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Sample records for high protein leucine

  1. Leucine stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.K.; Grogan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated a stimulatory effect of leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis measured in vitro during catabolic conditions. Studies in other laboratories have consistently found this effect in diaphragm muscle, however, studies examining effects on nitrogen balance or with in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscle are equivocal. This experiment was designed to determine the potential of leucine to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were fasted for 12 hrs, anesthetized, a jugular cannula inserted, and protein synthesis measured using a primed continuous infusion of 14 C-tyrosine. A plateau in specific activity was reached after 30 to 60 min and maintained for 3 hrs. The leucine dose consisted of a 240 umole priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of 160 umoles/hr. Leucine infusion stimulated protein synthesis in the soleus muscle (28%) and in the red (28%) and white portions (12%) of the gastrocnemius muscle compared with controls infused with only tyrosine. The increased rates of protein synthesis were due to increased incorporation of tyrosine into protein and to decreased specific activity of the free tyrosine pool. These data indicate that infusion of leucine has the potential to stimulate in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscles

  2. Leucine supplementation in the management of protein energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish if leucine could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of protein energy malnutrition. Study selection: Based on defined key words a search was carried out on Pubmed to retrieve all publications on leucine supplementation and muscle protein synthesis. Only studies that met the search ...

  3. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D.

    1990-01-01

    Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

  4. Native whey protein with high levels of leucine results in similar post-exercise muscular anabolic responses as regular whey protein: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarsland, Håvard; Nordengen, Anne Lene; Nyvik Aas, Sigve; Holte, Kristin; Garthe, Ina; Paulsen, Gøran; Cotter, Matthew; Børsheim, Elisabet; Benestad, Haakon B; Raastad, Truls

    2017-01-01

    Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2 × 20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session. A total of 24 young resistance trained men and women took part in this double blind, randomized, partial crossover, controlled study. Participants received either WPC-80 and native whey ( n  = 10), in a crossover design, or milk ( n  = 12). Supplements were ingested immediately (20 g) and two hours after (20 g) a bout of heavy-load lower body resistance exercise. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to measure plasma concentrations of amino acids by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry, muscle phosphorylation of p70S6K, 4E-BP1 and eEF-2 by immunoblotting, and mixed muscle protein synthesis by use of [ 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine-infusion, gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Being the main comparison, differences between native whey and WPC-80 were analysed by a one-way ANOVA and comparisons between the whey supplements and milk were analysed by a two-way ANOVA. Native whey increased blood leucine concentrations more than WPC-80 and milk ( P  whey ingestion induced a greater phosphorylation of p70S6K than milk 180 min after exercise ( P  = 0.03). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased 1-3 h hours after exercise with WPC-80 (0.119%), and 1-5 h after exercise with native whey (0.112%). Muscle protein synthesis rates were higher 1-5 h after exercise with native whey than with milk (0.112% vs. 0.064, P  = 0.023). Despite higher-magnitude increases in blood leucine concentrations with native whey, it was not superior to WPC-80

  5. A high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, A.M.; Verlaan, S.; Engberink, M.F.; Swinkels, S.; Bosch, J.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia. Objective: The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein-, leucine-, and vitamin D-enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older

  6. High-Pressure NMR and SAXS Reveals How Capping Modulates Folding Cooperativity of the pp32 Leucine-rich Repeat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Berghaus, Melanie; Klein, Sean; Jenkins, Kelly; Zhang, Siwen; McCallum, Scott A; Morgan, Joel E; Winter, Roland; Barrick, Doug; Royer, Catherine A

    2018-04-27

    Many repeat proteins contain capping motifs, which serve to shield the hydrophobic core from solvent and maintain structural integrity. While the role of capping motifs in enhancing the stability and structural integrity of repeat proteins is well documented, their contribution to folding cooperativity is not. Here we examined the role of capping motifs in defining the folding cooperativity of the leucine-rich repeat protein, pp32, by monitoring the pressure- and urea-induced unfolding of an N-terminal capping motif (N-cap) deletion mutant, pp32-∆N-cap, and a C-terminal capping motif destabilization mutant pp32-Y131F/D146L, using residue-specific NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering. Destabilization of the C-terminal capping motif resulted in higher cooperativity for the unfolding transition compared to wild-type pp32, as these mutations render the stability of the C-terminus similar to that of the rest of the protein. In contrast, deletion of the N-cap led to strong deviation from two-state unfolding. In both urea- and pressure-induced unfolding, residues in repeats 1-3 of pp32-ΔN-cap lost their native structure first, while the C-terminal half was more stable. The residue-specific free energy changes in all regions of pp32-ΔN-cap were larger in urea compared to high pressure, indicating a less cooperative destabilization by pressure. Moreover, in contrast to complete structural disruption of pp32-ΔN-cap at high urea concentration, its pressure unfolded state remained compact. The contrasting effects of the capping motifs on folding cooperativity arise from the differential local stabilities of pp32, whereas the contrasting effects of pressure and urea on the pp32-ΔN-cap variant arise from their distinct mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enteral leucine and protein synthesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three members of the Branch Chain Amino Acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. As essential amino acids, these amino acids have important functions which include a primary role in protein structure and metabolism. It is intriguing that the requirement for BCAA in humans comprise about 40–...

  8. Differential effects of leucine and leucine-enriched whey protein on skeletal muscle protein synthesis in aged mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Francina J.; Dijk, van Miriam; Walrand, Stéphane; Loon, van Luc J.C.; Norren, van Klaske; Luiking, Yvette C.

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: It has been suggested that anabolic resistance, or a blunted protein synthetic response to anabolic stimuli, contributes to the failure of muscle mass maintenance in older adults. The amino acid leucine is one of the most prominent food-related anabolic stimuli. However, data

  9. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Griggs, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis (FMPS) was estimated in 10 postabsorptive healthy men by determining the increment in the abundance of [ 13 C]-leucine in quadriceps muscle protein during an intravenous infusion of L-[1- 13 C]leucine. Whole-body muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was calculated based on the estimation of muscle mass from creatinine excretion and compared with whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS) calculated from the nonoxidative portion of leucine flux. A significant correlation was found between MPS. The contribution of MPS to WBPS was 27 ± 1%, which is comparable to the reports in other species. Morphometric analyses of adjacent muscle samples in eight subjects demonstrated that the biopsy specimens consisted of 86.5 ± 2% muscular as opposed to other tissues. Because fiber type composition varies between biopsies, the authors examined the relationship between proportions of each fiber type and FMPS. Variation in the composition of biopsies and in fiber-type proportion did not affect the estimation of muscle protein synthesis rate. They conclude that stable isotope techniques using serial needle biopsies permit the direct measurement of FMPS in humans and that this estimation is correlated with an indirect estimation of WBPS

  10. The Effect of Oral Leucine on Protein Metabolism in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhini Desikan; Izolda Mileva; Jeremy Garlick; Andrew H. Lane; Thomas A. Wilson; Margaret A. McNurlan

    2010-01-01

    Lack of insulin results in a catabolic state in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is reversed by insulin treatment. Amino acid supply, especially branched chain amino acids such as leucine, enhances protein synthesis in both animal and human studies. This small study was undertaken to assess the acute effect of supplemental leucine on protein metabolism in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. L-[1-13C] Leucine was used to assess whole-body protein metabolism in six adolesc...

  11. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  12. Leucine supplementation improves acquired growth hormone resistance in rats with protein-energy malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xinying; Zhao, Jie; Wan, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) can lead to growth hormone (GH) resistance. Leucine supplementation diets have been shown to increase protein synthesis in muscles. Our study aimed at investigating if long-term leucine supplementation could modulate GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 system function and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related signal transduction in skeletal muscles in a rat model of severe malnutrition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50; weight, 302 ± 5 g) were divided into 5 treatment groups, including 2 control groups (a normal control group that was fed chow and ad libitum water [CON, n = 10] and a malnourished control group [MC, n = 10] that was fed a 50% chow diet). After undergoing a weight loss stage for 4 weeks, rats received either the chow diet (MC-CON, n = 10), the chow diet supplemented with low-dose leucine (MC-L, n = 10), or the chow diet supplemented with high-dose leucine (MC-H, n = 10) for 2 weeks. The muscle masses of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus were significantly reduced in the MC group. Re-feeding increased muscle mass, especially in the MC-L and MC-H groups. In the MC group, serum IGF-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) levels were significantly decreased and phosphorylation of the downstream anabolic signaling effectors protein kinase B (Akt), mTOR, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) were significantly lower than in other groups. However, serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) levels were significantly higher in the MC-L and MC-H groups than in the MC-CON group, and serum IGFBP-1 levels was significantly reduced in the MC-L and MC-H groups. These changes were consistent with those observed for hepatic mRNA expression levels. Phosphorylation of the downstream anabolic signaling effectors Akt, mTOR, and S6K1 were also significantly higher in the MC-L and MC-H groups than in the MC

  13. The Effect of Oral Leucine on Protein Metabolism in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson ThomasA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lack of insulin results in a catabolic state in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus which is reversed by insulin treatment. Amino acid supply, especially branched chain amino acids such as leucine, enhances protein synthesis in both animal and human studies. This small study was undertaken to assess the acute effect of supplemental leucine on protein metabolism in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. L-[1-13C] Leucine was used to assess whole-body protein metabolism in six adolescent females (16–18 yrs with type 1 diabetes during consumption of a basal diet (containing 58 μmoles leucine/kg/h and the basal diet with supplemental leucine (232 μmoles leucine/kg/h. Net leucine balance was significantly higher with supplemental leucine ( μmoles leucine/kg body weight/hr than with the basal diet (, due to reduced protein degradation ( μmoles leucine/kg body weight/hr compared to the basal diet (, .

  14. Unilateral hindlimb casting induced a delayed generalized muscle atrophy during rehabilitation that is prevented by a whey or a high protein diet but not a free leucine-enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Magne

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the general muscle mass and strength loss associated with ageing. Muscle atrophy could be made worse by exposure to acute periods of immobilization, because muscle disuse by itself is a stimulus for atrophy. Using a model of unilateral hindlimb casting in old adult rats, we have already demonstrated that the primary effect of immobilization was atrophy in the casted leg, but was also surprisingly associated with a retarded atrophy in the non-casted leg during rehabilitation. In search of mechanisms involved in this generalized atrophy, we demonstrated in the present study that contrary to pair-fed non-immobilized control animals, muscle protein synthesis in the non-immobilized limb was unable to adapt and to respond positively to food intake. Because pair-fed control rats did not lose muscle mass, this defect in muscle protein synthesis may represent one of the explanation for the muscle mass loss observed in the non-immobilized rats. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate protein turn over and generate a positive nitrogen balance required to maintain the whole muscle mass in immobilized rats, we tested a dietary free leucine supplementation (an amino acid known for its stimulatory effect on protein metabolism during the rehabilitation period. Leucine supplementation was able to overcome the anabolic resistance in the non-immobilized limb. A greater muscle protein synthesis up-regulation associated with a stimulation of the mTOR signalling pathway was indeed recorded but it remained inefficient to prevent the loss of muscle in the non-immobilized limb. By contrast, we demonstrated here that whey protein or high protein diets were able to prevent the muscle mass loss of the non-immobilized limb by sustaining muscle protein synthesis during the entire rehabilitation period.

  15. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang She

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-(14C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old had increased body weight (BW, 53%, liver (107% and fat (∼300%, but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (-21-24%. Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45-69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%, leucine (Leu turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM, urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183% and 4-hydroxyproline (766%] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (-47-66%. A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23-29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected, gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193-418% than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and protein

  16. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei

    2017-01-01

    correlation was observed between the responses on the transcript and protein levels. Combination of DGA1 overexpression with nitrogen limitation resulted in a high level of lipid accumulation accompanied by downregulation of several amino acid biosynthetic pathways, including that of leucine in particular......, and these changes were further correlated with a decrease in metabolic fluxes. This downregulation was supported by the measured decrease in the level of 2-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of leucine biosynthesis. Combining the multi-omics data with putative transcription factor binding motifs uncovered...

  17. Quantitative analysis and prediction of curvature in leucine-rich repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, K Lauren; Bella, Jordi; Lovell, Simon C

    2009-11-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins form a large and diverse family. They have a wide range of functions most of which involve the formation of protein-protein interactions. All known LRR structures form curved solenoids, although there is large variation in their curvature. It is this curvature that determines the shape and dimensions of the inner space available for ligand binding. Unfortunately, large-scale parameters such as the overall curvature of a protein domain are extremely difficult to predict. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of determinants of curvature of this family. Individual repeats typically range in length between 20 and 30 residues and have a variety of secondary structures on their convex side. The observed curvature of the LRR domains correlates poorly with the lengths of their individual repeats. We have, therefore, developed a scoring function based on the secondary structure of the convex side of the protein that allows prediction of the overall curvature with a high degree of accuracy. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in selecting a suitable template for comparative modeling. We have developed an automated, quantitative protocol that can be used to predict accurately the curvature of leucine-rich repeat proteins of unknown structure from sequence alone. This protocol is available as an online resource at http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/curlrr/.

  18. Incorporation of [h]leucine and [h]valine into protein of freshwater bacteria: field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, N O

    1992-11-01

    Incorporation of leucine and valine into proteins of freshwater bacteria as a measure of bacterial production was tested in two eutrophic Danish lakes and was related to bacterial production measured by thymidine incorporation. In a depth profile (0 to 8 m) in Frederiksborg Castle Lake, incorporation of 100 nM leucine and valine gave similar rates of protein production. In terms of carbon, this production was about 50% lower than incorporation of 10 nM thymidine. In another depth profile in the same lake, incorporations of 10 nM valine and 100 nM leucine were identical, but differed from incorporations of 10 nM leucine and 100 nM valine. Bacterial carbon production calculated from incorporations of 10 nM thymidine and 10 nM leucine was similar, whereas 10 nM valine and 100 nM leucine and valine indicated an up to 2.4-fold-higher rate of carbon production. In a diel study in Lake Bagsvaerd, incorporation of 100 nM leucine and valine indicated a similar protein production, but the calculated carbon production was about 1.9-fold higher than the production based on uptake of 10 nM thymidine. Different diel changes in incorporation of the two amino acids and in incorporation of thymidine were observed. In both lakes, concentrations of naturally occurring leucine and valine were activity of a H isotope added at a concentration of 100 nM usually was diluted a maximum of 5%. Net assimilation of natural free amino acids in the lakes sustained 8 to 69% of the net bacterial carbon requirement, estimated from incorporation of leucine, valine, or thymidine. The present results indicate that incorporation of leucine and valine permits realistic measurements of bacterial production in freshwater environments.

  19. Effect of burn and first-pass splanchnic leucine extraction on protein kinetics in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstad, M.D.; DeMichele, S.J.; Istfan, N.; Blackburn, G.L.; Bistrian, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of burn and first-pass splanchnic leucine extraction (FPE) on protein kinetics and energy expenditure were assessed by measuring O 2 consumption, CO 2 production, nitrogen balance, leucine kinetics, and tissue fractional protein synthetic rates (FSR-%/day) in enterally fed rats. Anesthetized male rats (200 g) were scalded on their dorsum with boiling water (25-30% body surface area) and enterally fed isovolemic diets that provided 60 kcal/day and 2.4 g of amino acids/day for 3 days. Controls were not burned. An intravenous or intragastric infusion of L-[1- 14 C]leucine was used to assess protein kinetics on day 3. FPE was taken as the ratio of intragastric to intravenous plasma leucine specific activity. There was a 69% reduction in cumulative nitrogen balance (P less than 0.001) and a 17-19% increase in leucine oxidation (P less than 0.05) and total energy expenditure (P less than 0.01) in burned rats. A 15% decrease in plasma leucine clearance (P less than 0.05) was accompanied by a 20% increase in plasma [leucine] (P less than 0.01) in burned rats. Burn decreased rectus muscle FSR from 5.0 +/- 0.4 to 3.5 +/- 0.5 (P less than 0.05) and increased liver FSR from 19.0 +/- 0.5 to 39.2 +/- 3.4 (P less than 0.01). First pass extraction of dietary leucine by the splanchnic bed was 8% in controls and 26% in burned rats. Leucine kinetics corrected for FPE showed increased protein degradation with burn that was not evident without FPE correction. This hypermetabolic burn model can be useful in the design of enteral diets that optimize rates of protein synthesis and degradation

  20. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  1. Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 functions as a caspase-3 inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Weiyong; Kimura, Hiromichi; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Shiota, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 (PAL31) is expressed in proliferating cells and consists of 272 amino acids with a tandem structure of leucine-rich repeats in the N-terminus and a highly acidic region with a putative nuclear localization signal in the C-terminus. We previously reported that PAL31 is required for cell cycle progression. In the present study, we found that the antisense oligonucleotide of PAL31 induced apoptosis to the transfected Nb2 cells. Stable transfectants, in which PAL31 was regulated by an inducible promoter, were generated to gain further insight into the signaling role of PAL31 in the regulation of apoptosis. Expression of PAL31 resulted in the marked rescue of Rat1 cells from etoposide and UV radiation-induced apoptosis and the cytoprotection was correlated with the levels of PAL31 protein. Thus, cytoprotection from apoptosis is a physiological function of PAL31. PAL31 can suppress caspase-3 activity but not cytochrome c release in vitro, indicating that PAL31 is a direct caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, PAL31 is a multifunctional protein working as a cell cycle progression factor as well as a cell survival factor

  2. A leucine-supplemented diet improved protein content of skeletal muscle in young tumor-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes-Marcondes M.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia induces host protein wastage but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Branched-chain amino acids play a regulatory role in the modulation of both protein synthesis and degradation in host tissues. Leucine, an important amino acid in skeletal muscle, is higher oxidized in tumor-bearing animals. A leucine-supplemented diet was used to analyze the effects of Walker 256 tumor growth on body composition in young weanling Wistar rats divided into two main dietary groups: normal diet (N, 18% protein and leucine-rich diet (L, 15% protein plus 3% leucine, which were further subdivided into control (N or L or tumor-bearing (W or LW subgroups. After 12 days, the animals were sacrificed and their carcass analyzed. The tumor-bearing groups showed a decrease in body weight and fat content. Lean carcass mass was lower in the W and LW groups (W = 19.9 ± 0.6, LW = 23.1 ± 1.0 g vs N = 29.4 ± 1.3, L = 28.1 ± 1.9 g, P < 0.05. Tumor weight was similar in both tumor-bearing groups fed either diet. Western blot analysis showed that myosin protein content in gastrocnemius muscle was reduced in tumor-bearing animals (W = 0.234 ± 0.033 vs LW = 0.598 ± 0.036, N = 0.623 ± 0.062, L = 0.697 ± 0.065 arbitrary intensity, P < 0.05. Despite accelerated tumor growth, LW animals exhibited a smaller reduction in lean carcass mass and muscle myosin maintenance, suggesting that excess leucine in the diet could counteract, at least in part, the high host protein wasting in weanling tumor-bearing rats.

  3. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  4. Role and metabolism of free leucine in skeletal muscle in protein sparing action of dietary carbohydrate and fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Kiwao; Ishikawa, Tamotsu

    1977-01-01

    Feeding rats with either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal to the previously fasted rats caused significant decrease in urinary output of urea and total nitrogen. The content of free leucine in skeletal muscle decreased in the rats fed either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. Feeding of either a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal stimulated incorporation of L-leucine-1- 14 C into protein fraction of skeletal muscle and reduced its oxidation to 14 CO 2 . These results suggest that the metabolism of leucine is under nutritional regulation and that the decrease in content of free leucine in skeletal muscle might be caused by enhanced reutilization of leucine into protein by the feeding of a carbohydrate meal or a fat meal. The role of free leucine in skeletal muscle as a regulator of protein turnover in the tissue are discussed in relation to the metabolism of this branched chain amino acid. (auth.)

  5. Further observations on incorporation of the 14C-leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Using freshly secreted bovine milk, no incorporation of DL (1- 14 C)-leucine was observed in the total milk proteins and acid precipitated casein, when these protein fractions were isolated from skim milk. A significant portion of the radioactivity however, remained associated with the heat coagulable whey proteins and proteose-peptone fractions. This association was shown to be due to non enzymatic physical sequestering of the radioactive amino acid or its metabolites with these proteins. Most of the radioactivity was associated with the cream layer proteins and the cellular fraction. The results obtained using filtered milk, incubated milk and certain antibiotics also indicated that the incorporation of 14 C leucine into proteins by freshly secreted milk may be a purely microbial process and physical sequestering of an amino acids with milk proteins. (author)

  6. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  7. 3D Printing of Protein Models in an Undergraduate Laboratory: Leucine Zippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    An upper-division undergraduate laboratory experiment is described that explores the structure/function relationship of protein domains, namely leucine zippers, through a molecular graphics computer program and physical models fabricated by 3D printing. By generating solvent accessible surfaces and color-coding hydrophobic, basic, and acidic amino…

  8. Functional mapping and implications of substrate specificity of the yeast high-affinity leucine permease Bap2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Yuki; Uemura, Satsohi; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Morita, Asami; Shishido, Fumi; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Leucine is a major amino acid in nutrients and proteins and is also an important precursor of higher alcohols during brewing. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leucine uptake is mediated by multiple amino acid permeases, including the high-affinity leucine permease Bap2. Although BAP2 transcription has been extensively analyzed, the mechanisms by which a substrate is recognized and moves through the permease remain unknown. Recently, we determined 15 amino acid residues required for Tat2-mediated tryptophan import. Here we introduced homologous mutations into Bap2 amino acid residues and showed that 7 residues played a role in leucine import. Residues I109/G110/T111 and E305 were located within the putative α-helix break in TMD1 and TMD6, respectively, according to the structurally homologous Escherichia coli arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Upon leucine binding, these α-helix breaks were assumed to mediate a conformational transition in Bap2 from an outward-open to a substrate-binding occluded state. Residues Y336 (TMD7) and Y181 (TMD3) were located near I109 and E305, respectively. Bap2-mediated leucine import was inhibited by some amino acids according to the following order of severity: phenylalanine, leucine>isoleucine>methionine, tyrosine>valine>tryptophan; histidine and asparagine had no effect. Moreover, this order of severity clearly coincided with the logP values (octanol-water partition coefficients) of all amino acids except tryptophan. This result suggests that the substrate partition efficiency to the buried Bap2 binding pocket is the primary determinant of substrate specificity rather than structural amino acid side chain recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. TCR comodulation of nonengaged TCR takes place by a protein kinase C and CD3 gamma di-leucine-based motif-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Rasmussen, B. A.; Lauritsen, J P

    2003-01-01

    of comodulation. Like internalization of engaged TCR, comodulation was dependent on protein tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, we found that in contrast to internalization of engaged TCR, comodulation was highly dependent on protein kinase C activity and the CD3 gamma di-leucine-based motif. Based...

  10. Postprandial leucine and insulin responses and toxicological effects of a novel whey protein hydrolysate-based supplement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toedebusch Ryan G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was: aim 1 compare insulin and leucine serum responses after feeding a novel hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH-based supplement versus a whey protein isolate (WPI in rats during the post-absorptive state, and aim 2 to perform a thorough toxicological analysis on rats that consume different doses of the novel WPH-based supplement over a 30-day period. In male Wistar rats (~250 g, n = 40, serum insulin and leucine concentrations were quantified up to 120 min after one human equivalent dose of a WPI or the WPH-based supplement. In a second cohort of rats (~250 g, n = 20, we examined serum/blood and liver/kidney histopathological markers after 30 days of feeding low (1human equivalent dose, medium (3 doses and high (6 doses amounts of the WPH-based supplement. In aim 1, higher leucine levels existed at 15 min after WPH vs. WPI ingestion (p = 0.04 followed by higher insulin concentrations at 60 min (p = 0.002. In aim 2, liver and kidney histopathology/toxicology markers were not different 30 days after feeding with low, medium, high dose WPH-based supplementation or water only. There were no between-condition differences in body fat or lean mass or circulating clinical chemistry markers following the 30-day feeding intervention in aim 2. In comparison to WPI, acute ingestion of a novel WPH-based supplement resulted in a higher transient leucine response with a sequential increase in insulin. Furthermore, chronic ingestion of the tested whey protein hydrolysate supplement appears safe.

  11. Introduction of a leucine half-zipper engenders multiple high-quality crystals of a recalcitrant tRNA synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Min; Shapiro, Ryan; Schimmel, Paul; Yang, Xiang-Lei

    2010-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase is recalcitrant to crystallization. A group of leucine substitutions has transformed the protein. Although Escherichia coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase was among the first tRNA synthetases to be sequenced and extensively studied by functional analysis, it has proved to be recalcitrant to crystallization. This challenge remained even for crystallization of the catalytic fragment. By mutationally introducing three stacked leucines onto the solvent-exposed side of an α-helix, an engineered catalytic fragment of the synthetase was obtained that yielded multiple high-quality crystals and cocrystals with different ligands. The engineered α-helix did not form a leucine zipper that interlocked with the same α-helix from another molecule. Instead, using the created hydrophobic spine, it interacted with other surfaces of the protein as a leucine half-zipper (LHZ) to enhance the crystal lattice interactions. The LHZ made crystal lattice contacts in all crystals of different space groups. These results illustrate the power of introducing an LHZ into helices to facilitate crystallization. The authors propose that the method can be unified with surface-entropy reduction and can be broadly used for protein-surface optimization in crystallization

  12. Identification of a novel Leucine-rich repeat protein and candidate PP1 regulatory subunit expressed in developing spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperry Ann O

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is comprised of a series of highly regulated developmental changes that transform the precursor germ cell into a highly specialized spermatozoon. The last phase of spermatogenesis, termed spermiogenesis, involves dramatic morphological change including formation of the acrosome, elongation and condensation of the nucleus, formation of the flagella, and disposal of unnecessary cytoplasm. A prominent cytoskeletal component of the developing spermatid is the manchette, a unique microtubular structure that surrounds the nucleus of the developing spermatid and is thought to assist in both the reshaping of the nucleus and redistribution of spermatid cytoplasm. Although the molecular motor KIFC1 has been shown to associate with the manchette, its precise role in function of the manchette and the identity of its testis specific protein partners are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins in the testis that interact with KIFC1 using a yeast 2 hybrid screen of a testis cDNA library. Results Thirty percent of the interacting clones identified in our screen contain an identical cDNA encoding a 40 kD protein. This interacting protein has 4 leucine-rich repeats in its amino terminal half and is expressed primarily in the testis; therefore we have named this protein testis leucine-rich repeat protein or TLRR. TLRR was also found to associate tightly with the KIFC1 targeting domain using affinity chromatography. In addition to the leucine-rich repeats, TLRR contains a consensus-binding site for protein phosphatase-1 (PP1. Immunocytochemistry using a TLRR specific antibody demonstrates that this protein is found near the manchette of developing spermatids. Conclusion We have identified a previously uncharacterized leucine-rich repeat protein that is expressed abundantly in the testis and associates with the manchette of developing spermatids, possibly through its interaction with the KIFC1 molecular motor

  13. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese zucker rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however they increase in obesity and appear to prognosticate diabetes onset. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1...

  14. Effect of voluntary exercise and dietary protein levels on incorporation of 14C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Masanori; Kimura, Shuichi

    1983-01-01

    The effect of voluntary exercise on incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein by mice liver slices in vitro were examined with mice fed 4 %, 6 % and 20 % protein diets. The incorporation of 14 C-leucine increased as dietary protein levels decreased and was significantly higher in liver slices of exercise groups than in slices of non-exercise groups. (author)

  15. The Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey-Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance 5a. GONTRAGT NUMBER FA8650-04-D-6472 5b. GRANT NUMBER...investigate the ability of whey -protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit...composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo

  16. Structure and function of homodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcription factors unique to plants and are encoded by more than 25 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on sequence analyses these proteins have been classified into four distinct groups: HD-Zip I-IV. HD-Zip proteins are characterized by the presence of two functional domains; a homeodomain (HD) responsible for DNA binding and a leucine zipper domain (Zip) located immediately C-terminal to the homeodomain and involved in protein-protein interaction. Despite sequence similarities HD-ZIP proteins participate in a variety of processes during plant growth and development. HD-Zip I proteins are generally involved in responses related to abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, de-etiolation and embryogenesis. HD-Zip II proteins participate in light response, shade avoidance and auxin signalling. Members of the third group (HD-Zip III) control embryogenesis, leaf polarity, lateral organ initiation and meristem function. HD-Zip IV proteins play significant roles during anthocyanin accumulation, differentiation of epidermal cells, trichome formation and root development.

  17. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawan, Agus; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Orellana, Renan A; Wilson, Fiona A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which leucine stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin [an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1] for 1 h and then infused with leucine for 1 h. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and activation of signaling components that lead to mRNA translation were determined in skeletal muscle. Rapamycin completely blocked leucine-induced muscle protein synthesis. Rapamycin markedly reduced raptor-mTOR association, an indicator of mTORC1 activation. Rapamycin blocked the leucine-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and formation of the eIF4E.eIF4G complex and increased eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex abundance. Rapamycin had no effect on the association of mTOR with rictor, a crucial component for mTORC2 activation, or G protein beta-subunit-like protein (GbetaL), a component of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Neither leucine nor rapamycin affected the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PKB, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)2, signaling components that reside upstream of mTOR. Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF)2 phosphorylation was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, although current dogma indicates that eEF2 phosphorylation is mTOR dependent. Together, these in vivo data suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates by enhancing mTORC1 activation and its downstream effectors.

  18. Branched-chain Amino Acid Biosensing Using Fluorescent Modified Engineered Leucine/Isoleucine/Valine Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluorescence sensing system for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAswas developed based on engineered leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding proteins (LIVBPsconjugated with environmentally sensitive fluorescence probes. LIVBP was cloned fromEscherichia coli and Gln149Cys, Gly227Cys, and Gln254Cys mutants were generated bygenetic engineering. The mutant LIVBPs were then modified with environmentallysensitive fluorophores. Based on the fluorescence intensity change observed upon thebinding of the ligands, the MIANS-conjugated Gln149Cys mutant (Gln149Cys-M showedthe highest and most sensitive response. The BCAAs Leu, Ile, and Val can each bemonitored at the sub-micromolar level using Gln149Cys-M. Measurements were alsocarried out on a mixture of BCAFAs and revealed that Gln149Cys-M-based measurementis not significantly affected by the change in the molar ratio of Leu, Ile and Val in thesample. Its high sensitivity and group-specific molecular recognition ability make the newsensing system ideally suited for the measurement of BCAAs and the determination of theFischer ratio, an indicator of hepatic disease involving metabolic dysfunction.

  19. Effect of biostimulator on the incorporation of DL(1-14C)leucine into skeletal muscle proteins of buffalo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, N.C.; Singh, L.N.

