimensionality effects which can be due to the extraordinary graphene properties.

  19. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS)...

  20. The First Asymmetry Measurements in High-Energy Polarized Proton-Nucleus Collision at PHENIX-RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Itaru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The single spin asymmetries in very forward neutron production had been first observed about a decade ago at RHIC in transversely polarized proton + proton collision at √s = 200 GeV. Although neutron production near zero degrees is well described by the one-pion exchange (OPE framework, the OPE appeared to be not satisfactory to describe the observed analyzing power AN. The absorptive correction to the OPE generates the asymmetry as a consequence of a phase shift between the spin flip and non-spin flip amplitudes. However the amplitude predicted by the OPE is too small to explain the large observed asymmetries. Only the model which introduces interference between major pion and small a1-Reggeon exchange amplitudes has been successful in reproducing the experimental data. During RHIC Run-15, RHIC delivered polarized proton collisions with Au and Al for the first time, enabling the exploration of the mechanism of transverse single-spin asymmetries with nuclear collisions. A very striking A-dependence was discovered in very forward neutron production at PHENIX in transversely polarized proton + nucleus collision at √s = 200 GeV. Such a dependence has not been predicted from the existing framework which has been succesful in proton + proton collision. In this report, experimental and theoretical efforts are discussed to disentangle the mysterious A-dependence in the very forward neutron asymmetry.

  1. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Stepakov, A. V.; Vasilyev, Ya. S.; Ferrari, A.

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of 450-GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the analysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsystem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron-phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6, 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90, 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic and ionic subsystems of the irradiated material and is based on the hydrodynamic approximation proposed by Zel'dovich [Ya.B. Zel'dovich and Yu.P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Nauka, Moscow, 1966; Dover, New York, 2002)]. This model makes it possible to obtain the space-time distributions of the main physical characteristics (temperatures of the ionic and electronic subsystems, density, pressure, etc.) in materials irradiated by high-energy proton beams and to analyze the formation and propagation of shock waves in them. The nonlinear differential equations describing the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum of electrons and ions in the Euler variables in the case of the propagation of shock waves has been solved with the Godunov scheme [S. K. Godunov, A.V. Zabrodin, M.Ya. Ivanov, A.N. Kraiko, and G.P. Prokopov, Numerical Solution of Multidimensional Problems in Gas Dynamics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976) [in Russian

  2. Method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams is proposed. This method utilizes the Primakoff effect and relates asymmetries at high energy to large asymmetries already measured at low energy. Such a new method is essential for the success of future experiments at energies where present methods are no longer feasible

  3. Innovative spin precessor for intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    A spin precessor has been designed to provide arbitrary orientation of the polarization in the external proton beam at LAMPF. The device utilizes two superconducting solenoids, three conventional dipoles, and conversion of polarized H - to H + to provide an achromatic, undeflected beam with tunable spin orientation over a range of energies from 400 MeV to 800 MeV. A portion of this device is being installed to provide compatibility between two facilities which simultaneously use two branches of the external proton beam at LAMPF

  4. Inelastic proton scattering at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the most essential characteristics of the nucleon-nucleon interaction for probing nuclear structure at bombarding energies between 100 and 800 MeV are considered. With a local representation of the on-shell N-N t-matrix, data for a variety of specific transitions at IUCF and LAMPF energies are discussed with an emphasis on the nuclear structure information sampled by proton scattering. The importance of incorporating constraints on nuclear structure imposed by electron scattering is stressed. Some rather unique aspects of the (p,n) reaction at intermediate energies are discussed in terms of its energy dependence and nuclear structure sum rules. 11 figures

  5. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  6. Analysis of the proton-induced reactions at 150 MeV - 24 GeV by high energy nuclear reaction code JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Nara, Yasushi; Takada, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    1999-09-01

    We are developing a nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI. NMTC/JAM implements the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the infra-nuclear cascade part. By using JAM, the upper limits of the incident energies in NMTC/JAERI, 3.5 GeV for nucleons and 2.5 GeV for mesons, are increased drastically up to several hundreds GeV. We have modified the original JAM code in order to estimate the residual nucleus and its excitation energy for nucleon or pion induced reactions by assuming a simple model for target nucleus. As a result, we have succeeded in lowering the applicable energies of JAM down to about 150 MeV. In this report, we describe the main components of JAM code, which should be implemented in NMTC/JAM, and compare the results calculated by JAM code with the experimental data and with those by LAHET2.7 code for proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. It has been found that the results of JAM can reproduce quite well the experimental double differential cross sections of neutrons and pions emitted from the proton induced reactions from 150 MeV to several 10 GeV. On the other hand, the results of LAHET2.7 show the strange behavior of the angular distribution of nucleons and pions from the reactions above 4 GeV. (author)

  7. An outline of research facilities of high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  8. Intermediate energy proton scattering from 10B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.R.; Shute, G.G.; Spicer, R.S.; Henderson, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for 200 MeV proton scattering from 10 B. Data for six low lying natural parity levels below 6 MeV excitation energy are presented. Distorted wave analysis using a density dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction has assessed model spectroscopies of these excited states. The significance of the contribution from quadrupole scattering to the elastic cross section is discussed. 49 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs

  9. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    The authors use a geometrical model of high-energy pp elastic scattering as proposed by Chou and Yong to analyse experimental data available at present and consider the predictions of the dipole pomeron model for pp elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies. Theoretical results for differential cross sections are compared with experimental data.

  10. Elastic high-energy proton scattering on 40Ca with exact expression for nucleon-nucleon amplitude and flucton correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Christov, Chr.V.; Nikolov, E.N.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross-section of the 1.04 GeV - proton elastic scattering from 40 Ca is calculated within the Glauber-Sitenko theoretical scheme using the coherent density fluctuation model (CDFM). It is shown that the use of exact noneikonal expression for the two-body scattering amplitude (which describes the p-p data) leads to a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The influence of the flucton correlations on the differential cross-sections is considerable as the use of a realistic charge density distribution leads to a better agreement with the experimental data of the CDFM which is not for the case of the independent-particle model. 20 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Proton radiography of dynamic electric and magnetic fields in laser-produced high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Manuel, M.; Casey, D.; Sinenian, N.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Landen, O. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Town, R. P. J.; Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Delettrez, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-01-01

    Time-gated, monoenergetic-proton radiography provides unique measurements of the electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields produced in laser-foil interactions and during the implosion of inertial-confinement-fusion capsules. These experiments resulted in the first observations of several new and important features: (1) observations of the generation, decay dynamics, and instabilities of megagauss B fields in laser-driven planar plastic foils, (2) the observation of radial E fields inside an imploding capsule, which are initially directed inward, reverse direction during deceleration, and are likely related to the evolution of the electron pressure gradient, and (3) the observation of many radial filaments with complex electromagnetic field striations in the expanding coronal plasmas surrounding the capsule. The physics behind and implications of such observed fields are discussed.

  12. From the Proton Synchrotron to the Large Hadron Collider: 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Directorate Office

    As a new era in particle physics approaches with the start of the LHC, a symposium to commemorate many significant events that have marked high-energy physics in the past 50 years will be held at CERN on 3-4 December 2009. The list of confirmed distinguished speakers reads like the Who’s Who of particle physics of the second half of the 20th Century, including the Nobel Laureates James Cronin, Jerome Friedman, Sheldon Glashow, David Gross, Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Leon Lederman, Burton Richter, Carlo Rubbia, Jack Steinberger, Samuel Ting, Martinus Veltman, Stephen Weinberg and Frank Wilczek. They will share with us memories of several landmark events that, over the past 50 years, have shaped our field of science. These events include the discovery of the J/ψ particle by Richter and Ting in the 1970s; the work of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg on the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interactions; the discovery of fundamental asymmetries in the K-meson sector by Cronin and Fitch...

  13. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning : a Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; Nakaji, Taku; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; Koffeman, E.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images,

  14. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-09-29

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T{sub fill} =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T{sub fill}<130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V{sub 2}, V{sub 3} and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B{sub i}O{sub i} defects, or negative contributions from three deep

  15. Energy-dependent proton damage in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donegani, Elena Maria

    2017-01-01

    Non Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL) in the sensor bulk is a limiting factor for the lifetime of silicon detectors. In this work, the proton-energy dependent bulkdamage is studied in n- and p-type silicon pad diodes. The samples are thin (200 μm thick), and oxygen enriched (bulk material types: MCz, standard or deepdiffused FZ). Irradiations are performed with 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons; the 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence assumes selected values in the range [0.1,3].10 14 cm -2 . In reverse bias, Current-Voltage (IV) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurements are performed to electrically characterise the samples; in forward bias, IV and CV measurements point out the transition from lifetime to relaxationlike semiconductor after irradiation. By means of Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurements, 13 bulk defects have been found after proton irradiation. Firstly, TSC spectra are analysed to obtain defect concentrations after defect filling at the conventional temperature T fill =10 K. Secondly, temperature dependent capture coefficients of bulk defects are explained, according to the multi-phonon process, from the analysis of TSC measurements at higher filling temperatures (T fill <130 K). Thirdly, a new method based on the SRH statistics and accounting for cluster-induced shift in activation energy is proposed; it allows to fully characterise bulk defects (in terms of activation energy, concentration and majority capture cross-section) and to distinguish between point- and cluster-like defects. A correlation is noted between the leakage current and the concentration of three deep defects (namely the V 2 , V 3 and H(220K) defects), for all the investigated bulk materials and types, and after all the considered proton energies and fluences. At least five defects are found to be responsible for the space charge, with positive contributions from the E(30K) and B i O i defects, or negative contributions from three deep acceptors H(116K), H(140K) and H(152K).

  16. Precocious scaling in antiproton-proton scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Petrascu, C.; Topor Pop, V.; Popa, V.

    1993-08-01

    The scaling of the diffraction peak in antiproton-proton scattering has been investigated from nera threshold up to 3 GeV/c laboratory momenta. It was shown that the scaling of the differential cross sections are evidentiated with a surprising accuracy not only at high energies, but also at very low ones (e.g. p LAB = 0.1 - 0.5 GeV/c), beyond the resonance and exotic resonance regions. This precocious scaling strongly suggests that the s-channel helicity conservation (SCHC) can be a peculiar property that should be tested in antiproton-proton interaction not only at high energies but also at low energy even below p LAB = 1 GeV/c. (author). 36 refs, 9 figs

  17. Bragg-case synchrotron section topography of silicon implanted with high-energy protons and α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    Back reflection section topography using white-beam synchrotron radiation has been applied for the investigation of silicon implanted with 1 and 1.6 MeV protons and 4.8 MeV α particles. The beam width was limited to 5 μm, and a series of spots in the vicinity of a centrally adjusted reflection were indexed and analysed. The back-reflection section pattern of implanted crystals usually exhibits fringes corresponding to the reflection from the surface and a series of fringes corresponding to the rear region of the shot-through layer, the destroyed layer and the bulk. The patterns were used for direct evaluation of ion ranges and thicknesses of the shot-through layer. The overall characteristics of the obtained patterns were successfully reproduced in simulations based on numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice-parameter depth-distribution profiles can be assumed to be proportional to interstitial-vacancy distributions obtained using the Monte Carlo method from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. The simulation also reproduced interference tails observed in some section patterns. It was found that these tails are caused by the ion-dose change along the beam and they were probably formed due to the interference between the radiation reflected from the bulk and those rays reflected by the rear region of the shot-through layer. (orig.)

  18. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  19. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  20. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  1. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  2. A Monte Carlo track structure code for low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, S; Nikjoo, H; Uehara, S; Hoshi, M; Ishikawa, M; Shizuma, K

    2002-01-01

    A code is described for simulation of protons (100 eV to 10 MeV) track structure in water vapor. The code simulates molecular interaction by interaction for the transport of primary ions and secondary electrons in the form of ionizations and excitations. When a low velocity ion collides with the atoms or molecules of a target, the ion may also capture or lose electrons. The probabilities for these processes are described by the quantity cross-section. Although proton track simulation at energies above Bragg peak (>0.3 MeV) has been achieved to a high degree of precision, simulations at energies near or below the Bragg peak have only been attempted recently because of the lack of relevant cross-section data. As the hydrogen atom has a different ionization cross-section from that of a proton, charge exchange processes need to be considered in order to calculate stopping power for low energy protons. In this paper, we have used state-of-the-art Monte Carlo track simulation techniques, in conjunction with the pub...

  3. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  4. High Intensity Beam Issues in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Aumon, Sandra; Rivkin, Leonid

    This PhD work is about limitations of high intensity proton beams observed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) and, in particular, about issues at injection and transition energies. With its 53 years, the CERN PS would have to operate beyond the limit of its performance to match the future requirements. Beam instabilities driven by transverse impedance and aperture restrictions are important issues for the operation and for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade which foresees an intensity increase delivered by the injectors. The main subject of the thesis concerns the study of a fast transverse instability occurring at transition energy. The proton beams crossing this energy range are particularly sensitive to wake forces because of the slow synchrotron motion. This instability can cause a strong vertical emittance blow-up and severe losses in less than a synchrotron period. Experimental observations show that the particles at the peak density of the beam longitudinal distribution oscillate in the vertical plane du...

  5. The energy cost of kidney proton dialysis in sickle cell anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... kidney as most of the energy for proton dialysis is wasted as a result of high entropy. Key words: Sickle cell, anaemia, energy, kidney, dialysis, proton, and enthalpy. INTRODUCTION. Evidence exists that for those with sickle cell syndromes. “kidney damage starts very early and progresses throu- ghout life” ...