    1982-01-01

    Incorporation of 14 C-leucine into muscle proteins of buffalo calves was studied in vitro using muscle fibre preparations from biceps femoris. Biostimulator (a spleen tissue extract) stimulated the incorporation of 14 C-leucine into total proteins to some extent, but inhibited the synthesis of sarcoplasmic proteins. There was no significant difference in the relative proportion of the individual sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in the presence or absence of biostimulator. In one major sarcoplasmic protein there was higher specific activity in the presence of biostimulator. In all the remaining 4 proteins the incorporation was inhibited. Among the myofibrillar proteins, the incorporation into troponins, myosin light chains and tropomyosin was stimulated in the presence of biostimulator. Myosin heavy chain and acting did not show any change in incorporation of 14 C-leucine after addition of the biostimulator. (author)

  20. Alterations in protein and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a branched-chain amino acid- or leucine-enriched diet during postprandial and postabsorptive states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Milan; Siman, Pavel; Vodenicarovova, Melita; Kandar, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe in favourable effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine), especially leucine, on muscle protein balance and consume BCAAs for many years. We determined the effects of the chronic intake of a BCAA- or leucine-enriched diet on protein and amino acid metabolism in fed and postabsorptive states. Rats were fed a standard diet, a diet with a high content of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (HVLID), or a high content of leucine (HLD) for 2 months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state on the last day, and the other half were sacrificed after overnight fast. Protein synthesis was assessed using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine), proteolysis on the basis of chymotrypsin-like activity (CHTLA) of proteasome and cathepsin B and L activities. Chronic intake of HVLID or HLD enhanced plasma levels of urea, alanine and glutamine. HVLID also increased levels of all three BCAA and branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), HLD increased leucine, ketoisocaproate and alanine aminotransferase and decreased valine, ketovaline, isoleucine, ketoisoleucine, and LDL cholesterol. Tissue weight and protein content were lower in extensor digitorum longus muscles in the HLD group and higher in kidneys in the HVLID and HLD groups. Muscle protein synthesis in postprandial state was higher in the HVLID group, and CHTLA was lower in muscles of the HVLID and HLD groups compared to controls. Overnight starvation enhanced alanine aminotransferase activity in muscles, and decreased protein synthesis in gastrocnemius (in HVLID group) and extensor digitorum longus (in HLD group) muscles more than in controls. Effect of HVLID and HLD on CHTLA in muscles in postabsorptive state was insignificant. The results failed to demonstrate positive effects of the chronic consumption of a BCAA-enriched diet on protein balance in skeletal muscle and indicate rather negative effects from a leucine-enriched diet. The primary

  1. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Reed, John C. [Program on Apoptosis, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Pascual, Jaime, E-mail: pascual@burnham.org [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  2. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio; Reed, John C.; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6 1 22/P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit

  3. A microsystem to evaluate the synthesis of [3H]leucine labeled proteins by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varesio, L.; Eva, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for evaluating protein synthesis by adherent MPHI by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into TCA precipitable material. By using guanidine-HCl it was possible to remove completely the radiolabeled proteins from the adherent cells that were cultured in microwells, and retain TCA precipitable material. This procedure enabled the authors to harvest the TCA precipitable proteins with a semiautomatic cell harvester. The guanidine-HCl treatment did not affect the recovery of the radioactive proteins and did not alter the sensitivity of the assay. This method is very simple and rapid and, since it is suitable for processing microcultures, permits detailed studies on the biology of small numbers of MPHI. (Auth.)

  4. Effect of dietary nutrients on ileal endogenous losses of threonine, cysteine, methionine, lysine, leucine and protein in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrate, S; Vignale, S K; Ekmay, R; England, J; Coon, C

    2018-04-01

    An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta. The APE of D4-lysine in plasma, jejunal digesta and ileal digesta reached the isotopic steady state at 5.5, 3.4 and 2.0 days, respectively, by using the broken-line model. It was assumed that the isotopic steady state at 5 days identified for D4-lysine is also representative for the 15N-labeled AA. In experiment 2, chicks were fed diets from 1 to 21 days with increasing levels of fat (6%, 8%, 12%, 13% extract ether), protein (26%, 28.5%, 31% CP) or fiber (14%, 16%, 18% NDF) by adding poultry fat, soybean meal, blended animal protein or barley. Chicks were orally administered 15N-threonine, 15N-cysteine, 15N-methionine, 15N-lysine and 15N-leucine at 2% of estimated daily intake for 5 days from 17 to 21 days of age. Dietary nutrients influenced endogenous losses (EL), where dietary fat stimulated EL of lysine (P=0.06), leucine and protein (P=0.07); dietary protein enhanced EL of leucine and protein; and finally the dietary fiber increased EL of leucine. Dietary nutrients also affected apparent ileal digestibility (AID). Dietary fat increased AID of cysteine but decreased AID of lysine. Dietary protein reduced AID of protein, threonine, lysine and leucine, and similarly dietary fiber decreased AID of protein, threonine, methionine, lysine and leucine. In contrast, dietary fat or protein did not affect real ileal digestibility (RID) of protein and AA except threonine and leucine. The dietary fiber reduced the RID of protein, threonine and leucine. This

  5. Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat extensin (LRX) proteins modify cell wall composition and influence plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Christian; Ndinyanka Fabrice, Tohnyui; Gineau, Emilie; Mouille, Grégory; Kuhn, Benjamin M; Moller, Isabel; Abdou, Marie-Therese; Frey, Beat; Pauly, Markus; Bacic, Antony; Ringli, Christoph

    2015-06-24

    Leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRXs) are extracellular proteins consisting of an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and a C-terminal extensin domain containing the typical features of this class of structural hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). The LRR domain is likely to bind an interaction partner, whereas the extensin domain has an anchoring function to insolubilize the protein in the cell wall. Based on the analysis of the root hair-expressed LRX1 and LRX2 of Arabidopsis thaliana, LRX proteins are important for cell wall development. The importance of LRX proteins in non-root hair cells and on the structural changes induced by mutations in LRX genes remains elusive. The LRX gene family of Arabidopsis consists of eleven members, of which LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5 are expressed in aerial organs, such as leaves and stem. The importance of these LRX genes for plant development and particularly cell wall formation was investigated. Synergistic effects of mutations with gradually more severe growth retardation phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggest a similar function of the three genes. Analysis of cell wall composition revealed a number of changes to cell wall polysaccharides in the mutants. LRX3, LRX4, and LRX5, and most likely LRX proteins in general, are important for cell wall development. Due to the complexity of changes in cell wall structures in the lrx mutants, the exact function of LRX proteins remains to be determined. The increasingly strong growth-defect phenotypes in double and triple mutants suggests that the LRX proteins have similar functions and that they are important for proper plant development.

  6. Metabolism of leucine and alanine in growing rats fed the diets with various protein to energy ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideyuki; Yamaguchi, Michio; Kametaka, Masao

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the nutritional significance of metabolism of the carbon skeleton of individual amino acids, the metabolic fates of L-leucine-U- 14 C and L-alanine-U- 14 C were investigated in growing rats fed the diets with various protein calories percents (PC%) at 410 kcal of metabolizable energy. The incorporation of 14 C into body protein in 12 hr after the injection of leucine- 14 C was about 73% of the dose in the 0 and 5 PC% groups, though it decreased with increasing the levels of dietary protein from 10 to 30 PC%. The value of 14 C recovery in body protein almost agreed with the net protein utilization (NPU) determined for the whole egg protein in a similar experimental condition. The 14 C recovery in expired CO 2 and body lipid suggested that the carbon skeleton of leucine is well utilized as an energy source when the dietary carbohydrate is extensively replaced by protein. While, the incorporation of 14 C into body protein from alanine- 14 C was less than about 11% of the dose in all the dietary groups, and the majority of 14 C was recovered in expired CO 2 and body lipid in a remarked contrast to leucine. A similar pattern in urinary excretion of 14 C was obtained for these amino acids, and the refracted rise of 14 C from 10 PC% may give an indication for minimum protein requirements. (auth.)

  7. Cloning of Bordetella pertussis putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin binding protein (LivJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Burcu Emine Tefon

    2017-04-01

    Whooping cough also known as pertussis is a contagious acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by Bordetella pertussis. It is known that this disease may be fatal especially in infants and recently, the number of pertussis cases has been increased. Despite the fact that there are numbers of acellular vaccines on the market, the current acellular vaccine compositions are inadequate for providing sustainable immunity and avoiding subclinical disease cases. Hence, exploring novel proteins with high immune protective capacities is essential to enhance the clinical efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, genes of selected immunogenic proteins via -omics studies, namely Putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin Binding Protein (LivJ) were first cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and transformed to into E. coli DH5α cells and then cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+) and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to express the proteins.

  8. Leucine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis and reduces degradation signal activation in muscle of newborn pigs during acute endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepsis disrupts skeletal muscle proteostasis and mitigates the anabolic response to leucine (Leu) in muscle of mature animals. We have shown that Leu stimulates muscle protein synthesis (PS) in healthy neonatal piglets. To determine if supplemental Leu can stimulate PS and reduce protein degradation...

  9. Incorporation of [3H]Leucine and [3H]Valine into Protein of Freshwater Bacteria: Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Niels O. G.

    1992-01-01

    Incorporation of leucine and valine into proteins of freshwater bacteria as a measure of bacterial production was tested in two eutrophic Danish lakes and was related to bacterial production measured by thymidine incorporation. In a depth profile (0 to 8 m) in Frederiksborg Castle Lake, incorporation of 100 nM leucine and valine gave similar rates of protein production. In terms of carbon, this production was about 50% lower than incorporation of 10 nM thymidine. In another depth profile in t...

  10. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  11. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  12. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  13. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors as markers of adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular markers are used to characterize and track adult stem cells. Colon cancer research has led to the identification of 2 related receptors, leucine-rich repeat-containing, G-protein-coupled receptors (Lgr)5 and Lgr6, that are expressed by small populations of cells in a variety of adult

  14. Leucine Biosynthesis Is Involved in Regulating High Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Kim, Young-Mo; Wei, Siwei; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Scott E.; Metz, Thomas O.; Nielsen, Jens; Lee, Sang Yup

    2017-06-20

    ABSTRACT

    The yeastYarrowia lipolyticais a potent accumulator of lipids, and lipogenesis in this organism can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as genetics and environmental conditions. Using a multifactorial study, we elucidated the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on regulation of lipogenesis inY. lipolyticaand identified how two opposite regulatory states both result in lipid accumulation. This study involved comparison of a strain overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) with a control strain grown under either nitrogen or carbon limitation conditions. A strong correlation was observed between the responses on the transcript and protein levels. Combination ofDGA1overexpression with nitrogen limitation resulted in a high level of lipid accumulation accompanied by downregulation of several amino acid biosynthetic pathways, including that of leucine in particular, and these changes were further correlated with a decrease in metabolic fluxes. This downregulation was supported by the measured decrease in the level of 2-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of leucine biosynthesis. Combining the multi-omics data with putative transcription factor binding motifs uncovered a contradictory role for TORC1 in controlling lipid accumulation, likely mediated through 2-isopropylmalate and a Leu3-like transcription factor.

    IMPORTANCEThe ubiquitous metabolism of lipids involves refined regulation, and an enriched understanding of this regulation would have wide implications. Various factors can influence lipid metabolism, including the environment and genetics. We demonstrated, using a multi-omics and multifactorial experimental setup, that multiple factors affect lipid accumulation in the yeastYarrowia lipolytica. Using integrative analysis, we identified novel interactions between nutrient restriction and genetic factors

  15. In vitro conditions for 14C-leucine incorporation into the protein of cultured ovaries of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadai, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Okitsugu

    1980-01-01

    Vitellogenic ovaries of silkworm pupae were incubated in vitro in different media based on the Wyatt's medium to establish an adequate condition for culture of silkworm ovaries. Incorporation of 14 C-leucine into protein fraction was determined to assess the biochemical activity of the ovary. When ovaries were incubated in vitro for a short time by 6 hr, a saturation kinetics of incorporation of the labelled leucine was shown. Sequential substitution of K + ion to Na + ion in the medium had no effect on the incorporation of 14 C-leucine, but Mg 2+ ion appeared to stimulate synthetic activity at more than 10 mM. The activity was not affected at pH range 5.0-7.2. Neither different sugars, nor vitellogenin nor lipoprotein prepared from silkworm haemolymph affected the incorporation of 14 C-leucine, when added into the medium. The synthesis of protein depended upon the developmental stages of the cultured ovaries and was most active in 6-day-old ovary. Ovaries developing in pupal body showed comparable changes in synthetic activity. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the medium does not exert a strict effect on synthetic activity of protein in short-term cultures and the ovaries cultured in vitro maintain the activity comparable with those found in in situ condition. (author)

  16. Supplementing Breakfast with a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Medical Nutrition Drink Enhances Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Mass in Healthy Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanet, Audrey; Verlaan, Sjors; Salles, Jérôme; Giraudet, Christophe; Patrac, Véronique; Pidou, Véronique; Pouyet, Corinne; Hafnaoui, Nordine; Blot, Adeline; Cano, Noël; Farigon, Nicolas; Bongers, Anke; Jourdan, Marion; Luiking, Yvette; Walrand, Stéphane; Boirie, Yves

    2017-12-01

    Background: A promising strategy to help older adults preserve or build muscle mass is to optimize muscle anabolism through providing an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal. Objective: This "proof of principle" study investigated the acute effect of supplementing breakfast with a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink on postprandial muscle protein synthesis and longer-term effect on muscle mass in healthy older adults. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted in 24 healthy older men [mean ± SD: age 71 ± 4 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) 24.7 ± 2.8] between September 2012 and October 2013 at the Unit of Human Nutrition, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants received a medical nutrition drink [test group; 21 g leucine-enriched whey protein, 9 g carbohydrates, 3 g fat, 800 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ), and 628 kJ] or a noncaloric placebo (control group) before breakfast for 6 wk. Mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured at week 0 in the basal and postprandial state, after study product intake with a standardized breakfast with the use of l-[ 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine tracer methodology. The longer-term effect of the medical nutrition drink was evaluated by measurement of appendicular lean mass, representing skeletal muscle mass at weeks 0 and 6, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Postprandial FSR (0-240 min) was higher in the test group than in the control group [estimate of difference (ED): 0.022%/h; 95% CI: 0.010%/h, 0.035%/h; ANCOVA, P = 0.001]. The test group gained more appendicular lean mass than the control group after 6 wk (ED: 0.37 kg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.72 kg; ANCOVA, P = 0.035), predominantly as leg lean mass (ED: 0.30 kg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.57 kg; ANCOVA, P = 0.034). Conclusions: Supplementing breakfast with a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink stimulated postprandial muscle protein

  17. Anabolic effects of leucine-rich whey protein, carbohydrate, and soy protein with and without β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) during fasting-induced catabolism: A human randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Thomsen, Henrik H; Møller, Andreas B; Hansen, Jakob; Johannsen, Mogens; Jensen, Erik; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Jens O; Richelsen, Bjørn; Jessen, Niels; Møller, Niels

    2017-06-01

    Protein-rich beverages are widely used clinically to preserve muscle protein and improve physical performance. Beverages with high contents of leucine or its keto-metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) are especially anabolic in muscle, but it is uncertain whether this also applies to catabolic conditions such as fasting and whether common or separate intracellular signaling cascades are involved. To compare a specific leucine-rich whey protein beverage (LWH) with isocaloric carbohydrate- (CHO), soy protein (SOY), and soy protein +3 g HMB (HMB) during fasting-induced catabolic conditions. Eight healthy lean male subjects underwent four interventions (LWH, CHO, SOY, and HMB) using a randomized crossover design. Each trial included a 36 h fast and consisted of a 3 h basal fasting period and a 4 h 'sipping' period. Forearm net balances of phenylalanine (NB phe , measure of net protein loss) improved for all groups (p HMB compared with SOY (p HMB have superior anabolic effects on muscle protein kinetics after 36 h of fasting, and LWH distinctly activates the mTOR pathway. These novel findings suggest that leucine-rich whey protein and/or HMB are specifically beneficial during fasting-induced catabolic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Small leucine zipper protein functions as a negative regulator of estrogen receptor α in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyeon Jeong

    Full Text Available The nuclear transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα plays a critical role in breast cancer progression. ERα acts as an important growth stimulatory protein in breast cancer and the expression level of ERα is tightly related to the prognosis and treatment of patients. Small leucine zipper protein (sLZIP functions as a transcriptional cofactor by binding to various nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. However, the role of sLZIP in the regulation of ERα and its involvement in breast cancer progression is unknown. We found that sLZIP binds to ERα and represses the transcriptional activity of ERα in ERα-positive breast cancer cells. sLZIP also suppressed the expression of ERα target genes. sLZIP disrupted the binding of ERα to the estrogen response element of the target gene promoter, resulting in suppression of cell proliferation. sLZIP is a novel co-repressor of ERα, and plays a negative role in ERα-mediated cell proliferation in breast cancer.

  19. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential a...

  20. Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

    1995-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by

  1. Fast axonal transport of 3H-leucin-labelled proteins in the unhurt and isolated optical nerve of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of radioactivity of amino acid molecules incorporated in protein after injection of 3 H-Leucin into the right bulb was investigated and determined along optical nerve after 1, 2, and 4 h. A slightly increased radioactivity at the point of entrance of the optical nerves into the optical duct was found. A slightly reduced axon diameter was discussed as a possible cause. The radioactivity brought into the optical nerve via the vascular system was determined by measuring the contralateral optical nerve. In relation to the axonally transported activity, it was low. The speed of the fast axonal transport is 168 mm/d. If the processes ruling the amino acids in the perikaryon are taken into consideration, the transport speed is 240 mm/d. The application of the protein synthesis prohibitor, Cycloheximide, 5 minutes after the injection of Leucinin completely prevented the appearance of axonally transported labelled proteins. When cycloheximide was administered 2 h after Leucin, a significantly loner radioactivity than in the nerve could be determined after another 2 h; i.e. the incorporation of Leucin was not completed yet after 2 h. The profile of active compounds was the same as in the control group. In other experiments, the axonal transport of labelled proteins in isolated optical nerve fibres was tested. If the separation was carried out 2 h after the injection of Leucin an extreme reduction in activity could be determined after 1 or 2 h. The continued distribution of activity after cycloheximide treatment and removal of perikarya in comparison with the control indicate the continuation of the transport, also after separation of the axon from the perikaryon. This means that, during the time of the experiment, the mechanism of the fast axonal transport functions independently of the perikaryon. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Origin and diversification of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) genes in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ping-Li; Du, Liang; Huang, Yuan; Gao, Shu-Min; Yu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Background Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinases (LRR-RLKs) are the largest group of receptor-like kinases in plants and play crucial roles in development and stress responses. The evolutionary relationships among LRR-RLK genes have been investigated in flowering plants; however, no comprehensive studies have been performed for these genes in more ancestral groups. The subfamily classification of LRR-RLK genes in plants, the evolutionary history and driving force for the evolution...

  3. Leucine content of dietary proteins is a determinant of postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Layne E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine (Leu regulates muscle protein synthesis (MPS producing dose-dependent plasma Leu and MPS responses from free amino acid solutions. This study examined the role of Leu content from dietary proteins in regulation of MPS after complete meals. Methods Experiment 1 examined 4 protein sources (wheat, soy, egg, and whey with different Leu concentrations (6.8, 8.0, 8.8, and 10.9% (w/w, respectively on the potential to increase plasma Leu, activate translation factors, and stimulate MPS. Male rats (~250 g were trained for 14 day to eat 3 meals/day consisting of 16/54/30% of energy from protein, carbohydrates and fats. Rats were killed on d14 either before or 90 min after consuming a 4 g breakfast meal. Experiment 2 compared feeding wheat, whey, and wheat + Leu to determine if supplementing the Leu content of the wheat meal would yield similar anabolic responses as whey. Results In Experiment 1, only whey and egg groups increased post-prandial plasma Leu and stimulated MPS above food-deprived controls. Likewise, greater phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1 occurred in whey and egg groups versus wheat and soy groups. Experiment 2 demonstrated that supplementing wheat with Leu to equalize the Leu content of the meal also equalized the rates of MPS. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that Leu content is a critical factor for evaluating the quantity and quality of proteins necessary at a meal for stimulation of MPS.

  4. A virtual high-throughput screening approach to the discovery of novel inhibitors of the bacterial leucine transporter, LeuT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Katie J; Gotfryd, Kamil; Billesbølle, Christian B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Membrane proteins are intrinsically involved in both human and pathogen physiology, and are the target of 60% of all marketed drugs. During the past decade, advances in the studies of membrane proteins using X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy and NMR-based techniques led to the e...... this is a virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) technique initially developed for soluble proteins. This paper describes application of this technique to the discovery of inhibitors of the leucine transporter (LeuT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family....

  5. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  6. Whey and casein labelled with L-[1-13C]-leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to a single bolus intake of whey or casein after performance of heavy resistance exercise. Young male individuals were randomly assigned to participate in two protein trials (n = 9) or one control trial (n = 8). Infusion of l-[1-(13)C]leucine was carried out, and either whey, casein (0.3 g/kg lean body mass......), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer enrichments......, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Western blots were used to investigate the Akt signaling pathway. Plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acid concentrations increased to a greater extent after ingestion of whey compared with casein. Myofibrillar protein synthesis was equally increased 1-6 h postexercise after...

  7. Lipid-protein interactions. The leucine transport system of Lactococcus lactis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, Geertruida Elisabeth in 't

    1992-01-01

    In summary, it is concluded, that a functionally reconstituted leucine transport system of L. lactis is affected by bilayer features in the following order of importance: lipid headgroup (H+-bonding) › acyl chain carbon number (thickness) › cholesterol (fluidity) › acyl chain unsaturation (indirect

  8. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  9. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise.

  10. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 restores insulin action in leucine-treated skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, A; Salehzadeh, F; Metayer-Coustard, S

    2009-01-01

    Excessive nutrients, especially amino acids, impair insulin action on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that the branched-chain amino acid leucine reduces acute insulin action in primary myotubes via a negative feedback mechanism involving ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1...... to excessive leucine. In conclusion, S6K1 plays an important role in the regulation of insulin action on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle....

  11. Protein Phosphorylation and Mineral Binding Affect the Secondary Structure of the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Yamazaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that serine-16 phosphorylation in native full-length porcine amelogenin (P173 and the Leucine-Rich Amelogenin Peptide (LRAP(+P, an alternative amelogenin splice product, affects protein assembly and mineralization in vitro. Notably, P173 and LRAP(+P stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP and inhibit hydroxyapatite (HA formation, while non-phosphorylated counterparts (rP172, LRAP(−P guide the growth of ordered bundles of HA crystals. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the phosphorylation of full-length amelogenin and LRAP induces conformational changes that critically affect its capacity to interact with forming calcium phosphate mineral phases. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to determine the secondary structure of LRAP(−P and LRAP(+P in the absence/presence of calcium and selected mineral phases relevant to amelogenesis; i.e., hydroxyapatite (HA: an enamel crystal prototype and (ACP: an enamel crystal precursor phase. Aqueous solutions of LRAP(−P or LRAP(+P were prepared with or without 7.5 mM of CaCl2 at pH 7.4. FTIR spectra of each solution were obtained using attenuated total reflectance, and amide-I peaks were analyzed to provide secondary structure information. Secondary structures of LRAP(+P and LRAP(−P were similarly assessed following incubation with suspensions of HA and pyrophosphate-stabilized ACP. Amide I spectra of LRAP(−P and LRAP(+P were found to be distinct from each other in all cases. Spectra analyses showed that LRAP(−P is comprised mostly of random coil and β-sheet, while LRAP(+P exhibits more β-sheet and α-helix with little random coil. With added Ca, the random coil content increased in LRAP(−P, while LRAP(+P exhibited a decrease in α-helix components. Incubation of LRAP(−P with HA or ACP resulted in comparable increases in β-sheet structure. Notably, however, LRAP(+P secondary structure was more affected by

  12. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan, biglycan, is highly expressed in adipose tissue of Psammomys obesus and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristy Bolton1, David Segal1, Ken Walder1,21Metabolic Research Unit, School of Medicine, 2Institute for Technology, Research and Innovation, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: We have previously demonstrated that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan decorin may play a role in adipose tissue homeostasis and the pathophysiology of obesity. Biglycan is highly similar in structure to decorin, therefore we hypothesized it would have a similar expression profile and role to decorin in adipose tissue. Real time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure biglycan mRNA levels in adipose tissue from normal glucose tolerant and impaired glucose tolerant and type 2 diabetic (T2D Psammomys obesus. Biglycan mRNA was found to be highly expressed in adipose tissue, and gene expression was significantly higher in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue, with elevated levels in obese, T2D compared to lean normal glucose tolerant P. obesus (P < 0.04. Biglycan mRNA was predominantly expressed by stromal/vascular cells of fractionated adipose tissue (P = 0.023. Biglycan expression in adipose tissue, particularly in the obese state, was markedly upregulated. Collectively, our data suggest that the small leucine-rich proteoglycan family proteins biglycan and decorin may play a role in the development of obesity and T2D, possibly by facilitating expansion of adipose tissue mass.Keywords: biglycan, small leucine-rich proteoglycan, Psammomys obesus, adipose tissue, obesity, type 2 diabetes

  13. Influence of dietary casein or lactalbumin on incorporation of 14C leucine into protein of ethanol-perfused livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.A.C.; Treloar, B.P.; Hove, E.L.; Sedcole, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing casein or lactalbumin as the sole source of protein (c. 200 g protein/kg diet) for about 4 weeks. At 190-210 g live weight the rats were anaesthetised, and the livers were perfused with ethanol (0-3.7 mL/100 mL perfusate, i.e., 0-625 m ) and 30 minutes later with 14 C leucine (5 micro g Ci) for 60 minutes. The specific radioactivity (dpm/mg protein) of liver and perfusate protein was determined. The log specific radioactivity data of each dietary group were described by a 2-phase linear model: a constant or plateau level up to an ethanol concentration of c. 2 mL ethanol/100 mL perfusate (340 m ), and a linear decrease in log specific radioactivity above that level. For the liver protein the constant log specific radioactivity of the casein dietary group was significantly higher than that for the lactalbumin dietary group. The decreases in log specific radioactivity for both liver and perfusate in the casein dietary group were significantly greater than those in the lactalbumin dietary group. The dietary dependent difference in incorporation with varying ethanol concentrations may result from a combination of control over liver protein synthesis and protein secretion. Predisposing rats to 2 high-quality protein diets results in differences in liver protein metabolism which are maintained against a wide range of ethanol perfusate concentrations. (auths)

  14. Leucine is a major regulator of muscle protein synthesis in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 10 % of infants born in the United States are of low birth weight. Growth failure during the neonatal period is a common occurrence in low birth weight infants due to their inability to tolerate full feeds, concerns about advancing protein supply, and high nutrient requirements for gro...

  15. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion...... is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis. A positive correlation existed between the maximal level of cyclic AMP after glucagon administration and the inhibition of both albumin secretion and the incorporation of 149leucine....

  16. The leucine-rich repeat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C

    2008-08-01

    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  17. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  18. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  19. Identification and function of leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.

  20. A conserved gene family encodes transmembrane proteins with fibronectin, immunoglobulin and leucine-rich repeat domains (FIGLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Christopher L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mouse the cytokine interleukin-7 (IL-7 is required for generation of B lymphocytes, but human IL-7 does not appear to have this function. A bioinformatics approach was therefore used to identify IL-7 receptor related genes in the hope of identifying the elusive human cytokine. Results Our database search identified a family of nine gene candidates, which we have provisionally named fibronectin immunoglobulin leucine-rich repeat (FIGLER. The FIGLER 1–9 genes are predicted to encode type I transmembrane glycoproteins with 6–12 leucine-rich repeats (LRR, a C2 type Ig domain, a fibronectin type III domain, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain containing one to four tyrosine residues. Members of this multichromosomal gene family possess 20–47% overall amino acid identity and are differentially expressed in cell lines and primary hematopoietic lineage cells. Genes for FIGLER homologs were identified in macaque, orangutan, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, chicken, toad, and puffer fish databases. The non-human FIGLER homologs share 38–99% overall amino acid identity with their human counterpart. Conclusion The extracellular domain structure and absence of recognizable cytoplasmic signaling motifs in members of the highly conserved FIGLER gene family suggest a trophic or cell adhesion function for these molecules.

  1. Co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with or without additional leucine effectively reduces postprandial blood glucose excursions in type 2 diabetic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, R.J.; Koopman, R.; Sluijsmans, W.E.; Berg, R. van den; Verbeek, K.; Saris, W.H.; Wagenmakers, A.J.; Loon, L.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study examined postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses after co-ingestion of an insulinotropic protein (Pro) hydrolysate with and without additional free leucine with a single bolus of carbohydrate (Cho). Male patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and healthy controls

  2. Incorporation of radioactive leucine as an evidence for protein synthesis in Lizard epididymis. Studies during the reproductive cycle and after testoterone administration to intact and castrated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigon, Annie; Dufaure, J.-P.

    1975-01-01

    Lizard epididymis activity during the reproductive cycle and after testosterone administration results in a marked increase of radioactive leucine incorporation in vivo and in vitro. The electrophoretic distribution of soluble proteins shows different peaks of radioactivity. Comparison between histological response and pattern of electrophoresis suggests that one of these peaks may correspond to an activity of secretion [fr

  3. Effect of inhibitory avoidance trainning, ACTH, beta-endorphin and adrenaline on the incorporation of 14C-leucine into synaptosomal proteins of rat hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmaz, C.; Maia, H.M.M.; Izquierdo, I.

    1986-01-01

    'In vitro' incorporation of leucine to protein was studied in synaptosomes isolated from the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus of rats submitted to inhibitory avoidance training or to the i.p. injection of ACTH, beta-endorphin or adrenaline; or in synaptosomes incubated with these substances. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  5. Adding Fish Oil to Whey Protein, Leucine, and Carbohydrate Over a Six-Week Supplementation Period Attenuates Muscle Soreness Following Eccentric Exercise in Competitive Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jordan D; Donnelly, Chris; Walshe, Ian H; MacKinley, Elizabeth E; Dick, James; Galloway, Stuart D R; Tipton, Kevin D; Witard, Oliver C

    2018-01-01

    Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil-derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA-approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p recovery, was less in FO (1948 ± 1091 mm × 72 h) than PRO (4640 ± 2654 mm × 72 h, p soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.