  6. Proton Radiography to Improve Proton Radiotherapy : Simulation Study at Different Proton Beam Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Beuzekom, Martin; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a

  7. Measurement of activation reaction rate distribution on a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator for high energy proton bombardment using AGS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Meigo, Shin-ichiro

    2001-02-01

    Characteristic of spallation neutrons driven by GeV protons from a mercury target with a lead-reflector and light-water-moderator was studied experimentally using the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory in a framework of the ASTE (AGS Spallation Target Experiment) collaboration. Several reaction rates along with the mercury target were measured with the activation method at incident proton energies of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV. Indium, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, nickel and bismuth were used as activation detectors to cover the threshold energy of between 0.33 and 40.9 MeV. This report summarizes the experimental procedure with all the measured data. (author)

  8. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Rapides et des Protons de Haute Energie; Biologicheskoe dejstvie bystrykh nejtronov i protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I.; Petrovich, I. K.; Strel' cova, V. N.

    1964-03-15

    The paper gives the results of comparative experiments on the effects of fast neutrons and high-energy protons (500 MeV) on life expectancy, peripheral blood, incidence and rate of appearance of tumours in the rat as a function of administered dose and time of observation. The neutron experiment was performed on 573 and the proton experiment on 490 white rats. The animals irradiated with fast neutrons were given doses between 8.5 and 510 rad, and those irradiated with protons received doses between 28 and 1008 rad. The effective doses for the acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of sickness were established for fast neutrons and for protons. LD{sub 50/30} for neutrons was 408 and for protons 600 rad, and the corresponding LD{sub 50}/{sub 120} values were 380 and 600 rad. The conditions governing rat mortality were analysed both in the early and the later stages of the experiment. It is shown that the average life expectancy of rats irradiated with fast neutrons does not depend on sex. The shape of the dose-effect curve for the various peripheral-blood indexes is strongly dependent not only on the radiosensitivity of the blood cells in question but also on the time of observation. It may change greatly in time for one and the same index. A considerable time after irradiation with either fast neutrons or protons, benign and malignant tumours appear in different tissues of the rats, including the haemopoeitic tissues, mammary glands, pituitary, uterus, ovaries, prostate gland, testicles, liver, kidneys, lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, urinary bladder, etc. The over-all incidence of tumours and the number of cases of multi centred neoplasms in females are two to three times higher than in males. The minimum tumour dose for the mammary glands with neutron irradiation is apparently rather less than 42.5 rad. The maximum incidence of tumours of the pituitary is found after irradiation with a dose of 42.5 rad.- At this same dose leucosis and

  9. High intensity proton linac activities at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Chan, K.C.; Campbell, B.

    1998-01-01

    High-current proton linear accelerators offer an attractive alternative for generating the intense neutron fluxes needed for transmutations technologies, tritium production and neutron science. To achieve the fluxes required for tritium production, a 100-mA, 1700-MeV cw proton accelerator is being designed that uses superconducting cavities for the high-energy portion of the linac, from 211 to 1,700 MeV. The development work supporting the linac design effort is focused on three areas: superconducting cavity performance for medium-beta cavities at 700 MHz, high power rf coupler development, and cryomodule design. An overview of the progress in these three areas is presented

  10. Study of nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and intermediate- and high-energy protons and an application in nuclear reactor physics (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuoka, Paula Fernanda Toledo

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, intermediate- and high-energy nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and protons were studied with the Monte Carlo CRISP (Rio - Ilheus - Sao Paulo Collaboration) model. The most relevant nuclear processes studied were intranuclear cascade and fission-evaporation competition. Preliminary studies showed fair agreement between CRISP model calculation and experimental data of multiplicity of evaporated neutrons (E 20 MeV) were emitted mostly in the intranuclear cascade stage, while evaporation presented larger neutron multiplicity. Fission cross section of 209 mb and spallation cross section of 1788 mb were calculated { both in agreement with experimental data. The fission process resulted in a symmetric mass distribution. Another Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used for radiation transport in order to understand the role of a spallation neutron source in a ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor. Initially, a PWR reactor was simulated to study the isotopic compositions in spent nuclear fuel. As a rst attempt, a spallation neutron source was adapted to an industrial size nuclear reactor. The results showed no evidence of incineration of transuranic elements and modifications were suggested. (author)

  11. Fast protection circuit for 1 MW Klystron based RF system of Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrotriya, Sandip; Shiju, A.; Patel, N.R.; Pande, Manjiri; Singh, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the details of a hardwired protection circuit designed and developed for 1 MW Klystron based Radio Frequency (RF) System. The hardwired protection circuit protects the klystron from fault conditions occurring in high power DC supplies, other bias supplies and inside the klystron itself. Fast response of the order of 1-2 microseconds is necessary in case of critical signals for the protection of such a high power system. The system needs to handle around 10 critical signals comprising of optical signals and different digital signals. In case of malfunction in the existing controller based interlock and protection system, klystron will be protected by this hardwired protection circuit. The hardwired circuit will provide redundant protection and protect the klystron from damage. This circuit and controller based protection system are operating in parallel. This paper describes details of a purely hardwired protection circuit developed for critical signals for achieving reliability and faster response time requirements of the RF system. (author)

  12. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Los Alamos high-power proton linac designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Medium-energy high-power proton linear accelerators have been studied at Los Alamos as drivers for spallation neutron applications requiring large amounts of beam power. Reference designs for such accelerators are discussed, important design factors are reviewed, and issues and concern specific to this unprecedented power regime are discussed.

  14. Potential Remedies for the High Synchrotron-Radiation-Induced Heat Load for Future Highest-Energy-Proton Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084568; Baglin, Vincent; Schaefers, Franz

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new method for handling the high synchrotron radiation (SR) induced heat load of future circular hadron colliders (like FCC-hh). FCC-hh are dominated by the production of SR, which causes a significant heat load on the accelerator walls. Removal of such a heat load in the cold part of the machine, as done in the Large Hadron Collider, will require more than 100 MW of electrical power and a major cooling system. We studied a totally different approach, identifying an accelerator beam screen whose illuminated surface is able to forward reflect most of the photons impinging onto it. Such a reflecting beam screen will transport a significant part of this heat load outside the cold dipoles. Then, in room temperature sections, it could be more efficiently dissipated. Here we will analyze the proposed solution and address its full compatibility with all other aspects an accelerator beam screen must fulfill to keep under control beam instabilities as caused by electron cloud formation, impedance, dynamic...

  15. Quarkonium production in high energyproton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Valle, Z C; Corcella, G; Fleuret, F; Ferreiro, E G; Kartvelishvili, V; Kopeliovich, B; Lansberg, J P; Lourenco, C; Martinez, G; Papadimitriou, V; Satz, H; Scomparin, E; Ullrich, T; Teryaev, O; Vogt, R; Wang, J X

    2011-03-14

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarization studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  16. Spin observables in proton-neutron scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.

    1986-05-01

    A summary of np elastic scattering spin measurements at intermediate energy is given. Preliminary results from a LAMPF experiment to measure free neutron-proton elastic scattering spin-spin correlation parameters are presented. A longitudinally polarized proton target was used. These measurements are part of a program to determine the neutron-proton amplitudes in a model independent fashion at 500, 650, and 800 MeV. Some new proton-proton total cross sections in pure helicity states (Δσ/sub L/(pp)) near 3 GeV/c are also given. 37 refs., 2 figs

  17. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  18. High current proton linear accelerators and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnicliffe, P.R.; Chidley, B.G.; Fraser, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible role that high-current proton linear accelerators might play as ''electrical breeders'' in the forthcoming nuclear-power economy. A high-power beam of intermediate energy protons delivered to an actinide-element target surrounded by a blanket of fertile material may produce fissile material at a competitive cost. Criteria for technical performance and, in a Canadian context, for costs are given and the major problem areas outlined not only for the accelerator and its associated rf power source but also for the target assembly. (author)

  19. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Vasilyev, Ya S; Ferrari, A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of 450GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the anal ysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsy stem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron–phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4 , 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6 , 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90 , 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic an...

  20. Source of proton anisotrophy in the high-speed solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gary, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Two factors which can contribute to proton anisotropy in the high-speed solar wind are investigated. We present evidence that observed proton Tperpendicular< Tparallel anisotropies are maintained locally by plasma instabilities driven by proton and helium beams. The transfer of beam energy to T/sub perpendicular/ by means of these instabilities is shown to be sufficient to account for the aforementioned proton temperature anisotropy

  1. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  2. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  3. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author)

  4. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  5. LASL high-current proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.; Hudgings, D.W.; Spalek, G.; Jason, A.J.; Higgins, E.F.; Gillis, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Proton Storage Ring at LAMPF is a high-current accumulator designed to convert long 800-MeV linac pulses into very short high-intensity proton bunches ideally suited to driving a pulsed polyenergetic neutron source. The Ring, authorized for construction at $19 million, will operate in a short-bunch high-frequency mode for fast neutron physics and a long-bunch low-frequency mode for thermal neutron-scattering programs. Unique features of the project include charge-changing injection with initial conversion from H - to H 0 , a high repetition rate fast-risetime extraction kicker, and high-frequency and first-harmonic bunching system

  6. Research of high energy radioactivity identification detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Lee, Yong Bum; Hwang, Jong Sun; Choi, Seok Ki

    1998-07-01

    {Delta} {Epsilon}-{Epsilon} telescope high radioactivity detector was designed, fabricated, and tested at the 35 MeV proton energy. We developed the computer code to calculate the energy loss of projectile ions in the matter. Using the code, we designed and fabricated a detector to measure 15-50 MeV protons. The detector was successfully tested to measure the energy of protons and deuterons and to identify the ions. In future, we would like to extend the present result to the development of a higher energy proton detector and a heavy ion detector. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs

  7. High-resolution measurements of sup(58,60,62)Ni(p,p) scattering cross section in the proton energy range of 3.0 to 4.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eiichi; Ogawa, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections were measured at four angles for proton scattering on sup(58,60,62)Ni at energies from 3.0 to 4.0 MeV by using a high-resolution beam from the Tokyo Institute of Technology 4 MV Van de Graaff. An overall resolution of 400 eV (FWHM) was realized using thin solid targets. (author)

  8. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  9. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: tengjian@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-11-21

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  10. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  11. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y.Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zhou, W.M.; Cao, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  12. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhoretto, Edney; Schelin, Hugo R.; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  13. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, Edney [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.br; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O. [Polytechnic Institute/UERJ, Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, N. Friburgo, RJ, Brazil 28630-050 (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instr. Lab./COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, Rua Helio de Almeida 75, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  14. Parity nonconservation in proton scattering at higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    A parity-nonconservation experiment in the scattering of longitudinally-polarized protons at an incident proton momentum of 6 GeV/c is examined. This experiment indicates a sharp rise with energy of the total cross section correlated with proton helicity that was unexpected. This energy dependence is due to the strong part of the interaction and may indicate the role of a diquark component in the nucleon. New experiments at higher energies are needed to confirm such a model. Future experiment can benefit from an analysis of sources of systematic error that have been encountered in the experiment discussed here

  15. Parity nonconservation in proton scattering at higher energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischke, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Parity-nonconservation experiments in the scattering of longitudinally-polarized protons at incident proton momenta of 1.5 GeV/c and 6 GeV/c are examined. These experiments indicate a change with energy of the total cross section correlated with proton helicity that was unexpected. This energy dependence is due to the strong part of the interaction and may indicate the role of a diquark component in the nucleon. New experiments at higher energies are needed to confirm such a model. Future experiments can benefit from an analysis of sources of systematic error that have been encountered in the experiments discussed here. 43 refs., 3 figs

  16. Proton radioactivity at non-collective prolate shape in high spin state of 94Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Mamta

    2010-01-01

    We predict proton radioactivity and structural transitions in high spin state of an excited exotic nucleus near proton drip line in a theoretical framework and investigate the nature and the consequences of the structural transitions on separation energy as a function of temperature and spin. It reveals that the rotation of the excited exotic nucleus 94 Ag at excitation energies around 6.7 MeV and angular momentum near 21h generates a rarely seen prolate non-collective shape and proton separation energy becomes negative which indicates proton radioactivity in agreement with the experimental results of Mukha et al. for 94 Ag.

  17. Proton radioactivity at non-collective prolate shape in high spin state of {sup 94}Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Mamta, E-mail: mamta.a4@gmail.co [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Mumbai 400 098 (India)

    2010-10-11

    We predict proton radioactivity and structural transitions in high spin state of an excited exotic nucleus near proton drip line in a theoretical framework and investigate the nature and the consequences of the structural transitions on separation energy as a function of temperature and spin. It reveals that the rotation of the excited exotic nucleus {sup 94}Ag at excitation energies around 6.7 MeV and angular momentum near 21h generates a rarely seen prolate non-collective shape and proton separation energy becomes negative which indicates proton radioactivity in agreement with the experimental results of Mukha et al. for {sup 94}Ag.

  18. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  19. A detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from β-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the β-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to ∼80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  20. Establishment and Study of Dose Fields for the Irradiation of Experimental Animals with High-Energy Protons; Creation et Etude de Champs de Rayonnements pour l'Irradiation d'Animaux de Grande Taille par des Protons de Haute Energie; Sozdanie i issledovanie doznykh polej dlya oblucheniya ehksperimental'nykh zhivotnykh protonami bol'shoj ehnergii; Produccion y Estudio de Campos Radia Torios para la Exposicion de Animales de Laboratorio a Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V. P.; Keirim-Markus, I. B.; Kuznecova, S. S.; Litvinova, Je. G.; Sokolova, I. K.; Stukina, L. E.