  6. A new method to measure muscle protein synthesis in humans by endogenously introduced d9-leucine and using blood for precursor enrichment determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lee; Masters, Haley; Roust, Lori R; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment from the easily accessible blood amino acid pool is commonly used as precursor enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein fractional synthesis in relevant human studies in lieu of the less accessible muscle fluid amino acid pool. However, the accuracy of this approach depends largely on the extent to which there is low discrepancy in free amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle. Steady-state gradient (i.e., ratio) of amino acid enrichment between blood and muscle fluid in the basal state and in response to amino acid infusion were determined in five healthy subjects, and in association with two separate tracers: d9-leucine, introduced endogenously by the metabolism of d10-leucine (i.e., l-[2,3,3,4,5,5,5,6,6,6-2H10]leucine) infused in blood, and 13C6-phenylalanine introduced/infused in blood. The blood-to-muscle fluid amino acid enrichment ratio was lower (P enrichment introduced endogenously by intravenous infusion of d10-leucine provides a closer estimate of the muscle fluid amino acid enrichment, and its associated changes, than blood phenylalanine enrichment to calculate rates of muscle protein synthesis in humans. PMID:26243214

  7. Effects of leucine and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D J; Hossain, T; Hill, D S; Phillips, B E; Crossland, H; Williams, J; Loughna, P; Churchward-Venne, T A; Breen, L; Phillips, S M; Etheridge, T; Rathmacher, J A; Smith, K; Szewczyk, N J; Atherton, P J

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is contingent upon the dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses–fed gains) in protein turnover. Of all nutrients, the single amino acid leucine (Leu) possesses the most marked anabolic characteristics in acting as a trigger element for the initiation of protein synthesis. While the mechanisms by which Leu is ‘sensed’ have been the subject of great scrutiny, as a branched-chain amino acid, Leu can be catabolized within muscle, thus posing the possibility that metabolites of Leu could be involved in mediating the anabolic effect(s) of Leu. Our objective was to measure muscle protein anabolism in response to Leu and its metabolite HMB. Using [1,2-13C2]Leu and [2H5]phenylalanine tracers, and GC-MS/GC-C-IRMS we studied the effect of HMB or Leu alone on MPS (by tracer incorporation into myofibrils), and for HMB we also measured muscle proteolysis (by arteriovenous (A–V) dilution). Orally consumed 3.42 g free-acid (FA-HMB) HMB (providing 2.42 g of pure HMB) exhibited rapid bioavailability in plasma and muscle and, similarly to 3.42 g Leu, stimulated muscle protein synthesis (MPS; HMB +70%vs. Leu +110%). While HMB and Leu both increased anabolic signalling (mechanistic target of rapamycin; mTOR), this was more pronounced with Leu (i.e. p70S6K1 signalling ≤90 min vs. ≤30 min for HMB). HMB consumption also attenuated muscle protein breakdown (MPB; −57%) in an insulin-independent manner. We conclude that exogenous HMB induces acute muscle anabolism (increased MPS and reduced MPB) albeit perhaps via distinct, and/or additional mechanism(s) to Leu. PMID:23551944

  8. Leptospira borgpetersenii hybrid leucine-rich repeat protein: Cloning and expression, immunogenic identification and molecular docking evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritrakul, Tepyuda; Nitipan, Supachai; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; La-Ard, Anchalee; Suphatpahirapol, Chattip; Petkarnjanapong, Wimol; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong; Prapong, Siriwan

    2017-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease, and the major outbreak of this disease in Thailand in 1999 was due largely to the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Sejroe. Identification of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) LBJ_2271 protein containing immunogenic epitopes and the discovery of the LBJ_2271 ortholog in Leptospira serovar Sejroe, KU_Sej_R21_2271, led to further studies of the antigenic immune properties of KU_Sej_LRR_2271. The recombinant hybrid (rh) protein was created and expressed from a hybrid PCR fragment of KU_Sej_R21_2271 fused with DNA encoding the LBJ_2271 signal sequence for targeting protein as a membrane-anchoring protein. The fusion DNA was cloned into pET160/GW/D-TOPO® to form the pET160_hKU_R21_2271 plasmid. The plasmid was used to express the rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein in Escherichia coli BL21 Star™ (DE3). The expressed protein was immunologically detected by Western blotting and immunoreactivity detection with hyperimmune sera, T cell epitope prediction by HLA allele and epitope peptide binding affinity, and potential T cell reactivity analysis. The immunogenic epitopes of the protein were evaluated and verified by HLA allele and epitope peptide complex structure molecular docking. Among fourteen best allele epitopes of this protein, binding affinity values of 12 allele epitopes remained unchanged compared to LBJ_2271. Two epitopes for alleles HLA-A0202 and -A0301 had higher IC 50 values, while T cell reactivity values of these peptides were better than values from LBJ_2271 epitopes. Eight of twelve epitope peptides had positive T-cell reactivity scores. Although the molecular docking of two epitopes, 3FPLLKEFLV11/47FPLLKEFLV55 and 50KLSTVPEGV58, into an HLA-A0202 model revealed a good fit in the docked structures, 50KLSTVPEGV58 and 94KLSTVPEEV102 are still considered as the proteins' best epitopes for allele HLA-A0202. The results of this study showed that rhKU_Sej_LRR_2271 protein contained natural immunological properties that should

  9. Both basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates, following the ingestion of a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement, are not impaired in sarcopenic older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Irene Fleur; Verdijk, Lex B; Hamer, Henrike M; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Kouw, Imre W K; Senden, Joan M; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Gijsen, Annemarie P; Bierau, Jörgen; Poeze, Martijn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-10-01

    Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men. A total of 15 healthy (69 ± 1 y) and 15 sarcopenic (81 ± 1 y) older men ingested a leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement containing 21 g of protein, 9 g of carbohydrate, and 3 g of fat. Stable isotope methodology combined with frequent collection of blood and muscle samples was applied to assess basal and post-prandial muscle protein fractional synthetic rates. Handgrip strength, muscle mass, and gait speed were assessed to identify sarcopenia, according to international criteria. Basal mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) averaged 0.040 ± 0.005 and 0.032 ± 0.003%/h (mean ± SEM) in the sarcopenic and healthy group, respectively (P = 0.14). Following protein ingestion, FSR increased significantly to 0.055 ± 0.004 and 0.053 ± 0.004%/h in the post-prandial period in the sarcopenic (P = 0.003) and healthy groups (P protein synthesis rates during the early (0.058 ± 0.007 vs 0.060 ± 0.008%/h, sarcopenic vs healthy, respectively) and late (0.052 ± 0.004 vs 0.048 ± 0.003%/h) stages of the post-prandial period (P = 0.93 and P = 0.34, respectively). Basal muscle protein synthesis rates are not lower in sarcopenic older men compared to healthy older men. The ingestion of 21 g of a leucine-enriched whey protein effectively increases muscle protein synthesis rates in both sarcopenic and healthy older men. Public trial registry number: NTR3047. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights

  10. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  11. Leucine supplementation protects from insulin resistance by regulating adiposity levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Binder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD, supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3 in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation

  12. BACE1 protein endocytosis and trafficking are differentially regulated by ubiquitination at lysine 501 and the Di-leucine motif in the carboxyl terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eugene L; Biscaro, Barbara; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-12-14

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a membrane-tethered member of the aspartyl proteases that has been identified as β-secretase. BACE1 is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane and then is internalized to endosomes. Sorting of membrane proteins to the endosomes and lysosomes is regulated by the interaction of signals present in their carboxyl-terminal fragment with specific trafficking molecules. The BACE1 carboxyl-terminal fragment contains a di-leucine sorting signal ((495)DDISLL(500)) and a ubiquitination site at Lys-501. Here, we report that lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 (BACE1K501R) does not affect the rate of endocytosis but produces BACE1 stabilization and accumulation of BACE1 in early and late endosomes/lysosomes as well as at the cell membrane. In contrast, the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA) greatly impairs BACE1 endocytosis and produces a delayed retrograde transport of BACE1 to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and a delayed delivery of BACE1 to the lysosomes, thus decreasing its degradation. Moreover, the combination of the lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA/KR) produces additive effects on BACE1 stabilization and defective internalization. Finally, BACE1LLAA/KR accumulates in the TGN, while its levels are decreased in EEA1-positive compartments indicating that both ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the di-leucine motif are necessary for the trafficking of BACE1 from the TGN to early endosomes. Our studies have elucidated a differential role for the di-leucine motif and ubiquitination at Lys-501 in BACE1 endocytosis, trafficking, and degradation and suggest the involvement of multiple adaptor molecules.

  13. BACE1 Protein Endocytosis and Trafficking Are Differentially Regulated by Ubiquitination at Lysine 501 and the Di-leucine Motif in the Carboxyl Terminus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eugene L.; Biscaro, Barbara; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is a membrane-tethered member of the aspartyl proteases that has been identified as β-secretase. BACE1 is targeted through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane and then is internalized to endosomes. Sorting of membrane proteins to the endosomes and lysosomes is regulated by the interaction of signals present in their carboxyl-terminal fragment with specific trafficking molecules. The BACE1 carboxyl-terminal fragment contains a di-leucine sorting signal (495DDISLL500) and a ubiquitination site at Lys-501. Here, we report that lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 (BACE1K501R) does not affect the rate of endocytosis but produces BACE1 stabilization and accumulation of BACE1 in early and late endosomes/lysosomes as well as at the cell membrane. In contrast, the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA) greatly impairs BACE1 endocytosis and produces a delayed retrograde transport of BACE1 to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and a delayed delivery of BACE1 to the lysosomes, thus decreasing its degradation. Moreover, the combination of the lack of ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the disruption of the di-leucine motif (BACE1LLAA/KR) produces additive effects on BACE1 stabilization and defective internalization. Finally, BACE1LLAA/KR accumulates in the TGN, while its levels are decreased in EEA1-positive compartments indicating that both ubiquitination at Lys-501 and the di-leucine motif are necessary for the trafficking of BACE1 from the TGN to early endosomes. Our studies have elucidated a differential role for the di-leucine motif and ubiquitination at Lys-501 in BACE1 endocytosis, trafficking, and degradation and suggest the involvement of multiple adaptor molecules. PMID:23109336

  14. Total protein synthesis in elderly people; a comparison of results with (/sup 15/N)glycine and (/sup 14/C)leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, M H.N.; Waterlow, J C [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK)

    1977-09-01

    Total body protein turnover was studied in six elderly patients. During the study they were fed by continuous infusion of a liquid formula through a nasogastric tube. L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (/sup 15/N)-glycine were infused at a constant rate for 30 h. The labelled glycine was infused into the intragastric line; the labelled leucine was given either by this route or intravenously. The specific radioactivity of free leucine in plasma and the rate of output of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in expired air both reached a plateau at 10 h, and remained constant until the end of the infusion at 30 h. The /sup 15/N abundance in urinary urea and total N was very similar. In neither was a plateau reached by 30 h but in four out of the six patients the abundance in urinary NH/sub 4//sup +/ had attained a plateau by the end of the infusion. Flux rates and rates of protein synthesis were calculated in four ways and a comparison of methods was used to examine the validity of the assumptions on which the different methods depended. The results suggest that the rate of protein turnover is reduced in the elderly, compared with younger subjects.

  15. Basic leucine zipper protein Cnc-C is a substrate and transcriptional regulator of the Drosophila 26S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Kristian Björk; Beskow, Anne; Lundin, Daniel; Davis, Monica M; Young, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    While the 26S proteasome is a key proteolytic complex, little is known about how proteasome levels are maintained in higher eukaryotic cells. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi) screen of Drosophila melanogaster that was used to identify transcription factors that may play a role in maintaining levels of the 26S proteasome. We used an RNAi library against 993 Drosophila transcription factor genes to identify genes whose suppression in Schneider 2 cells stabilized a ubiquitin-green fluorescent protein reporter protein. This screen identified Cnc (cap 'n' collar [CNC]; basic region leucine zipper) as a candidate transcriptional regulator of proteasome component expression. In fact, 20S proteasome activity was reduced in cells depleted of cnc. Immunoblot assays against proteasome components revealed a general decline in both 19S regulatory complex and 20S proteasome subunits after RNAi depletion of this transcription factor. Transcript-specific silencing revealed that the longest of the seven transcripts for the cnc gene, cnc-C, was needed for proteasome and p97 ATPase production. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR confirmed the role of Cnc-C in activation of transcription of genes encoding proteasome components. Expression of a V5-His-tagged form of Cnc-C revealed that the transcription factor is itself a proteasome substrate that is stabilized when the proteasome is inhibited. We propose that this single cnc gene in Drosophila resembles the ancestral gene family of mammalian nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related transcription factors, which are essential in regulating oxidative stress and proteolysis.

  16. Leucine metabolism in patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, A.S.; Kassouny, M.E.; Matthews, D.E.; Millikan, W.

    1986-01-01

    A primed continuous infusion of [ 15 N, 1- 13 C]leucine was used to determine whether increased oxidation and/or protein synthesis of leucine occurs in patients with cirrhosis. Five controls and patients were equilibrated on a metabolic balance diet [0.6 g protein per kg ideal body weight (IBW)]. An additional four patients were equilibrated in the same manner with the same type of diet with a protein level of 0.75 g per kg IBW. Plasma leucine and breath CO 2 enrichments were measured by mass spectrometry. Protein synthesis and leucine metabolism were identical in controls and patients when both were fed a diet with 0.6 g protein/kg IBW. Results indicate that systemic derangements of leucine metabolism are not the cause of Hepatic Encephalopathy

  17. Adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper (APPL1) regulates the protein level of EGFR by modulating its trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Rin; Hahn, Hwa-Sun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Nguyen, Hong-Hoa; Yang, Jun-Mo; Kang, Jong-Sun; Hahn, Myong-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► APPL1 regulates the protein level of EGFR in response to EGF stimulation. ► Depletion of APPL1 accelerates the movement of EGF/EGFR from the cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF. ► Knockdown of APPL1 enhances the activity of Rab5. -- Abstract: The EGFR-mediated signaling pathway regulates multiple biological processes such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Previously APPL1 (adaptor protein containing PH domain, PTB domain and leucine zipper 1) has been reported to function as a downstream effector of EGF-initiated signaling. Here we demonstrate that APPL1 regulates EGFR protein levels in response to EGF stimulation. Overexpression of APPL1 enhances EGFR stabilization while APPL1 depletion by siRNA reduces EGFR protein levels. APPL1 depletion accelerates EGFR internalization and movement of EGF/EGFR from cell surface to the perinuclear region in response to EGF treatment. Conversely, overexpression of APPL1 decelerates EGFR internalization and translocation of EGF/EGFR to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, APPL1 depletion enhances the activity of Rab5 which is involved in internalization and trafficking of EGFR and inhibition of Rab5 in APPL1-depleted cells restored EGFR levels. Consistently, APPL1 depletion reduced activation of Akt, the downstream signaling effector of EGFR and this is restored by inhibition of Rab5. These findings suggest that APPL1 is required for EGFR signaling by regulation of EGFR stabilities through inhibition of Rab5.

  18. Bacterial incorporation of leucine into protein down to -20 degrees C with evidence for potential activity in sub-eutectic saline ice formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Karen; Eicken, Hajo; Swanson, Brian D; Deming, Jody W

    2006-06-01

    Direct evidence for metabolism in a variety of frozen environments has pushed temperature limits for bacterial activity to increasingly lower temperatures, so far to -20 degrees C. To date, the metabolic activities of marine psychrophilic bacteria, important components of sea-ice communities, have not been studied in laboratory culture, not in ice and not below -12 degrees C. We measured [3H]-leucine incorporation into macromolecules (further fractionated biochemically) by the marine psychrophilic bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H over a range of anticipated activity-permissive temperatures, from +13 to -20 degrees C, including expected negative controls at -80 and -196 degrees C. For incubation temperatures below -1 degrees C, the cell suspensions [all in artificial seawater (ASW)] were first quick-frozen in liquid nitrogen. We also examined the effect of added extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on [3H]-leucine incorporation. Results showed that live cells of strain 34H incorporated substantial amounts of [3H]-leucine into TCA-precipitable material (primarily protein) down to -20 degrees C. At temperatures from -1 to -20 degrees C, rates were enhanced by EPS. No activity was detected in the killed controls for strain 34H (or in Escherichia coli controls), which included TCA-killed, heat-killed, and sodium azide- and chloramphenicol-treated samples. Surprisingly, evidence for low but significant rates of intracellular incorporation of [3H]-leucine into protein was observed for both ASW-only and EPS-amended (and live only) samples incubated at -80 and -196 degrees C. Mechanisms that could explain the latter results require further study, but the process of vitrification promoted by rapid freezing and the presence of salts and organic polymers may be relevant. Overall, distinguishing between intracellular and extracellular aspects of bacterial activity appears important to understanding behavior at sub-freezing temperatures.

  19. Pattern of labelling of the rat brain stem after intraventricular administration of 3H-leucine; low and high resolution autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakoubek, B.; Jirmanova, I.; Soukup, T.; Krekule, I.

    1982-01-01

    The pattern of labelling proteins of the periventricular grey matter was studied two hours after intraventricular administration of 3 H-leucine by low- and high-resolution autoradiography. The pattern was investigated by computer-controlled densitometry. The deposition of radioactive proteins in periventricular grey surrounding the mesencephalic part of the aquaeductus Sylvii was compared with that surrounding the fourth ventricle. In the former case, the distribution of grains was in a circular area 500 to 600 μm in diameter; the densitometric tracing revealed a homogeneous distribution of the label; in the latter case, the distribution was nonhomogeneous and was limited by the tissue components forming the wall of the fourth ventricle. A comparison of the intensity of labelling (performed by a combination of low- and high-resolution autoradiography) indicated relatively substantial labelling of proteins of ependymal cells, very sparce labelling of subependymal layers, and very high labelling of neurones adjacent to the subependymal layer. The significance of these findings for the interpretation of studies using intraventricular administration of labelled amino acids for investigating brain macromolecular metabolism is discussed. (author)

  20. Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Serum Withdrawal on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Pathway Gene and Protein Expression in Mouse Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivar, Juan C.; Knight, Megan S.; Pointer, Mildred A.; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2) and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4) compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our understanding of

  1. Effects of leucine supplementation and serum withdrawal on branched-chain amino acid pathway gene and protein expression in mouse adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrazak Kitsy

    Full Text Available The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2 and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4 compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our

  2. Leucine Supplementation in a Chronically Protein-Restricted Diet Enhances Muscle Weight and Postprandial Protein Synthesis of Skeletal Muscle by Promoting the mTOR Pathway in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Low protein intake causes a decrease in protein deposition in most animal tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether leucine supplementation would increase the synthesis rate of protein and muscle weight in adult rats, which chronically consume only 58.8% of their protein requirements. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three dietary treatments including a 20% casein diet (CON, a 10% casein + 0.44% alanine diet (R, and a 10% casein + 0.87% leucine diet (RL. After a 10 d dietary treatment, plasma amino acid levels were measured after feeding, the gastrocnemius muscles and soleus muscles were harvested and weighed, and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling proteins in skeletal muscle were measured. Regarding the plasma amino acid level, the RL group had the highest concentration of leucine (P < 0.05 and the lowest concentration of isoleucine (P < 0.05 among the three groups, and the CON group had a lower concentration of valine (P < 0.05 than the R and RL groups. Compared with the R and RL groups, the CON group diet significantly increased (P < 0.05 feed intake, protein synthesis rate, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and decreased the weight of abdominal adipose. Compared with the R group, the RL group significantly increased in gastrocnemius muscle weight, protein synthesis rate, and phosphorylation of both ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1 and 4E-BP1. In conclusion, when protein is chronically restricted in adult rat diets, leucine supplementation moderately improves body weight gain and increases muscle protein synthesis through mTOR activation.

  3. Estimation of whole body protein turnover by L-[1-[sup 13]C]-leucine tracer experiment in post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinhua, Zhu; Zhenduo, Tang; Tengchang, Dai; Zongqin, Xia [Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China)

    1993-08-01

    A constant infusion of L-[1-[sup 1]'3C]-leucine given to the subject and the plasma [sup 13]C-leucine enrichment and breath [sup 1]'3CO[sub 2] enrichment were measured with GC-MS and gas isotope ratio MS respectively. The plateau isotope enrichments reached were used to calculate the whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates using a two pools model. 15 post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients and 6 normal adults were studied. The whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were both markedly increased in cirrhotic patients, with the breakdown rate higher than the synthesis rate and hence leading to a negative nitrogen balance. The changes of 7 decompensated cirrhotic patients were more severe than 8 compensated cirrhotic patients. The results suggest that the protein malnutrition and negative nitrogen balance of post-viral hepatocirrhotic patients are not simply due to low intake of protein and that the hyperactive turnover, especially the excessive breakdown of body protein might play an important role.

  4. Targeting Inflammation and Downstream Protein Metabolism in Sarcopenia: A Brief Up-Dated Description of Concurrent Exercise and Leucine-Based Multimodal Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia. Resistance exercise increases not only muscle mass but also muscle strength, while aerobic exercise is able to ameliorate the age-related metabolic disorders. Concurrent exercise training integrates the advantages of both aerobic and resistance exercise, and may exert a significant synergistic effect in the aging organism. Higher protein intakes rich in the amino acid leucine appear to restore skeletal muscle protein metabolism balance by rescuing protein synthesis in older adults. There is good reason to believe that a multimodal treatment, a combination of exercise and increased leucine consumption in the diet, can combat some of the muscle loss associated with aging. Future research is needed to consolidate these findings to humans, and to further clarify to what extent and by which mechanisms protein metabolism might be directly involved in sarcopenia pathogenesis and the multimodal treatment responses.

  5. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Anna G.; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Kiowski, Andreas; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Corrent, Etienne; Bartelt, Jörg; König, Bettina; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four-fold (L4) higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control). We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth. PMID:26930301

  6. Genome-wide characterization, evolution, and expression analysis of the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) gene family in Rosaceae genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangmei; Li, Leiting; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Juyou

    2017-10-10

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK) is the largest gene family of receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) and actively participates in regulating the growth, development, signal transduction, immunity, and stress responses of plants. However, the patterns of LRR-RLK gene family evolution in the five main Rosaceae species for which genome sequences are available have not yet been reported. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of LRR-RLK genes for five Rosaceae species: Fragaria vesca (strawberry), Malus domestica (apple), Pyrus bretschneideri (Chinese white pear), Prunus mume (mei), and Prunus persica (peach), which contained 201, 244, 427, 267, and 258 LRR-RLK genes, respectively. All LRR-RLK genes were further grouped into 23 subfamilies based on the hidden Markov models approach. RLK-Pelle_LRR-XII-1, RLK-Pelle_LRR-XI-1, and RLK-Pelle_LRR-III were the three largest subfamilies. Synteny analysis indicated that there were 236 tandem duplicated genes in the five Rosaceae species, among which subfamilies XII-1 (82 genes) and XI-1 (80 genes) comprised 68.6%. Our results indicate that tandem duplication made a large contribution to the expansion of the subfamilies. The gene expression, tissue-specific expression, and subcellular localization data revealed that LRR-RLK genes were differentially expressed in various organs and tissues, and the largest subfamily XI-1 was highly expressed in all five Rosaceae species, suggesting that LRR-RLKs play important roles in each stage of plant growth and development. Taken together, our results provide an overview of the LRR-RLK family in Rosaceae genomes and the basis for further functional studies.

  7. Novel isotopic N, N-Dimethyl Leucine (iDiLeu) Reagents Enable Absolute Quantification of Peptides and Proteins Using a Standard Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tyler; Lietz, Christopher B.; Xiang, Feng; Li, Lingjun

    2015-01-01

    Absolute quantification of protein targets using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a key component of candidate biomarker validation. One popular method combines multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a triple quadrupole instrument with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) for absolute quantification (AQUA). LC-MRM AQUA assays are sensitive and specific, but they are also expensive because of the cost of synthesizing stable isotope peptide standards. While the chemical modification approach using mass differential tags for relative and absolute quantification (mTRAQ) represents a more economical approach when quantifying large numbers of peptides, these reagents are costly and still suffer from lower throughput because only two concentration values per peptide can be obtained in a single LC-MS run. Here, we have developed and applied a set of five novel mass difference reagents, isotopic N, N-dimethyl leucine (iDiLeu). These labels contain an amine reactive group, triazine ester, are cost effective because of their synthetic simplicity, and have increased throughput compared with previous LC-MS quantification methods by allowing construction of a four-point standard curve in one run. iDiLeu-labeled peptides show remarkably similar retention time shifts, slightly lower energy thresholds for higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation, and high quantification accuracy for trypsin-digested protein samples (median errors <15%). By spiking in an iDiLeu-labeled neuropeptide, allatostatin, into mouse urine matrix, two quantification methods are validated. The first uses one labeled peptide as an internal standard to normalize labeled peptide peak areas across runs (<19% error), whereas the second enables standard curve creation and analyte quantification in one run (<8% error).

  8. Impaired Uptake and/or Utilization of Leucine by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Suppressed by the SPT15-300 Allele of the TATA-Binding Protein Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baerends, RJ; Qiu, Jin-Long; Rasmussen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Successful fermentations to produce ethanol require microbial strains that have a high tolerance to glucose and ethanol. Enhanced glucose/ethanol tolerance of the laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4741 under certain growth conditions as a consequence of the expression of a dominant...... us to examine the effect of expression of the SPT15-300 allele in various yeast species of industrial importance. Expression of SPT15-300 in leucine-prototrophic strains of S. cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, or Saccharomyces pastorianus (lager brewing yeast), however, did not improve tolerance...... to ethanol on complex rich medium (yeast extract-peptone-dextrose). The enhanced growth of the laboratory yeast strain BY4741 expressing the SPT15-300 mutant allele was seen only on defined media with low concentrations of leucine, indicating that the apparent improved growth in the presence of ethanol...

  9. Emerging role for leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors LGR5 and LGR4 in cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Susumu; Phillips, Emma; Goidts, Violaine

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells has gained considerable interest in the last few decades, partly because of their potential implication in therapy resistance. However, the lack of specific cellular surface markers for these cells has impeded their isolation, making the characterization of this cellular subpopulation technically challenging. Recent studies have indicated that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 and 5 (LGR4 and LGR5) expression in multiple organs may represent a global marker of adult stem cells. This review aims to give an overview of LGR4 and LGR5 as cancer stem cell markers and their function in development

  10. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  11. Prognostic significance of proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) in triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective study on 129 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanzhi; Dai, Jiali; McNamara, Keely M.; Bai, Bing; Shi, Mumu; Chan, Monica S. M.; Liu, Ming; Sasano, Hironobu; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xiaolei; Liu, Lijuan; Ma, Ying; Cao, Shuwen; Xing, Yanchun; Zhao, Baoshan; Song, Yinli; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with an aggressive clinical course due to the lack of therapeutic targets. Therefore, identifying reliable prognostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for patients with TNBC is required. Proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a novel steroidal receptor co-regulator, functioning as an oncogene and its expression is maintained in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers. PELP1 has been proposed as a prognostic biomarker in hormone-related cancers, including luminal-type breast cancers, but its significance in TNBC has not been studied. PELP1 immunoreactivity was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 129 patients with TNBC. Results were correlated with clinicopathological variables including patient’s age, tumor size, lymph node stage, tumor grade, clinical stage, histological type, Ki-67 LI, as well as clinical outcome of the patients, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). PELP1 was localized predominantly in the nuclei of carcinoma cells in TNBC. With the exception of a positive correlation between PELP1 protein expression and lymph node stage (p = 0.027), no significant associations between PELP1 protein expression and other clinicopathological variables, including DFS and OS, were found. However, when PELP1 and Ki-67 LI were grouped together, we found that patients in the PELP1/Ki-67 double high group (n = 48) demonstrated significantly reduced DFS (p = 0.005, log rank test) and OS (p = 0.002, log rank test) than others (n = 81). Multivariable analysis supported PELP1/Ki-67 double high expression as an independent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.020 for recurrence (95 % CL, 1.022–3.990; p = 0.043) and of 2.380 for death (95 % CL, 1.138–4.978; p = 0.021). We found that evaluating both PELP1 and Ki-67 expression in TNBC could enhance the prognostic sensitivity of the two biomarkers. Therefore, we propose

  12. Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis show distinct patterns of brain glucose metabolism in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Florian; Wilke, Florian; Raab, Peter; Tayeb, Said Ben; Boeck, Anna-Lena; Haense, Cathleen; Trebst, Corinna; Voss, Elke; Schrader, Christoph; Logemann, Frank; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Dengler, Reinhard; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Berding, Georg; Stangel, Martin; Nabavi, Elham

    2014-06-20

    Pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the recently identified leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and the subunit 1 of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induce autoimmune encephalitis. A comparison of brain metabolic patterns in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients has not been performed yet and shall be helpful in differentiating these two most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis. The brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake from whole-body positron emission tomography of six anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients and four patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein encephalitis admitted to Hannover Medical School between 2008 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed and compared to matched controls. Group analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis patients demonstrated regionally limited hypermetabolism in frontotemporal areas contrasting an extensive hypometabolism in parietal lobes, whereas the anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein syndrome was characterized by hypermetabolism in cerebellar, basal ganglia, occipital and precentral areas and minor frontomesial hypometabolism. This retrospective 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography study provides novel evidence for distinct brain metabolic patterns in patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

  13. Crystal structure of LGR4-Rspo1 complex: insights into the divergent mechanisms of ligand recognition by leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptors (LGRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Gen; Huang, Chunfeng; Yang, Zhengfeng; Jin, Mengmeng; Fu, Panhan; Zhang, Ni; Luo, Jian; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yongqun

    2015-01-23

    Leucine-rich repeat G-protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) are a unique class of G-protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large extracellular domain to recognize ligands and regulate many important developmental processes. Among the three groups of LGRs, group B members (LGR4-6) recognize R-spondin family proteins (Rspo1-4) to stimulate Wnt signaling. In this study, we successfully utilized the "hybrid leucine-rich repeat technique," which fused LGR4 with the hagfish VLR protein, to obtain two recombinant human LGR4 proteins, LGR415 and LGR49. We determined the crystal structures of ligand-free LGR415 and the LGR49-Rspo1 complex. LGR4 exhibits a twisted horseshoe-like structure. Rspo1 adopts a flat and β-fold architecture and is bound in the concave surface of LGR4 in the complex through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. All the Rspo1-binding residues are conserved in LGR4-6, suggesting that LGR4-6 bind R-spondins through an identical surface. Structural analysis of our LGR4-Rspo1 complex with the previously determined LGR4 and LGR5 structures revealed that the concave surface of LGR4 is the sole binding site for R-spondins, suggesting a one-site binding model of LGR4-6 in ligand recognition. The molecular mechanism of LGR4-6 is distinct from the two-step mechanism of group A receptors LGR1-3 and the multiple-interface binding model of group C receptors LGR7-8, suggesting LGRs utilize the divergent mechanisms for ligand recognition. Our structures, together with previous reports, provide a comprehensive understanding of the ligand recognition by LGRs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia strain 17 leucine-rich repeat domain protein AdpF with eukaryotic cells promotes bacterial internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Lewis, Janina P

    2014-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells.

  15. Incorporation of DL(1-14C)-leucine into muscle proteins in buffalo calves and its response to exogenous insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivekanandan, R.; Singh, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Protein synthesis and the effect of insulin on this process have been studied in buffalo skeletal muscles using DL(1- 14 C)-leucine. The muscle fibres isolated from triceps, showed highest specific radioactivity (SRA) in the sarcoplasmic proteins followed by myofibrillar and stroma proteins. Exogenous insulin stimulated the incorporation in the myofibrillar and stroma fractions but not in the sarcoplasmic proteins. Radioscanning of the polyacrylamide gel electrophorograms further revealed preferential labelling of only some of the myofibrillar proteins in the presence of exogenous insulin. Statistically significant differences in the SRA were observed between nuclear, mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial proteins without exogenous insulin the post-mitochondrial proteins showing highest SRA. Addition of insulin to the assay medium significantly stimulated the incorporation in the nuclear fraction whereas mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions did not respond. Intramuscular injection of insulin, 3 hours prior to collection of tissue, stimulated the incorporation in nuclear as well as post-mitochondrial fractions but had no effect on the mitochondrial protein synthesis. (author)

  16. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  17. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G Wessels

    Full Text Available In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH. To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2 and four-fold (L4 higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control. We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P < 0.05, liver (1.8-fold, P < 0.05 and cardiac muscle (1.7-fold, P < 0.05, whereas we found no changes in enzyme activity in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa. The L2 diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth.