    1964-03-15

    Present-day accelerators make it possible to obtain beams of protons which have adequate intensity but are not suitable for the general irradiation of large experimental animals. Using the synchrotron of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research it has been shown that with the aid of absorbers it is possible to expand a proton beam to the dimensions required, without introducing the accompanying radiations. Dose fields, uniform within {+-} 10%, in which primary protons constitute between 99 and 88% of the tissue dose, were obtained for irradiation of dogs with protons of energy 510, 250 and 120 MeV. The tissue doses and the radiation composition were studied in a dog phantom. Irradiation conditions for ensuring uniform radiation of the dog's body are proposed. Various questions of high-energy proton dosimetry are discussed, and the use of different types of dosimeter are considered in this connection. The paper also describes a method of determining the contribution of cascade neutrons to the proton flux, using activation detectors. (author) [French] Les accelerateurs actuels permettent d'obtenir des faisceaux de protons d'une intensite suffisante mais impropres a l'irradiation generale de grands animaux d'experience. A l'aide du synchrocyclotron OIAI, on a montre que le recours aux absorbants permet d'elargir le faisceau de protons jusqu'aux dimensions voulues sans y introduire de rayonnements secondaires. Pour irradier des chiens par des protons de 510, 250 et 120 MeV, on a pu ainsi realiser des champs de rayonnements uniformes a {+-}10% pres, dans lesquels les protons primaires constituaient 99 a 88% de la dose tissulaire. Les auteurs ont etudie des doses tissulaires et la composition du rayonnement a l'interieur d'un fantome de chien. Ils indiquent dans quelles conditions on assure une irradiation uniforme du corps de l'animal. Les auteurs examinent plusieurs questions relatives a la dosimetrie des neutrons de grande energie. Ils justifient l'emploide divers

  1. Isotopic distribution of Rb, In and Cs, produced in interactions of high energy protons, deuterons and alpha particles with Ta nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Korovin, G.Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Nad', T.; Petrov, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to clarify how the isotopical distribution form of deep fissaon products depends on the type of the bombarding particles. Isotopical distributions of Rb, In, Cs, produced at interactions of protons, deuterons ( 8 GeV) and α particles (15.2 GeV) with Ta nuclei are measured by means of the ''off-line'' mass separation. The isotopical distributions are obtained by the experimentally measured yields directly without complex procedure of processing necessary for transition to the charge distribution. It was found that neither the position of the maximum, nor the shape of the curve are changed essentially at variation of the projectile. In all the cases the relative behaviour of the distribution is in a qualitative agreement with the calculations based upon the semiempirical formula by Rudstam. For indium the mesurements are performed also with the proton beam of energy 0.66 GeV. In this case the shape of the isotopic distribution is influenced by the fission process [ru

  2. Two-proton energy spectra of 12O nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The two-proton radioactivity has attracted stimulating discussion concerning the competing mechanisms for the decay process. Some nuclei (like 45 Fe, 41 Ni and 54 Zn are considered as genuine ground-state two-proton emitter because the only possibility is the simultaneous channel, but others nuclei (as 12 O) can also have the sequential decay, in this case, the energy levels of the intermediary one-proton emitter nuclei plays an important role to the competition with the simultaneous decay mode. In this work we have calculated the energy spectra of 12 O, including ground state and excited states up to 5 MeV of energy, and the two-proton energy difference spectrum for the ground state decay. Our preliminary results estimates the energy peak and width of resonant excited states and contributions of simultaneous and sequential channels for ground state decay. The calculation method is based on the statistical analysis for two-proton decaying modes presented in previous work. For events generated by sequential channels, the energy levels of intermediary 11 N nucleus can dominate the first proton emission, depending on the proximity between the ground states of both nuclei, 11 N and 12 O , in particular, if the ground state of 11 N is broad and its energy is far away from that of 12 O, the sequential decay occurs via the tail of the ground state of 11 O. The decay of 12 O resonant ground state and higher energy excited resonances are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton emission process. The two proton decay spectra have been considered in a statistical calculation framework, by using the decay energy distribution and taken into account the intermediate states of 11 N resonant structures for the sequential channels. For simultaneous decay channel we construct a symmetric distribution similarly to Goldansky's proposition in Nucl. Phys. A19, 482 (1960). (author)

  3. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  4. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  5. Improved forced impulse method calculations of single and double ionization of helium by collision with high-energy protons and antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, A.L.; Reading, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our previous forced impulse method calculations of single and double ionization of helium by protons and antiprotons have been improved by including d orbitals in the target centre basis. The calculations are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the ratio R of double to single ionization, without the 1.35 scaling factor we applied to our previous results. We also compare the separate single and double ionization cross sections to experiment and find good agreement. Experimental cross sections differential in projectile scattering angle at large angle (greater than 2.5 mrad) are compared to our impact parameter dependent ionization probabilities at small impact parameter, for the double to single ratio. The agreement is good, except at the lowest energy we have considered, 0.3 eV. (Author)

  6. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  7. The joint project for high-intensity proton accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) agreed to promote the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This document describes the joint proposal prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  8. JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK) are promoting the joint project integrating both the Neutron Science Project (NSP) of JAERI and the Japan Hadron Facility Project (JHF) of KEK for comprehensive studies on basic science and technology using high-intensity proton accelerator. This paper describes the joint project prepared by the Joint Project Team of JAERI and KEK to construct accelerators and research facilities necessary both for the NSP and the JHF at the site of JAERI Tokai Establishment. (author)

  9. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  10. Proton channeling in Au at low energies; Canalizacion de protones en Au a bajas energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, J E; Vargas, P [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    The electronic energy loss for low velocity protons channeled in the <100> direction single crystal Au is calculated. The spatial distribution of valence electronic density in Au is calculated using Tight Binding Linear Muffin Tin Method. The proton trajectories are determined by numerical integration of the classical motion equation, and the energy loss is evaluated using the calculated valence electronic density in the friction term. The results allow to describe qualitatively the non linear behavior of energy loss with ion velocity observed experimentally. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Free neutron-proton analyzing power at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    In recent years, increasing efforts have been made to measure the nucleon-nucleon polarization parameters. To date, no free neutron-proton spin correlated parameters have been published in the energy range 500 to 800 MeV. Existing analyzing power data is of low precision and in most cases was obtained by quasi-free proton scattering. As a first step in determining the neutron-proton scattering matrix, the free neutron-proton analyzing power has been measured at the Los Alamos Physics Facility as a function of energy and angle. The experiment was performed by scattering a neutron beam from a polarized proton target. The neutron beam was generated by scattering 800 MeV protons from a Beryllium target and using the neutrons produced at 0 degrees. The incident energy ranged from 300 MeV to 800 MeV. The energy spread of the neutron beam made it possible to measure the analyzing power at different energies simultaneously. Angular distributions were taken from 60 to 170 degrees in the center of mass system (c.m.)

  12. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  13. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We report here on the considerable progress that we made for the year beginning November 1, 1989, for DOE Contract No. AS05-76ERO5096. One of our Fermilab experiments, E704 -- polarization studies with 200 GeV protons, was run from February through August of this year. This experiment has been in the planning, construction, and commissioning stages for over ten years. In this report we detail just what measurements we managed to complete during the run. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 -- photoproduction of jets, has had parasitic test beam during most of the same period. There was also a one week engineering test run in June. The schedule calls for a three month data run beginning in January, 1991. We also had three test runs for our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) -- spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. We are in the midst of major apparatus construction for this experiment. More of our plans for the future are included in the accompanying Renewal Proposal. As in recent years, the format we follow in both the Progress Report and the Renewal Proposal is to have a brief writeup on each individual experiment and to include in the appendices copies of published papers which provide much greater detail. For manuscripts that have been submitted for publication and experimental proposals, we provide only the cover and abstract page. The aim is to concentrate on the physics goals, results and their significance in the main body of the report. For our two Fermilab experiments and the SMC experiment, exhaustive reports of the physics goals have been provided in previous years and are not repeated here

  14. Dose energy dependence in proton imaging with thin detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denyak, V.V., E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [National Science Centre Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, St. Akademicheskaya 1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim 1632, Curitiba 80250-200 (Brazil); Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil); Silva, R.C.L.; Kozuki, C.; Paschuk, S.A.; Milhoretto, E. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Since the earliest works proposing the use of protons for imaging, the main advantage of protons over X-rays was expected to be a result of the specific property of the proton flux dropping off very steeply at the end of the particle range. This idea was declared but was not checked. In the present work, this assumption was investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation for the case of registration of protons with a thin detector. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Principal idea of proton imaging 'to work at the end of the range' was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The case of thin detector was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dose energy dependence was calculated using computer simulation.

  15. Dosimetry of High-Energy Protons by Measurement of Beryllium-7 Formed in the Tissues; Dosimetrie des Protons de Haute Energie par Mesure de Beryllium-7 Forme dans les Tissus; 041e 0422 041d 041e 0421 0414 ; Dosimetria Relativa Mediante Berillo-7 Despues de Irradiar con Protones de Altas Energias (600 Mev Y 3 Gev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G. [Service Biologique et Veterinaire des Armees, Detache au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Court, L.; Prat, L [Service de Sante des Armees, Detaches au D.P.S. (France); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jeanmaire, L.; Daburon, M. L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (France); Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Centre d' Etudes [France; De Kerviler, H.; Tardy-Joubert, P. [Service de Protection Contre les Radiations, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-06-15

    In the course of biological experiments at the CERN cyclotron at Geneva (using 600 MeV protons) and the Saturne synchrotron at the Saclay Nuclear Studies Centre, the radioactivity induced in living beings was investigated by gamma-spectrography. Whereas most of the induced radioisotopes (gamma emitters) are short-lived, the beryllium-7 produced by spallation reactions on, in particular, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen atoms, has an activity peak which stands out abruptly from the spectrum as a whole at the 479-keV level. As its half-life is 54. 5 d, it can be recorded for a sufficiently long time. An experiment carried out with Whitsar rats given whole-body exposures of between 400 and 800 rad with 600-MeV protons and of 200 to 1000 rad with 3-GeV protons, disclosed a linear response of the Be{sup 7} activity in relation to the dose absorbed per gram of tissue. The authors compare their experimental results with the activities calculated in terms of energy on the basis of published cross-sections. The accidental exposure of human beings to proton beams can only be local. Exposure of the heads of Fauve de Bourgogne rabbits weighing approximately 2 kg show that the activity measured on the head, in relation to the rest of the body, is of the order of 1.8 {+-} 5. Be{sup 7} can be detected during the first days in spite of some diffusion. Relative dosimetry, indicating the scale of the accidental exposure received, is therefore possible. (author) [French] Dans le cadre d'experimentations biologiques conduites au synchrocyclotron du CERN a Geneve avec des protons de 600 MeV et au synchrotron Saturne du Centre d*etudes nucleaires de Saclay, une exploration de la radioactivite induite chez des etres vivants a ete faite par spectrographie gamma. Si la plupart des radioelements, emetteurs gamma, induits presentent une periode tres courte, le beryllium-7 resultant de reactions de spoliation sur les atomes d'oxygene, de carbone et d'azote notamment, donne un pic d'activite qui se

  16. An apparatus to measure stopping powers for low-energy antiprotons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, H H; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, U

    2002-01-01

    One of the experiments to be performed under the ASACUSA collaboration at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator is a measurement of the energy loss of low energy antiprotons in thin foils. An electrostatic spectrometer has been developed for this task. We describe the design and initial tests of the apparatus with protons. By changing a high-voltage applied on the target the energy of the projectile ions at impact on the target can easily be varied. In this way we have measured the stopping-power and the energy-loss straggling for protons over a wide energy range to below one keV.

  17. Signature for g bosons from medium energy proton scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.

    1993-01-01

    We apply the recently developed algebraic (1/N expansion) scattering formalism to medium energy proton scattering from 154 Sm and 176 Yb. The nuclear structure effects in this formalism are described by the interacting boson model generalized to arbitrary interactions and types of bosons i.e. s,d,g, etc. We find that, in the sd boson model, a consistent description of cross sections is possible only for the 0 + and 2 + states. The failure of the model with regard to the 4 + states indicates that the effective hexadecapole operator used in the sd model is inadequate. In contrast, the data for scattering to the 0 + , 2 + and 4 + states could be consistently described in the sdg boson model. The spectroscopic data for the low-lying levels usually can not distinguish between the sd and sdg models due to renormalization of parameters, and one has to look at high spin or energy data for evidence of g bosons. The inelastic proton scattering experiments, on the other hand, directly probe the wave functions, and hence could provide a signature for g bosons even in the ground band states

  18. Target experiments with high-power proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumung, K; Bluhm, H; Hoppe, P; Rusch, D; Singer, J; Stoltz, O [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Kanel, G I; Razorenov, S V; Utkin, A V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemical Physics

    1997-12-31

    At the Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility KALE a pulsed high-power proton beam (50 ns, 0.15 TW/cm{sup 2}, 8 mm fwhm focus diameter, 1.7 MeV peak proton energy) is used to generate short, intense pressure pulses or to ablatively accelerate targets 10-100 {mu}m thick to velocities > 10 km/s. The velocity history of the rear target surface is recorded by line-imaging laser Doppler velocimetry with high spatial ({>=} 10 {mu}m) and temporal ({>=} 200 ps) resolution, and provides information on proton beam parameters, and on the state of the matter at high energy densities and intense loading. Utilizing the bell-shaped power density profile the authors demonstrated a new straightforward method for measuring the shock pressure that leads to material melting in the rarefaction wave. For the first time, the dynamic tensile strength was measured across a crystal grain boundary, and using targets with a 1D periodic structure, the growth rate of a Rayleigh Taylor instability could be measured for the first time in direct drive experiments with an ion beam. (author). 8 figs., 15 refs.

  19. High intensity proton operation at the Brookhaven AGS accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Bleser, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Onillon, E.; Reece, R.K.; Roser, T.; Soukas, A.