  18. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Methods Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. Results The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. Conclusion The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  19. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice R; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway

  20. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine [Laboratório de Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, 13083-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Mello, Maria Alice R [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto Biociências, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, UNESP, Rio Claro, 13506-900, São Paulo (Brazil); Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C [Laboratório de Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, 13083-970, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  1. Relationship between plasma and tissue parameters of leucine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, J.A.; Paul, H.S.; Adibi, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using a primed continuous infusion of [1- 14 C] leucine, the authors investigated parameters of leucine metabolism in plasma, expired air, and tissues of fed and 48-hour starved rats. The ratios of muscle/plasma specific activity of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) in fed and starved rats, respectively were not significantly different from one (1.07 +/- 0.14 and 0.97 +/- 0.10, mean +/- SE, 7 rats). The ratio of muscle/plasma specific activity of leucine was also not significantly different from one (0.86 +/- 0.11) in fed rats, but was significantly lower than one (0.80 +/- 0.07) in starved rats. The rate of leucine oxidation was approximately 32% higher when calculated based on plasma KIC rather than leucine specific activity. However, starvation significantly increased the rate of leucine oxidation with either specific activity. The rate of leucine incorporation into whole body protein was unaffected by starvation (32.7 +/- 3.5 vs 36.1 +/- 2.5 μmol/100 g/h), but the incorporation into total protein of liver (1350 +/- 140 vs 780 +/- 33 nmol) and of skeletal muscle (1940 +/- 220 vs 820 +/- 60 nmol) was significantly decreased. The authors conclude that a) leucine or KIC specific activity in muscle is better predicted by plasma KIC than leucine specific activity, and b) the tracer infusion technique is valid for the study of leucine oxidation but not for leucine incorporation into whole body protein

  2. Changes in leucine kinetics during meal absorption: effects of dietary leucine availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissen, S.; Haymond, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Whole-body leucine and α/-ketoisocaproate (KIC) metabolism were estimated in mature dogs fed a complete meal, a meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids, and a meal devoid of all amino acids. Using a constant infusion of [4,5- 3 H]leucine and α-[1- 14 C]ketoisocaproate (KIC), combined with dietary [5,5,5- 2 H 3 ]leucine, the rate of whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, and interconversion leucine and KIC were estimated along with the rate of leucine absorption. Digestion of the complete meal resulted in a decrease in the rate of endogenous proteolysis, a small increase in the estimated rate of leucine entering protein, and a twofold increase in the rate of leucine oxidation. Ingestion of either the meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids or devoid of all amino acids resulted in a decrease in estimates of whole-body rates of proteolysis and protein synthesis, decreased leucine oxidation, and a decrease in the interconversion of leucine and KIC. The decrease in whole-body proteolysis was closely associated with the rise in plasma insulin concentrations following meal ingestion. Together these data suggest that the transition from tissue metabolism to anabolism is the result, at least in part, of decreased whole-body proteolysis. This meal-related decrease in proteolysis is independent of the dietary amino acid composition or content. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis was sustained only when the meal complete in all amino acids was provided, indicating an overriding control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability

  3. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  4. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  5. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Chang

    Full Text Available Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO, and ABA (NCED biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29 was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold. Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  6. The Potato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 Is a Pathogen-dependent DNA-deforming Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Townsend, Philip D; Dixon, Christopher H; Spies, Gerhard B; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Slootweg, Erik J; Westerhof, Lotte B; Gawehns, Fleur K K; Knight, Marc R; Sharples, Gary J; Goverse, Aska; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2015-10-09

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The Potato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 Is a Pathogen-dependent DNA-deforming Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Townsend, Philip D.; Dixon, Christopher H.; Spies, Gerhard B.; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Slootweg, Erik J.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; Gawehns, Fleur K. K.; Knight, Marc R.; Sharples, Gary J.; Goverse, Aska; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR. PMID:26306038

  8. Effect of the essential amino acids upon inclusion in vitro of 14C-phenylalanine and 14C-leucine in the protein of mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, S.; Ivanov, N.; Sirakov, L.

    1983-01-01

    It is admitted that the essential amino acids could be divided into two groups, depending on the need of them for synthesis of milk protein: group i - amino acids, which are absorbed in quantities precisely corresponding to their content in milk protein (methionine, phenyl-alanine, histidine, thyrosine and triptophane), and group ii - amino acids, which are absorbed in quantities greater than their content in milk protein and which, because of this, could fullfil other metabolic functions in the mammary gland (threonine, valine, isoleucine, lysine and arginine). According to this concept, tissue slices of lactating mammary gland of guinea-pigs were incubated in the presence of grour i or group ii essential amino acids. Slices were incubated for 60 min at 37+-0.5 deg C, In a Crebs-Ringer phosphate buffer plus 0.2 glucose and 3.7 KBq/ml incubation medium DL-(I- 14 C)-phenylalanine or L-(U- 14 C)-leucine and their incorporation in the tissue proteins of mammary gland was measured in vitro. Group ii essential amino acids provoked significantly more intensive (P<0.001) inclusion in protein synthesis of these labelled amino acids in the tissue of mammary gland, as compared with group i essential amino acids

  9. [3H]Leucine incorporation method as a tool to measure secondary production by periphytic bacteria associated to the roots of floating aquatic macrophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, M R; Guimarães, J R D; Coelho-Souza, A S

    2007-10-01

    The present study assessed the application of [(3)H]Leucine incorporation into protein by periphytic bacteria associated with the roots of the floating aquatic macrophyte Eichornia crassipes. Basic assumptions underlying the method, such as linearity of leucine incorporation, saturation level of incorporation rates, incorporation into other macromolecules, specificity of incorporation for bacterial assemblages and [(3)H]Leucine degradation during samples storage were tested, and two procedures for extracting the incorporated leucine were compared. Both methods gave the same results, however, the hot TCA extraction method was less time consuming than the alkaline extraction method. Incorporation of [(3)H]Leucine was linear for up to 40 min. Saturation concentration of [(3)H]Leucine incorporation into protein was 1500 nM. An experiment with prokaryotic and eukaryotic inhibitors showed no significant [(3)H]Leucine incorporation into eukaryotes even in high leucine concentrations. No significant amounts of radiolabel were incorporated into other macromolecules. The maximum time of sample storage after the incubation is 15 days. The leucine incorporation method can be a reliable tool to measure bacterial production in the periphyton root-associated bacteria.

  10. Leucine alters hepatic glucose/lipid homeostasis via the myostatin-AMP-activated protein kinase pathway - potential implications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zarfeshani, Aida; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan M

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) leucine are associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), and thus the propensity for type 2 diabetes mellitus development. However, other clinical studies suggest the contradictory view that leucine may in fact offer a degree of protection against metabolic syndrome. Aiming to resolve this apparent paradox, we assessed the effect of leucine supplementation on the metabolism of human hepatic HepG2 cells. Results ...

  11. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of Cf-9, a Receptor-Like Protein with Extracytoplasmic Leucine-Rich Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Wulff, B.B.H.; Rivas, S.; Durrant, M.C.; Ploeg, van der A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Jones, J.D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium) resistance protein Cf-9 belongs to a large class of plant proteins with extracytoplasmic Leu-rich repeats (eLRRs). eLRR proteins play key roles in plant defense and development, mainly as receptor-like proteins or receptor-like kinases, conferring

  13. Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors involved in an abscisic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway under drought and high-salinity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yuichi; Furihata, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    The induction of the dehydration-responsive Arabidopsis gene, rd29B, is mediated mainly by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis of rd29B indicated that two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are required for the dehydration-responsive expression of rd29B as cis-acting elements. Three cDNAs encoding basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins were isolated by using the yeast one-hybrid system and were designated AREB1, AREB2, and AREB3 (ABA-responsive ...

  14. Surface properties of aqueous amino acid solutions II. Leucine-leucine hydrochloride and leucine-sodium leucinate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Matsuyama, Shohei; Akizuki, Ryosuke

    2005-08-15

    To understand the distinction between the effects of zwitterionic, anionic, and cationic l-leucine upon adsorption and lateral interactions at air/water surface, the surface tensions of aqueous solutions of l-leucine-l-leucine hydrochloride and l-leucine-sodium l-leucinate mixtures were measured as a function of concentration and composition at 25 degrees C. The surface activity decreases in the order l-leucine >l-leucine hydrochloride > sodium l-leucinate. Both l-leucine hydrochloride and sodium l-leucinate form gaseous adsorbed films through the experimentally accessible concentration range, while the adsorbed film of zwitterionic l-leucine shows a transition between gaseous and expanded film.

  15. Exploiting E. coli auxotrophs for leucine, valine, and threonine specific methyl labeling of large proteins for NMR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monneau, Yoan R. [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Ishida, Yojiro [Rutgers University, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Rossi, Paolo; Saio, Tomohide; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Inouye, Masayori, E-mail: inouye@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Kalodimos, Charalampos G., E-mail: ckalodim@umn.edu [Rutgers University, Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A simple and cost effective method to independently and stereo-specifically incorporate [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyls in Leu and Val in proteins is presented. Recombinant proteins for NMR studies are produced using a tailored set of auxotrophic E. coli strains. NMR active isotopes are routed to either Leu or Val methyl groups from the commercially available and scrambling-free precursors α-ketoisovalerate and acetolactate. The engineered strains produce deuterated proteins with stereospecific [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyl labeling separately at Leu or Val amino acids. This is the first method that achieves Leu-specific stereospecific [{sup 1}H,{sup 13}C]-methyl labeling of proteins and scramble-free Val-specific labeling. Use of auxotrophs drastically decreases the amount of labeled precursor required for expression without impacting the yield. The concept is extended to Thr methyl labeling by means of a Thr-specific auxotroph that provides enhanced efficiency for use with the costly L-[4-{sup 13}C,2,3-{sup 2}H{sub 2},{sup 15}N]-Thr reagent. The Thr-specific strain allows for the production of Thr-[{sup 13}CH{sub 3}]{sup γ2} labeled protein with an optimal isotope incorporation using up to 50 % less labeled Thr than the traditional E. coli strain without the need for {sup 2}H-glycine to prevent scrambling.

  16. A novel variable antibody fragment dimerized by leucine zippers with enhanced neutralizing potency against rabies virus G protein compared to its corresponding single-chain variable antibody fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Xi, Hualong; Gu, Tiejun; Yuan, Ruosen; Chen, Xiaoxu; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2015-12-01

    Fatal rabies can be prevented effectively by post-exposure prophylactic (PEP) with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Single-chain variable fragments (scFv), which are composed of a variable heavy chain (VH) and a variable light chain (VL) connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. However, in our previous study, a scFv (scFV57S) specific for the rabies virus (RV) G protein showed a lower neutralizing potency than that of its parent IgG due to lower stability and altered peptide assembly pattern. In monoclonal antibodies, the VH and VL interact non-covalently, while in scFvs the VH is connected covalently with the VL by the artificial linker. In this study, we constructed and expressed two peptides 57VL-JUN-HIS and 57VH-FOS-HA in Escherichia coli. The well-known Fos and Jun leucine zippers were utilized to dimerize VH and VL similarly to the IgG counterpart. The two peptides assembled to form zipFv57S in vitro. Due to the greater similarity in structure with IgG, the zipFv57S protein showed a higher binding ability and affinity resulting in notable improvement of in vitro neutralizing activity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv57S protein was also found to be more stable and showed similar protective rate as RIG in mice challenged with a lethal dose of RV. Our results not only indicated zipFv57S as an ideal alternative for RIG in PEP but also offered a novel and efficient hetero-dimerization pattern of VH and VL leading to enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genome-wide cloning and sequence analysis of leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Tong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane receptor kinases play critical roles in both animal and plant signaling pathways regulating growth, development, differentiation, cell death, and pathogenic defense responses. In Arabidopsis thaliana, there are at least 223 Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs, representing one of the largest protein families. Although functional roles for a handful of LRR-RLKs have been revealed, the functions of the majority of members in this protein family have not been elucidated. Results As a resource for the in-depth analysis of this important protein family, the complementary DNA sequences (cDNAs of 194 LRR-RLKs were cloned into the GatewayR donor vector pDONR/ZeoR and analyzed by DNA sequencing. Among them, 157 clones showed sequences identical to the predictions in the Arabidopsis sequence resource, TAIR8. The other 37 cDNAs showed gene structures distinct from the predictions of TAIR8, which was mainly caused by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Most of the genes have been further cloned into GatewayR destination vectors with GFP or FLAG epitope tags and have been transformed into Arabidopsis for in planta functional analysis. All clones from this study have been submitted to the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC at Ohio State University for full accessibility by the Arabidopsis research community. Conclusions Most of the Arabidopsis LRR-RLK genes have been isolated and the sequence analysis showed a number of alternatively spliced variants. The generated resources, including cDNA entry clones, expression constructs and transgenic plants, will facilitate further functional analysis of the members of this important gene family.

  18. The prognostic role of Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 in gastric cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianchen; Qiu, Xinguang; Xiao, Jianan; Wang, Qingbing; Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Yong; Bai, Dongxiao

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic value of Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer remains controversial. To further investigate this relationship, we performed meta-analyses to systematically review the association between LGR5 expression and various clinical parameters in gastric cancer patients. Eligible studies from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wangfang (Database of Chinese Ministry of Science & Technology) and CBM (China Biological Medicine) databases were evaluated to investigate the association of LGR5 expression with overall survival (OS) and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer. LGR5 overexpression was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with gastric cancer (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.02-2.69). LGR5 overexpression was also significantly associated with TNM stage (TIII/TIV vs TI/TII: OR 5.42, 95% CI 1.02-28.72) and lymph node metastasis (positive vs negative: OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.06-5.0). Our meta-analysis indicates that LGR5 may be a predictive factor for invasion and metastasis, and poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. PRELP (proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein) promotes osteoblastic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating the β-catenin pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haiying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Zhang, Xiumei [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Li, Chengzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Liang [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Wang, Huaxin [Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ji' an, Shandong (China); Han, Jinxiang, E-mail: jxhan9888@aliyun.com [School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Ji' nan, Shandong (China); Key Laboratory for Rare Disease Research of Shandong Province, Key Laboratory for Biotech Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong Medical Biotechnological Center, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji' nan, Shandong (China)

    2016-02-12

    Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP) is a collagen-binding proteoglycan highly expressed in the developing bones. Recent studies indicated that PRELP could inhibit osteoclastogenesis as a NF-κB inhibitor. However, its role during osteoblast differentiation is still unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of PRELP increased with the osteogenesis induction of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Down-regulation of PRELP expression by shRNA reduced ALP activity, mineralization and expression of osteogenic marker gene Runx2. Our microarray analysis data suggested that β-catenin may act as a hub gene in the PRELP-mediated gene network. We validated furtherly that PRELP knockdown could inhibit the level of connexin43, a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation by affecting β-catenin protein expression, and its nuclear translocation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Therefore, this study established a new role of PRELP in modulating β-catenin/connexin43 pathway and osteoblast differentiation.

  20. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus infection by binding vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Huang, Hongjun; Tan, Binghe; Wei, Yinglei; Xiong, Qingqing; Yan, Yan; Hou, Lili; Wu, Nannan; Siwko, Stefan; Cimarelli, Andrea; Xu, Jianrong; Han, Honghui; Qian, Min; Liu, Mingyao; Du, Bing

    2017-10-06

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and rabies and Chandipura viruses belong to the Rhabdovirus family. VSV is a common laboratory virus to study viral evolution and host immune responses to viral infection, and recombinant VSV-based vectors have been widely used for viral oncolysis, vaccination, and gene therapy. Although the tropism of VSV is broad, and its envelope glycoprotein G is often used for pseudotyping other viruses, the host cellular components involved in VSV infection remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the host protein leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is essential for VSV and VSV-G pseudotyped lentivirus (VSVG-LV) to infect susceptible cells. Accordingly, Lgr4-deficient mice had dramatically decreased VSV levels in the olfactory bulb. Furthermore, Lgr4 knockdown in RAW 264.7 cells also significantly suppressed VSV infection, and Lgr4 overexpression in RAW 264.7 cells enhanced VSV infection. Interestingly, only VSV infection relied on Lgr4, whereas infections with Newcastle disease virus, influenza A virus (A/WSN/33), and herpes simplex virus were unaffected by Lgr4 status. Of note, assays of virus entry, cell ELISA, immunoprecipitation, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that VSV bound susceptible cells via the Lgr4 extracellular domain. Pretreating cells with an Lgr4 antibody, soluble LGR4 extracellular domain, or R-spondin 1 blocked VSV infection by competitively inhibiting VSV binding to Lgr4. Taken together, the identification of Lgr4 as a VSV-specific host factor provides important insights into understanding VSV entry and its pathogenesis and lays the foundation for VSV-based gene therapy and viral oncolytic therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Leucine signaling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-03-15

    Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy and meat consumption, staples of the Western diet, as major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper presents a new concept and comprehensive review of leucine-mediated cell signaling explaining the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by leucine-induced over-stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1, a pivotal nutrient-sensitive kinase, promotes growth and cell proliferation in response to glucose, energy, growth factors and amino acids. Dairy proteins and meat stimulate insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and provide high amounts of leucine, a primary and independent stimulator for mTORC1 activation. The downstream target of mTORC1, the kinase S6K1, induces insulin resistance by phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, thereby increasing the metabolic burden of β-cells. Moreover, leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1-signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis, thus increasing the risk of obesity-mediated insulin resistance. High consumption of leucine-rich proteins explains exaggerated mTORC1-dependent insulin secretion, increased β-cell growth and β-cell proliferation promoting an early onset of replicative β-cell senescence with subsequent β-cell apoptosis. Disturbances of β-cell mass regulation with increased β-cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as insulin resistance are hallmarks of T2D, which are all associated with hyperactivation of mTORC1. In contrast, the anti-diabetic drug metformin antagonizes leucine-mediated mTORC1 signaling. Plant-derived polyphenols and flavonoids are identified as natural inhibitors of mTORC1 and exert anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery in obesity reduces increased plasma levels of leucine and other branched-chain amino acids. Attenuation of leucine-mediated mTORC1 signaling by defining appropriate upper limits of the daily intake of leucine-rich animal and dairy

  2. Differentiating leucine incorporation of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokokawa, T.; Sintes, E.; de Corte, D.; Olbrich, K.; Herndl, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    The abundance (based on catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybrid ization, CARD-FISH) and leucine incorporation rates of Archaea and Bacteria were determined throughout the water column in the eastern Atlantic. Bacteria dominated throughout the water column, although their

  3. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyama Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32, also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP, has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs. However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of Tregs expressing LRRC32. Results Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated Tregs, we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ Tregs are distinct from LRRC32- Tregs with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ Tregs are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- Tregs. Conclusions A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent Treg populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of Tregs and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  4. Milk protein responses to balanced amino acid and removal of Leucine and Arginine supplied from jugular-infused amino acid mixture in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W; Wang, H R; Wu, T Y; Ding, L Y; Zhao, R; Khas, E; Wang, C F; Zhang, F Q; Mi, F Y; Wang, L; Ning, L T

    2017-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the milk protein response when cows were supplied a balanced AA profile and to determine whether a deficiency of Leucine (Leu) or Arginine (Arg) had a negative effect on milk protein. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 5-day continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), EAA mixture prepared on the profile of casein and supplied (in % of lysine (Lys)) 100% of Lys, 33.3% of methionine (Met), 110.2% of Leu, 43.6% of Arg, 50.8% of threonine (Thr), 81.6% of valine (Val), 69.7% of isoleucine (Ile), 61.4% of phenylalanine (Phe) and 34.2% of histidine (His) (Casein, 160 g/d), EAA mixture excluding Leu (-Leu, 163 g/d) or EAA mixture excluding Arg (-Arg, 158 g/d) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four infusion periods separated by 7-day interval period. The basal diet supplied 1.6 Mcal NE L and 94.4 g MP per 1 kg DM to meet requirements for lactation. The Casein treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of MP) of 10.3% Leu and 5.3% Arg, whereas in the two subsequent -Leu and -Arg treatments, the concentration of Leu and Arg was reduced to 8.4 and 4.6% respectively. Dry matter intake (15.4 kg/day) was not affected by treatments. The Casein treatment increased milk yield (14.9%, p < 0.001), milk protein yield (120 g, p < 0.001) and milk protein efficiency (0.03, p = 0.099) than CTL treatment. However, the -Leu treatment decreased the responses of above-measured parameters by 6.25%, 70 g, 0.05 (p < 0.06) (compared with Casein). These effects of Leu were related to decreased Leu concentration and improved concentration of Ile and Val in plasma. The -Arg treatment decreased the plasma Arg concentration than the Casein treatment, whereby resulted in the decrease of milk yield (5.7%, p = 0.073), milk protein yield (60 g, p = 0.011) and milk protein efficiency (0.04, p = 0.037). In conclusion, supply of EAA profile of casein can increase the lactation production in dairy cows, and 8

  5. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  6. Arabidopsis basic leucine zipper transcription factors involved in an abscisic acid-dependent signal transduction pathway under drought and high-salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Y; Furihata, T; Abe, H; Yoshida, R; Shinozaki, K; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K

    2000-10-10

    The induction of the dehydration-responsive Arabidopsis gene, rd29B, is mediated mainly by abscisic acid (ABA). Promoter analysis of rd29B indicated that two ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) are required for the dehydration-responsive expression of rd29B as cis-acting elements. Three cDNAs encoding basic leucine zipper (bZIP)-type ABRE-binding proteins were isolated by using the yeast one-hybrid system and were designated AREB1, AREB2, and AREB3 (ABA-responsive element binding protein). Transcription of the AREB1 and AREB2 genes is up-regulated by drought, NaCl, and ABA treatment in vegetative tissues. In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, both the AREB1 and AREB2 proteins activated transcription of a reporter gene driven by ABRE. AREB1 and AREB2 required ABA for their activation, because their transactivation activities were repressed in aba2 and abi1 mutants and enhanced in an era1 mutant. Activation of AREBs by ABA was suppressed by protein kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that both AREB1 and AREB2 function as transcriptional activators in the ABA-inducible expression of rd29B, and further that ABA-dependent posttranscriptional activation of AREB1 and AREB2, probably by phosphorylation, is necessary for their maximum activation by ABA. Using cultured Arabidopsis cells, we demonstrated that a specific ABA-activated protein kinase of 42-kDa phosphorylated conserved N-terminal regions in the AREB proteins.

  7. Effect of infection by Phytophthora infestans and treatment with its zoosporial components on uptake of 3H-leucine and protein synthesis potato tuber tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1978-01-01

    Both sides of aged disks of potato tubers were inoculated with incompatible race 0 or compatible race 1 of P. infestans. The uptake of radioactivity from 3 H-leucine into the disks was greatly reduced by the infection with the incompatible race, but the ratio of incorporated radioactivity in the acid soluble fraction of the disks to total radioactivity in the 20,000 x g supernatant was increased by the infection with the incompatible race 0. In case of the compatible race 1, the infection had less effect on the incorporation ratio of the radioactivity into the acid insoluble fraction than the case of the race 0. The results suggested that the reduction in 3 H-leucine uptake may be due to alteration of the physiological activity of host plasma membrane, instead of the reduction of metabolic activity. The treatment of tuber disks with the insoluble fraction of the zoosporial homogenate of race 0 or race 1 greatly reduced the uptake of 3 H-leucine by the disks. The supernatant fraction of the zoosporial homogenate also reduced the uptake, but the effect was lost by dialysis. The results suggest that some substances in the insoluble components of the zoosporial homogenate of P. infestans may be at least one cause of the reduction in the uptake of 3 H-leucine which begins to occur at very early period of the inoculation with race 0 or race 1 while penetration has not yet occurred. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-02-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P protein-derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  9. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek V; Somani, Ally-Khan; Young, Andrew B; Massari, Jessica V; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Garaczi, Edina; Babineau, Denise; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2011-05-26

    Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (T(regs)) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of T(regs) has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. T(regs) also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of T(regs) has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated T(regs). However, there is limited information regarding the processing of LRRC32 or the regulatory phenotype and functional activity of T(regs) expressing LRRC32. Using naturally-occurring freshly isolated T(regs), we demonstrate that low levels of LRRC32 are present intracellularly prior to activation and that freshly isolated LRRC32+ T(regs) are distinct from LRRC32- T(regs) with respect to the expression of surface CD62L. Using LRRC32 transfectants of HEK cells, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of LRRC32 is cleaved prior to expression of the protein at the cell surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate using a construct containing a deleted putative signal peptide region that the presence of a signal peptide region is critical to cell surface expression of LRRC32. Finally, mixed lymphocyte assays demonstrate that LRRC32+ T(regs) are more potent suppressors than LRRC32- T(regs). A cleaved signal peptide site in LRRC32 is necessary for surface localization of native LRRC32 following activation of naturally-occurring freshly-isolated regulatory T cells. LRRC32 expression appears to alter the surface expression of activation markers of T cells such as CD62L. LRRC32 surface expression may be useful as a marker that selects for more potent T(reg) populations. In summary, understanding the processing and expression of LRRC32 may provide insight into the mechanism of action of T(regs) and the refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies aimed at targeting these cells.

  10. MicroRNA-27a Is Induced by Leucine and Contributes to Leucine-Induced Proliferation Promotion in C2C12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leucine, a branched chain amino acid, is well known to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. However, the role of leucine in myoblast proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we found that leucine could promote proliferation of C2C12 cells. Moreover, expressions of miR-27a and myostatin (a bona fide target of miR-27a were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, following leucine treatment. We also found that miR-27a loss-of-function by transfection of a miR-27a inhibitor suppressed the promotion of myoblast proliferation caused by leucine. Our results suggest that miR-27a is induced by leucine and contributes to leucine-induced proliferation promotion of myoblast.

  11. At same leucine intake, a whey/plant protein blend is not as effective as whey to initiate a transient post prandial muscle anabolic response during a catabolic state in mini pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Revel

    Full Text Available Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation.Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS, whey (WHEY or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state.Adult male Yucatan mini pigs were infused with U-13C-Phenylalanine and fed either CAS, WHEY or BLEND. A catabolic state was induced by a glucocorticoid treatment for 8 days (DEX. Muscle protein synthesis, proteolysis and balance were measured with the hind limb arterio-venous differences technique. Repeated time variance analysis were used to assess significant differences.In a catabolic situation, whey proteins were able to initiate muscle anabolism which remained transient in contrast to the stimulated muscle protein accretion with WHEY, CAS or BLEND in healthy conditions. Despite the same leucine intake compared to WHEY, BLEND did not restore a positive protein balance in DEX animals.Even with WHEY, the duration of the anabolic response was not optimal and has to be improved in a catabolic state. The use of BLEND remained of lower efficiency even at same leucine intake than whey.

  12. Random mutagenesis of the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC1 (NB-LRR Required for Hypersensitive Response-Associated Cell Death-1), a downstream signalling nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein, identifies gain-of-function mutations in the nucleotide-binding pocket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sueldo, D.J.; Shimels, M.Z.; Spiridon, L.N.; Caldararu, O.; Petrescu, A.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Tameling, W.I.L.

    2015-01-01

    •Plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins confer immunity to pathogens possessing the corresponding avirulence proteins. Activation of NB-LRR proteins is often associated with induction of the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death. •NRC1 (NB-LRR

  13. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  14. Finding a Leucine in a Haystack: Searching the Proteome for ambigous Leucine-Aspartic Acid motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Arold, Stefan T.

    2016-01-25

    Leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs are short helical protein-protein interaction motifs involved in cell motility, survival and communication. LD motif interactions are also implicated in cancer metastasis and are targeted by several viruses. LD motifs are notoriously difficult to detect because sequence pattern searches lead to an excessively high number of false positives. Hence, despite 20 years of research, only six LD motif–containing proteins are known in humans, three of which are close homologues of the paxillin family. To enable the proteome-wide discovery of LD motifs, we developed LD Motif Finder (LDMF), a web tool based on machine learning that combines sequence information with structural predictions to detect LD motifs with high accuracy. LDMF predicted 13 new LD motifs in humans. Using biophysical assays, we experimentally confirmed in vitro interactions for four novel LD motif proteins. Thus, LDMF allows proteome-wide discovery of LD motifs, despite a highly ambiguous sequence pattern. Functional implications will be discussed.

  15. Signal peptide cleavage is essential for surface expression of a regulatory T cell surface protein, leucine rich repeat containing 32 (LRRC32)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Derek V; Somani, Ally-Khan; Young, Andrew B; Massari, Jessica V; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Garaczi, Edina; Babineau, Denise; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of autoimmune responses. The study of Tregs has been hampered by a lack of adequate surface markers. Leucine Rich Repeat Containing 32 (LRRC32), also known as Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), has been postulated as a novel surface marker of activated Tregs....

  16. Aberrant expression of epithelial leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive cells in the eutopic endometrium in endometriosis and implications in deep-infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallvé-Juanico, Júlia; Suárez-Salvador, Elena; Castellví, Josep; Ballesteros, Agustín; Taylor, Hugh S; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Santamaria, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    To characterize leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (LGR5 + ) cells from the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Prospective experimental study. University hospital/fertility clinic. Twenty-seven women with endometriosis who underwent surgery and 12 healthy egg donors, together comprising 39 endometrial samples. Obtaining of uterine aspirates by using a Cornier Pipelle. Immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from mice and healthy and pathologic human endometrium using antibodies against LGR5, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin, and epithelial and stromal LGR5 + cells isolated from healthy and pathologic human eutopic endometrium by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transcriptomic characterization by RNA high sequencing. Immunofluorescence showed that LGR5 + cells colocalized with epithelial markers in the stroma of the endometrium only in endometriotic patients. The results from RNA high sequencing of LGR5 + cells from epithelium and stroma did not show any statistically significant differences between them. The LGR5 + versus LGR5 - cells in pathologic endometrium showed 394 differentially expressed genes. The LGR5 + cells in deep-infiltrating endometriosis expressed inflammatory markers not present in the other types of the disease. Our results revealed the presence of aberrantly located LGR5 + cells coexpressing epithelial markers in the stromal compartment of women with endometriosis. These cells have a statistically significantly different expression profile in deep-infiltrating endometriosis in comparison with other types of endometriosis, independent of the menstrual cycle phase. Further studies are needed to elucidate their role and influence in reproductive outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  18. Sestrin regulation of TORC1: Is Sestrin a leucine sensor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Cho, Uhn-Soo; Karin, Michael (Michigan); (UCSD)

    2016-06-07

    Sestrins are highly conserved, stress-inducible proteins that inhibit target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling. After their transcriptional induction, both vertebrate and invertebrate Sestrins turn on the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK), which activates the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a key inhibitor of TORC1 activation. However, Sestrin overexpression, on occasion, can result in TORC1 inhibition even in AMPK-deficient cells. This effect has been attributed to Sestrin’s ability to bind the TORC1-regulating GATOR2 protein complex, which was postulated to control trafficking of TORC1 to lysosomes. How the binding of Sestrins to GATOR2 is regulated and how it contributes to TORC1 inhibition are unknown. New findings suggest that the amino acid leucine specifically disrupts the association of Sestrin2 with GATOR2, thus explaining how leucine and related amino acids stimulate TORC1 activity. We discuss whether and how these findings fit what has already been learned about Sestrin-mediated TORC1 inhibition from genetic studies conducted in fruit flies and mammals.

  19. Leucine metabolism in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jichun; Chi, Yujing; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Guan, Youfei; Wolf, Bryan A

    2010-01-01

    Leucine, a the branched-chain amino acids that must be supplied in daily diet, plays an important role in controlling protein synthesis and regulating cell metabolism in various cell types. In pancreatic β cells, leucine acutely stimulates insulin secretion by serving as both metabolic fuel and allosteric activator of glutamate dehydrogenase to enhance glutaminolysis. Leucine has also been shown to regulate gene transcription and protein synthesis in pancreatic islet β cells via both mTOR-dep...

  20. Comparison of the fates of ingested leucine and ingested 2-ketoisocaproate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, K.; Walser, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We previously reported that the ratio, R, of 14C to 3H in the leucine of whole body protein, measured 6 h after ingestion of (3H)leucine and (1-14C)2-ketoisocaproate is equal to ratio of the dose of leucine to the dose of 2-ketoisocaproate (KIC) (on a leucine-free diet) required to achieve the same rate of growth. To determine whether R is dependent on the interval between injection and sampling, R was measured at intervals in purified whole body protein after oral injection of these isotopes in groups of rats; it was constant from 1 h onward for 1 wk, averaging 0.64 +/- 0.01 (means +/- SEM). Thus, the extent of incorporation into the leucine of whole body protein of ingested KIC remains close to 64% of the incorporation of ingested leucine administered as such simultaneously, from 1 h onward for at least 1 wk.