    1994-01-01

    With the completion of the AGS rf upgrade, and the implementation of a transition open-quotes jumpclose quotes, all of accelerator systems were in place in 1994 to allow acceleration of the proton intensity available from the AGS Booster injector to AGS extraction energy and delivery to the high energy users. Beam commissioning results with these new systems are presented. Progress in identifying and overcoming other obstacles to higher intensity are given. These include a careful exploration of the stopband strengths present on the AGS injection magnetic porch, and implementation of the AGS single bunch transverse dampers throughout the acceleration cycle

  20. Properties of the proton therapy. A high precision radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The proton therapy is a radiotherapy using protons beams. The protons present interesting characteristics but they need heavy technologies to be used, such particles accelerators, radiation protection wall and sophisticated technologies to reach the high precision allowed by their ballistic qualities (planning of treatment, beam conformation and patient positioning). (N.C.)

  1. Measurements of low energy observables in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Myska, Miroslav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Low energy phenomena have been studied in detail at the LHC, providing important input for improving models of non-perturbative QCD effects. The ATLAS collaboration has performed several new measurements in this sector: We present charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event, measured by the ATLAS detector in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The results are corrected for detector effects and compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo generators. ATLAS has also studied the correlated hadron production. In particular, an analysis of the momentum difference between charged hadrons in high–energy proton–proton collisions is performed and the results are compared to the predictions of a helical QCD string fragmentation model. New results in forward physics are expected to be available soon. We close this presentation with the measurement of the exclusive "\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}" production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass ...

  2. Measurement and Simulation of the Variation in Proton-Induced Energy Deposition in Large Silicon Diode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christina L.; Weller, Robert A.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian D.; Marshall, Paul W.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    The proton induced charge deposition in a well characterized silicon P-i-N focal plane array is analyzed with Monte Carlo based simulations. These simulations include all physical processes, together with pile up, to accurately describe the experimental data. Simulation results reveal important high energy events not easily detected through experiment due to low statistics. The effects of each physical mechanism on the device response is shown for a single proton energy as well as a full proton space flux.

  3. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  4. Status of spallation neutron source program in High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Organization are jointly designing a 1 MW spallation neutron source as one of the research facilities planned in the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Project. The spallation neutron source is driven by 3 GeV proton beam with a mercury target and liquid hydrogen moderators. The present status of design for these spallation source and relevant facility is overviewed. (author)

  5. Determination on Mice and other Organisms of the RBE of High-Energy Protons and Electrons; Efficacite Biologique Relative sur la Souris et d'Autres Organismes des Protons et des Electrons De Haute Energie; Opredelenie obeh pri obluchenii myshej i drugikh organizmov protonami i ehlektronami vysokikh ehnergij; Determinacion de la Eficacia Biologica Relativa de los Protones y de los Electrones de Elevada Emergia en el Raton y en Otros Organismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet-Maury, P.; Baarli, J.; Kahn, T.; Dardenne, G.; Frilley, M.; Deysine, A. [Institut du Radium, Paris (France)

    1964-03-15

    The general effects of 157- and 592-MeV protons and 150- and 950-MeV electrons were observed on mice exposed to lethal doses of whole-body irradiation. The irradiated animals displayed the same general symptoms as those produced by X - or gamma-rays. The biological tests did not bring to light any particular phenomenon which can be considered as characteristic of these high-energy particles. As determined in four tests (LD{sub 50}, average expectation of life and diminution of thymus and testicles), the RBE is close to 1. This corresponds to the mean LET of the particles and, in the case of the protons, does not appear to be increased by the higher local LET of the spallation fragments. (author) [French] Les effets generaux des protons de 157 et 592 MeV et des electrons de 150 et 950 MeV oiit ete observes sur des souris irradiees in toto, a des doses letales. Les animaux irradies presentent les memes symptomes generaux que ceux produits par les rayonnements de reference X ou {gamma}. Aucun phenomene caracteristique de ces particules de haute energie n'a pu etre mis en evidence avec les tests biologiques choisis. Lfefficacite biologique relative determinee sur 4 tests (DL{sub 50}, survie moyenne, reduction du thymus et des testicules) est peu differente de 1; cette EBR correspond au TEL moyen des particules et, pour les protons, ne parait pas augmentee par le TEL local plus eleve des etoiles de spallation. (author) [Spanish] Se han observado los efectos generales de los protones de 157 y 592 MeV y de los electrones de 150 y 950 MeV sobre ratones expuestos in toto, a dosis letales de radiaciones. Los animales irradiados presentan los mismos sintomas generales que los producidos por los rayos X o los rayos gamma adoptados como radiaciones de referencia. Los ensayos biologicos llevados a cabo no han puesto de manifiesto ningun fenomeno caracteristico de la accion de estas particulas de elevada energia. La eficacia biologica relativa determinada en cuatro ensayo (DL

  6. Hydrogen Energy by Means of Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    If we dare to take serious what we know today about climate issues the challenges to our energy systems are immense. If we really chose - also in practice - to phase out the fossil fuels major changes to the way we handle energy are required. The renewable energy resources are by far sufficient, ...

  7. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  8. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Universita di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano and INFN Sezione di Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-21

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a= 30 over 10{sup 8} protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least10{sup 7} protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  9. The spectrum of protons produced in pp collisions at 31 GeV total energy

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Data are reported on the distributions in longitudinal and transverse momentum of protons produced in the range 0.5proton-proton collisions at 31 GeV c.m. energy at the CERN ISR. The invariant inelastic cross section shows a peak at high longitudinal momenta. The shape of this peak suggests substantial production of states with masses up to at least 7 GeV. (4 refs).

  10. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J I [Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F J [Dept. Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

    1994-05-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: (i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and (ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Energy loss in grazing proton-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The energy loss of fast protons, with energy E > 100 keV, specularly reflected on a solid surface with glancing angle of incidence of the order of a mrad is analysed on theoretical grounds. Two different contributions can be distinguished: i) energy losses originating from the interaction with the valence band, accounted for through an induced force, and ii) the excitation of electron bound states of the target atoms. The results are compared with available experimental data. (orig.)

  12. High gradient linac for proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benedetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed for the first time almost 30 years ago, the research on radio frequency linacs for hadron therapy experienced a sparkling interest in the past decade. The different projects found a common ground on a relatively high rf operating frequency of 3 GHz, taking advantage of the availability of affordable and reliable commercial klystrons at this frequency. This article presents for the first time the design of a proton therapy linac, called TULIP all-linac, from the source up to 230 MeV. In the first part, we will review the rationale of linacs for hadron therapy. We then divided this paper in two main sections: first, we will discuss the rf design of the different accelerating structures that compose TULIP; second, we will present the beam dynamics design of the different linac sections.

  13. High intensity proton accelerator controls network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Lendzian, F.; Lutz, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High Intensity Proton Accelerator (HIPA) control system network is spread through a vast area in PSI and it was grown historically in an unorganized way. The miscellaneous network hardware infrastructure and the lack of the documentation and components overview could no longer guarantee the reliability of the control system and the facility operation. Therefore, a new network, based on modern network topology, PSI standard hardware with monitoring and detailed documentation and overview was needed. The number of active components has been reduced from 25 to 9 Cisco Catalyst 24- or 48-port switches. They are the same type as other PSI switches, thus a replacement emergency stock is not an issue anymore. We would like to present how we successfully achieved this goal and the advantages of the clean and well documented network infrastructure. (authors)

  14. Selection and acquisition of data for the measurement of the spin rotation parameters in pion-proton scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    The experiment consists in measuring the polarisation of the recoil protons from elastic scattering of positive or negative pions on a polarised proton target (L. M. N.). The polarimeter consists in carbon plates alternated with wire spark chambers, The associated electronics has the following main functions: selective triggering of the spark chambers, acquisition and transcription on magnetic tape of all relevant information, continuous check of the various parts of the equipment. About one hundred scintillation counters provide information on the geometry of the pion-proton scattering. A fast logic treats these information. This logic, made of integrated circuits MECL, generates the selective trigger with a transit time of less than 150 ns, it reduces the triggering rate on background events by almost one order of magnitude. A small computer is used for acquisition and transcription of the data, and for the control of the experiment. (author) [fr

  15. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.; Snead, C.L.; Hanson, A.L.; Murray, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 10 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in front of the target further reduced the energy deposition. The measured temperature rises of the energy-deposition target were empirically correlated with the distance from the source, the number of protons incident on the proton-radiography target, the thickness of the lead shielding, and the angle of the energy-deposition target off-axis of the beam line from the proton-radiography target. The correlation of the experimental data that was developed provides a starting point for the evaluation of the shielding requirements for devices downstream of proton-radiography targets such as superconducting magnets

  16. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Aichi 462-8508 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  17. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a 22 Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm 3 ) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The authors

  18. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-p t jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  19. Physics Goals and Experimental Challenges of the Proton-Proton High-Luminosity Operation of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Pierluigi; Wells, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The completion of Run 1 of the CERN Large Hadron Collider has seen the discovery of the Higgs boson and an unprecedented number of precise measurements of the Standard Model, while Run 2 operation has just started to provide first data at higher energy. Upgrades of the LHC to high luminosity (HL-LHC) and the experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb) will exploit the full potential of the collider to discover and explore new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this article, the experimental challenges and the physics opportunities in proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC are reviewed.

  20. Physics Goals and Experimental Challenges of the Proton-Proton High-Luminosity Operation of the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, P.; Klute, M.; Wells, P. S.

    2016-10-01

    The completion of Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has seen the discovery of the Higgs boson and an unprecedented number of precise measurements of the Standard Model, and Run 2 has begun to provide the first data at higher energy. The high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) and the four experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, and LHCb) will exploit the full potential of the collider to discover and explore new physics beyond the Standard Model. We review the experimental challenges and the physics opportunities in proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC.

  1. Proton-/sup 90/Zr interaction at sub-Coulomb proton energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.E.; Flynn, D.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.

    1987-01-01

    The proton-/sup 90/Zr interaction at sub-Coulomb energies has been investigated in the context of the Lane model, with isospin coupling included, and with alternate decay modes represented with the Hauser-Feshbach model. Scattering and reaction cross sections were accurately measured in order to obtain enough information to constrain the real and absorptive parts of the proton potential. Differential elastic scattering excitation functions were measured at back angles of 135 0 and 165 0 from 2 to 7 MeV, with cross section accuracies of 3%. The energy range was sufficient to go from a region where the backscattering was predominantly Coulomb, enabling additional checks on the cross section accuracies, to a region where the gross structure of the cross sections deviated significantly from Rutherford scattering. Radiative capture cross sections were measured from 1.9 to 5.7 MeV proton energies. The capture cross sections were obtained by summing the measured cross sections for the first two primary gamma rays in addition to some 34 other transitions which terminated on the ground and first excited state. The total inelastic scattering cross section to all /sup 90/Zr excited states (except the first excited state which has been previously measured) was measured at several energies between 3.9 and 5.7 MeV by observing the radiative decay of the residual, excited /sup 90/Zr nuclei. The analysis yielded several model parameters suggestive of large nuclear structure effects. The depth of the absorptive potential was found to vary as W/sub D/ = 2.73+0.70 E/sub p/ in the 2 to 7 MeV proton energy range studied. A real diffuseness of 0.54 fm, significantly smaller than that obtained in neighboring nuclei, was obtained

  2. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  3. Proton-nucleus dynamics at ultra-relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the basic properties of proton-nucleus (pA) collisions at ultrarelativistic energies are reviewed. These include total and 'partonic' cross-sections, and the differential cross-sections as functions of rapidity, transverse energy, and particle p T , with particular emphasis in all cases on the A dependence. The aim is to introduce a nuclear physics audience to the main trends and ideas; experts in the field will find nothing very new here. (orig.)

  4. Chemical freeze-out study in proton-proton collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sabita; Mishra, Debadeepti; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Chatterjee, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Particle multiplicities measured at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facilities can be used to understand the chemical freeze-out dynamics. At chemical freeze-out (CFO), inelastic collisions cease and the freeze-out parameters can be determined using measured particle multiplicities within the framework of a statistical model. The statistical model has proven to be quite successful in describing the particle production from elementary p-p and e"+e"- collisions up to heavy-ion collisions. It helps to do a systematic study of the centrality and energy dependence of freeze-out parameters in heavy-ion collisions from lower SPS to higher LHC energies. The new data at LHC along with the RHIC data can be used to do such a systematic study in proton-proton collisions

  5. Proton energy spectra during ground level enhancements as measured by EPHIN aboard SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Klassen, Andreas; Dresing, Nina [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Gomez-Herrero, Raul [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are recorded by ground-based instrumentation. The energy of the particles is so high that they produce secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. protons and neutrons, which are detected as sudden increases in cosmic ray intensities measured by e.g. neutron monitors. Since the launch of SOHO in December 1995 the neutron monitor network recorded 16 GLEs. The Electron Proton Helium INstrument on board SOHO has been designed to measure protons and helium up to 53 MeV/nucleon as well as electrons up to 8.3 MeV. Above these energies, particles penetrate all detector elements and thus, a separation between different particle species becomes more complicated. Recently we developed a method that allows deriving the energy spectrum for penetrating protons up to more than 1 GeV. In this contribution we present the proton energy spectra and time profiles of above mentioned GLEs and compare them to previous measurements. Although there are differences of up to a factor two the overall shape of the energy spectra agree surprisingly well. Thus it has been demonstrated that EPHIN measurements are a valuable tool for understanding GLE.