  1. Correlation between dried blood spot thin layer chromatography and plasma high performance liquid chromatography of leucine/isoleucine levels among Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) seen at the Institute of Human Genetics, National Institutes of Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Rana, Michelle D.; Rama, Kahlil Izza D.; David-Padilla, Carmencita; Cavan, Barbra Charina; Cordero, Cynthia P.

    2008-01-01

    Management of patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) includes a low protein diet, supplemented with special formulas and constant monitoring of branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The gold standard for monitoring BCAA is plasma amino acid analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In a developing country like the Philippines, however, the cost of this test is prohibitive to the majority of the patients. In our center, dried blood spot leucine/isoleucine (leu/ile) levels analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is often used to diagnose and monitor these patients. This study was done to determine the correlation of leu/ile levels using the two methods (TLC and HPLC). A total of 46 MSUD patients were referred to the Biochemical Genetics Laboratory of the Institute of Human Genetics (IHG) from July 2001 to January 2004. Thirty five samples were obtained from 18 of these patients (some patients were seen at IHG more than once), and paired determinations of plasma amino acid using TLC and HPLC were made. The remaining samples were either hemolyzed or were not analyzed. The correlation coefficient [rho denoted as ρ] was estimated at a 95% confidence level using the Fisher's Z transformation. Of the 18 patients, 12 were males. The youngest was 1 day old and the oldest was 5 years old. The majority had the classical type of MSUD and dietary protein was restricted to between 0.6 gram/kg/day to 1 gram/kg/day of natural protein. Using the first pairs of observation for these 18 patients, the correlation coefficient was 0.76 (95% C1:0.462 to 0.907). This suggest a strong correlation between the two methods. It is recommended that further studies be done to determine the potential of the dried blood spot leu/ile level by TLC as an alternative method that can be used in the diagnosis and monitoring of MSUD patients especially in a developing country. (Author)

  2. L-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Leucine metabolism in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhee, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased oxidation of or protein synthesis requiring leucine occurs in cirrhotic patients. Five control subjects and four subjects with cirrhosis were equilibrated on a baseline diet (0.6 g protein per kg ideal body weight [IBW]) with sufficient nonprotein calories to preclude negative nitrogen balance. An additional four patients were equilibrated on the same type of diet with a higher protein level (0.75 g per kg IBW). Control subjects and the patients were then studied during continuous infusion of L-[ 15 N, 1- 13 C] leucine in the fasted state and, in the fed state, with a Propac diet which had the same distribution of energy nutrients as the baseline diets. Plasma levels of L-[ 15 N, 1- 13 C], L-[1- 13 C] and L-[ 15 N] leucine were measured during isotopic steady state by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fractional excretion of 13 CO 2 in breath samples were analyzed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry. During the fasted and fed states leucine metabolism was measured to quantitate rates of nitrogen flux (Q/sub N/), carbon flux (Q/sub c/) and oxidation to carbon dioxide and water (C). From these measured values, proteins breakdown (B), protein synthesis (S), deamination (X 0 ) and reamination (X/sub N/) were calculated. The results showed that protein synthesis and leucine metabolism were identical in controls and patients when both were fed a diet with 0.6 g protein/kg IBW and maintenance level of nonprotein calories. The data also showed that leucine metabolism can be quantitatively and reproducibly measured in subjects with cirrhosis

  4. The retro-GCN4 leucine zipper sequence forms a stable three-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittl, Peer R. E.; Deillon, Christine; Sargent, David; Liu, Niankun; Klauser, Stephan; Thomas, Richard M.; Gutte, Bernd; Grütter, Markus G.

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether a protein whose natural sequence is inverted adopts a stable fold is still under debate. We have determined the 2.1-Å crystal structure of the retro-GCN4 leucine zipper. In contrast to the two-stranded helical coiled-coil GCN4 leucine zipper, the retro-leucine zipper formed a very stable, parallel four-helix bundle, which now lends itself to further structural and functional studies. PMID:10716989

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Leucine Supplementation in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borack, Michael S; Volpi, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Leucine supplementation has grown in popularity due to the discovery of its anabolic effects on cell signaling and protein synthesis in muscle. The current recommendation is a minimum intake of 55 mg ⋅ kg -1 . d -1 Leucine acutely stimulates skeletal muscle anabolism and can overcome the anabolic resistance of aging. The value of chronic leucine ingestion for muscle growth is still unclear. Most of the research into leucine consumption has focused on efficacy. To our knowledge, very few studies have sought to determine the maximum safe level of intake. Limited evidence suggests that intakes of ≤1250 mg ⋅ kg -1 . d -1 do not appear to have any health consequences other than short-term elevated plasma ammonia concentrations. Similarly, no adverse events have been reported for the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), although no studies have tested HMB toxicity in humans. Therefore, future research is needed to evaluate leucine and HMB toxicity in the elderly and in specific health conditions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  7. High throughput protein production screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  8. Dietary leucine--an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Macotela

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor--leucine--can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD. Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance.

  9. Syntheses of DL-[2-13C]leucine and its use in the preparation of [3-DL-[2-13C]leucine]oxytocin and [8-DL-[2-13C]leucine]oxytocin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanatha, V.; Larsen, B.; Hruby, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    DL-[2- 13 C]Leucine was prepared by condensing the sodium salt of ethyl acetamido-[2- 13 C]cyanoacetate with isobutylbromide in hexamethylphosphoroustriamide followed by acid hydrolysis. N-BOC-DL-[2- 13 C]Leucine was prepared and incorporated into [8-DL-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin by total synthesis. The 13 C-labeled hormone derivative [8-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin was separated from its 8-position diastereoisomer by partition chromatography. The specifically 13 C-labeled peptide hormone diastereoisomeric analog [3-DL-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin also was prepared by solid phase peptide synthesis. No suitable solvent system for partition chromatography separation of the latter diastereoisomeric peptide mixture could be found. However an excellent preparative separation of the diastereoisomers could be obtained by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography on a partisil 10 M9 ODS column using the solvent system 0.05 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.0), acetonitrile (81:19, v/v) to give pure [3-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin and [3-D-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin. An excellent separation of [8-[2- 13 C]leucine]oxytocin and the corresponding delata-D-leucine diastereoisomer derivative could also be accomplished by high pressure liquid chromatography. (author)

  10. Methodological investigation on the use of 14C-leucine and 15N-leucine for studying the absorption of amino acids in the experimental rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Bergner, U.; Adam, K.

    1980-01-01

    After nine days of adaptation to a whole-egg diet, albino rats were given 14 C-U-L-leucine and 15 N-L-leucine in addition by the oral route. Each rat received the labelled leucine via a pellet made from the whole-egg diet after food deprivation for 15 h. Thereafter, the experimental animals consumed the unlabelled experimental diet ad libitum. Four times, 30 min, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after ingestion of the labelled food, four experimental rats were sacrificed. The contents of the digestive tract and tissue samples were examined for 14 C and 15 N. The halftime of disappearance of the 14 C activity and of the 15 N excess from the TCA-soluble fraction of the gastric contents lay between 1.9 and 2.2 h. Up to the fourth hour of experiment, the 15 N level of the TCA-soluble fraction of the gastric contents was high. The free leucine is obviously absorbed in the stomach and is used for the synthesis of enzyme protein and mucoproteides. In the TCA-soluble fraction of the total contents of the small intestine, the following values (expressed as percentages of the total amounts ingested at the times of measurement) were found: 14 C = 2.0; 6.5; 9.6; 7.4 and 1.5; 15 N excess = 0.8; 1.2; 1.6; 1.6 and 1.2 Were these values regarded as non-absorbed leucine, the 14 C values obtained during the one-to-four hour period of experiment would unequivocally be too high. Presumably, they are simulated by other 14 C-metabolites which originate from the leucine catabolism and reach the intestinal lumen through the intestinal wall. Amino acids labelled with 15 N should be preferred in studies on the absorption of amino acids because, in case of catabolization, the 15 N-amino group is excreted mainly in the form of urea. 14 C-amino acids can be recommended for such studies only if the specific 14 C activity of the amino acid used is also measured. (author)

  11. Identification of four families of yCCR4- and Mg2+-dependent endonuclease-related proteins in higher eukaryotes, and characterization of orthologs of yCCR4 with a conserved leucine-rich repeat essential for hCAF1/hPOP2 binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbo Laura

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast yCCR4 factor belongs to the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex, in which it interacts, through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR motif with yPOP2. Recently, yCCR4 was shown to be a component of the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, and to contain a fold related to the Mg2+-dependent endonuclease core. Results Here, we report the identification of nineteen yCCR4-related proteins in eukaryotes (including yeast, plants and animals, which all contain the yCCR4 endonuclease-like fold, with highly conserved CCR4-specific residues. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that they form four distinct families, one of which contains the yCCR4 orthologs. The orthologs in animals possess a leucine-rich repeat domain. We show, using two-hybrid and far-Western assays, that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, i.e. hCAF1 and hPOP2, in a LRR-dependent manner. Conclusions We have identified the mammalian orthologs of yCCR4 and have shown that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, thus strongly suggesting conservation of the CCR4-NOT complex from yeast to human. All members of the four identified yCCR4-related protein families show stricking conservation of the endonuclease-like catalytic motifs of the yCCR4 C-terminal domain and therefore constitute a new family of potential deadenylases in mammals.

  12. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is necessary for prostate cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weijia; Tan, Peng; Rodriguez, Melissa; He, Lian; Tan, Kunrong; Zeng, Li; Siwko, Stefan; Liu, Mingyao

    2017-09-15

    Prostate cancer is a highly penetrant disease among men in industrialized societies, but the factors regulating the transition from indolent to aggressive and metastatic cancer remain poorly understood. We found that men with prostate cancers expressing high levels of the G protein-coupled receptor LGR4 had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival compared with patients with cancers having low LGR4 expression. LGR4 expression was elevated in human prostate cancer cell lines with metastatic potential. We therefore generated a novel transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model to investigate the role of Lgr4 in prostate cancer development and metastasis in vivo TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice exhibited an initial delay in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia formation, but the frequency of tumor formation was equivalent between TRAMP and TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice by 12 weeks. The loss of Lgr4 significantly improved TRAMP mouse survival and dramatically reduced the occurrence of lung metastases. LGR4 knockdown impaired the migration, invasion, and colony formation of DU145 cells and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by up-regulation of E-cadherin and decreased expression of the EMT transcription factors ZEB, Twist, and Snail. Overexpression of LGR4 in LNCaP cells had the opposite effects. Orthotopic injection of DU145 cells stably expressing shRNA targeting LGR4 resulted in decreased xenograft tumor size, reduced tumor EMT marker expression, and impaired metastasis, in accord with our findings in TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice. In conclusion, we propose that Lgr4 is a key protein necessary for prostate cancer EMT and metastasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Capra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older...... corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results....

  14. The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) class I transcription factors ATHB7 and ATHB12 modulate abscisic acid signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 2C and abscisic acid receptor gene activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Overnäs, Elin; Johansson, Henrik; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Engström, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Plants perceiving drought activate multiple responses to improve survival, including large-scale alterations in gene expression. This article reports on the roles in the drought response of two Arabidopsis thaliana homeodomain-leucine zipper class I genes; ATHB7 and ATHB12, both strongly induced by water-deficit and abscisic acid (ABA). ABA-mediated transcriptional regulation of both genes is shown to depend on the activity of protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C). ATHB7 and ATHB12 are, thus, targets of the ABA signalling mechanism defined by the PP2Cs and the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, with which the PP2C proteins interact. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression analyses demonstrate that ATHB7 and ATHB12 act as positive transcriptional regulators of PP2C genes, and thereby as negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. In support of this notion, our results also show that ATHB7 and ATHB12 act to repress the transcription of genes encoding the ABA receptors PYL5 and PYL8 in response to an ABA stimulus. In summary, we demonstrate that ATHB7 and ATHB12 have essential functions in the primary response to drought, as mediators of a negative feedback effect on ABA signalling in the plant response to water deficit.

  15. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of leucine supplementation on fat free mass with prolonged hypoxic exposure during a 13-day trek to Everest Base Camp: a double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing-Gaia, Stacie L; Gershenoff, Dana C; Drummond, Micah J; Askew, E Wayne

    2014-03-01

    Loss of body weight and fat-free mass (FFM) are commonly noted with prolonged exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Recent evidence suggests protein supplementation, specifically leucine, may potentially attenuate loss of FFM in subcaloric conditions during normoxia. The purpose of this study was to determine if leucine supplementation would prevent the loss of FFM in subcaloric conditions during prolonged hypoxia. Eighteen physically active male (n = 10) and female (n = 8) trekkers completed a 13-day trek in Nepal to Everest Base Camp with a mean altitude of 4140 m (range 2810-5364 m). In this double-blind study, participants were randomized to ingest either leucine (LEU) (7 g leucine, 93 kcal, 14.5 g whey-based protein) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control (CON) (0.3 g LEU, 93 kcal, 11.3 g collagen protein) twice daily prior to meals. Body weight, body composition, and circumferences of bicep, thigh, and calf were measured pre- and post-trek. There was a significant time effect for body weight (-2.2% ± 1.7%), FFM (-1.7% ± 1.5%), fat mass (-4.0% ± 6.9%), and circumferences (p FFM (CON -2.1 ± 1.5%; LEU -1.2 ± 1.6%), fat mass (CON -2.9% ± 5.9%; LEU -5.4% ± 8.1%), or circumferences. Although a significant loss of body weight, FFM, and fat mass was noted in 13 days of high altitude exposure, FFM loss was not attenuated by leucine. Future studies are needed to determine if leucine attenuates loss of FFM with longer duration high altitude exposure.

  17. Leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss via increasing CRH expression in the hypothalamus and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying; Guo, Feifan

    2011-09-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  18. Conversion of leucine to β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate by α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase is required for a potent stimulation of protein synthesis in L6 rat myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, José D.; Salto, Rafael; Manzano, Manuel; Sevillano, Natalia; Campos, Nefertiti; Argilés, Josep M.; Rueda, Ricardo; López‐Pedrosa, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background L‐Leu and its metabolite β‐hydroxy‐β‐methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulate muscle protein synthesis enhancing the phosphorylation of proteins that regulate anabolic signalling pathways. Alterations in these pathways are observed in many catabolic diseases, and HMB and L‐Leu have proven their anabolic effects in in vivo and in vitro models. The aim of this study was to compare the anabolic effects of L‐Leu and HMB in myotubes grown in the absence of any catabolic stimuli. Methods Studies were conducted in vitro using rat L6 myotubes under normal growth conditions (non‐involving L‐Leu‐deprived conditions). Protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway were determined. Results Only HMB was able to increase protein synthesis through a mechanism that involves the phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin as well as its downstream elements, pS6 kinase, 4E binding protein‐1, and eIF4E. HMB was significantly more effective than L‐Leu in promoting these effects through an activation of protein kinase B/Akt. Because the conversion of L‐Leu to HMB is limited in muscle, L6 cells were transfected with a plasmid that codes for α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase, the key enzyme involved in the catabolic conversion of α‐keto isocaproate into HMB. In these transfected cells, L‐Leu was able to promote protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin regulated pathway activation equally to HMB. Additionally, these effects of leucine were reverted to a normal state by mesotrione, a specific inhibitor of α‐keto isocaproate dioxygenase. Conclusion Our results suggest that HMB is an active L‐Leu metabolite able to maximize protein synthesis in skeletal muscle under conditions, in which no amino acid deprivation occurred. It may be proposed that supplementation with HMB may be very useful to stimulate protein synthesis in wasting conditions associated with chronic diseases, such as cancer or

  19. Measurement of L-[1-14C]leucine kinetics in splanchnic and leg tissues in humans. Effect of amino acid infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, R.A.; Glickman, M.G.; Castellino, P.; Louard, R.J.; DeFronzo, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Although whole-body leucine flux is widely measured to study body protein turnover in humans, the contribution of specific tissues to the total-body measurement remains unknown. By combining the organ-balance technique with the systemic infusion of L-[1-14C]leucine, we quantitated leucine production and disposal by splanchnic and leg tissues and by the whole body, simultaneously, in six normal men before and during amino acid infusion. At steady state, disposal of arterial leucine by splanchnic and leg tissues was calculated from the percent extraction (E) of L-[1-14C]leucine counts: uptake = E x [Leu]a x flow. Tissue release of cold leucine (from protein turnover) into vein was calculated as the difference between leucine uptake and the net tissue leucine balance. In the postabsorptive state, despite substantial (P less than .01) extraction of L-[1-14C]leucine by splanchnic (23 +/- 1%) and leg (18 +/- 2%) tissues, net leucine balance across both tissue beds was small, indicating active simultaneous disposal and production of leucine at nearly equivalent rates. Splanchnic tissues accounted for approximately 50% of the measured total-body leucine flux. During amino acid infusion, the net leucine balance across splanchnic and leg tissues became positive, reflecting not only an increase in leucine uptake but also a marked suppression (by approximately 50%, P less than .02) of cold leucine release. This reduction in splanchnic and leg leucine release was indicated by a sharp decline in whole-body endogenous leucine flux

  20. The Potato Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 is a Pathogen Dependent DNA-Deforming Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenyk, S.; Townsend, P.D.; Dixon, C.H.; Spies, G.B.; Campillo, A.S.E.; Slootweg, E.J.; Westerhof, L.B.; Gawehns, F.K.K.; Knight, M.R.; Sharples, G.J.; Goverse, A.; Palsson, L.O.; Takken, F.L.W.; Cann, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant NLR proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus, however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously we noted a structural homology between the NB domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1

  1. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  2. Autoimmune encephalitis with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 or anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 antibodies (formerly called voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Anna E M; van Sonderen, Agnes; Titulaer, Maarten J

    2017-06-01

    Twenty years since the discovery of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-related autoimmunity; it is currently known that the antibodies are not directed at the VGKC itself but to two closely associated proteins, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies to LGI1 and Caspr2 give well-described clinical phenotypes. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients mostly have limbic symptoms, and anti-Caspr2 patients have variable syndromes with both central and peripheral symptoms. A large group of patients with heterogeneous symptoms are VGKC positive but do not have antibodies against LGI1 or Caspr2. The clinical relevance of VGKC positivity in these 'double-negative' patients is questionable. This review focusses on these three essentially different subgroups. The clinical phenotypes of anti-LGI1 encephalitis and anti-Caspr2 encephalitis have been described in more detail including data on treatment and long-term follow-up. A specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association was found in nontumor anti-LGI1 encephalitis, but not clearly in those with tumors. There has been increasing interest in the VGKC patients without LGI1/Caspr2 antibodies questioning its relevance in clinical practice. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis and anti-Caspr2 encephalitis are separate clinical entities. Early recognition and treatment is necessary and rewarding. The term VGKC-complex antibodies, lumping patients with anti-LGI1, anti-Caspr2 antibodies or lacking both, should be considered obsolete.

  3. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2017-01-01

    various species have been determined, the expression and purification of recombinant FLRT FnIII domains, important steps for further structural and functional characterizations of the proteins, have not yet been described. Here we present a protocol for expressing recombinant FLRT-FnIII domains...... that a strand-strand cystine bridge has significant effect on the stability of the FLRT FnIII fold. We further show by Surface Plasmon Resonance that all three FnIII domains bind to FGFR1, and roughly estimate a Kd for each domain, all Kds being in the µM range....

  4. Protein Correlation Profiles Identify Lipid Droplet Proteins with High Confidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmer, Natalie; Hilger, Maximiliane; Kory, Nora; Wilfling, Florian; Stoehr, Gabriele; Mann, Matthias; Farese, Robert V.; Walther, Tobias C.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are important organelles in energy metabolism and lipid storage. Their cores are composed of neutral lipids that form a hydrophobic phase and are surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer that harbors specific proteins. Most well-established LD proteins perform important functions, particularly in cellular lipid metabolism. Morphological studies show LDs in close proximity to and interacting with membrane-bound cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endosomes. Because of these close associations, it is difficult to purify LDs to homogeneity. Consequently, the confident identification of bona fide LD proteins via proteomics has been challenging. Here, we report a methodology for LD protein identification based on mass spectrometry and protein correlation profiles. Using LD purification and quantitative, high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified LD proteins by correlating their purification profiles to those of known LD proteins. Application of the protein correlation profile strategy to LDs isolated from Drosophila S2 cells led to the identification of 111 LD proteins in a cellular LD fraction in which 1481 proteins were detected. LD localization was confirmed in a subset of identified proteins via microscopy of the expressed proteins, thereby validating the approach. Among the identified LD proteins were both well-characterized LD proteins and proteins not previously known to be localized to LDs. Our method provides a high-confidence LD proteome of Drosophila cells and a novel approach that can be applied to identify LD proteins of other cell types and tissues. PMID:23319140

  5. Leucine 208 in human histamine N-methyltransferase emerges as a hotspot for protein stability rationalizing the role of the L208P variant in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsook, Chanakan; Niederhauser, Johannes; Kronegger, Elena; Straganz, Grit; Macheroux, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of histamine catalyzed by the SAM-dependent histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is critically important for the maintenance of neurological processes. Recently, two mutations in the encoding human gene were reported to give rise to dysfunctional protein variants (G60D and L208P) leading to intellectual disability. In the present study, we have expressed eight L208 variants with either apolar (L208F and L208V), polar (L208N and L208T) or charged (L208D, L208H, L208K and L208R) amino acids to define the impact of side chain variations on protein structure and function. We found that the variants L208N, L208T, L208D and L208H were severely compromised in their stability. The other four variants were obtained in lower amounts in the order wild-type HNMT>L208F=L208V>L208K=L208R. Biochemical characterization of the two variants L208F and L208V exhibited similar Michaelis-Menten parameters for SAM and histamine while the enzymatic activity was reduced to 21% and 48%, respectively. A substantial loss of enzymatic activity and binding affinity for histamine was seen for the L208K and L208R variants. Similarly the thermal stability for the latter variants was reduced by 8 and 13°C, respectively. These findings demonstrate that position 208 is extremely sensitive to side chain variations and even conservative replacements affect enzymatic function. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that amino acid replacements in position 208 perturb the helical character and disrupt interactions with the adjacent β-strand, which is involved in the binding and correct positioning of histamine. This finding rationalizes the gradual loss of enzymatic activity observed in the L208 variants. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-137 dysregulation predisposes to osteoporotic fracture by impeding ALP activity and expression via suppression of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangjun; Xu, Xiaohui

    2018-08-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a loss of bone mass and deterioration of its architecture resulting in bone weakness, which becomes prone to fracture. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which miR-137 can reduce the risk of fracture in patients with osteoporosis. An online miRNA database and a luciferase reporter assay system were used to confirm that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) was the target of miR-137. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to study miR-137 mRNA, the expression of LGR4 mRNA and protein among different groups or cells transfected with a scrambled miRNA control, miR-137 mimic, LGR4 siRNA and miR-137 inhibitor. Expression of miR-137 was upregulated to higher levels in cells isolated from osteoporosis patients with fracture than in those without fracture. The 'seed sequence' was found to be located within the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of LGR4 mRNA by searching an online miRNA database. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm that LGR4 is a direct target gene of miR-137 with a potential binding site in the 3'UTR of LGR4. Luciferase activity of cells transfected with wild-type LGR4 3'UTR was much lower than that of the cells transfected with mutant LGR4 3'UTR. The results of real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments demonstrated that the expression levels of LGR4 mRNA and protein were much higher in osteoporosis patients with fracture than osteoporosis patients without fracture. We found that the expression levels of LGR4 mRNA and protein were clearly upregulated following transfection with miR-137 inhibitor, while noticeably downregulated following transfection with miR-137 mimic when compared with the scramble control. Furthermore, the expression of ALP mRNA and ALP activity in bone tissue were much higher in osteoporosis patients with fracture than those without fracture. In conclusion, these data prove that the overexpression of

  7. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  8. Leucine and HMB differentially modulate proteasome system in skeletal muscle under different sarcopenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Igor L; Silva, Willian J; Artioli, Guilherme G; Guilherme, Joao Paulo L F; Leal, Marcelo L; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H; Moriscot, Anselmo S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have compared the effects of leucine supplementation and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the PI3K/Akt pathway during two distinct atrophic conditions, hindlimb immobilization and dexamethasone treatment. Leucine supplementation was able to minimize the reduction in rat soleus mass driven by immobilization. On the other hand, leucine supplementation was unable to provide protection against soleus mass loss in dexamethasone treated rats. Interestingly, HMB supplementation was unable to provide protection against mass loss in all treatments. While solely fiber type I cross sectional area (CSA) was protected in immobilized soleus of leucine-supplemented rats, none of the fiber types were protected by leucine supplementation in rats under dexamethasone treatment. In addition and in line with muscle mass results, HMB treatment did not attenuate CSA decrease in all fiber types against either immobilization or dexamethasone treatment. While leucine supplementation was able to minimize increased expression of both Mafbx/Atrogin and MuRF1 in immobilized rats, leucine was only able to minimize Mafbx/Atrogin in dexamethasone treated rats. In contrast, HMB was unable to restrain the increase in those atrogenes in immobilized rats, but in dexamethasone treated rats, HMB minimized increased expression of Mafbx/Atrogin. The amount of ubiquitinated proteins, as expected, was increased in immobilized and dexamethasone treated rats and only leucine was able to block this increase in immobilized rats but not in dexamethasone treated rats. Leucine supplementation maintained soleus tetanic peak force in immobilized rats at normal level. On the other hand, HMB treatment failed to maintain tetanic peak force regardless of treatment. The present data suggested that the anti-atrophic effects of leucine are not mediated by its metabolite HMB.

  9. Leucine and HMB differentially modulate proteasome system in skeletal muscle under different sarcopenic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L Baptista

    Full Text Available In the present study we have compared the effects of leucine supplementation and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB on the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the PI3K/Akt pathway during two distinct atrophic conditions, hindlimb immobilization and dexamethasone treatment. Leucine supplementation was able to minimize the reduction in rat soleus mass driven by immobilization. On the other hand, leucine supplementation was unable to provide protection against soleus mass loss in dexamethasone treated rats. Interestingly, HMB supplementation was unable to provide protection against mass loss in all treatments. While solely fiber type I cross sectional area (CSA was protected in immobilized soleus of leucine-supplemented rats, none of the fiber types were protected by leucine supplementation in rats under dexamethasone treatment. In addition and in line with muscle mass results, HMB treatment did not attenuate CSA decrease in all fiber types against either immobilization or dexamethasone treatment. While leucine supplementation was able to minimize increased expression of both Mafbx/Atrogin and MuRF1 in immobilized rats, leucine was only able to minimize Mafbx/Atrogin in dexamethasone treated rats. In contrast, HMB was unable to restrain the increase in those atrogenes in immobilized rats, but in dexamethasone treated rats, HMB minimized increased expression of Mafbx/Atrogin. The amount of ubiquitinated proteins, as expected, was increased in immobilized and dexamethasone treated rats and only leucine was able to block this increase in immobilized rats but not in dexamethasone treated rats. Leucine supplementation maintained soleus tetanic peak force in immobilized rats at normal level. On the other hand, HMB treatment failed to maintain tetanic peak force regardless of treatment. The present data suggested that the anti-atrophic effects of leucine are not mediated by its metabolite HMB.

  10. Use of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique to measure bacterial production in river sediments and the epiphyton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H; Pusch, M

    1999-10-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 microM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 microM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined.

  11. Use of the [14C]Leucine Incorporation Technique To Measure Bacterial Production in River Sediments and the Epiphyton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut; Pusch, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [14C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 μM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 μM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined. PMID:10508068

  12. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  13. Leucine Modulation of the mTOR Pathway for Cognition Modulation: Kinetic and In Vitro Studies and Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ultimately at regional levels. In other words , the arrival of free leucine at a tissue site and taken up by the cells would impart a signal for...immunohistochemical techniques and immortalized rat hippocampal cells. Figure 2. Schematic of the Impact of Leucine on the mTOR Protein Synthesis Pathway

  14. Radiobiological half-lives for carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 leucine in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic, K.L.; Schwenk, W.F.; Haymond, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    In vivo estimates of protein metabolism in many are often made by oral or intravenous administration of leucine or its ∼-ketoacid, ∼-ketoisocaproate, labeled with 14 C or 3 H. Previous estimates of radiation dose from such tracers have been based on the measurement of 14 CO 2 in breath. Using measurements of the decay of 3 H or 14 C leucine from plasma proteins, longer biological half-lives for these compounds were obtained. The estimated total-body radiation absorbed dose is 0.97 mrad/uCi for [1- 14 C]KIC (or [1- 14 C]leucine) and 0.11 mrad/ + Ci for ]4,5- 3 H]leucine (or [ 3 H]KIC). Assuming administered doses of 100 μCi each, the total-body radiation absorbed dose is still well within the limits set by the FDA for Radioactive Drug Research Committees. 12 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzi Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that dietary leucine protects against high fat diet-induced mitochondrial impairments and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and energy partitioning from adipocytes to muscle cells through SIRT1-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB, a metabolite of leucine, has been reported to activate AMPK synergistically with resveratrol in C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, we hypothesize that leucine-induced activation of SIRT1 and AMPK is the central event that links the upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Thus, C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM, alanine (0.5 mM, valine (0.5 mM, EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor, 25 μM, and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor, 25 μM alone or in combination to determine the roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in leucine-modulation of energy metabolism. Leucine significantly increased mitochondrial content, mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes expression, fatty acid oxidation, SIRT1 activity and gene expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes compared to the controls, while EX527 and Compound C markedly attenuated these effects. Furthermore, leucine treatment for 24 hours resulted in time-dependent increases in cellular NAD+, SIRT1 activity, and p-AMPK level, with SIRT1 activation preceding that of AMPK, indicating that leucine activation of SIRT1, rather than AMPK, is the primary event.

  16. Interaction between leucine and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in modulating insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lizhi Fu,1 Fenfen Li,1 Antje Bruckbauer,2 Qiang Cao,1 Xin Cui,1 Rui Wu,1 Hang Shi,1 Bingzhong Xue,1 Michael B Zemel21Department of Biology, Center for Obesity Reversal, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 2NuSirt Biopharma Inc., Nashville, TN, USA Purpose: Leucine activates SIRT1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling and markedly potentiates the effects of other sirtuin and AMPK activators on insulin signaling and lipid metabolism. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition increases nitric oxide–cGMP signaling, which in turn exhibits a positive feedback loop with both SIRT1 and AMPK, thus amplifying peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator α (PGC1α-mediated effects. Methods: We evaluated potential synergy between leucine and PDE5i on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in vitro and in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Results: Leucine (0.5 mM exhibited significant synergy with subtherapeutic doses (0.1–10 nM of PDE5-inhibitors (sildenafil and icariin on fat oxidation, nitric oxide production, and mitochondrial biogenesis in hepatocytes, adipocytes, and myotubes. Effects on insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and lipid metabolism were then assessed in DIO-mice. DIO-mice exhibited fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, which were not affected by the addition of leucine (24 g/kg diet. However, the combination of leucine and a subtherapeutic dose of icariin (25 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks reduced fasting glucose (38%, P<0.002, insulin (37%, P<0.05, area under the glucose tolerance curve (20%, P<0.01, and fully restored glucose response to exogenous insulin challenge. The combination also inhibited hepatic lipogenesis, stimulated hepatic and muscle fatty acid oxidation, suppressed hepatic inflammation, and reversed high-fat diet-induced steatosis. Conclusion: These robust improvements in insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and lipid metabolism indicate therapeutic potential for

  17. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA. Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day; then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05 from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05. Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n (p < 0.05, increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05 and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases.