  6. High-current proton accelerators-meson factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievskij, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility of usage of accelerators of neutron as well as meson factories is considered. Parameters of linear and cyclic accelerators are given, which are employed as meson factories and as base for developing intense neutron generators. It is emphasized that the principal aim of developing neutron generators on the base of high current proton accelerators is production of intense neutron fluxes with a present energy spectrum. Production of tens-and-hundreds milliampere currents at the energy of 800-1000 MeV is considered at present for two types of accelerating facilities viz. linear accelerators under continuous operating conditions and cyclotrons with strong focusing. Quantitative evaluations of developing high-efficiency linear and cyclic accelerators are considered. The basic parameters of an ccelerating complex are given, viz. linear accelerator-injector and 800 MeV isochronous cyclotron. The main problems associated with their realization are listed [ru

  7. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  8. First observations of power MOSFET burnout with high energy neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Normand, E.; Majewski, P.P.; Wender, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Single event burnout was seen in power MOSFETs exposed to high energy neutrons. Devices with rated voltage ≥400 volts exhibited burnout at substantially less than the rated voltage. Tests with high energy protons gave similar results. Burnout was also seen in limited tests with lower energy protons and neutrons. Correlations with heavy-ion data are discussed. Accelerator proton data gave favorable comparisons with burnout rates measured on the APEX spacecraft. Implications for burnout at lower altitudes are also discussed

  9. Proton induction linacs as high-intensity neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.; Hoyer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induction linacs are explored as high intensity neutron sources. The induction linac - concept, properties, experience with electrons, and possibilities - and its limitations for accelerating ions are reviewed. A number of proton induction linac designs are examined with the LIACEP program and general conclusions are given. Results suggest that a proton induction accelerator of the lowest voltage, consistent with good neutron flux, is preferred and could well be cost competitive with the usual rf linac/storage ring designs. (orig.)

  10. High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru

  11. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  12. A simple irradiation facility for radiobiological experiments with low energy protons from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental facility for irradiation of small biological targets with low-energy protons has been developed. The depth-dose distribution in soft-tissue is calculated from the proton energy spectrum. (orig.)

  13. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  14. Effects of next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution on generalized parton distributions of the proton and deeply virtual Compton scattering at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh [University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran, Department of Physics, Behshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goharipour, Muhammad [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guzey, Vadim [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We studied the effects of NLO Q{sup 2} evolution of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) using the aligned-jet model for the singlet quark and gluon GPDs at an initial evolution scale. We found that the skewness ratio for quarks is a slow logarithmic function of Q{sup 2}, reaching r{sup S} = 1.5-2 at Q{sup 2} = 100 GeV{sup 2} and r{sup g} ∼ 1 for gluons in a wide range of Q{sup 2}. Using the resulting GPDs, we calculated the DVCS cross section on the proton in NLO pQCD and found that this model in conjunction with modern parameterizations of proton PDFs (CJ15 and CT14) provides a good description of the available H1 and ZEUS data in a wide kinematic range. (orig.)

  15. Comparative yields of alkali elements and thallium from uranium irradiated with high-energy protons, /sup 3/He and /sup 12/C

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Jonson, B; Jonsson, O C; Lindfors, V; Mattsson, S; Poskanzer, A M; Ravn, H L; Schardt, D

    1981-01-01

    Mass-separated ion beams of the alkali elements Na, K, and Fr, and of the element Tl are produced by bombarding a uranium target with 600 Me V protons, 890 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2+/, and 936 MeV /sup 12/C/sup 4+/. Isotopic production yields are reported. In the case of the /sup 12/C beam these are thick target yields. Absolute cross-sections for the proton-beam data were deduced by normalizing the delay-time corrected yield curves to measured cross-sections. For products farthest away from stability the /sup 3/He/sup 2+/ beam generally gives the highest yields. (17 refs).

  16. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae-ik [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Division of Heavy Ion Clinical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Chiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sungkoo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se Byeong, E-mail: sblee@ncc.re.kr [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center (Korea, Republic of); Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hyun [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sook [Department of refinement education, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jung Keun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, Sebastien [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Université Bordeaux 1, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-04-15

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  17. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the ‘NETSCAN’ method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion

  18. Proton Linear Energy Transfer measurement using Emulsion Cloud Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-ik; Park, Seyjoon; Kim, Haksoo; Kim, Meyoung; Jeong, Chiyoung; Cho, Sungkoo; Lim, Young Kyung; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Morishima, Kunihiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Sato, Osamu; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Cho, Jung Sook; Ahn, Jung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Chun Sil; Incerti, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to determine the correlation between the Volume Pulse Height (VPH) measured by nuclear emulsion and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) calculated by Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4. The nuclear emulsion was irradiated at the National Cancer Center (NCC) with a therapeutic proton beam and was installed at 5.2 m distance from the beam nozzle structure with various thicknesses of water-equivalent material (PMMA) blocks to position with specific positions along the Bragg curve. After the beam exposure and development of the emulsion films, the films were scanned by S-UTS developed in Nagoya University. The proton tracks in the scanned films were reconstructed using the 'NETSCAN' method. Through this procedure, the VPH can be derived from each reconstructed proton track at each position along the Bragg curve. The VPH value indicates the magnitude of energy loss in proton track. By comparison with the simulation results obtained using Geant4, we found the correlation between the LET calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and the VPH measured by the nuclear emulsion.

  19. Development of an energy selector system for laser-driven proton beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuderi, V., E-mail: scuderiv@lns.infn.it [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Bijan Jia, S. [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Carpinelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Korn, G. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Licciardello, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universit 2, Legnaro (Pd) (Italy); Margarone, D. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [Department of Experimental Program at ELI-Beamlines, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Stancampiano, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); and others

    2014-03-11

    Nowadays, laser-driven proton beams generated by the interaction of high power lasers with solid targets represent a fascinating attraction in the field of the new acceleration techniques. These beams can be potentially accelerated up to hundreds of MeV and, therefore, they can represent a promising opportunity for medical applications. Laser-accelerated proton beams typically show high flux (up to 10{sup 11} particles per bunch), very short temporal profile (ps), broad energy spectra and poor reproducibility. In order to overcome these limitations, these beams have be controlled and transported by means of a proper beam handling system. Furthermore, suitable dosimetric diagnostic systems must be developed and tested. In the framework of the ELIMED project, we started to design a dedicated beam transport line and we have developed a first prototype of a beam line key-element: an Energy Selector System (ESS). It is based on permanent dipoles, capable to control and select in energy laser-accelerated proton beams. Monte Carlo simulations and some preliminary experimental tests have been already performed to characterize the device. A calibration of the ESS system with a conventional proton beam will be performed in September at the LNS in Catania. Moreover, an experimental campaign with laser-driven proton beam at the Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University in Belfast is already scheduled and will be completed within 2014.

  20. Electronuclear amplifiers with low-energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.; Shelaev, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of proton accelerators with energy 200-300 MeV in subcritical electronuclear systems seems more preferable in comparison with more complicated and expensive machines with energy about 1 GeV, which are considered as favourite now. Such an approach allows one to build comparatively simple electronuclear plants in particular, for a safety and profitable incineration of plutonium from power plants and spells, in fact, a new strategy of electronuclear technology. Potentialities of the use of low-energy accelerators are illustrated by an electronuclear arrangements designed now in Dubna

  1. A simulation of low energy channeling of protons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabin, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The authors present early results from the CHANNEL code, which simulates the passage of ionized projectiles through bulk solids. CHANNEL solves the classical equations of motion for the projectile using the force obtained from the gradient of the quantum mechanically derived coulombic potential of the solid (determined via a full potential augmented plane wave FLAPW calculation on the bulk) and a quantum mechanical energy dissipation term, the stopping power, as determined from the local electron density, using the method of Echenique, Nieminen, and Ritchie. The code then generates the trajectory of the ionic projectile for a given initial velocity and a given incident position on the unit cell face. For each incident projectile velocity, the authors generate trajectories for incidence distributed over the channel face. The distribution of ranges generates an implantation profile. In this paper, they report ion (proton) implantation profiles for low energy protons with initial velocity along the (100) and (110) channel directions of diamond structured Silicon

  2. Spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the low $x$ and low $Q^2$ region from polarized high energy muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to $x=6\\cdot 10^{-5}$ and $Q^2=0.01$ GeV$^2$. The data were taken with a dedicated low $x$ trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low $x$. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No sig\\-ni\\-fi\\-cant spin effects are found in the newly explored region.

  3. Atomic effects of electrons and protons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Some aspects of electronic and atomic collisions are discussed. Impact ionization by electrons and protons, and electron bremsstrahlung processes are considered in some detail. Emphasis is also given to (uncorrelated and correlated) many-electron processes, which are of particular importance in collisions of highly-charged ions with atoms. 84 refs., 15 figs

  4. Proton-4He elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Gillespie, J.; Lombard, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    Differential elastic cross sections and polarizations are calculated in a multiple scattering formalism for proton- 4 He scattering for energies in the range 0.6-24GeV and for momentum transfers up to 4.0fmsup(-1). The calculations include Coulomb and spin effects. Corrections due to target-nucleon overlap and charge exchange are estimated. The results are compared with experimental data [fr

  5. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  6. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of open-quotes drift tubesclose quotes. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising's work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the open-quotes Alvarez drift tubeclose quotes as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components

  7. Energy Dependence of Proton Radiation Damage in Si-Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084399; Neubüser, C.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation experiments on silicon sensors are used to mimic the radiation environment at collider experiments with the aim to forecast the change of the electrical properties of a detector with irradiation. Measurements on irradiated sensors are invaluable in choosing a material well suited for a silicon tracking detector. This is especially true for the upgraded detectors to be used in the high-luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), where silicon sensors as currently used would suffer severe loss in signal from irradiation with charged and neutral hadrons.\\\\ The CMS Tracker Collaboration has initiated irradiation studies with protons with energies ranging from 23 MeV to 23 GeV. They are often used instead of charged hadrons, their radiation induced damage to the silicon being rather similar. However, in oxygen rich silicon, NIEL violation concerning the full depletion voltage has been observed.\\\\ In this paper results from investigations on bulk defects compared to the change of the electrical properties of ...

  8. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  9. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  10. Analysis of Proton Radiation Effects on Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different energy levels on a GaN-on-silicon high electron mobility transistor...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) In this work, a physics-based simulation of non - ionizing proton radiation damage effects at different...Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 Non - Ionizing Radiation Damage in

  11. Capabilities of silicon Shottki barriers and planar detectors in low-energy proton spectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Sakharov, V I; Serenkov, I T; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1987-05-12

    Dependence of the resolution of surface barrier and planar diffusion silicon detectors on proton energy is investigated. The experiment was conducted at the device, representing the double mass spectrometer with the maximal energy of single-charged ions up to 200 keV. Two advantages of using planar diffusion detectors for light low-energy ion spectrometry is established: high energy resolution and independence of signal amplitude of bias voltage. Background noise represents the main factor dictaiting resolution, but fluctuations of losses in input window are sufficient as well. It was concluded that planar detector application for spectrometry of protons with energy of less than 200 keV would improve the resolution up to 2.2 keV without detector cooling.

  12. A high repetition rate transverse beam profile diagnostic for laser-plasma proton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Nicholas; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Nishitani, Keita

    2016-10-01

    The recently upgraded J-KAREN-P laser can provide PW peak power and intensities approaching 1022 Wcm-2 at 0.1 Hz. Scaling of sheath acceleration to such high intensities predicts generation of protons to near 100 MeV, but changes in electron heating mechanisms may affect the emitted proton beam properties, such as divergence and pointing. High repetition rate simultaneous measurement of the transverse proton distribution and energy spectrum are therefore key to understanding and optimising the source. Recently plastic scintillators have been used to measure online proton beam transverse profiles, removing the need for time consuming post-processing. We are therefore developing a scintillator based transverse proton beam profile diagnostic for use in ion acceleration experiments using the J-KAREN-P laser. Differential filtering provides a coarse energy spectrum measurement, and time-gating allows differentiation of protons from other radiation. We will discuss the design and implementation of the diagnostic, as well as proof-of-principle results from initial experiments on the J-KAREN-P system demonstrating the measurement of sheath accelerated proton beams up to 20 MeV.

  13. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; 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Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vujicic, Miroslav; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The jet energy scale (JES) and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 inverse pb. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-kt algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta pt > 20 GeV and pseudorapidities eta 50 GeV after a dedicated correction for this effect. The JES is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon pt, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low-pt jets recoiling against a high-pt jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, p...

  14. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's ''New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-05-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. ''New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  15. CIGS Solar Cells for Space Applications: Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Traps Created by High-Energy Electron and Proton Irradiation on the Performance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbabi, Samar; Ben Nasr, Tarek; Turki Kamoun, Najoua

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation is carried out using the Silvaco ATLAS software to predict the effect of 1-MeV electron and 4-MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cell that operates under the air mass zero spectrum (AM0). As a consequence of irradiation, two types of traps are induced including the donor- and acceptor-type traps. Only one of them (the donor-type trap) is found responsible for the degradation of the open-circuit voltage (V OC), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η), while the short circuit current (J SC) remains essentially unaffected. The modelling simulation validity is verified by comparison with the experimental data. This article shows that CIGS solar cells are suited for space applications.

  16. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's 'New Culture' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. 'New Culture' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper details the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line are presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  17. Constructing high energy accelerators under DOE's open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, W.

    1993-01-01

    Fermilab has initiated construction of a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main RIng accelerator. open-quotes New Cultureclose quotes environmental and safety questions have been addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that were accomplished in order to obtain the permits which controlled the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however, some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands were affected and therefore the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) compliance was a significant issue. The important feature was to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements and to perform the work required in order to proceed with the accelerator construction in a timely fashion. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example

  18. Spin asymmetries $A_1$ and structure functions $g_1$ of the proton and the deuteron from polarized high energy muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zamiatin, N I; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present the final results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ and the spin structure functions $g_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic range $0.0008

  19. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  20. Study of nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and intermediate- and high-energy protons and an application in nuclear reactor physics (ADS); Estudo das reacoes nucleares envolvendo nucleos pesados e protons a energias intermediarias e altas de uma aplicacao em fisica de reatores nucleares (ADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuoka, Paula Fernanda Toledo

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, intermediate- and high-energy nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and protons were studied with the Monte Carlo CRISP (Rio - Ilheus - Sao Paulo Collaboration) model. The most relevant nuclear processes studied were intranuclear cascade and fission-evaporation competition. Preliminary studies showed fair agreement between CRISP model calculation and experimental data of multiplicity of evaporated neutrons (E < 20 MeV) from the p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction and of spallation residues from the p(1000 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction. The investigation of neutron multiplicity from proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th up to 85 MeV showed that it was being overestimated by CRISP model; on the other hand, fission cross section were being underestimated. This behavior is due to limitations of the intranuclear cascade model for low-energies (around 50 MeV). The p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction was selected for the study of a spallation neutron source. High-energy neutrons (E > 20 MeV) were emitted mostly in the intranuclear cascade stage, while evaporation presented larger neutron multiplicity. Fission cross section of 209 mb and spallation cross section of 1788 mb were calculated both in agreement with experimental data. The fission process resulted in a symmetric mass distribution. Another Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used for radiation transport in order to understand the role of a spallation neutron source in a ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor. Initially, a PWR reactor was simulated to study the isotopic compositions in spent nuclear fuel. As a rst attempt, a spallation neutron source was adapted to an industrial size nuclear reactor. The results showed no evidence of incineration of transuranic elements and modifications were suggested. (author)

  1. Stopping powers of solids for low-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Ritchie, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Electron gas models are useful approximations for describing the valence electron response of a solid to the passage of a charged particle. A simple free-electron gas model was used by Fermi and Teller to estimate the time required for a mesotron to be stopped in various solids. More recent work has employed the Lindhard dielectric response function, or approximations thereto, for calculations of the valence electron contributions to energy loss per unit pathlength for protons. Such calculations have generally shown rather poor agreement with experimental data for low-energy protons (velocity small compared to the Fermi velocity, v<< v/sub F/). The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to a recent calculation of the stopping power for slow protons using a density-functional formalism. These new results have been shown to give good agreement with experimental data and thus should provide valuable theoretical guidance in estimating stopping powers of solids for which no experimental data are available

  2. Identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussgiller, A.

    2007-07-20

    The present theses discusses the development, technical design and realization as well as the read-out electronics of a detection system for the identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons. With the knowledge of the four-momentum of such spectator protons it will be possible to use deuterium as an effective neutron target. Previous measurements with an early version of the detection system have already shown that this method works quite well to investigate for instance the {omega} or {eta}-meson production in proton-neutron collisions. Moreover, after the completion and installation of the polarized internal target (PIT) at ANKE, it will be even possible to engage in that field with double polarized experiments. To increase the luminosity the polarized target is equipped with an extended target cell. The described detection-system will provide the vertex reconstruction for this extended interaction region. In addition, it will act as an independent beam polarimeter at ANKE. The detection system consists of three layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors which are arranged in a telescope structure and placed inside the accelerator vacuum as close as 2 cm to the interaction region. The modular design of the electronics and the support structures for the detectors allows one to exchange detectors and electronics in a maximum flexible way. In a minimum configuration the telescope is equipped with two detectors, a thin ({approx} 69 {mu}m) double-sided Silicon strip detector as a first layer and a very thick ({>=} 5 mm) double-sided micro-structured Lithium-drifted Silicon detector as a second layer. With this arrangement it is possible to track and identify protons in a kinetic energy range from 2.5 MeV to 25 MeV. For deuterons this range for such a telescope configuration is from 4 MeV to 34 MeV. The performance concerning the energy determination and tracking is shown based on data taken during a beam-time in November of 2003. With the existing

  3. Identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussgiller, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present theses discusses the development, technical design and realization as well as the read-out electronics of a detection system for the identification and tracking of low energy spectator protons. With the knowledge of the four-momentum of such spectator protons it will be possible to use deuterium as an effective neutron target. Previous measurements with an early version of the detection system have already shown that this method works quite well to investigate for instance the ω or η-meson production in proton-neutron collisions. Moreover, after the completion and installation of the polarized internal target (PIT) at ANKE, it will be even possible to engage in that field with double polarized experiments. To increase the luminosity the polarized target is equipped with an extended target cell. The described detection-system will provide the vertex reconstruction for this extended interaction region. In addition, it will act as an independent beam polarimeter at ANKE. The detection system consists of three layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors which are arranged in a telescope structure and placed inside the accelerator vacuum as close as 2 cm to the interaction region. The modular design of the electronics and the support structures for the detectors allows one to exchange detectors and electronics in a maximum flexible way. In a minimum configuration the telescope is equipped with two detectors, a thin (∼ 69 μm) double-sided Silicon strip detector as a first layer and a very thick (≥ 5 mm) double-sided micro-structured Lithium-drifted Silicon detector as a second layer. With this arrangement it is possible to track and identify protons in a kinetic energy range from 2.5 MeV to 25 MeV. For deuterons this range for such a telescope configuration is from 4 MeV to 34 MeV. The performance concerning the energy determination and tracking is shown based on data taken during a beam-time in November of 2003. With the existing setup an energy

  4. High energy physics and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.; Thomas, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the named conference. These concern eletromagnetic interactions, weak interactions, strong interactions at intermediate energy, pion reactions, proton reactions, strong interactions at high energy, as well as new facilities and applications. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  5. Microstructural evolution in modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel irradiated with mixed high-energy proton and neutron spectra at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencer, B.H.; Garner, F.A.; Gelles, D.S.; Bond, G.M.; Maloy, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel was exposed at 32-57 deg. C to a mixed proton/neutron particle flux and spectrum at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The microstructure of unirradiated 9Cr-1Mo consists of laths, dislocations and carbides. Examination of electron diffraction patterns obtained from extraction replicas of unirradiated 9Cr-1Mo revealed that the precipitate microstructure was primarily dominated by M 23 C 6 carbides. The post-irradiation microstructure contained black-spot damage in addition to precipitates and dislocations. Examination of electron diffraction patterns revealed diffuse rings from M 23 C 6 carbides, indicating amorphization and/or nanocrystallinity. Crystalline MC carbides were also found. No cavity formation was found although a significant amount of helium and hydrogen generation had been generated. TEM-EDS examination of extraction replicas for carbides from unirradiated and irradiated samples did not show any detectable changes in composition of either M 23 C 6 or MC carbides. There was also no evident change in carbide size. Lattice images of M 23 C 6 carbides revealed an amorphous microstructure following irradiation, but MC carbides were still crystalline

  6. A coincidence-type ion-electron converter detector for low-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, O.; Weinzierl, P.; Dobrozemsky, R.; Stratowa, C.

    1981-04-01

    A coincidence type ion-electron converter detector has been developed and used - together with an electrostatic energy-analyser - for precision measurements of the energy distribution of recoil protons from free-neutron decay. The most important aspect of the development was, besides keeping the background below 0,2 counts/sec in the presence of a certain radiation background, to achieve a high and energy-independent counting probability for protons with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. With an acceleration voltage of about 25 kV and Al-foils (20 to 35 ug/cmsup2) as converter, we obtained counting efficiences of 70 to 85 percent. The design and performance of the detector system, employing six foils with different sensitive areas, are described and discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Validation of FLUKA calculated cross-sections for radioisotope production in proton-on-target collisions at proton energies around 1 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Felcini, M

    2006-01-01

    The production cross-sections of several radioisotopes induced by 1 GeV protons impinging on different target materials have been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo and compared to measured cross-sections. The emphasis of this study is on the production of alpha and beta/gamma emitters of interest for activation evaluations at a research complex, such as the EURISOL complex, using several MW power proton driver at an energy of 1 GeV. The comparisons show that in most of the cases of interest for such evaluations, the FLUKA Monte Carlo reproduces radioisotope production cross-sections within less than a factor of two with respect to the measured values. This result implies that the FLUKA calculations are adequately accurate for proton induced activation estimates at a 1 GeV high power proton driver complex.

  8. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  9. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  10. On the idea of low-energy nuclear reactions in metallic lattices by producing neutrons from protons capturing "heavy" electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennfors, Einar

    2013-02-01

    The present article is a critical comment on Widom and Larsens speculations concerning low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) based on spontaneous collective motion of protons in a room temperature metallic hydride lattice producing oscillating electric fields that renormalize the electron self-energy, adding significantly to the effective electron mass and enabling production of low-energy neutrons. The frequency and mean proton displacement estimated on the basis of neutron scattering from protons in palladium and applied to the Widom and Larsens model of the proton oscillations yield an electron mass enhancement less than one percent, far below the threshold for the proposed neutron production and even farther below the mass enhancement obtained by Widom and Larsen assuming a high charge density. Neutrons are not stopped by the Coulomb barrier, but the energy required for the neutron production is not low.

  11. Features of possible polarized photon beams at high energy and corresponding physics programme or the proton structure function using real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the range of electron energies available at Fermilab, 100 GeV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 500 GeV, coherent Bremsstrahlung in crystals, particularly diamond, gives a huge enhancement to the equivalent photon spectrum at large values of x where x = k/E. The photons in this enhancement are polarized. Requirements on electron beam energy spread, angular divergence and spot size imposed by the use of a diamond as a radiator are discussed. The physics program emphasizes hard processes and tests of QCD using polarization

  12. An analytic distorted wave approximation for intermediate energy proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; Amos, K.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic Distorted Wave approximation has been developed for use in analyses of intermediate energy proton inelastic scattering from nuclei. Applications are made to analyse 402 and 800 MeV data from the isoscalar and isovector 1 + and 2 + states in 12 C and to the 800 MeV data from the excitation of the 2 - (8.88MeV) state in 16 O. Comparisons of predictions made using different model two-nucleon t-matrices and different models of nuclear structure are given

  13. Low-energy proton increases associated with interplanetary shock waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, R. A. R.; Allum, F. R.; Rao, U. R.

    1971-01-01

    Impulsive increases in the low energy proton flux observed by the Explorer 34 satellite, in very close time association with geomagnetic storm sudden commencements are described. It is shown that these events are of short duration (20-30 min) and occur only during the decay phase of a solar cosmic-ray flare event. The differential energy spectrum and the angular distribution of the direction of arrival of the particles are discussed. Two similar increases observed far away from the earth by the Pioneer 7 and 8 deep-space probes are also presented. These impulsive increases are compared with Energetic Storm Particle events and their similarities and differences are discussed. A model is suggested to explain these increases, based on the sweeping and trapping of low energy cosmic rays of solar origin by the advancing shock front responsible for the sudden commencement detected on the earth.

  14. Composition Changes After the "Halloween" Solar Proton Event: The High-Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) Model Versus MIPAS Data Intercomparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, B.; Baumgaertner, A.; Calisto, M.; Egorova, T.; Jackman, C. H.; Kieser, J.; Krivolutsky, A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Marsh. D. R.; Reddmann, T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2,O3, N2O, HNO3 , N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE) in October/November 2003 at 25-0.01 hPa in the Northern hemisphere (40-90 N) and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2D model (B2dM) and Bremen 3D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM), the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the ECHAM5/MESSY Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, the modeling tool for SO1ar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOS, and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications on the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO) fields. Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5% with the observations. Simulated NO(y) enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30% higher than indicated by the observations which can be partly attributed to an overestimation of simulated electron-induced ionization. The analysis of the observed and modeled NO(y) partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement additional ion chemistry (HNO3 formation via ion-ion recombination and water cluster ions) into the chemical schemes. An overestimation of observed H2O2 enhancements by all models hints at an underestimation of the OH/HO2 ratio in the upper polar stratosphere during the SPE. The

  15. A High Current Proton Linac with 352 MHz SC Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Pierini, P

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for a 10-120 mA proton linac employing superconducting beta-graded, CERN type, four cell cavities at 352 MHz is presented. The high energy part (100 MeV-1 GeV) of the machine is split in three beta-graded sections, and transverse focusing is provided via a periodic doublet array. All the parameters, like power in the couplers and accelerating fields in the cavities, are within the state of the art, achieved in operating machines. A first stage of operation at 30 mA beam current is proposed, while the upgrade of the machine to 120 mA operation can be obtained increasing the number of klystrons and couplers per cavity. The additional coupler ports, up to four, will be integrated in the cavity design. Preliminary calculations indicate that beam transport is feasible, given the wide aperture of the 352 MHz structures. A capital cost of less than 100 M$ at 10 mA, reaching up to 280 M$ for the 120 mA extension, has been estimated for the superconducting high energy section (100 MeV-1 GeV). The high effic...

  16. Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; /Kyushu U.; Sanami, Toshiya; /KEK, Tsukuba; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; /Kyushu U.; Iwamoto, Yosuke; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Saito, Kiwamu; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ishibashi, Kenji; /Kyushu U.; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; /JAEA, Ibaraki; Lee, Hee-Seock; /Pohang Accelerator Lab.; Ramberg, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, protoninduced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30{sup o} and 5 m 90{sup o} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multiparticle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

  17. High Transverse Momentum Hadron Production in 400-GeV/c and 800-GeV/c Proton - Nucleon Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, David Edward [SUNY, Stony Brook

    1987-08-01

    Results of high transverse momentum hadron production in 400 Gev/c proton-proton and proton-deuteron and 800 Gev /c proton-proton collisions are presented in this dissertation. The transverse momentum range of the data was from 5.2 to 9.0 Gev/c for the 400 Gev/c collisions and from 3.6 to 11.0 Gev /c for the 800 Gev /c collisions; the data were centered around the proton-nucleon center-of-momentum production angle of 90°. Single pion invariant cross sections and particle ratios were measured at both energies and the unlike-sign dihadron correlation function was measured at the higher energy. The results are compared to previous experiments and the Lund model.