  18. The actions of exogenous leucine on mTOR signalling and amino acid transporters in human myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron-Smith David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA leucine has been identified to be a key regulator of skeletal muscle anabolism. Activation of anabolic signalling occurs via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR through an undefined mechanism. System A and L solute carriers transport essential amino acids across plasma membranes; however it remains unknown whether an exogenous supply of leucine regulates their gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic leucine stimulation of anabolic signalling and specific amino acid transporters, using cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells. Results Human myotubes were treated with leucine, insulin or co-treated with leucine and insulin for 30 min, 3 h or 24 h. Activation of mTOR signalling kinases were examined, together with putative nutrient sensor human vacuolar protein sorting 34 (hVps34 and gene expression of selected amino acid transporters. Phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K was transiently increased following leucine exposure, independently to insulin. hVps34 protein expression was also significantly increased. However, genes encoding amino acid transporters were differentially regulated by insulin and not leucine. Conclusions mTOR signalling is transiently activated by leucine within human myotubes independently of insulin stimulation. While this occurred in the absence of changes in gene expression of amino acid transporters, protein expression of hVps34 increased.

  19. Leucine kinetics from [2H3]- and [13C]leucine infused simultaneously by gut and vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerr, R.A.; Matthews, D.E.; Bier, D.M.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    In amino acid tracer kinetic studies of the fed state, ingested amino acid may be taken up during its initial transit through splanchnic tissues and thus not enter the plasma compartment where tracer is infused. To investigate this possibility, adult human subjects received simultaneous intravenous (iv) and intragastric (ig) leucine tracer infusions, first during a postabsorptive (PA) 4-h primed continuous ig infusion of L-[1-13C]-leucine and L-[5,5,5-2H3]leucine iv, followed on a separate day by a fed infusion, in which an ig infusion of a liquid formula was started 2 h before the tracer infusion and continued throughout the tracer study. Subjects were accustomed to a constant experimental diet supplying 1.5 g protein.kg-1.day-1 and 41-45 kcal.kg-1.day-1 for 7 and 12 days before the PA and fed studies, respectively. For the PA study, plasma enrichment for the ig tracer was 3.34 +/- 0.27 (SE) mol + excess and for the iv tracer it was 4.18 +/- 0.10 (P less than 0.02). Enrichments of alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KIC) were 3.24 +/- 0.16 (ig) and 3.02 +/- 0.14 (iv), respectively [not significant (NS)]. For the fed study, plasma leucine enrichment for the ig tracer was 2.15 +/- 0.14 and for the iv tracer was 2.84 +/- 0.09 (P less than 0.02). KIC enrichments were 2.02 +/- 0.08 (ig) and 2.24 +/- 0.08 (iv), respectively (NS). In the PA study, the ratio of the plasma leucine enrichments for the ig and iv tracers was 0.80 +/- 0.06 and in the fed experiment, 0.76 +/- 0.05, respectively

  20. Leucine kinetics from (2H3)- and ( sup 13 C)leucine infused simultaneously by gut and vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerr, R.A.; Matthews, D.E.; Bier, D.M.; Young, V.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In amino acid tracer kinetic studies of the fed state, ingested amino acid may be taken up during its initial transit through splanchnic tissues and thus not enter the plasma compartment where tracer is infused. To investigate this possibility, adult human subjects received simultaneous intravenous (iv) and intragastric (ig) leucine tracer infusions, first during a postabsorptive (PA) 4-h primed continuous ig infusion of L-(1-13C)-leucine and L-(5,5,5-2H3)leucine iv, followed on a separate day by a fed infusion, in which an ig infusion of a liquid formula was started 2 h before the tracer infusion and continued throughout the tracer study. Subjects were accustomed to a constant experimental diet supplying 1.5 g protein.kg-1.day-1 and 41-45 kcal.kg-1.day-1 for 7 and 12 days before the PA and fed studies, respectively. For the PA study, plasma enrichment for the ig tracer was 3.34 +/- 0.27 (SE) mol + excess and for the iv tracer it was 4.18 +/- 0.10 (P less than 0.02). Enrichments of alpha-keto-isocaproic acid (KIC) were 3.24 +/- 0.16 (ig) and 3.02 +/- 0.14 (iv), respectively (not significant (NS)). For the fed study, plasma leucine enrichment for the ig tracer was 2.15 +/- 0.14 and for the iv tracer was 2.84 +/- 0.09 (P less than 0.02). KIC enrichments were 2.02 +/- 0.08 (ig) and 2.24 +/- 0.08 (iv), respectively (NS). In the PA study, the ratio of the plasma leucine enrichments for the ig and iv tracers was 0.80 +/- 0.06 and in the fed experiment, 0.76 +/- 0.05, respectively.

  1. Nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate relative to leucine, assessed isotopically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C.W.; Walser, M.

    1985-01-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate as a dietary substitute for leucine was assessed in rats by two techniques: first, the minimal dose of alpha-ketoisocaproate required, as a supplement to a leucine-free diet, to achieve a growth rate as great as animals receiving leucine was found to be between 2.2 and 4.4 times larger. Therefore the nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate lies between 0.23 and 0.46. Second, alpha-[1- 14 C]-ketoisocaproate and [ 3 H]leucine were administered orally and the ratio of 14 C/ 3 H incorporated into the leucine of whole-body protein and fibrin was measured. This ratio, divided by the ratio 14 C/ 3 H injected, was the same in fibrin as in whole-body protein and averaged 0.39. Thus both techniques yield the same value, within the error of measurement, for the relative nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate. The authors also found that alpha-ketoisocaproate feeding at varying dosage did not alter this ratio in whole-body protein, suggesting that neither wide variations in growth rate nor exposure for 10 days to alpha-ketoisocaproate alters the relative rates of utilization (or oxidation) of alpha-ketoisocaproate vs. leucine

  2. Nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate relative to leucine, assessed isotopically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C.W.; Walser, M.

    1985-10-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate as a dietary substitute for leucine was assessed in rats by two techniques: first, the minimal dose of alpha-ketoisocaproate required, as a supplement to a leucine-free diet, to achieve a growth rate as great as animals receiving leucine was found to be between 2.2 and 4.4 times larger. Therefore the nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate lies between 0.23 and 0.46. Second, alpha-(1- UC)-ketoisocaproate and (TH)leucine were administered orally and the ratio of UC/TH incorporated into the leucine of whole-body protein and fibrin was measured. This ratio, divided by the ratio UC/TH injected, was the same in fibrin as in whole-body protein and averaged 0.39. Thus both techniques yield the same value, within the error of measurement, for the relative nutritional efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate. The authors also found that alpha-ketoisocaproate feeding at varying dosage did not alter this ratio in whole-body protein, suggesting that neither wide variations in growth rate nor exposure for 10 days to alpha-ketoisocaproate alters the relative rates of utilization (or oxidation) of alpha-ketoisocaproate vs. leucine.

  3. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown.

  4. An engineered allosteric switch in leucine-zipper oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L; Plecs, J J; Alber, T

    1996-06-01

    Controversy remains about the role of core side-chain packing in specifying protein structure. To investigate the influence of core packing on the oligomeric structure of a coiled coil, we engineered a GCN4 leucine zipper mutant that switches from two to three strands upon binding the hydrophobic ligands cyclohexane and benzene. In solution these ligands increased the apparent thermal stability and the oligomerization order of the mutant leucine zipper. The crystal structure of the peptide-benzene complex shows a single benzene molecule bound at the engineered site in the core of the trimer. These results indicate that coiled coils are well-suited to function as molecular switches and emphasize that core packing is an important determinant of oligomerization specificity.

  5. Concentration-Dependent Patterns of Leucine Incorporation by Coastal Picoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Cecilia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. We investigated the incorporation patterns of leucine in four microbial lineages from the coastal North Sea at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 nM before and during a spring phytoplankton bloom. Community bulk incorporation rates and the fraction of leucine-incorporating cells in the different populations were analyzed. Significantly fewer bacterial cells incorporated the amino acid before (13 to 35%) than during (23 to 47%) the bloom at all but the highest concentration. The incorporation rate per active cell in the prebloom situation was constant above 0.1 nM added leucine, whereas it increased steeply with substrate concentration during the bloom. At both time points, a high proportion of members of the Roseobacter clade incorporated leucine at all concentrations (55 to 80% and 86 to 94%, respectively). In contrast, the fractions of leucine-incorporating cells increased substantially with substrate availability in bacteria from the SAR86 clade (8 to 31%) and from DE cluster 2 of the Flavobacteria-Sphingobacteria (14 to 33%). The incorporation patterns of marine Euryarchaeota were between these extremes (30 to 56% and 48 to 70%, respectively). Our results suggest that the contribution of microbial taxa to the turnover of particular substrates may be concentration dependent. This may help us to understand the specific niches of coexisting populations that appear to compete for the same resources. PMID:16517664

  6. SREBP-1 dimerization specificity maps to both the helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper domains: use of a dominant negative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishi, Vikas; Gal, Jozsef; Krylov, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    -HLH-ZIP proteins MAX, USF, or MITF, even at 100 molar eq. Chimeric proteins containing the HLH domain of SREBP-1 and the leucine zipper from either MAX, USF, or MITF indicate that both the HLH and leucine zipper regions of SREBP-1 contribute to its dimerization specificity. Transient co-transfection studies...

  7. l-Leucine Supplementation Worsens the Adiposity of Already Obese Rats by Promoting a Hypothalamic Pattern of Gene Expression that Favors Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T. Zampieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies showed that l-leucine supplementation reduces adiposity when provided before the onset of obesity. We studied rats that were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD for 10 weeks before they started to receive l-leucine supplementation. Fat mass was increased in l-leucine-supplemented rats consuming the HFD. Accordingly, l-leucine produced a hypothalamic pattern of gene expression that favors fat accumulation. In conclusion, l-leucine supplementation worsened the adiposity of rats previously exposed to HFD possibly by central mechanisms.

  8. Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Sina S; Fitzgerald, Penelope Ce; Schober, Gudrun; Steinert, Robert E; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-11-01

    The branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine lower blood glucose after oral glucose ingestion, and the intraduodenal infusion of leucine decreases energy intake in healthy, lean men. We investigated the effects of the intragastric administration of leucine and isoleucine on the gastric emptying of, and blood glucose responses to, a physiologic mixed-macronutrient drink and subsequent energy intake. In 2 separate studies, 12 healthy, lean subjects received on 3 separate occasions an intragastric infusion of 5 g leucine (leucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g leucine (leucine-10g), an intragastric infusion of 5 g isoleucine (isoleucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g isoleucine (isoleucine-10g), or a control. Fifteen minutes later, subjects consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (400 kcal, 56 g carbohydrates, 15 g protein, and 12 g fat), and gastric emptying ( 13 C-acetate breath test) and blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (leucine study only) were measured for 60 min. Immediately afterward, energy intake from a cold, buffet-style meal was assessed. Compared with the control, leucine-10g decreased the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (P blood glucose (P = 0.07), whereas effects of leucine-5g were NS. Leucine-10g, but not leucine-5g, increased plasma insulin and C-peptide AUCs (P blood glucose AUC and peak blood glucose (P blood glucose AUC. Isoleucine did not affect energy intake. In healthy subjects, both leucine and isoleucine reduced blood glucose in response to a mixed-nutrient drink but did not affect subsequent energy intake. The mechanisms underlying glucose lowering appear to differ; leucine stimulated insulin, whereas isoleucine acted insulin independently. These trials were registered at www.anzctr.org.au as 12613000899741 and 12614000837628. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Endocrine responses and acute mTOR pathway phosphorylation to resistance exercise with leucine and whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Lane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises. For visits 2 and 3, subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover design to ingest either leucine and whey protein (10g+10g; supplement or a non-caloric placebo. During these visits, 5 sets of 10 repetitions were performed on both exercises, immediately followed by ingestion of the supplement or placebo. Blood was sampled 30 min post-, and a muscle biopsy 45 min post-exercise. Western blots quantified total and phosphorylated proteins. Insulin increased (α<.05 with supplementation with no change in glucose compared to placebo. Relative phosphorylation of AKT and rpS6 were greater with leucine and whey supplementation compared to placebo. Supplementation of leucine and whey protein immediately after heavy resistance exercise increases anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle.

  10. Application of Key Events Dose Response Framework to defining the upper intake level of leucine in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencharz, Paul B; Russell, Robert M

    2012-12-01

    Leucine is sold in large doses in health food stores and is ingested by weight-training athletes. The safety of ingestion of large doses of leucine is unknown. Before designing chronic high-dose leucine supplementation experiments, we decided to determine the effect of graded doses of leucine in healthy participants. The Key Events Dose Response Framework is an organizational and analytical framework that dissects the various biologic steps (key events) that occur between exposure to a substance and an eventual adverse effect. Each biologic event is looked at for its unique dose-response characteristics. For nutrients, there are a number of biologic homeostatic mechanisms that work to keep circulating/tissue levels in a safe, nontoxic range. If a response mechanism at a particular key event is especially vulnerable and easily overwhelmed, this is known as a determining event, because this event drives the overall slope or shape of the dose-response relationship. In this paper, the Key Events Dose Framework has been applied to the problem of leucine toxicity and leucine's tolerable upper level. After analyzing the experimental data vis a vis key events for leucine leading to toxicity, it became evident that the rate of leucine oxidation was the determining event. A dose-response study has been conducted to graded intakes of leucine in healthy human adult male volunteers. All participants were started at the mean requirement level of leucine [50 mg/(kg · d)] and the highest leucine intake was 1250 mg/( kg · d), which is 25 times the mean requirement. No gut intolerance was seen. Blood glucose fell progressively but remained within normal values without any changes in plasma insulin. Maximal leucine oxidation levels occurred at an intake of 550 mg leucine/( kg · d), after which plasma leucine progressively increased and plasma ammonia also increased in response to leucine intakes >500 mg/( kg · d). Thus, the "key determining event" appears to be when the

  11. Inferring high-confidence human protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xueping

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As numerous experimental factors drive the acquisition, identification, and interpretation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs, aggregated assemblies of human PPI data invariably contain experiment-dependent noise. Ascertaining the reliability of PPIs collected from these diverse studies and scoring them to infer high-confidence networks is a non-trivial task. Moreover, a large number of PPIs share the same number of reported occurrences, making it impossible to distinguish the reliability of these PPIs and rank-order them. For example, for the data analyzed here, we found that the majority (>83% of currently available human PPIs have been reported only once. Results In this work, we proposed an unsupervised statistical approach to score a set of diverse, experimentally identified PPIs from nine primary databases to create subsets of high-confidence human PPI networks. We evaluated this ranking method by comparing it with other methods and assessing their ability to retrieve protein associations from a number of diverse and independent reference sets. These reference sets contain known biological data that are either directly or indirectly linked to interactions between proteins. We quantified the average effect of using ranked protein interaction data to retrieve this information and showed that, when compared to randomly ranked interaction data sets, the proposed method created a larger enrichment (~134% than either ranking based on the hypergeometric test (~109% or occurrence ranking (~46%. Conclusions From our evaluations, it was clear that ranked interactions were always of value because higher-ranked PPIs had a higher likelihood of retrieving high-confidence experimental data. Reducing the noise inherent in aggregated experimental PPIs via our ranking scheme further increased the accuracy and enrichment of PPIs derived from a number of biologically relevant data sets. These results suggest that using our high

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Meemon, Krai; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2012-07-01

    M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the N-terminals. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding Fasciola gigantica LAP (FgLAP) was cloned from adult parasites. The amino acid sequences of FgLAP showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from Fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FgLAP was closely related and grouped with F. hepatica LAP (FhLAP). Northern analysis showed that FgLAP transcriptional products have 1800 base pairs. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization indicated that LAP gene was expressed in the cecal epithelial cells of adult parasites. A polyclonal antibody to a recombinant FgLAP (rFgLAP) detected the native LAP protein in various developmental stages of the parasite. In a functional test, this rFgLAP displayed aminolytic activity using a fluorogenic Leu-MCA substrate, and was significantly inhibited by bestatin. Its maximum activity was at pH 8.0 and enhanced by Mn(2+) ions. Localization of LAP proteins by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques indicated that the enzyme was distributed in the apical cytoplasm of cecal epithelial cells. Because of its important metabolic role and fairly exposed position, FgLAP is a potential drug target and a possible vaccine candidate against fasciolosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  14. Td4IN2: A drought-responsive durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene coding for a resistance like protein with serine/threonine protein kinase, nucleotide binding site and leucine rich domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Patrizia; De Pascali, Mariarosaria; De Caroli, Monica; Luvisi, Andrea; De Bellis, Luigi; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla

    2017-11-01

    Wheat, the main food source for a third of world population, appears strongly under threat because of predicted increasing temperatures coupled to drought. Plant complex molecular response to drought stress relies on the gene network controlling cell reactions to abiotic stress. In the natural environment, plants are subjected to the combination of abiotic and biotic stresses. Also the response of plants to biotic stress, to cope with pathogens, involves the activation of a molecular network. Investigations on combination of abiotic and biotic stresses indicate the existence of cross-talk between the two networks and a kind of overlapping can be hypothesized. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of a drought-related durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) gene, identified in a previous study, coding for a protein combining features of NBS-LRR type resistance protein with a S/TPK domain, involved in drought stress response. This is one of the few examples reported where all three domains are present in a single protein and, to our knowledge, it is the first report on a gene specifically induced by drought stress and drought-related conditions, with this particular structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward the Validation of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase: Discovery, Optimization of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors, and Preliminary Biology Insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toure, B. Barry; Giraldes, John; Smith, Troy

    2016-01-01

    MELK kinase has been implicated in playing an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies suggested that MELK is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and its genetic depletion leads to growth inhibition in a subset of high MELK-expressing basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Herein ...

  16. Toward the Validation of Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase: Discovery, Optimization of Highly Potent and Selective Inhibitors, and Preliminary Biology Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touré, B. Barry; Giraldes, John; Smith, Troy; Sprague, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Yaping; Mathieu, Simon; Chen, Zhuoliang; Mishina, Yuji; Feng, Yun; Yan-Neale, Yan; Shakya, Subarna; Chen, Dongshu; Meyer, Matthew; Puleo, David; Brazell, J. Tres; Straub, Christopher; Sage, David; Wright, Kirk; Yuan, Yanqiu; Chen, Xin; Duca, Jose; Kim, Sean; Tian, Li; Martin, Eric; Hurov, Kristen; Shao, Wenlin (Novartis)

    2016-05-26

    MELK kinase has been implicated in playing an important role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies suggested that MELK is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and its genetic depletion leads to growth inhibition in a subset of high MELK-expressing basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of novel MELK inhibitors 8a and 8b that recapitulate the cellular effects observed by short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA)-mediated MELK knockdown in cellular models. We also discovered a novel fluorine-induced hydrophobic collapse that locked the ligand in its bioactive conformation and led to a 20-fold gain in potency. These novel pharmacological inhibitors achieved high exposure in vivo and were well tolerated, which may allow further in vivo evaluation.

  17. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H

    2014-01-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohy......In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD...... or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training – irrespective of contraction mode....

  18. Prostate Cancer Cells in Different Androgen Receptor Status Employ Different Leucine Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Hideo; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kosaka, Takeo; Suehiro, Jun-Ichi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Leucine stimulates cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR pathway, therefore, inhibiting leucine transporters may be a novel therapeutic target for cancer. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1, a Na + -independent amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many tumor cells. However, leucine transporter(s) in different stages of prostate cancer, particularly in the stages of castration resistance with androgen receptor (AR) expression, is unclear. LNCaP and DU145 and PC-3 cell lines were used as a model of androgen dependent, and metastatic prostate cancer. A new "LN-cr" cell line was established after culturing LNCaP cells for 6 months under androgen-free conditions, which is considered a model of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with androgen AR expression. The expression of leucine transporters was investigated with quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Uptake of 14 C Leucine was examined in the presence or absence of BCH (a pan-LAT inhibitor), JPH203 (an LAT1-specific inhibitor), or Na + . Cell growth was assessed with MTT assay. siRNA studies were performed to evaluate the indispensability of y + LAT2 on leucine uptake and cell viability in LN-cr. Cell viability showed a 90% decrease in the absence of leucine in all four cell lines. LNCaP cells principally expressed LAT3, and their leucine uptake was more than 90% Na + -independent. BCH, but not JPH203, inhibited leucine uptake, and cell proliferation (IC 50BCH :15 mM). DU145 and PC-3 cells predominantly expressed LAT1. Leucine uptake and cell growth were suppressed by BCH or JPH203 in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50BCH : ∼20 mM, IC 50JPH203 : ∼5 µM). In LN-cr cells, Na + -dependent uptake of leucine was 3.8 pmol/mgprotein/min, while, Na + -independent uptake was only 0.52 (P prostate cancer. Prostate 77:222-233, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase gene from Taenia pisiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Xuenong; Wang, Shuai; Guo, Aijiang; Hou, Junling; Wu, Run

    2018-03-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, EC: 3.4.11.1) is an important metalloexopeptidase that catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-terminal leucine residues from polypeptides and proteins. In this study, a full length of cDNA encoding leucine aminopeptidase of Taenia pisiformis (TpLAP) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA-ends using the polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) method. The full-length cDNA of the TpLAP gene is 1823 bp and contains a 1569 bp ORF encoding 533 amino acids with a putative mass of 56.4 kDa. TpLAP contains two characteristic motifs of the M17LAP family in the C-terminal sequence: the metal binding site 265-[VGKG]-271 and the catalytic domain motif 351-[NTDAEGRL]-357. The soluble GST-TpLAP protein was expressed in Escherichia coli Transetta (DE3) and four specific anti-TpLAP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared. In enzymatic assays, the optimal activity was observed at pH 9.5 at 45 °C. GST-TpLAP displayed a hydrolyzing activity for the Leu-pNA substrate with a maximum activity of 46 U/ml. The enzymatic activity was significantly enhanced by Mn 2+ and completely inhibited by 20 nM bestatin and 0.15 mM EDTA. The native TpLAP was detected specifically in ES components of adult T. pisiformis by western blotting using anti-TpLAP mAb as a probe. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the TpLAP gene was expressed at a high level in adult worm tissues, especially in the gravid proglottids (50.71-fold). Immunolocalization analysis showed that TpLAP was located primarily in the subtegumental parenchyma zone and the uterine wall of adult worms. Our results indicate that TpLAP is a new member of the M17LAP family and can be considered as a stage-differentially expressed protein. These findings might provide new insights into the study of the mechanisms of growth, development and survival of T. pisiformis in the final host and have potential value as an attractive target for drug therapy or vaccine intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  20. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression. PMID:25992839

  1. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  2. Use of the [14C]Leucine Incorporation Technique To Measure Bacterial Production in River Sediments and the Epiphyton

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Helmut; Pusch, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [14C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sedi...

  3. Categorizing Biases in High-Confidence High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Data Sets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xueping; Ivanic, Joseph; Memišević, Vesna; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-01-01

    We characterized and evaluated the functional attributes of three yeast high-confidence protein-protein interaction data sets derived from affinity purification/mass spectrometry, protein-fragment complementation assay, and yeast two-hybrid experiments. The interacting proteins retrieved from these data sets formed distinct, partially overlapping sets with different protein-protein interaction characteristics. These differences were primarily a function of the deployed experimental technologies used to recover these interactions. This affected the total coverage of interactions and was especially evident in the recovery of interactions among different functional classes of proteins. We found that the interaction data obtained by the yeast two-hybrid method was the least biased toward any particular functional characterization. In contrast, interacting proteins in the affinity purification/mass spectrometry and protein-fragment complementation assay data sets were over- and under-represented among distinct and different functional categories. We delineated how these differences affected protein complex organization in the network of interactions, in particular for strongly interacting complexes (e.g. RNA and protein synthesis) versus weak and transient interacting complexes (e.g. protein transport). We quantified methodological differences in detecting protein interactions from larger protein complexes, in the correlation of protein abundance among interacting proteins, and in their connectivity of essential proteins. In the latter case, we showed that minimizing inherent methodology biases removed many of the ambiguous conclusions about protein essentiality and protein connectivity. We used these findings to rationalize how biological insights obtained by analyzing data sets originating from different sources sometimes do not agree or may even contradict each other. An important corollary of this work was that discrepancies in biological insights did not

  4. Assessment of the protein quality of twenty nine grain amaranth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sum of essential amino acids ranged from 31.22 to 44.88 g/100 g and 60.87 g/100 g total protein in amaranth and soybean, respectively; limited only in tryptophan and leucine for amaranth, and methionine for soybean. Amaranth is a good source of high quality protein and may serve as a nutritive substitute for some ...

  5. Specific labeling and assignment strategies of valine methyl groups for NMR studies of high molecular weight proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, Guillaume; Crublet, Elodie [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) (France); Hamelin, Olivier [CNRS (France); Gans, Pierre; Boisbouvier, Jérôme, E-mail: jerome.boisbouvier@ibs.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) (France)

    2013-09-28

    The specific protonation of valine and leucine methyl groups in proteins is typically achieved by overexpressing proteins in M9/D{sub 2}O medium supplemented with either labeled α-ketoisovalerate for the labeling of the four prochiral methyl groups or with 2-acetolactate for the stereospecific labeling of the valine and leucine side chains. However, when these labeling schemes are applied to large protein assemblies, significant overlap between the correlations of the valine and leucine methyl groups occurs, hampering the analysis of 2D methyl-TROSY spectra. Analysis of the leucine and valine biosynthesis pathways revealed that the incorporation of labeled precursors in the leucine pathway can be inhibited by the addition of exogenous l-leucine-d{sub 10}. We exploited this property to label stereospecifically the pro-R and pro-S methyl groups of valine with minimal scrambling to the leucine residues. This new labeling protocol was applied to the 468 kDa homododecameric peptidase TET2 to decrease the complexity of its NMR spectra. All of the pro-S valine methyl resonances of TET2 were assigned by combining mutagenesis with this innovative labeling approach. The assignments were transferred to the pro-R groups using an optimally labeled sample and a set of triple resonance experiments. This improved labeling scheme enables us to overcome the main limitation of overcrowding in the NMR spectra of prochiral methyl groups, which is a prerequisite for the site-specific measurement of the structural and dynamic parameters or for the study of interactions in very large protein assemblies.

  6. In vivo effect of sex steroids on uptake of 3H-leucine by female mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Kanji; Haruki, Yasuo; Imanishi, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    In vivo effects of the sex steroids estrogen and progesterone on 3 H-leucine uptake by the brain of mature ovariectomized mice were examined. Animals were divided into three groups: group 1, consisting of control animals treated with sesame oil, group 2, animals treated with estrogen, and group 3, animals first treated with estrogen and then with progesterone. Each group was given a single i.p. injection of 3 H-leucine 2 hr after the last hormonal treatment, and sacrificed 2 hr later. Intensity of the uptake of radiolabeled leucine was measured by counting the number of reduced silver grains over cells in various brain regions using an autoradiographic technique. Group 1 showed a relatively high uptake in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus (PV) and ventromedial nucleus (VM) when compared with that in the remaining hypothalamic nuclei examined. Group 2 showed a significant enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic regions except the preoptic periventricular nucleus (PPV) when compared with that in group 1. Group 3 showed enhancement of the uptake in all hypothalamic nuclei when compared with that in group 1. However, only the PV, PPV, VM and periventricular arcuate nucleus revealed a significantly higher uptake than the respective nuclei in group 2. The remaining nuclei showed no change in uptake. Uptake by cells in the ependymal cells and cerebral cortex remained unchanged after hormonal treatment. The present results suggest that in female mice estrogen and estrogen plus progesterone stimulate protein synthesis in most of the hypothalamic nuclei and that the progesterone effect on protein synthesis is greatly influenced by estrogen-priming. (auth.)

  7. Oral leucine supplementation is sensed by the brain but neither reduces food intake nor induces an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T Zampieri

    Full Text Available Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity.

  8. Influence of haloperidol on the 3H-leucine incorporation in incretory organs of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, E.; Hackenberg, P.

    1978-01-01

    The 3 H-leucine incorporation in proteins of incretory organs of the mouse, the exocrine pancreas, and the renal tubuli was studied autoradiographically after administration of therapylike doses of the neuroleptic drug Haloperidol. With exception of the pancreas, a dosage dependent increase of the 3 H-leucine incorporation was observed in the treated animals. The results reveal an activation of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenocortical system due to a 10-days administration of Haloperidol. These results are in conformity with former ones in brain and liver. (author)

  9. Estimating Bacterial Production in Marine Waters from the Simultaneous Incorporation of Thymidine and Leucine

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Leo, Gerardo; Kirchman, David L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 ± 0.2 [mean ± standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic ...

  10. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine ...

  11. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  12. Intestinal epithelial cell surface glycosylation in mice. I. Effect of high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Jaswal, V M; Meenu Mahmood, A

    1992-01-01

    The effects of variation in dietary protein content have been investigated on brush border glycosylation and enzyme activities in mice small intestine. The comparison of different parameters was made between the mice fed 30% (high protein, HP) and 18% protein (pair-fed, PF, and ad libitum-fed) for 21 days. The activities of brush border sucrase, lactase, p-nitrophenyl (PNP)-beta-D-glucosidase and PNP-beta-D-galactosidase were reduced in the HP diet-fed mice compared to PF and ad libitum-fed controls. Alkaline phosphatase and leucine amino-peptidase activities were significantly enhanced while gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was unaltered under these conditions. Total hexoses and sialic acid content in the brush borders were reduced significantly in the test group compared to the controls while hexosamine and fucose contents remained essentially similar in different groups. The results on the binding of wheat germ agglutinin and Ulex europaeus agglutininI to microvillus membranes corroborated the chemical analysis data on sialic acid and fucose contents of the membranes. Peanut agglutinin binding was enhanced in mice from the HP group. Incorporation of (14C)-mannose into membranes was significantly less in HP diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the feeding of HP diet to mice brings about marked alterations in small intestinal epithelial cell surface glycosylation and enzyme functions.

  13. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present...... in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population without preexisting kidney disease. Accordingly, we find medical reasons to refrain from promoting high-protein diets, in particular those based on meat and dairy products, until clear-cut evidence for the safety and for the superiority...... review, there is a reason to be concerned about adverse effects of such diets, including glomerular hyperfiltration, hypertensive effects of a concomitant increase in dietary sodium, and an increased risk of nephrolithiasis. These diet-induced physiological consequences might lead to an increase...

  14. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  15. Polymorphisms in leucine-rich repeat genes are associated with autism spectrum disorder susceptibility in populations of European ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Ines; Clark, Taane G.; Holt, Richard; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Mulder, Erik J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Battaglia, Agatino; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR)

  16. How to find a leucine in a haystack? Structure, ligand recognition and regulation of leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2014-05-29

    LD motifs (leucine-aspartic acidmotifs) are short helical protein-protein interaction motifs that have emerged as key players in connecting cell adhesion with cell motility and survival. LD motifs are required for embryogenesis, wound healing and the evolution of multicellularity. LD motifs also play roles in disease, such as in cancer metastasis or viral infection. First described in the paxillin family of scaffolding proteins, LD motifs and similar acidic LXXLL interaction motifs have been discovered in several other proteins, whereas 16 proteins have been reported to contain LDBDs (LD motif-binding domains). Collectively, structural and functional analyses have revealed a surprising multivalency in LD motif interactions and a wide diversity in LDBD architectures. In the present review, we summarize the molecular basis for function, regulation and selectivity of LD motif interactions that has emerged from more than a decade of research. This overview highlights the intricate multi-level regulation and the inherently noisy and heterogeneous nature of signalling through short protein-protein interaction motifs. © 2014 Biochemical Society.

  17. How to find a leucine in a haystack? Structure, ligand recognition and regulation of leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir; Alazmi, Meshari; Gao, Xin; Arold, Stefan T.

    2014-01-01

    LD motifs (leucine-aspartic acidmotifs) are short helical protein-protein interaction motifs that have emerged as key players in connecting cell adhesion with cell motility and survival. LD motifs are required for embryogenesis, wound healing and the evolution of multicellularity. LD motifs also play roles in disease, such as in cancer metastasis or viral infection. First described in the paxillin family of scaffolding proteins, LD motifs and similar acidic LXXLL interaction motifs have been discovered in several other proteins, whereas 16 proteins have been reported to contain LDBDs (LD motif-binding domains). Collectively, structural and functional analyses have revealed a surprising multivalency in LD motif interactions and a wide diversity in LDBD architectures. In the present review, we summarize the molecular basis for function, regulation and selectivity of LD motif interactions that has emerged from more than a decade of research. This overview highlights the intricate multi-level regulation and the inherently noisy and heterogeneous nature of signalling through short protein-protein interaction motifs. © 2014 Biochemical Society.

  18. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  19. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h....... In Periods 1 and 5 all animals were fed a diet with a high quality fish meal (FISH; n=12), while in Period 3 half of the animals received the FISH diet (n=6) and the other half a diet with soy protein concentrate (SOY; n=6) as main protein source. An intraperitoneal injection of 1-13C-leucine was given...

  20. Polymorphisms in leucine-rich repeat genes are associated with autism spectrum disorder susceptibility in populations of European ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Inês

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins are highly expressed in the nervous system and are thought to be key regulators of its development. Here we present an association study analysing the roles of four promising candidate genes - LRRTM1 (2p, LRRTM3 (10q, LRRN1 (3p and LRRN3 (7q - in order to identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs. Methods In order to gain a better understanding of how the genetic variation within these four gene regions may influence susceptibility to ASDs, a family-based association study was undertaken in 661 families of European ancestry selected from four different ASD cohorts. In addition, a case-control study was undertaken across the four LRR genes, using logistic regression in probands with ASD of each population against 295 ECACC controls. Results Significant results were found for LRRN3 and LRRTM3 (P LRRTM3. Conclusions Overall, our findings implicate the neuronal leucine-rich genes LRRN3 and LRRTM3 in ASD susceptibility.

  1. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Guo, Rongrong; Guo, Chunlei; Hou, Hongmin; Wang, Xiping; Gao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu) zipper (bZIP) TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling, and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes). Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in 10 different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones. PMID:27066030

  2. Evolutionary and Expression Analyses of the Apple Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factors (TFs play essential roles in the regulatory networks controlling many developmental processes in plants. Members of the basic leucine (Leu zipper (bZIP TF family, which is unique to eukaryotes, are involved in regulating diverse processes, including flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and defense responses to pathogens. The bZIP proteins have a characteristic bZIP domain composed of a DNA-binding basic region and a Leu zipper dimerization region. In this study, we identified 112 apple (Malus domestica Borkh bZIP TF-encoding genes, termed MdbZIP genes. Synteny analysis indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events, as well as whole genome duplication, have contributed to the expansion of the apple bZIP family. The family could be divided into 11 groups based on structural features of the encoded proteins, as well as on the phylogenetic relationship of the apple bZIP proteins to those of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtbZIP genes. Synteny analysis revealed that several paired MdbZIP genes and AtbZIP gene homologs were located in syntenic genomic regions. Furthermore, expression analyses of group A MdbZIP genes showed distinct expression levels in ten different organs. Moreover, changes in these expression profiles in response to abiotic stress conditions and various hormone treatments identified MdbZIP genes that were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as to different phytohormones.

  3. A route to anionic hydrophilic films of copolymers of l-leucine, l-aspartic acid and l-aspartic acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sederel, W.L.; Bantjes, A.; Feijen, Jan

    1975-01-01

    A series of copolymers of l-leucine and β-benzyl-l-aspartate [Leu/Asp(OBz)] covering the range 30–70 mol % of l-leucine, was synthesized by the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) method. The copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, infra-red spectroscopy and viscometry. For all compositions high

  4. Investigation on the absorption of 14C-leucine and 15N-leucine in rats after feeding a fish meal diet in comparison with a gelatine diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, U.; Adam, K.; Bergner, H.

    1981-01-01

    Albino rats received after nine days of adaptation to a fish meal diet in comparison with a gelatine diet 14 C-U-L-leucine and 15 N-L-leucine via a pellet made from the specific diet after food deprivation for 15 h. Thereafter, the animals consumed the non-labelled experimental diet ad libitum. 30 min, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, resp., after intake of the labelled food, four rats at a time were sacrificed. The contents of the digestive tract and tissue samples were examined for 14 C and 15 N and their percentages in the TCA-soluble fraction determined. If these values are regarded as non-absorbed leucine, the 14 C values obtained up to the four hour period of the experiment would be too high. Presumably, they are in the case of both diets simulated by other 14 C metabolites which originate from the leucine catabolism and reach the intestinal lumen. Amino acids labelled with 15 N should be preferred in studies on the absorption of amino acids because, in case of catabolization, the 15 N aminogroup is excreted mainly as urea via urine. (author)

  5. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  6. Leucine-induced activation of translational initiation is partly regulated by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in C2C12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Naoya; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Hamada, Koichiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acid leucine has been shown to activate the translational regulators through the mammalian target of rapamycin. However, the leucine's effects are self-limiting because leucine promotes its own disposal by an oxidative pathway. The irreversible and rate-limiting step in the leucine oxidation pathway is catalyzed by the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. The complex contains E1 (α2β2), E2, and E3 subunits, and its activity is abolished by phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by BCKDH kinase. The relationship between the activity of BCKDH complex and leucine-mediated activation of the protein translation was investigated using the technique of RNA interference. The activity of BCKDH complex in C2C12 cell was modulated by transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for BCKDH E2 subunit or BCKDH kinase. Transfection of siRNAs decreased the mRNA expression and protein amount of corresponding gene. Suppression of either E2 subunit or kinase produced opposite effects on the cell proliferation and the activation of translational regulators by leucine. Suppression of BCKDH kinase for 48 h resulted in decreasing cell proliferation. In contrast, E2 suppression led to increased amount of total cellular protein. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase by leucine was increased in E2-siRNA transfected C2C12 cells, whereas the leucine's effect was diminished in kinase-siRNA transfected cells. These results suggest that the activation of the translational regulators by leucine was partly regulated by the activity of BCKDH complex

  7. Estimating bacterial production in marine waters from the simultaneous incorporation of thymidine and leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Leo, G; Kirchman, D L

    1988-08-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [H]thymidine and [C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 +/- 0.2 [mean +/- standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction. There were no significant differences in thymidine incorporation between dual- and single-label incubations (dual/ single = 1.03 +/- 0.13). Addition of the two substrates in relatively large amounts (25 nM) did not apparently increase bacterial activity during short incubations (leucine incorporation rates covaried over depth profiles of the Chesapeake Bay. Estimates of bacterial production based on thymidine and leucine differed by less than 25%. Although the need for appropriate conversion factors has not been eliminated, the dual-label approach can be used to examine the variation in bacterial production while ensuring that the observed variation in incorporation rates is due to real changes in bacterial production rather than changes in conversion factors or introduction of other artifacts.

  8. 14C leucine chloromethylketone interaction with sarcoma 37 cell plasma membrane components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.H.; Milo, G.E.; McMichael, T.L.; Lewis, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Leucine chloromethylketone labelling of viable S37 cells was preferential for the plasma membrane fraction. The pattern of radiolabelling of the plasma membrane proteins was time-dependent. After 5 min the radiolabel was localized with glutamyl transpeptidase, and subsequently, with other physiologically active proteins as a function of time after incubation. Labelling of proteins was temperature-dependent and incubation of viable S37 cells with the radiolabelled substrate at 0 0 C yielded little or no radioactivity localized in the plasma membrane. The molecular weight of one radiolabelled substratemembrane protein complex was estimated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be between 100,000-200,000. (author)

  9. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution...... of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo...

  10. Printing Proteins as Microarrays for High-Throughput Function Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeath, Gavin; Schreiber, Stuart L.

    2000-09-01

    Systematic efforts are currently under way to construct defined sets of cloned genes for high-throughput expression and purification of recombinant proteins. To facilitate subsequent studies of protein function, we have developed miniaturized assays that accommodate extremely low sample volumes and enable the rapid, simultaneous processing of thousands of proteins. A high-precision robot designed to manufacture complementary DNA microarrays was used to spot proteins onto chemically derivatized glass slides at extremely high spatial densities. The proteins attached covalently to the slide surface yet retained their ability to interact specifically with other proteins, or with small molecules, in solution. Three applications for protein microarrays were demonstrated: screening for protein-protein interactions, identifying the substrates of protein kinases, and identifying the protein targets of small molecules.

  11. The Akt/mTOR pathway: Data comparing young and aged mice with leucine supplementation at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Perry, Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described herein is related to the article “Differential Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Young and Aged Mice at the Onset of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration” [1]. Aging is associated with a decreased ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate following injury. Leucine supplementation has been extensively shown, in young subjects, to promote protein synthesis during regeneration; however, the effects of leucine supplementation on the Akt/mTOR pathway in aged mice at the onset of muscle regeneration are not fully elucidated. In this article, we present data on the Akt/mTOR protein synthesis pathway at the onset of muscle regeneration in young and aged C57BL/6J mice that are and are not receiving leucine supplementation. More specifically, protein content of total Akt, mTOR, p70S6K and 4EBP-1 are presented. Additionally, we provide relative (phosphorylated:total protein content comparisons of these targets as they present themselves in young and aged mice who have neither been injured nor received leucine supplementation. Lastly, markers of atrophy (FoxO1/O3, MuRF-1, Atrogin-1 are also reported in these young and aged control groups. Keywords: MTOR, Skeletal muscle, Regeneration, Leucine supplementation, Aging

  12. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1- 13 C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1- 13 C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1- 13 C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 (R 2 = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 ; based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient. This

  13. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear...

  14. Molecular characterization of the di-leucine-based internalization motif of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Hou, X; Wegener, A M

    1996-01-01

    Several cell surface receptors including the T cell receptor (TCR) are phosphorylated and down-regulated following activation of protein kinases. We have recently shown that both phosphorylation of Ser-126 and the presence of the di-leucine sequence Leu-131 and Leu-132 in CD3 gamma are required f...... are important. 2) Recognition of phosphorylated CD3 gamma by molecules involved in receptor internalization. In this process Ser(P)-126, Asp-127, Leu-131, and Leu-132 are important....

  15. Leucine-rich diet alters the 1H-NMR based metabolomic profile without changing the Walker-256 tumour mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Laís Rosa; Canevarolo, Rafael; Luiz, Anna Caroline Perina; Soares, Raquel Frias; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-10-03

    Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia). After 21 days feeding Wistar female rats a leucine-rich diet, distributed in L-leucine and LW-leucine Walker-256 tumour-bearing groups, we examined the metabolomic profile of serum and tumour tissue samples and compared them with samples from tumour-bearing rats fed a normal protein diet (C - control; W - tumour-bearing groups). We utilised 1 H-NMR as a means to study the serum and tumour metabolomic profile, tumour proliferation and tumour protein synthesis pathway. Among the 58 serum metabolites examined, we found that 12 were altered in the tumour-bearing group, reflecting an increase in activity of some metabolic pathways related to energy production, which diverted many nutrients toward tumour growth. Despite displaying increased tumour cell activity (i.e., higher Ki-67 and mTOR expression), there were no differences in tumour mass associated with changes in 23 metabolites (resulting from valine, leucine and isoleucine synthesis and degradation, and from the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies) in the leucine-tumour group. This result suggests that the majority of nutrients were used for host maintenance. A leucine rich-diet, largely used to prevent skeletal muscle loss, did not affect Walker 256 tumour growth and led to metabolomic alterations that may partially explain the positive effects of leucine for the whole tumour-bearing host.

  16. Glucocorticoid Induced Leucine Zipper inhibits apoptosis of cardiomyocytes by doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, David; Strom, Joshua; Chen, Qin M.

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an indispensable chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of various forms of neoplasia such as lung, breast, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern for patients receiving Dox therapy. Previous work from our laboratory indicated that glucocorticoids (GCs) alleviate Dox-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Here we have found Glucocorticoid-Induced Leucine Zipper (GILZ) to be a mediator of GC-induced cytoprotection. GILZ was found to be induced in cardiomyocytes by GC treatment. Knocking down of GILZ using siRNA resulted in cancelation of GC-induced cytoprotection against apoptosis by Dox treatment. Overexpressing GILZ by transfection was able to protect cells from apoptosis induced by Dox as measured by caspase activation, Annexin V binding and morphologic changes. Western blot analyses indicate that GILZ overexpression prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-3. When bcl-2 family proteins were examined, we found that GILZ overexpression causes induction of the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL. Since siRNA against Bcl-xL reverses GC induced cytoprotection, Bcl-xL induction represents an important event in GILZ-induced cytoprotection. Our data suggest that GILZ functions as a cytoprotective gene in cardiomyocytes. - Highlights: • Corticosteroids act as a cytoprotective agent in cardiomyocytes • Corticosteroids induce GILZ expression in cardiomyocytes • Elevated GILZ results in resistance against apoptosis induced by doxorubicin • GILZ induces Bcl-xL protein without inducing Bcl-xL mRNA

  17. Similar effects of leucine rich and regular dairy products on muscle mass and functions of older polymyalgia rheumatica patients: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, M P; Pilvi, T K; Kekkonen, R A; Korpela, R; Tilvis, R S

    2011-06-01

    Leucine-rich milk and whey proteins have been suggested for prevention of age related loss of muscle mass and strength i.e. sarcopenia. The effects of milk protein supplementation and low intensity home based physical exercise on body composition and muscle functions were investigated. A randomized double blind crossover trial. Community dwelling members of Helsinki rheumatoid association. Older people (N=47, mean age 69.5 years) suffering from polymyalgia rheumatica. Patients performed as many stand ups as possible twice a day after which they ingested a regular (Control) or a whey protein enriched dairy product with high leucine content (Test). The 8-week intervention periods were separated by a 4-week wash-out. Body composition was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry and muscle functions by hand grip strength, force platform countermovement jump performance, chair stand test, and walking speed. The 16-week home-based post-exercise supplementation resulted in a 1.8% increase (p = 0.052) in lower limb muscle mass. Walking speed (+5.3%, p = 0.007) and chair stand test performance (-12.2 %, p products prevent or treat age-associated sarcopenia and whether they are superior to the present commercial milk products.

  18. Leucine minimizes denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of rats through akt/mtor signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barbosa Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of leucine treatment (0.30 mM on muscle weight and signaling of myoproteins related to synthesis and degradation pathways of soleus muscle following seven days of complete sciatic nerve lesion.Wistar rats (n=24 of 3 to 4 months of age (192 ± 23 g were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four experimental groups (n=6/group: control, treated with leucine (L, denervated (D and denervated treated with leucine (DL.Dependent measures were proteins levels of AKT, AMPK, mTOR, and ACC performed by Western blot. Leucine induced a reduction in the phosphorylation of AMPK (p<0.05 by 16% in the L and by 68% in the DL groups as compared with control group. Denervation increased AMPK by 24% in the D group as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT was also modulated by denervation and leucine treatment, highlighted by the elevation of AKT phosphorylation in the D (65%, L (98% and DL (146% groups as compared with the control group (p<0.05. AKT phosphorylation was 49% higher in the D group as compared with the DL group.Furthermore, denervation decreased mTOR phosphorylation by 29% in the D group as compared with the control group. However, leucine treatment induced an increase of 49% in the phosphorylation of mTOR in the L group as compared with the control group, and an increase of 154% in the DL as compared with the D group ( p<0.05. ACC phosphorylation was 20% greater in the D group than the control group. Furthermore, ACC in the soleus was 22% lower in the in the L group and 50% lower in the DL group than the respective control group (p<0.05.In conclusion, leucine treatment minimized the deleterious effects of denervation on rat soleus muscle by increasing anabolic (AKT and mTOR and decreasing catabolic (AMPK pathways. These results may be interesting for muscle recovery following acute denervation, which may contribute to musculoskeletal rehabilitation after denervation.

  19. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the aging skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, M F; Bi, Y; Ameye, L

    2006-01-01

    Small Leucine-Rich Proteoglyans (SLRPs) are major skeletal extracellular matrix (ECM) components that comprise a family of 13 members containing repeats of a leucine-rich motif. To examine SLRP function, we generated mice deficient in one or more member and analyzed them at the tissue, cell...

  20. A leucine repeat motif in AbiA is required for resistance of Lactococcus lactis to phages representing three species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, P K; O'Sullivan, D J; Klaenhammer, T R

    1998-05-28

    The abiA gene encodes an abortive bacteriophage infection mechanism that can protect Lactococcus species from infection by a variety of bacteriophages including three unrelated phage species. Five heptad leucine repeats suggestive of a leucine zipper motif were identified between residues 232 and 266 in the predicted amino acid sequence of the AbiA protein. The biological role of residues in the repeats was investigated by incorporating amino acid substitutions via site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutant was tested for phage resistance against three phages, phi 31, sk1, and c2, belonging to species P335, 936, and c2, respectively. The five residues that comprise the heptad repeats were designated L234, L242, A249, L256, and L263. Three single conservative mutations of leucine to valine in positions L235, L242, and L263 and a double mutation of two leucines (L235 and L242) to valines did not affect AbiA activity on any phages tested. Non-conservative single substitutions of charged amino acids for three of the leucines (L235, L242, and L256) virtually eliminated AbiA activity on all phages tested. Substitution of the alanine residue in the third repeat (A249) with a charged residue did not affect AbiA activity. Replacement of L242 with an alanine elimination phage resistance against phi 31, but partial resistance to sk1 and c2 remained. Two single proline substitutions for leucines L242 and L263 virtually eliminated AbiA activity against all phages, indicating that the predicted alpha-helical structure of this region is important. Mutations in an adjacent region of basic amino acids had various effects on phage resistance, suggesting that these basic residues are also important for AbiA activity. This directed mutagenesis analysis of AbiA indicated that the leucine repeat structure is essential for conferring phage resistance against three species of lactococcal bacteriophages.

  1. Synergistic effects of leucine and resveratrol on insulin sensitivity and fat metabolism in adipocytes and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruckbauer Antje

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirtuins are important regulators of glucose and fat metabolism, and sirtuin activation has been proposed as a therapeutic target for insulin resistance and diabetes. We have shown leucine to increase mitochondrial biogenesis and fat oxidation via Sirt1 dependent pathways. Resveratrol is a widely recognized activator of Sirt; however, the biologically-effective high concentrations used in cell and animal studies are generally impractical or difficult to achieve in humans. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether leucine would exhibit synergy with low levels of resveratrol on sirtuin-dependent outcomes in adipocytes and in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. Methods 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes were treated with Leucine (0.5 mM, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB (5 μM or Resveratrol (200 nM alone or in combination. In addition, diet-induced obese mice were treated for 6-weeks with low (2 g/kg diet or high (10 g/kg diet dose HMB, Leucine (24 g/kg diet; 200% of normal level or low (12.5 mg/kg diet or high (225 mg/kg diet dose resveratrol, alone or as combination with leucine-resveratrol or HMB-resveratrol. Results Fatty acid oxidation, AMPK, Sirt1 and Sirt3 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in muscle cells, were significantly increased by the combinations compared to the individual treatments. Similarly, 6-week feeding of low-dose resveratrol combined with either leucine or its metabolite HMB to DIO mice increased adipose Sirt1 activity, muscle glucose and palmitate uptake (measured via PET/CT, insulin sensitivity (HOMAIR, improved inflammatory stress biomarkers (CRP, IL-6, MCP-1, adiponectin and reduced adiposity comparable to the effects of high dose resveratrol, while low-dose resveratrol exerted no independent effect. Conclusion These data demonstrate that either leucine or its metabolite HMB may be combined with a low concentration of resveratrol to exert synergistic effects on Sirt1-dependent outcomes; this may result in more

  2. Excessive Leucine-mTORC1-Signalling of Cow Milk-Based Infant Formula: The Missing Link to Understand Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein supply by feeding cow-milk-based infant formula in comparison to lower protein content of human milk is a well-recognized major risk factor of childhood obesity. However, there is yet no conclusive biochemical concept explaining the mechanisms of formula-induced childhood obesity. It is the intention of this article to provide the biochemical link between leucine-mediated signalling of mammalian milk proteins and adipogenesis as well as early adipogenic programming. Leucine has been identified as the predominant signal transducer of mammalian milk, which stimulates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Leucine thus functions as a maternal-neonatal relay for mTORC1-dependent neonatal β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. The mTORC1 target S6K1 plays a pivotal role in stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes and to induce insulin resistance. It is of most critical concern that infant formulas provide higher amounts of leucine in comparison to human milk. Exaggerated leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1 signalling induced by infant formulas may thus explain increased adipogenesis and generation of lifelong elevated adipocyte numbers. Attenuation of mTORC1 signalling of infant formula by leucine restriction to physiologic lower levels of human milk offers a great chance for the prevention of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  3. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  4. Influence of haloperidol on the /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation in incretory organs of the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, E; Hackenberg, P [Bezirksnervenklinik, Schwerin (German Democratic Republic)

    1978-01-01

    The /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation in proteins of incretory organs of the mouse, the exocrine pancreas, and the renal tubuli was studied autoradiographically after administration of therapylike doses of the neuroleptic drug Haloperidol. With exception of the pancreas, a dosage dependent increase of the /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation was observed in the treated animals. The results reveal an activation of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenocortical system due to a 10-days administration of Haloperidol. These results are in conformity with former ones in brain and liver.

  5. Leucine and its transporter provide protection against cigarette smoke-induced cell death: A potential therapy for emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannhi Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke (CS is a major risk factor for emphysematous changes in the lungs and the underlying mechanism involves CS-induced cell death. In the present study we investigated the ability of nutrients to rescue CS-induced cell death. We observed that pre-treatment with excess leucine can partially rescue CS extract-induced cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Excess dietary leucine was also effective in alleviating effects of CS in guinea pig lungs. Further investigation to understand the underlying mechanism showed that CS exposure causes downregulation of leucine transporter that results in inactivation of mTOR, which is a positive regulator of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. Notably, leucine supplemented diet ameliorated even existing CS-induced emphysematous changes in guinea pig lung, a condition hitherto thought to be irreversible. Thus the current study documents a new mechanism by which CS affects cellular physiology wherein leucine transporter is a key target.

  6. The ontogeny of seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, O C; Stephens, H

    1984-06-01

    Rats ranging in postnatal age from 6 hours to 28 days were implanted with cortical and depth electrodes as well as an indwelling cannula in the lateral ventricle. We then administered varying amounts of the opiate peptides leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin intracerebroventricularly with continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. Leucine-enkephalin produced electrical seizure activity in rats as young as 2 days. beta-Endorphin administration was associated with seizures at the fifth postnatal day, with a high incidence of apnea resulting in death in animals as young as 6 hours. An adult seizure response to beta-endorphin and leucine-enkephalin was seen at 15 and 28 days of age, respectively. Naloxone blocked the seizure produced by these opiate peptides in all age groups. The data indicate that the opiate peptides are potent epileptogenic compounds in developing brain, that seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin differ from those caused by beta-endorphin, and that petit mal-like seizure activity can be an adult response in the rodent.

  7. Effects of putrescine, kinetin and IAA on protein synthesis in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocomo, O J; Lee, T S.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of etiolated 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles shows a converse flux between soluble protein and reducing sugar. The rate of incorporation of radioactive arginine into protein was higher than that of radioactive leucine. Radioactive arginine incorporation into protein was linear up to 120 min and then started to decline. The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine was increased by preincubation of the tissue in the incubation medium. Roots were found to contain more soluble protein and much less reducing sugar than the coleoptile. The optimum pH value for protein synthesis in coleoptile sections was found to be 6 for control tissues and 4 for those treated with 10-/sup 3/M IAA. This high concentration of IAA was also found to inhibit soluble protein synthesis, the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein fraction, the secretion of hydrogen ion into the incubation medium and elongation of the bean segment. Kinetin at 2x10/sup -4/M and putrescine at 5mM both decreased the rate of /sup 14/C-arginine incorporation into soluble protein, but for /sup 14/C-leucine, this rate of incorporation was found to be increased after 90 min incubation with a preincubation of 30 min. In general, the change pattern of the soluble protein content, the reducing sugar level and the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein in the kinetin and putrescine treated tissues were about the same although tissues that incubated with kinetin always contain more soluble protein and less reducing sugar than that of incubated with putrescine.

  8. Parkinson's Disease: Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 and Autophagy, Intimate Enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Bravo-San Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is the second common neurodegenerative disorder, after Alzheimer's disease. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by loss of dopamine-generating cells in the substancia nigra, a region of the midbrain. The etiology of Parkinson's disease has long been through to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene cause late-onset Parkinson's disease with a clinical appearance indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease idiopathic. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism whereby a cell recycles or degrades damage proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. This degradative process has been associated with cellular dysfunction in neurodegenerative processes including Parkinson's disease. We discuss the role of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 in autophagy, and how the deregulations of this degradative mechanism in cells can be implicated in the Parkinson's disease etiology.

  9. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  10. The leucine zipper domains of the transcription factors GCN4 and c-Jun have ribonuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Nikolaev

    Full Text Available Basic-region leucine zipper (bZIP proteins are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate a wide range of cellular functions. Owing to the stability of their coiled coil structure leucine zipper (LZ domains of bZIP factors are widely employed as dimerization motifs in protein engineering studies. In the course of one such study, the X-ray structure of the retro-version of the LZ moiety of yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 suggested that this retro-LZ may have ribonuclease activity. Here we show that not only the retro-LZ but also the authentic LZ of GCN4 has weak but distinct ribonuclease activity. The observed cleavage of RNA is unspecific, it is not suppressed by the ribonuclease A inhibitor RNasin and involves the breakage of 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds with formation of 2',3'-cyclic phosphates as the final products as demonstrated by HPLC/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Several mutants of the GCN4 leucine zipper are catalytically inactive, providing important negative controls and unequivocally associating the enzymatic activity with the peptide under study. The leucine zipper moiety of the human factor c-Jun as well as the entire c-Jun protein are also shown to catalyze degradation of RNA. The presented data, which was obtained in the test-tube experiments, adds GCN4 and c-Jun to the pool of proteins with multiple functions (also known as moonlighting proteins. If expressed in vivo, the endoribonuclease activity of these bZIP-containing factors may represent a direct coupling between transcription activation and controlled RNA turnover. As an additional result of this work, the retro-leucine zipper of GCN4 can be added to the list of functional retro-peptides.

  11. Is a malleable protein necessarily highly dynamic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin; Teilum, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    core of NCBD in the ligand-free state and in a well-folded complex with the ligand activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors using multiple NMR methods including methyl chemical shifts, coupling constants, and methyl order parameters. From all NMR measures, the aliphatic side chains...... in the hydrophobic core are slightly more dynamic in the free protein than in the complex, but have mobility comparable to the hydrophobic cores of average folded proteins. Urea titration monitored by NMR reveals that all parts of the protein, including the side-chain packing in the hydrophobic core, denatures...

  12. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  13. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Azizi

    Full Text Available Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates

  14. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  15. Cold, Gas-Phase UV and IR Spectroscopy of Protonated Leucine Enkephalin and its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nicole L.; Redwine, James; Dean, Jacob C.; McLuckey, Scott A.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The conformational preferences of peptide backbones and the resulting hydrogen bonding patterns provide critical biochemical information regarding the structure-function relationship of peptides and proteins. The spectroscopic study of cryogenically-cooled peptide ions in a mass spectrometer probes these H-bonding arrangements and provides information regarding the influence of a charge site. Leucine enkephalin, a biologically active endogenous opiod peptide, has been extensively studied as a model peptide in mass spectrometry. This talk will present a study of the UV and IR spectroscopy of protonated leucine enkephalin [YGGFL+H]+ and two of its analogues: the sodiated [YGGFL+Na]+ and C-terminally methyl esterified [YGGFL-OMe+H]+ forms. All experiments were performed in a recently completed multi-stage mass spectrometer outfitted with a cryocooled ion trap. Ions are generated via nano-electrospray ionization and the analyte of interest is isolated in a linear ion trap. The analyte ions are trapped in a 22-pole ion trap held at 5 K by a closed cycle helium cryostat and interrogated via UV and IR lasers. Photofragments are trapped and isolated in a second LIT and mass analyzed. Double-resonance UV and IR methods were used to assign the conformation of [YGGFL+H]+, using the NH/OH stretch, Amide I, and Amide II regions of the infrared spectrum. The assigned structure contains a single backbone conformation at vibrational/rotational temperatures of 10 K held together with multiple H-bonds that self-solvate the NH3+ site. A "proton wire" between the N and C termini reinforces the H-bonding activity of the COO-H group to the F-L peptide bond, whose cleavage results in formation of the b4 ion, which is a prevalent, low-energy fragmentation pathway for [YGGFL+H]+. The reinforced H-bonding network in conjunction with the mobile proton theory may help explain the prevalence of the b4 pathway. In order to elucidate structural changes caused by modifying this H-bonding activity

  16. Methodological study on determining endogenous amino acid excretion of broiler chickens by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Junhu; Wang Kangning; Yang Feng; Zhou Anguo; Cai Xuelin; Duanmu Dao

    1999-01-01

    Forty broiler chickens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 20 groups. Every fifth group was force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or a NFd + 3.20% enzyme hydrolysed casein (EHC) diet or diets with 5% and 20% crude protein (CP) in which soybean meal (sol.) was the sole nitrogen source. 30μCi 3 H-leucine/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after the force-feeding. Venous blood samples were taken at 5 min, 4h, 24h, 36h and 48h after the injection, and the amount of excreta for the whole period of 48h was collected. The amino acids excreted after force-feeding NFD + 3.20% EHC of CP5% diet were theoretically endogenous. The ratios of specific radioactivity (SR) in excreta and the value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine were not different (P > 0.05) when NFD, NFD + 3.20% EHC or CP5% diet was fed. From these results and theoretical analysis, it was suggested that for the birds with CP20% diet, the ratio of SR in endogenous leucine and value of definite integral in free plasma from 0 to 48 h after injection of labelled leucine would be the same as that of the birds with NFD diet, and thus endogenous losses of leucine and other amino acids, by the endogenous amino acid pattern measured with NFD diet, could be estimated for CP20% diet. The endogenous amino acid losses measured by this new technique was 120.50% of those measured by NFD method. It was suggested that single intravenous injection of 3 H-leucine first proposed would be more valuable for determining endogenous amino acid losses, especially when practical nitrogen-containing diet was fed

  17. The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 is essential and sufficient for its caveolae-association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Zhuang [State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Laboratory of System Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Zou, Xinle [State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Wang, Hongzhong; Lei, Jigang; Wu, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Laboratory of System Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Liao, Kan, E-mail: kliao@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Laboratory of System Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlight: • The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 determines caveolar association. • Different cellular localization of PTRF/cavin-1 influences its serine 389 and 391 phosphorylation state. • PTRF/cavin-1 regulates cell motility via its caveolar association. - Abstract: PTRF/cavin-1 is a protein of two lives. Its reported functions in ribosomal RNA synthesis and in caveolae formation happen in two different cellular locations: nucleus vs. plasma membrane. Here, we identified that the N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 was essential for the protein to be associated with caveolae in plasma membrane. It could counteract the effect of nuclear localization sequence in the molecule (AA 235–251). Deletion of this leucine-zipper motif from PTRF/cavin-1 caused the mutant to be exclusively localized in nuclei. The fusion of this leucine-zipper motif with histone 2A, which is a nuclear protein, could induce the fusion protein to be exported from nucleus. Cell migration was greatly inhibited in PTRF/cavin-1{sup −/−} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The inhibited cell motility could only be rescued by exogenous cavin-1 but not the leucine-zipper motif deleted cavin-1 mutant. Plasma membrane dynamics is an important factor in cell motility control. Our results suggested that the membrane dynamics in cell migration is affected by caveolae associated PTRF/cavin-1.