  18. Track etch parameters and annealing kinetics assessment of protons of low energy in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.K.; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We calibrate CR-39 detector with very low energy protons. ► We establish linear relationship between track diameter and time/energy up to 200 keV. ► We determine activation energy of annealing using different models. ► We justify concept of single annealing activation energy in CR-39. - Abstract: In this paper threshold of the registration sensitivity of very low energy proton in CR-39 is investigated. Irradiation of CR-39 (poly-allyl-diglycol carbonate) was carried out with very low energy mono energetic protons of 20–60 keV from a mini proton accelerator. Nearly 10 4 /cm 2 fluence of protons was used. The variation of track diameter with etching time as well as proton energy response curve was carefully calibrated. The bulk and track etch rates were measured by using proton track diameters. Bulk etch rate was also measured by the thickness of removed surface layer. The thermal annealing of proton track at temperatures ranging from 100 to 200 °C in CR-39 was studied by several models. Activation energy of annealed CR-39 detectors was calculated by slope of track etch rate and temperature plot. The data of proton tracks of 200, 250 and 300 keV from 400 kV Van-de-Graaff accelerator was also used and compared with the track diameters of different energies of proton.

  19. Composition changes after the "Halloween" solar proton event: the High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA model versus MIPAS data intercomparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have compared composition changes of NO, NO2, H2O2, O3, N2O, HNO3, N2O5, HNO4, ClO, HOCl, and ClONO2 as observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat in the aftermath of the "Halloween" solar proton event (SPE in late October 2003 at 25–0.01 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere (40–90° N and simulations performed by the following atmospheric models: the Bremen 2-D model (B2dM and Bremen 3-D Chemical Transport Model (B3dCTM, the Central Aerological Observatory (CAO model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA, the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model, the modeling tool for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and SOCOLi, and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4. The large number of participating models allowed for an evaluation of the overall ability of atmospheric models to reproduce observed atmospheric perturbations generated by SPEs, particularly with respect to NOy and ozone changes. We have further assessed the meteorological conditions and their implications for the chemical response to the SPE in both the models and observations by comparing temperature and tracer (CH4 and CO fields.

    Simulated SPE-induced ozone losses agree on average within 5 % with the observations. Simulated NOy enhancements around 1 hPa, however, are typically 30 % higher than indicated by the observations which are likely to be related to deficiencies in the used ionization rates, though other error sources related to the models' atmospheric background state and/or transport schemes cannot be excluded. The analysis of the observed and modeled NOy partitioning in the aftermath of the SPE has demonstrated the need to implement

  20. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  1. J/ψ production as a function of charged particle multiplicity in proton + proton collisions at LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Dhananjaya; De, Sudipan; Sahoo, Raghunath; Dansana, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    In high energy proton-proton collisions the total event multiplicity can have a substantial contribution from Multi-Parton Interactions (MPI), which is an Underlying Event observable. The sum of all processes that build up the final hadronic state in a collision is referred as the Underlying Event (UE). The Underlying Event includes fragmentation of beam remnant, multi-partonic interactions, and initial and final state radiation (ISR/FSR) associated with each interactions. In MPI, several interactions at the partonic level occurs in a single p+p collision, that leads to a strong dependence of particle production on total event multiplicity. MPI are commonly used to describe the soft underlying events such as the production of light quarks and gluons. But it is observed that it can also contribute on the hard and semi-hard scale such as the production of particles containing heavy quarks like J/ψ, open heavy flavors etc. This contribution become more and more relevant with increasing energy

  2. Analysis for mass distribution of proton-induced reactions in intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao Yu Heng

    2002-01-01

    The mass and charge distribution of residual products produced in the spallation reactions needs to be studied, because it can provide useful information for the disposal of nuclear waste and residual radioactivity generated by the spallation neutron target system. In present work, the Many State Dynamical Model (MSDM) is based on the Cascade-Exciton Model (CEM). The authors use it to investigate the mass distribution of Nb, Au and Pb proton-induced reactions in energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. The agreement between the MSDM simulations and the measured data is good in this energy range, and deviations mainly show up in the mass range of 90 - 150 for the high energy proton incident upon Au and Pb

  3. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  4. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1997-01-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  5. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  6. Influence of proton scattering angles on the energy radiograph in proton radiotherapy : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A.K.; Takatsu, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; van der Graaf, E.R.; van Goethem, M-J.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment quality of cancer patients with a proton beam critically depends on accurate predictions of proton stopping powers. Uncertainties in proton range that occur from translation of an X-ray CT patient image, of typical 3–4% or more, lead to necessary enlargements of contours around the

  7. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  8. Measurement of the inclusive energy spectrum in the very forward direction in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Polikarpov, Sergey; Rusinov, Vladimir; Zhemchugov, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-08-11

    The differential cross section for inclusive particle production as a function of energy in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured in the very forward region of the CMS detector. The measurement is based on data collected with the CMS apparatus at the LHC, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 0.35 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$. The energy is measured in the CASTOR calorimeter, which covers the pseudorapidity region $-6.6<\\eta<-5.2$. The results are given as a function of the total energy deposited in CASTOR, as well as of its electromagnetic and hadronic components. The spectra are sensitive to the modeling of multiparton interactions in pp collisions, and provide new constraints for hadronic interaction models used in collider and in high energy cosmic ray physics.

  9. Neutron and proton densities and the symmetry energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron/proton distributions in nuclei, in particular, the n-p difference, are considered in a 'macroscopic' Thomas-Fermi approach. The density dependence F(ρ) of the symmetry-energy density, where ρ is the total density, drives this difference in the absence of Coulomb and density-gradient contributions when we obtain an explicit solution for the difference in terms of F. If F is constant then the n-p difference and, in particular, the difference δR between the neutron and proton rms radii are zero. The Coulomb energy and gradient terms are treated variationally. The latter make only a small contribution to the n-p difference, and this is then effectively determined by F. The Coulomb energy reduces δR. Switching off the Coulomb contribution to the n-p difference then gives the maximum δR for a given F. Our numerical results are for 208 Pb. We consider a wide range of F; for these, both δR and the ratio χ of the surface to volume symmetry-energy coefficient depend, approximately, only on an integral involving F -1 . For δR < or approx. 0.45 fm this dependence is one valued and approximately linear for small δR, and this integral is then effectively determined by δR. There is a strong correlation between δR and χ, allowing an approximate determination of χ from δR. δR has a maximum of congruent with 0.65 fm

  10. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  11. Design and construction of a spectrometer facility and experiment for intermediate energy proton scattering on helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, R.M.

    1976-12-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate proton scattering on nuclei at intermediate energies and in particular to investigate proton scattering on helium. A theoretical investigation of the helium nucleus and the nature of the intermediate energy interaction, design and optimization of an energy-loss spectrometer facility for proton-nucleus scattering, and the unique superfluid helium target and experimental design are discussed

  12. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  13. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei 6He and 8He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksouh, F.

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei 6 He and 8 He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in 6,8 He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  14. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  15. ISAC target operation with high proton currents

    CERN Document Server

    Dombsky, M; Schmor, P; Lane, M

    2003-01-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC facility target stations were designed for ISOL target irradiations with up to 100 mu A proton beam currents. Since beginning operation in 1998, ISAC irradiation currents have progressively increased from initial values of approx 1 mu A to present levels of up to 40 mu A on refractory metal foil targets. In addition, refractory carbide targets have operated at currents of up to 15 mu A for extended periods. The 1-40 mu A operational regime is achieved by tailoring each target to the thermal requirements dictated by material properties such as beam power deposition, thermal conductivity and maximum operating temperature of the target material. The number of heat shields on each target can be varied in order to match the effective emissivity of the target surface for the required radiative power dissipation. Targets of different thickness, surface area and volume have been investigated to study the effect of diffusion and effusion delays on the yield of radioisotopes. For yields of short-lived p...

  16. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzkes, J.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L. [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  17. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  18. Physics with a high-intensity proton accelerator below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The types of physics that would be pursued at a high-intensity, moderate-energy proton accelerator are discussed. The discussion is drawn from the deliberations of the 30-GeV subgroup of the Fixed-Target Group at this workshop

  19. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given

  20. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  1. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  2. Determination of the initial energy in computerized tomography with proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rodrigo Luis da

    2007-01-01

    In earliest works devoted to proton computed tomography it was shown that the advantage of pCT image reconstruction appears when the energy is close to the Bragg peak region, since the proton passes the object. This effect provided by the Bragg peak makes the computerized tomography with protons possible. However, when decreasing the initial proton energy, with the increase of the irradiation dose, there are two effects that work simultaneously in opposite ways. First, the energy loss of a proton in an object becomes bigger at small initial energy. At the same time decreasing of the proton energy results in the increase of the energy straggling, requiring a larger number of protons. In this work the radiation dose dependence on the proton initial energy was studied using analytical formulas and computer simulations. The investigation determined that the radiation dose practically does not depend on the initial energy, except in the energy region very close to the minimum energy necessary to pass the object. (author)

  3. Proton acceleration: new developments for focusing and energy selection, and applications in plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, P.

    2007-11-01

    In the last few years, intense research has been conducted on laser-accelerated ion sources and their applications. These sources have exceptional properties, i.e. high brightness and high spectral cut-off, high directionality and laminarity, short burst duration. We have shown that for proton energies >10 MeV, the transverse and longitudinal emittance are respectively example point-projection radiography with unprecedented resolution. We will show example of such time and space-resolved radiography of fast evolving fields, either of associated with the expansion of a plasma in vacuum [*] or with the propagation of a ICF-relevant laser beam in an underdense plasma. These proton sources also open new opportunities for ion beam generation and control, and could stimulate development of compact ion accelerators for many applications.

  4. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Nace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled through the bent Si crystals, with the constant curvature radius, R = 50 m, are studied here. The proton energy is 7 TeV and the thickness of the crystal is varied from 1 mm to 5 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, L, from 2.1 to 10.6, respectively. The proton energy was chosen in accordance with the large hadron collider project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated by the computer simulation method using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane. Dispersion of the proton scattering angle caused by its collisions with the crystal’s electrons was taken into account. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  5. Study of superconducting cavities for high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarrotte, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The research program on hybrid reactors has started in France in order to study the technologies allowing the transmutation of radioactive wastes thanks to a spallation neutron source supplied by a linear high intensity proton accelerator. The study of the high energy part of this accelerator (superconducting accelerator for hybrid) has started, and its aim is the design of superconducting radiofrequency cavities which make the two different sections of the accelerator (0.47 and 0.65). This thesis presents the advance of the work carried out on this topic since 1997, in particular the design and optimization of the 5-cell cavities which work at the 704.4 MHz frequency. The experimental part of the study has been carried out in parallel with the industrial fabrication (Cerca) of several prototypes of mono-cell cavities. These cavities have shown very good RF performances during the tests in vertical cryostat; the A 102 A cavity, in particular develops a Q0 of 7.10 10 (indicating very low RF losses) and reaches an accelerator field of 25 MV/m, i.e. more than two times the specified value (about 10 MV/V). Finally, a new risk analysis method for the excitation of the upper modes is proposed. This method shows in particular the uselessness of the implementation of HOM couplers on the cavities for a continuous beam use. (J.S.)

  6. Injection and capture simulations for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Lessner, E.; Symon, K.; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    1994-01-01

    The injection and capture processes in a high intensity, rapid cycling, proton synchrotron are simulated by numerical integration. The equations of motion suitable for rapid numerical simulation are derived so as to maintain symplecticity and second-order accuracy. By careful bookkeeping, the authors can, for each particle that is lost, determine its initial phase space coordinates. They use this information as a guide for different injection schemes and rf voltage programming, so that a minimum of particle losses and dilution are attained. A fairly accurate estimate of the space charge fields is required, as they influence considerably the particle distribution and reduce the capture efficiency. Since the beam is represented by a relatively coarse ensemble of macro particles, the authors study several methods of reducing the statistical fluctuations while retaining the fine structure (high intensity modulations) of the beam distribution. A pre-smoothing of the data is accomplished by the cloud-in-cell method. The program is checked by making sure that it gives correct answers in the absence of space charge, and that it reproduces the negative mass instability properly. Results of simulations for stationary distributions are compared to their analytical predictions. The capture efficiency for the rapid-cycling synchrotron is analyzed with respect to variations in the injected beam energy spread, bunch length, and rf programming

  7. A potential diagnostic for low energy, nonthermal protons in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The current uncertainty in flare research regarding the role of low energy (<1 MeV) protons demands that we consider any possibilities for directly constraining their number and energy content. Here we point out that γ-ray lines, from radiative capture reactions of such protons, may in principle provide such constraints. Making allowance for the possibility that the protons slow down in a warm target, we show how observational upper limits to their strengths may be used to constrain the proton energy content and the temperature of the interaction region

  8. Systematic studies of binding energy dependence of neutron-proton momentum correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y B; Ma, Y G; Shen, W Q; Ma, G L; Wang, K; Cai, X Z; Zhong, C; Guo, W; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Tian, W D; Zhou, X F

    2004-01-01

    Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the neutron-proton correlation function have been systematically investigated for a series of nuclear reactions with light projectiles with the help of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum has been obtained. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to the binding energy per nucleon

  9. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  10. KEK/JAERI joint project on high intensity proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    From JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, a new accelerator project to provide high-intensity proton beams proceeded into a construction phase. This project is conducted under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and JAERI. The accelerator complex will provide 1 MW proton beams at 3 GeV and 0.75 MW beams at 50 GeV. The project will be completed within six years. In this article I will describe a) the project itself, b) sciences to be pursued at this new accelerator complex and c) the present status and future plans of the project. (author)

  11. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  12. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  13. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O-H/O-D...

  14. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  15. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOU, W.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade

  16. Cosmic PeV neutrinos and the sources of ultrahigh energy protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Stanev, Todor; Yüksel, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The IceCube experiment recently detected the first flux of high-energy neutrinos in excess of atmospheric backgrounds. We examine whether these neutrinos originate from within the same extragalactic sources as ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Starting from rather general assumptions about spectra and flavors, we find that producing a neutrino flux at the requisite level through pion photoproduction leads to a flux of protons well below the cosmic-ray data at ˜1 018 eV , where the composition is light, unless pions/muons cool before decaying. This suggests a dominant class of accelerator that allows for cosmic rays to escape without significant neutrino yields.

  17. X-ray induction by low energy protons: the quantification problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.

    1988-01-01

    The quantification analysis employing X-ray induction produced by protons with energies lower than 1 MeV, must be done considering the variations on cross sections by proton energy loss, when crossing the target. In this work, it is presented some results of thickness of thin films in the determination of alloys. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Measurement of the energy spectra relative to neutrons produced at very small angle in $\\mathrm{\\sqrt{s} = 13 ~ TeV}$ proton-proton collisions using the LHCf Arm2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00533910

    In the last years, several ground-based experiments have measured flux and composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays - i.e. cosmic rays having energies above $10^{18} ~ eV$ - up to the GZK cutoff region. Nevertheless, these analyses suffer of large uncertainties due to the fact that they must rely on hadronic interaction models, that exhibit very different behavior in the forward region due to the lack of high energy calibration data. To provide measurements that can be useful to tune these models is exactly the main aim of the LHC-forward (LHCf) experiment. Thanks to two small sampling calorimeter, Arm1 and Arm2, installed at $\\pm 140 ~ m$ from LHC IP1, LHCf can detect neutral particles produced in the very forward region ($\\eta > 8.4$) by proton-proton and proton-ion high energy collisions (proton-proton interaction at $\\sqrt{s} = 14 ~ TeV$ is equivalent to the collision of a $10^{17} ~ eV$ proton with a proton at rest, hence it is possible to perform measurements at an energy close to the typical one of...

  19. High-Efficiency Volume Reflection of an Ultrarelativistic Proton Beam with a Bent Silicon Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Carnera, Alberto; Della Mea, Gianantonio; De Salvador, Davide; Milan, Riccardo; Vomiero, Alberto; Baricordi, Stefano; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Guidi, Vincenzo; Martinelli,Giuliano; Mazzolari, Andrea; Milan, Emiliano; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Azzarello, Philipp; Battiston, Roberto; Bertucci, Bruna; Burger, William J; Ionica, Maria; Zuccon, Paolo; Cavoto, Gianluca; Santacesaria, Roberta; Valente, Paolo; Vallazza, Erik; Afonin, Alexander G; Baranov, Vladimir T; Chesnokov, Yury A; Kotov, Vladilen I; Maisheev, Vladimir A; Yaznin, Igor A; Afansiev, Sergey V; Kovalenko, Alexander D; Taratin, Alexander M; Denisov, Alexander S; Gavrikov, Yury A; Ivanov, Yuri M; Ivochkin, Vladimir G; Kosyanenko, Sergey V; Petrunin, Anatoli A; Skorobogatov, Vyacheslav V; Suvorov, Vsevolod M; Bolognini, Davide; Foggetta,Luca; Hasan, Said; Prest, Michela

    2007-01-01

    The volume reflection phenomenon was detected while investigating 400 GeV proton interactions with bent silicon crystals in the external beam H8 of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Such a process was observed for a wide interval of crystal orientations relative to the beam axis, and its efficiency exceeds 95%, thereby surpassing any previously observed value. These observations suggest new perspectives for the manipulation of high-energy beams, e.g., for collimation and extraction in new-generation hadron colliders, such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  20. AstroBox: A novel detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, E., E-mail: epollacco@cea.fr [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trache, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Roeder, B.T., E-mail: broeder@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Pascovici, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Kebbiri, M.; Mols, J.P.; Raillot, M. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-21

    An instrument, AstroBox, has been developed to perform low energy proton spectroscopy from β-delayed proton emitters of interest to astrophysics studies. Energetic precursor nuclei are identified and stopped in the gas volume of the detector. The subsequent β or β-proton decay traces ionized paths in the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted in an electric field and are amplified with a Micro Pattern Gas Amplifier Detector (MPGAD). The system was tested in-beam using the β-delayed proton-emitter {sup 23}Al, which was produced with the p({sup 24}Mg,{sup 23}Al)2n reaction and separated with the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. Off-beam proton spectra have essentially no β background down to ∼100keV and have a resolution of ∼15keV (fwhm) for proton-decay lines at E{sub p}=197 and 255 keV. Lines with βp-branching as low as 0.02% are observed. In addition, the device also gives good mass and charge resolution for energetic heavy ions measured in-beam.

  1. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 10^{9} particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E_{0} at FWHM. A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90  deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  2. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  3. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  4. Proton energy determinations in water and in tissue-like material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitano, R F [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy); Rosetti, M [Div. di Fisica Applicata, ENEA, Bologna (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    The mean energy of proton beams in water and in a tissue substitute, respectively, were determined as a function of SOBP width, beam size and initial energy spread. Then an analytical expression to obtain the proton mean energy as a function of phantom depth and initial energy was established. This expression differs from the analogous ones reported in some current dosimetry protocols in that it accounts for the nuclear interaction effects in determining the mean energy. The preliminary results of the calculations referred to above are reported together with some comments on the specification of the proton beam quality for clinical dosimetry. (orig.)

  5. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  6. Measurements of the pseudorapidity dependence of the total transverse energy in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Byszewski, Marcin; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of the sum of the transverse energy of particles as a function of particle pseudorapidity, eta, in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy, $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the region |$\\eta$| < 4.8 for two event classes: those requiring the presence of particles with a low transverse momentum and those requiring particles with a significant transverse momentum. In the second dataset measurements are made in the region transverse to the hard scatter. The distributions are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators, which generally tend to underestimate the amount of transverse energy at high |$\\eta$|.

  7. Extended wave-packet model to calculate energy-loss moments of protons in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archubi, C. D.; Arista, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we introduce modifications to the wave-packet method proposed by Kaneko to calculate the energy-loss moments of a projectile traversing a target which is represented in terms of Gaussian functions for the momentum distributions of electrons in the atomic shells. These modifications are introduced using the Levine and Louie technique to take into account the energy gaps corresponding to the different atomic levels of the target. We use the extended wave-packet model to evaluate the stopping power, the energy straggling, the inverse mean free path, and the ionization cross sections for protons in several targets, obtaining good agreements for all these quantities on an extensive energy range that covers low-, intermediate-, and high-energy regions. The extended wave-packet model proposed here provides a method to calculate in a very straightforward way all the significant terms of the inelastic interaction of light ions with any element of the periodic table.

  8. The optimal balance between quality and efficiency in proton radiography imaging technique at various proton beam energies : A Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A K; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; van Beuzekom, M; Koffeman, E N; Nakaji, T; Takatsu, J; Visser, J; Brandenburg, S

    Proton radiography is a novel imaging modality that allows direct measurement of the proton energy loss in various tissues. Currently, due to the conversion of so-called Hounsfield units from X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) into relative proton stopping powers (RPSP), the uncertainties of RPSP are

  9. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  10. Peak creation in the energy spectrum of laser-produced protons by phase rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Akira; Nakamura, Shu; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Tongu, Hiromu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Souda, Hikaru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Tanabe, Mikio; Daido, Hiroyuki; Mori, Michiaki; Kado, Masataka; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Orimo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yukio; Yogo, Akifumi; Bulanov, Sergei; Esirkepov, Timur; Nagashima, Akira; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Fukumi, Atsushi; Li, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    In collaboration between JAEA, Kansai Photon Science Institute and Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, proton generation from a thin foil target (Ti 3 or 5 μm in thickness) with use of 10 TW laser (JLITEX) has been performed. Proton production is optimized by real time proton energy measurement with use of TOF method. Phase rotation with use of an RF electric field phase-synchronized to the pulse laser enabled the creation of peaks with the spread of ∼7% in the energy spectrum of the produced protons, which resulted in the increase of the intensity ∼4 times at peak position. (author)

  11. Angle-averaged effective proton-carbon analyzing powers at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Berg, A.M. van den; Hunyadi, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Woertche, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The angle-averaged effective analyzing powers, A-bar c , for proton-carbon inclusive scattering were measured as a function of the kinetic energy of protons in a double scattering experiment. The measurements were performed in the kinetic energy range of 44.8-136.5MeV at the center of 1-5cm thick graphite analyzers using a polarized proton beam on a CH 2 film or liquid hydrogen serving as target for the primary scattering. These data can be used for measuring the polarization of protons emerging from other reactions such as H(d-bar ,p-bar )d

  12. Nanostructure-based proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsheng; Wang, Zhengbang; Li, Junrui; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-02-01

    As a clean and highly efficient energy source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been considered an ideal alternative to traditional fossil energy sources. Great efforts have been devoted to realizing the commercialization of the PEMFC in the past decade. To eliminate some technical problems that are associated with the low-temperature operation (such as catalyst poisoning and poor water management), PEMFCs are usually operated at elevated temperatures (e.g., > 100 degrees C). However, traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) shows poor performance at elevated temperature. To achieve a high-performance PEM for high temperature fuel cell applications, novel PEMs, which are based on nanostructures, have been developed recently. In this review, we discuss and summarize the methods for fabricating the nanostructure-based PEMs for PEMFC operated at elevated temperatures and the high temperature performance of these PEMs. We also give an outlook on the rational design and development of the nanostructure-based PEMs.

  13. Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; An, Mangmang; Andrei, Cristian; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Isakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; 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Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Mishra, Tribeni; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; 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Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Martin; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; 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Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yalcin, Serpil; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2017-01-01

    At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the quark–gluon plasma (QGP). Such an exotic state of strongly interacting quantum chromodynamics matter is produced in the laboratory in heavy nuclei high-energy collisions, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed. Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions, is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton–proton (pp) collisions, but the enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity proton–proton collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles, relative to pions, increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The me...

  14. HIGH ENERGY HADRON POLARIMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUNCE, G.

    2007-01-01

    Proton polarimetry at RHIC uses the interference of electromagnetic (EM) and hadronic scattering amplitudes. The EM spin-flip amplitude for protons is responsible for the proton's anomalous magnetic moment, and is large. This then generates a significant analyzing power for small angle elastic scattering. RHIC polarimetry has reached a 5% uncertainty on the beam polarization, and seem capable of reducing this uncertainty further. Polarized neutron beams ax also interesting for RHIC and for a polarized electron-polarized proton/ion collider in the fume. In this case, deuterons, for example, have a very small anomalous magnetic moment, making the approach used for protons impractical. Although it might be possible to use quasielastic scattering from the protons in the deuteron to monitor the polarization. 3-He beams can provide polarized neutrons, and do have a large anomalous magnetic moment, making a similar approach to proton polarimetry possible

  15. Optimization of dual-energy CT acquisitions for proton therapy using projection-based decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches-Freixas, Gloria; Létang, Jean Michel; Ducros, Nicolas; Rit, Simon

    2017-09-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been presented as a valid alternative to single-energy CT to reduce the uncertainty of the conversion of patient CT numbers to proton stopping power ratio (SPR) of tissues relative to water. The aim of this work was to optimize DECT acquisition protocols from simulations of X-ray images for the treatment planning of proton therapy using a projection-based dual-energy decomposition algorithm. We have investigated the effect of various voltages and tin filtration combinations on the SPR map accuracy and precision, and the influence of the dose allocation between the low-energy (LE) and the high-energy (HE) acquisitions. For all spectra combinations, virtual CT projections of the Gammex phantom were simulated with a realistic energy-integrating detector response model. Two situations were simulated: an ideal case without noise (infinite dose) and a realistic situation with Poisson noise corresponding to a 20 mGy total central dose. To determine the optimal dose balance, the proportion of LE-dose with respect to the total dose was varied from 10% to 90% while keeping the central dose constant, for four dual-energy spectra. SPR images were derived using a two-step projection-based decomposition approach. The ranges of 70 MeV, 90 MeV, and 100 MeV proton beams onto the adult female (AF) reference computational phantom of the ICRP were analytically determined from the reconstructed SPR maps. The energy separation between the incident spectra had a strong impact on the SPR precision. Maximizing the incident energy gap reduced image noise. However, the energy gap was not a good metric to evaluate the accuracy of the SPR. In terms of SPR accuracy, a large variability of the optimal spectra was observed when studying each phantom material separately. The SPR accuracy was almost flat in the 30-70% LE-dose range, while the precision showed a minimum slightly shifted in favor of lower LE-dose. Photon noise in the SPR images (20 mGy dose

  16. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  17. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  18. Energy dependence of negatively charged pion production in proton-proton interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)663936; Dominik, Wojciech; Gaździck, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents inclusive spectra of the negatively charged pions produced in inelastic proton-proton interactions measured at five beam momenta: 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c. The measurements were conducted in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN using a system of five Time Projection Chambers. The negatively charged pion spectra were calculated based on the negatively charged hadron spectra. Contribution of hadrons other than the primary pions was removed using EPOS simulations. The results were corrected for effects related to detection, acceptance, reconstruction efficiency and the analysis technique. Two-dimensional spectra were derived as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum or transverse mass. The spectra were parametrised by widths of the rapidity distributions, inverse slope parameters of the transverse mass distributions, mean transverse masses and the total pion multiplicities. The negatively charged pion spectra in proton-proton interactions belong to a broad NA61/SHINE programme of se...

  19. Jet energy resolution in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] recorded in 2010 with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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