  18. The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 is essential and sufficient for its caveolae-association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhuang; Zou, Xinle; Wang, Hongzhong; Lei, Jigang; Wu, Yuan; Liao, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Highlight: • The N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 determines caveolar association. • Different cellular localization of PTRF/cavin-1 influences its serine 389 and 391 phosphorylation state. • PTRF/cavin-1 regulates cell motility via its caveolar association. - Abstract: PTRF/cavin-1 is a protein of two lives. Its reported functions in ribosomal RNA synthesis and in caveolae formation happen in two different cellular locations: nucleus vs. plasma membrane. Here, we identified that the N-terminal leucine-zipper motif in PTRF/cavin-1 was essential for the protein to be associated with caveolae in plasma membrane. It could counteract the effect of nuclear localization sequence in the molecule (AA 235–251). Deletion of this leucine-zipper motif from PTRF/cavin-1 caused the mutant to be exclusively localized in nuclei. The fusion of this leucine-zipper motif with histone 2A, which is a nuclear protein, could induce the fusion protein to be exported from nucleus. Cell migration was greatly inhibited in PTRF/cavin-1 −/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The inhibited cell motility could only be rescued by exogenous cavin-1 but not the leucine-zipper motif deleted cavin-1 mutant. Plasma membrane dynamics is an important factor in cell motility control. Our results suggested that the membrane dynamics in cell migration is affected by caveolae associated PTRF/cavin-1

  19. Leucine and valine requirements of the growing germfree chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Teru; Kametaka, Masao; Ozaki, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuzo; Mitsuoka, Tomotari.

    1977-01-01

    To compare the requirements of leucine and valine of the growing germfree and conventional chicks, 7-day-old chicks were fed a diet with graded levels of leucine or valine for 7 days. Daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were greater than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was higher than the requirement level. Adversely, daily gains of body weight of the germfree chicks were less than those of the conventional chicks when the dietary leucine or valine level was very low. Leucine and valine requirements for maximum growth, however, was the same and estimated to be 0.95 and 0.78%, repectively, of the diet for both groups. After the feeding test, the chicks were injected with L-leucine- and L-valine-U- 14 C and expired carbon dioxide was collected for 2 and 3 hours, respectively. From the percentage of recovery of 14 C in the expired carbon dioxide, the leucine and valine requirements were found to be 0.80 and 0.53% of the diet for both groups, respectively. Three hours after feeding test, the plasma free valine concentration was estimated in the chicks which was not injected the isotope. The requirement of valine was estimated to be 0.59% for the germfree chicks and 0.54% for the conventional chicks. From the above data, it may be concluded that no difference, or very small if any, is found in the requirements of leucine and valine between the germfree chicks and those of the conventional chicks. (auth.)

  20. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jiri

    2002-03-25

    The combination of advanced high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with high-pressure capability represents a powerful experimental tool in studies of protein folding. This review is organized as follows: after a general introduction of high-pressure, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of proteins, the experimental part deals with instrumentation. The main section of the review is devoted to NMR studies of reversible pressure unfolding of proteins with special emphasis on pressure-assisted cold denaturation and the detection of folding intermediates. Recent studies investigating local perturbations in proteins and the experiments following the effects of point mutations on pressure stability of proteins are also discussed. Ribonuclease A, lysozyme, ubiquitin, apomyoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin and troponin C were the model proteins investigated.

  1. Growth hormone (GH)-independent dimerization of GH receptor by a leucine zipper results in constitutive activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behncken, S N; Billestrup, Nils; Brown, R

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone initiates signaling by inducing homodimerization of two GH receptors. Here, we have sought to determine whether constitutively active receptor can be created in the absence of the extracellular domain by substituting it with high affinity leucine zippers to create dimers of the gro......Growth hormone initiates signaling by inducing homodimerization of two GH receptors. Here, we have sought to determine whether constitutively active receptor can be created in the absence of the extracellular domain by substituting it with high affinity leucine zippers to create dimers...

  2. Overexpression and characterization of an extracellular leucine aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hattori, Ryota; Marui, Junichiro; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Yamagata, Youhei; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Michio; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2011-02-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), an enzyme used in the food industry, is an exopeptidase that removes an amino acid residue, primarily leucine (Leu), from the N-terminus of peptides and protein substrates. In this study, we focused on the leucine aminopeptidase A (lapA) gene from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40. To purify and characterize the LapA, lapA was overexpressed in A. oryzae RIB40 using the amyB promoter. LAP activity in the culture supernatant of one transformant harboring the lapA expression plasmid was 33 times that of the host strain. LapA was purified from the culture supernatant of this lapA-overexpressing strain by column chromatography. The purified recombinant LapA had a molecular mass of 33 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid was the tyrosine at position 80 of the deduced amino acid sequence. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 60°C and pH 8.5, and the enzyme was stable at temperatures up to 60°C and in the pH range 7.5-11. In transcriptional analysis, lapA was induced under alkaline conditions and expressed at a relatively low level under normal conditions. LapA showed maximum hydrolyzing activity for the substrate leucine para-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA), followed by substrates Phe-pNA (39% activity compared with Leu-pNA), Met-pNA, Lys-pNA, and Arg-pNA. In addition, LapA preferentially hydrolyzed peptides longer than tripeptides.

  3. Contrasting ability to take up leucine and thymidine among freshwater bacterial groups: implications for bacterial production measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Teresa; Hörtnagl, Paul; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes. Utilization of both substrates by freshwater bacteria was examined at the community level by looking at bulk incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition with microautoradiography. Our results showed that leucine was taken up by 70–80% of Bacteria-positive cells, whereas only 15–43% of Bacteria-positive cells were able to take up thymidine. When a saturating substrate concentration in combination with a short incubation was used, 80–90% of Betaproteobacteria and 67–79% of Actinobacteria were positive for leucine uptake, whereas thymidine was taken up by bacterial group. Bacterial abundance was a good predictor of the relative contribution of bacterial groups to leucine uptake, whereas when thymidine was used Actinobacteria represented the large majority (> 80%) of the cells taking up this substrate. Increasing the substrate concentration to 100 nM did not affect the percentage of R-BT cells taking up leucine (> 90% even at low concentrations), but moderately increased the fraction of thymidine-positive R-BT cells to a maximum of 35% of the hybridized cells. Our results show that even at very high concentrations, thymidine is not taken up by all, otherwise active, bacterial cells. PMID:19725866

  4. Finding a Leucine in a Haystack: Searching the Proteome for ambigous Leucine-Aspartic Acid motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Arold, Stefan T.

    2016-01-01

    LDMF predicted 13 new LD motifs in humans. Using biophysical assays, we experimentally confirmed in vitro interactions for four novel LD motif proteins. Thus, LDMF allows proteome-wide discovery of LD motifs, despite a highly ambiguous sequence pattern. Functional implications will be discussed.

  5. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  6. Interaction of a non-histone chromatin protein (high-mobility group protein 2) with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, G.H.; Shooter, K.V.; Johns, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction with DNA of the calf thymus chromatin non-histone protein termed the high-mobility group protein 2 has been studied by sedimentation analysis in the ultracentrifuge and by measuring the binding of the 125 I-labelled protein to DNA. The results have been compared with those obtained previously by us [Eur. J. Biochem. (1974) 47, 263-270] for the interaction of high-mobility group protein 1 with DNA. Although the binding parameters are similar for these two proteins, high-mobility group protein 2 differs from high-mobility group protein 1 in that the former appears to change the shape of the DNA to a more compact form. The molecular weight of high-mobility group protein 2 has been determined by equilibrium sedimentation and a mean value of 26,000 was obtained. A low level of nuclease activity detected in one preparation of high-mobility group protein 2 has been investigated. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  8. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujiu Hu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05 across all treatments. The amino acid (AA profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05 by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05. The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  9. Expression, purification and preliminary biochemical and structural characterization of the leucine rich repeat namesake domain of leucine rich repeat kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancraenenbroeck, Renée; Lobbestael, Evy; Weeks, Stephen D; Strelkov, Sergei V; Baekelandt, Veerle; Taymans, Jean-Marc; De Maeyer, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease. Much research effort has been directed towards the catalytic core region of LRRK2 composed of GTPase (ROC, Ras of complex proteins) and kinase domains and a connecting COR (C-terminus of ROC) domain. In contrast, the precise functions of the protein-protein interaction domains, such as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, are not known. In the present study, we modeled the LRRK2 LRR domain (LRR(LRRK2)) using a template assembly approach, revealing the presence of 14 LRRs. Next, we focused on the expression and purification of LRR(LRRK2) in Escherichia coli. Buffer optimization revealed that the protein requires the presence of a zwitterionic detergent, namely Empigen BB, during solubilization and the subsequent purification and characterization steps. This indicates that the detergent captures the hydrophobic surface patches of LRR(LRRK2) thereby suppressing its aggregation. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measured 18% α-helices and 21% β-sheets, consistent with predictions from the homology model. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering measurements showed the presence of a single species, with a Stokes radius corresponding to the model dimensions of a protein monomer. Furthermore, no obvious LRR(LRRK2) multimerization was detected via cross-linking studies. Finally, the LRR(LRRK2) clinical mutations did not influence LRR(LRRK2) secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure as determined via SEC and CD spectroscopy. We therefore conclude that these mutations are likely to affect putative LRR(LRRK2) inter- and intramolecular interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality control methodology for high-throughput protein-protein interaction screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Alexei; Rual, Jean-François; Venkatesan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to many aspects of the cell, including its cytoskeletal structure, the signaling processes in which it is involved, or its metabolism. Failure to form protein complexes or signaling cascades may sometimes translate into pathologic conditions such as cancer or neurodegenerative diseases. The set of all protein interactions between the proteins encoded by an organism constitutes its protein interaction network, representing a scaffold for biological function. Knowing the protein interaction network of an organism, combined with other sources of biological information, can unravel fundamental biological circuits and may help better understand the molecular basics of human diseases. The protein interaction network of an organism can be mapped by combining data obtained from both low-throughput screens, i.e., "one gene at a time" experiments and high-throughput screens, i.e., screens designed to interrogate large sets of proteins at once. In either case, quality controls are required to deal with the inherent imperfect nature of experimental assays. In this chapter, we discuss experimental and statistical methodologies to quantify error rates in high-throughput protein-protein interactions screens.

  11. Seizures induced by carbachol, morphine, and leucine-enkephalin: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, O C

    1983-04-01

    The electrical, behavioral, and pharmacological properties of seizures induced by morphine, leucine-enkephalin, and the muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined and compared. Low-dose carbachol given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) produced seizures similar electrically to those produced by ICV morphine and leucine-enkephalin, although there was some difference in site of subcortical origin of onset. Carbachol and morphine were similar in that they had the same anticonvulsant profile, produced similar behavioral changes, caused generalized absence seizures in low doses and generalized convulsive seizures in high doses, and were capable of chemical kindling. However, opiate-induced seizures were not overcome by cholinergic antagonists, nor were carbachol seizures blocked by opiate antagonists. These data suggest that there may be a common noncholinergic, nonopiatergic system involved in mediating carbachol- and morphine-induced seizures but not enkephalin seizures.

  12. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  13. Leucine Affects α-Amylase Synthesis through PI3K/Akt-mTOR Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Liang, Ziqi; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Baolong; Yin, Qingyan; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu

    2018-05-23

    Dietary nutrient utilization, particularly starch, is potentially limited by digestion in dairy cow small intestine because of shortage of α-amylase. Leucine acts as an effective signal molecular in the mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates a series of biological processes, especially protein synthesis. It has been reported that leucine could affect α-amylase synthesis and secretion in ruminant pancreas, but mechanisms have not been elaborated. In this study, pancreatic acinar (PA) cells were used as a model to determine the cellular signal of leucine influence on α-amylase synthesis. PA cells were isolated from newborn Holstein dairy bull calves and cultured in Dulbecco's modifed Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12 liquid media containing four leucine treatments (0, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.90 mM, respectively), following α-amylase activity, zymogen granule, and signal pathway factor expression detection. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was also applied to PA cells. Results showed that leucine increased ( p synthesis of α-amylase as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and S6K1 while reduced ( p synthesis. In addition, the extracellular leucine dosage significantly influenced intracellular metabolism of isoleucine ( p synthesis through promoting the PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway and reducing the GCN2 pathway in PA cells of dairy calves. These pathways form the signaling network that controls the protein synthesis and metabolism. It would be of great interest in future studies to explore the function of leucine in ruminant nutrition.

  14. Application of 15N-leucine in the study of the contribution rate of diet and each tissue to nitrogen excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Rikimaru, Tohru; Kamiesu, Noriko; Inoue, Goro

    1980-01-01

    Experimental diets (protein-free diet and 2% or 10% lactoalbumin diet) were given to male SD rats, and the urinary N content from diet was obtained from the amount of urine 15 N 24 hours after the oral administration of 15 N-leucine. N excretion from each tissue was obtained from the contents of tissue-synthesized protein N and tissue-increased N. The synthetic protein N content was obtained from the recovery rate 24 hours after 15 N-leucine administration, and the tissue-increased N content from the change in the quantity of N in each tissue on the 14th and 21st days of experimental diet. Body weight increased in the 10% diet group, decreased in the 0% diet group, and showed no change in the 2% group. The mean daily urinary N excretion was inhibited more in the 2% group than in the 0% group. The tissue 15 N level was high in the urine, followed by the order of digestive tract, liver and feces, and low in the skeletal muscle and skin. N excretion from tissues was greatest for the skeletal muscle; the ratio to total N excretion was high for the skeletal muscle and low for visceral organs in the 0% diet group, compared with the 10% diet group. With the 2% diet, most tissues showed intermediate values, and excretion from the skeletal muscle was lowest among the 3 groups, accounting for the greater inhibition of urinary N excretion than that in the 0% group. (Chiba, N.)

  15. High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Tome, D.; Kok, F.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids

  16. Effect of high plant protein cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent trends in weight loss diets have been formulated that led to a substantial increase in protein intake. It has however been established that high protein intake impacts negatively on already compromised kidney, while its effect on a healthy kidney remains unclear. Our aim therefore was to study the effect of animal ...

  17. Circadian secretion patterns of ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. de Wet

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin are neuropeptides with potent opioid activity. In a study to investigate the circadian secretion patterns of the above-mentioned, blood samples were collected hourly from 12 healthy males who were subjected to the experiment for 24 hours. Radioimmunoassays were used in the analysis of plasma samples for ß-endorphin and leucine enkephalin. Peak concentrations of ß-endorphin were demonstrated from 08:00-09:00, while peak concentrations of leucine enkephalin occured from 23:00-07:00. Trough concentrations of ß-endorphin occurred from 24:00-05:00, while trough con­centrations of leucine enkephalin were demonstrated from 09:00-12:00. The illustrated circadian secretion pattern for ß-endorphin simulates the well-known circadian rhythm of cortisol. The answer to this may be in the fact that ß-endorphin and corticotropin stem from the same precursor. The illustrated circadian secretion pattern for leucine enkephalin simulates that of melatonin. The reason for this is unclear.

  18. Immobilazation of aerobic microorganisms on glassy sintered material, illustrated by the example of the production of L leucine using Corynebacterium glutamicum. Immobilisierung von aeroben Mikroorganismen an Glassintermaterial am Beispiel der L-Leucin-Produktion mit Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechs, J.

    1988-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the carrier fixation of aerobic microorganisms on open-pore sintered glass material. The fermentative production of L-leucine from {alpha} cetonic isocaproic acid with Corynebacterium glutamicum was chosen as an example of a microbial process with a high demand of oxygen. (orig.).

  19. Filtering high-throughput protein-protein interaction data using a combination of genomic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Ashwini

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction data used in the creation or prediction of molecular networks is usually obtained from large scale or high-throughput experiments. This experimental data is liable to contain a large number of spurious interactions. Hence, there is a need to validate the interactions and filter out the incorrect data before using them in prediction studies. Results In this study, we use a combination of 3 genomic features – structurally known interacting Pfam domains, Gene Ontology annotations and sequence homology – as a means to assign reliability to the protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae determined by high-throughput experiments. Using Bayesian network approaches, we show that protein-protein interactions from high-throughput data supported by one or more genomic features have a higher likelihood ratio and hence are more likely to be real interactions. Our method has a high sensitivity (90% and good specificity (63%. We show that 56% of the interactions from high-throughput experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have high reliability. We use the method to estimate the number of true interactions in the high-throughput protein-protein interaction data sets in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens to be 27%, 18% and 68% respectively. Our results are available for searching and downloading at http://helix.protein.osaka-u.ac.jp/htp/. Conclusion A combination of genomic features that include sequence, structure and annotation information is a good predictor of true interactions in large and noisy high-throughput data sets. The method has a very high sensitivity and good specificity and can be used to assign a likelihood ratio, corresponding to the reliability, to each interaction.

  20. High-Protein Soybean Mutants by Using Irradiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yathaputanon, C.; Kumsueb, B.; Srisombun, S.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Soybean variety improvement for high seed protein using induced mutation was initiated. Approximately 5,000 seeds of soybean variety Chiang Mai 60 were irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 200 Grays at Kasetsart University. High-protein seed mutants in M2 to M4 generations were selected at Nakhon Ratchasima Field Crops Research Center during 2004-2008. The Pedigree method of selection was used. Kjeldahl method was used to analyze seed protein percentages. The M2 seeds protein content of the M2 generation was 45.2% while that of the original parent was 43.0%. M3s were seeded plant to row. In each row, the best four plants were selected for protein analysis. The average protein content of selected mutant lines was 3.9% while the check variety had average protein content of 42.4%. In the M4 generation, the result showed that the average protein contents of the selected mutant lines and the check variety were 42.8% and 42.0%, respectively. In the 2007-2008 trials, four promising mutants had and average protein content of 428%, while the check variety had and average protein content of 41.1%. The four mutants produced the mean grain yield of 2.20-2.42 t/Ha, which was 10.21% higher than that of Chiang Mai 60. The mutant lines produced both a high grain protein content and a high grain yield. They will be further tested their adaptability in the research centers and farmer fields

  1. High resolution autoradiographic studies of RNA, protein and DNA synthesis during human eosinophil granulocytopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, S.N.; Hughes, M.

    1978-01-01

    Human bone marrow cells which had been incubated with [ 3 H] uridine or [ 3 H]leucine for 1 h were studied using the technique of electron microscope-autoradiography. The autoradiographs revealed the presence of newly-synthesized RNA and protein molecules within or on a proportion of (1) the primary and secondary granules in all classes of eosinophil precursors and (2) the secondary granules in eosinophil granulocytes. It is suggested that the granule-associated RNA molecules may be concerned with the synthesis of at least some of the new protein molecules which were incorporated into the limiting membrane or substance of eosinophil granules long after the immature primary granule stage. Studies of eosinophil precursors which had been incubated with [ 3 H]thymidine for 1 h showed that the eosinophil granules did not label with this DNA precursor. (author)

  2. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Basile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC and Drosophila (high GC. GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  3. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jacobsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles shown to be a part of the innate immune defense. Despite the assumption hitherto that Hpr does not bind to hemoglobin, the present...

  4. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-Throughput Protein Measurements in Mammospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    Protein Array (RPPA)-based readout format integrated into robotic siRNA screening. This technique would allow post-screening high-throughput quantification of protein changes. Recently, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have attracted much attention, as a tumor- and metastasis-driving subpopulation...

  5. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tr...

  6. Leucine, starch and bicarbonate utilization by specific bacterial groups in surface shelf waters off Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teira, E; Hernando-Morales, V; Guerrero-Feijóo, E; Varela, M M

    2017-06-01

    The capability of different bacterial populations to degrade abundant polymers, such as algal-derived polysaccharides, or to utilize preferentially polymers over monomers, remains largely unknown. In this study, microautoradiography was combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) to evaluate the ability of Bacteroidetes, SAR11, Roseobacter spp., Gammaproteobacteria and SAR86 cells to use bicarbonate, leucine and starch under natural light conditions at two locations in shelf surface waters off NW Spain. The percentage of cells incorporating bicarbonate was relatively high (mean 32% ± 4%) and was positively correlated with the intensity of solar radiation. The proportion of cells using starch (mean 56% ± 4%) or leucine (mean 47% ± 4%) was significantly higher than that using bicarbonate. On average, SAR11, Roseobacter spp. and Gammaproteobacteria showed a similarly high percentage of cells using leucine (47%-65% of hybridized cells) than using starch (51%-64% of hybridized cells), while Bacteroidetes and SAR86 cells preferentially used starch (53% of hybridized cells) over leucine (34%-40% of hybridized cells). We suggest that the great percentage of bacteria using starch is related to a high ambient availability of polymers associated to algal cell lysis, which, in turn, weakens the short-term coupling between phytoplankton release and bacterial production. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Improved muscle function and quality after diet intervention with leucine-enriched whey and antioxidants in antioxidant deficient aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Dijk, Francina J; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Dartel, Dorien A M; van Norren, Klaske; Walrand, Stephane; Jourdan, Marion; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette

    2016-04-05

    Antioxidant (AOX) deficiencies are commonly observed in older adults and oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to sarcopenia. Here we investigate if 1) low levels of dietary antioxidants had a negative impact on parameters of muscle mass, function and quality, and 2) to study if nutritional interventions with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein could improve these muscle parameters in aged mice. 18-months-old mice were fed a casein-based antioxidant-deficient (lowox) diet or a casein-based control-diet (CTRL) for 7 months. During the last 3 months, lowox-mice were subjected to either: a) continued lowox, b) supplementation with vitamin A/E, Selenium and Zinc (AOX), c) substitution of casein with leucine-enriched whey protein (PROT) or d) a combination of both AOX and PROT (TOTAL). After 7 months lowox-mice displayed lower muscle strength and more muscle fatigue compared to CTRL. Compared to lowox-mice, PROT-mice showed improved muscle power, grip strength and less muscle fatigue. AOX-mice showed improved oxidative status, less muscle fatigue, improved grip strength and mitochondrial dynamics compared to lowox-mice. The TOTAL-mice showed the combined effects of both interventions compared to lowox-mice. In conclusion, nutritional intervention with AOX and/or leucine-enriched whey protein can play a role in improving muscle health in a AOX-deficient mouse model.

  8. Supplementation with a fish oil-enriched, high-protein medical food leads to rapid incorporation of EPA into white blood cells and modulates immune responses within one week in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Joyce; Berkhout, Marloes; Vos, Arjan P; Sijben, John W C; Calder, Philip C; Garssen, Johan; van Helvoort, Ardy

    2011-05-01

    Immune modulatory effects of EPA and DHA are well described. However, these fatty acids must be effectively incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids to modify cell function. To address the absence of human data regarding short-term incorporation, the present study investigated the incorporation of EPA and DHA into white blood cells (WBC) at different time points during 1 wk of supplementation with a medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides. Additionally, the effects on ex vivo immune function were determined. In a single-arm, open label study, 12 healthy men and women consumed 2 × 200 mL of medical food providing 2.4 g EPA, 1.2 g DHA, 39.7 g protein (including 4.4 g L-leucine), and 5.6 g oligosaccharides daily. Blood samples were taken at d 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 4, and 7. Within 1 d of nutritional intervention, the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC increased from 0.5% at baseline to 1.3% (P blood cultures was significantly increased within 1 wk. Nutritional supplementation with a fish oil-enriched medical food significantly increased the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC within 1 wk. Simultaneously, ex vivo immune responsiveness to LPS increased significantly. These results hold promise for novel applications such as fast-acting nutritional interventions in cancer patients, which should be investigated in future studies.

  9. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  10. The influence of high temperatures on milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maćej Ognjen D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures Induce certain changes in milk constituents, but the degree of these changes depends on both the temperature and time of heat treatment. The most pronounced changes take place in milk proteins. The forewarming of milk causes an increase in acidity, the precipitation of soluble Ca-phosphate, whey protein denaturation and coagulation, as well as the interaction with casein micelles, the Maillard browning reaction, the dephosphorylation of casein, the hydrolysis of casein micelles, changes in whey proteins, an extension of the rennet coagulation time and an exchange of the rheological properties of the acid and rennet casein gels, changes in the zeta-potential and casein micelle hydration, the interaction between the milk proteins and proteins of milk fat globule membrane.

  11. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    High-throughput screening is extensively applied for identification of drug targets and drug discovery and recently it found entry into toxicity testing. Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs) are used widespread for quantification of protein markers. We reasoned that RPPAs also can be utilized...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si......RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...

  13. Investigation on the absorption of /sup 14/C-leucine and /sup 15/N-leucine in rats after feeding a fish meal diet in comparison with a gelatine diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergner, U; Adam, K; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1981-01-01

    Albino rats received after nine days of adaptation to a fish meal diet in comparison with a gelatine diet /sup 14/C-U-L-leucine and /sup 15/N-L-leucine via a pellet made from the specific diet after food deprivation for 15 h. Thereafter, the animals consumed the non-labelled experimental diet ad libitum. 30 min, and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, resp., after intake of the labelled food, four rats at a time were sacrificed. The contents of the digestive tract and tissue samples were examined for /sup 14/C and /sup 15/N and their percentages in the TCA-soluble fraction determined. If these values are regarded as non-absorbed leucine, the /sup 14/C values obtained up to the four hour period of the experiment would be too high. Presumably, they are in the case of both diets simulated by other /sup 14/C metabolites which originate from the leucine catabolism and reach the intestinal lumen. Amino acids labelled with /sup 15/N should be preferred in studies on the absorption of amino acids because, in case of catabolization, the /sup 15/N aminogroup is excreted mainly as urea via urine.

  14. High throughput platforms for structural genomics of integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Filippo; Love, James

    2011-08-01

    Structural genomics approaches on integral membrane proteins have been postulated for over a decade, yet specific efforts are lagging years behind their soluble counterparts. Indeed, high throughput methodologies for production and characterization of prokaryotic integral membrane proteins are only now emerging, while large-scale efforts for eukaryotic ones are still in their infancy. Presented here is a review of recent literature on actively ongoing structural genomics of membrane protein initiatives, with a focus on those aimed at implementing interesting techniques aimed at increasing our rate of success for this class of macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-01-01

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal...... derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff...... between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used...

  16. The effect of a dietary leucine excess on the immunoresponsiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karen J. Tinker and A.M. Gous. Departments of Biochemistry, and Animal Science and Poultry Science, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. The effect of a dietary leucine imbalance on chickens was investigated. The two criteria considered were growth and antibody production following immunization with sheep red.

  17. Activation of mTORC1 by leucine is potentiated by branched-chain amino acids and even more so by essential amino acids following resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Marcus; Apró, William; Ekblom, Björn; van Hall, Gerrit; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Blomstrand, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Protein synthesis is stimulated by resistance exercise and intake of amino acids, in particular leucine. Moreover, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling by leucine is potentiated by the presence of other essential amino acids (EAA). However, the contribution of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to this effect is yet unknown. Here we compare the stimulatory role of leucine, BCAA, and EAA ingestion on anabolic signaling following exercise. Accordingly, eight trained volunteers completed four sessions of resistance exercise during which they ingested either placebo, leucine, BCAA, or EAA (including the BCAA) in random order. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, immediately after exercise, and following 90 and 180 min of recovery. Following 90 min of recovery the activity of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) was greater than at rest in all four trials (PlaceboBCAABCAA. However, after 180 min of recovery this difference between EAA and BCAA had disappeared, although with both these supplements the increases were still higher than with leucine (40%, P BCAA. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Variations au cours de la journée de l'incorporation in vivo de la leucine tritiée dans les protéines du cervelet et du cerveau du jeune rat normal et hypothyroïdien. Daily variations of the in vivo [3H] leucine incorporation into the cerebellar and cerebral proteins of the normal and hypothyroid young rat [(author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, J; Rebière, A

    1978-02-15

    In the normal and hypothyroid 6-day-old rat, the specific radioactivity (RSA) and the relative RSA (ratio of the RSA to the [3H] lecine concentration of the acido soluble phase) of the cerebral and cerebellar proteins, changes during the day synchronally. They show a maximum at 15.00 h and a minimum at 0.300 h. At all stages studied, these values are significantly lower in the hyothyroid animals than in normal ones.

  19. Formation of truncated proteins and high-molecular-mass aggregates upon soft illumination of photosynthetic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Campostrini, Natascia; Antonioli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Different spot profiles were observed in 2D gel electrophoresis of thylakoid membranes performed either under complete darkness or by leaving the sample for a short time to low visible light. In the latter case, a large number of new spots with lower molecular masses, ranging between 15,000 and 25......,000 Da, were observed, and high-molecular-mass aggregates, seen as a smearing in the upper part of the gel, appeared in the region around 250 kDa. Identification of protein(s) contained in these new spots by MS/MS revealed that most of them are simply truncated proteins deriving from native ones...

  20. Protein turnover in acid maltase deficiency before and after treatment with a high protein diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Umpleby, A M; Wiles, C M; Trend, P S; Scobie, I N; Macleod, A F; Spencer, G T; Sonksen, P H

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acid maltase deficiency was treated with a high protein diet for 7 months. Protein turnover expressed in terms of lean body mass was shown to be increased in this patient before the diet but was markedly reduced following the diet. The patient improved clinically whilst on the diet both subjectively and in terms of mobility, breathing and reduced peripheral cyanosis at rest.

  1. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  2. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyerang; Lee, Saningun; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collec...

  3. High Resolution NMR Studies of Encapsulated Proteins In Liquid Ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Lefebvre, Brian G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Many of the difficulties presented by large, aggregation-prone, and membrane proteins to modern solution NMR spectroscopy can be alleviated by actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation. An emerging approach involves encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle, and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid, such as the short chain alkanes. Here we present the encapsulation of proteins with high structural fidelity within reverse micelles dissolved in liquid ethane. The addition of appropriate co-surfactants can significantly reduce the pressure required for successful encapsulation. At these reduced pressures, the viscosity of the ethane solution is low enough to provide sufficiently rapid molecular reorientation to significantly lengthen the spin-spin NMR relaxation times of the encapsulated protein. PMID:16028922

  4. Effect of chromatolysis upon the incorporation of L-4,5-(3H)-leucine into axotomized neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soereide, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to compare the rate of protein synthesis in neurons which showed different types of neuronal change after axotomy. Different types of axon reaction were obtained after crush lesion of the facial nerve in rats and young rabbits and after evulsion of the facial nerve in rats. The incorporation of ( 3 H)-leucine into protein was determined after intraperitoneal injection by counting silver grains over facial neurons in autoradiograms prepared from paraffin sections. Crush lesion of the facial nerve in rats was followed by barely discernible changes in the neurons, no chromatolysis, and full functional recovery. The lesion caused a significant transitory increase in the protein synthesis. After nerve evulsion, the same neurons showed a severe central chromatolysis and ultimate nerve cell disintegration. The protein synthesis was unchanged during the early chromotolytic phase after evulsion and decreased at later stages. Crush lesion of the facial nerve in young rabbits was followed by severe central chromotolysis, full functional recovery, and no loss of neurons. There was a moderate increase in the protein synthesis during chromatolysis and a further increase during the phase of recovery. It is concluded that regeneration after axotomy is accompanied by an increase in protein synthesis, regardless of the type of morphologic change in the neurons. Chromatolysis is not a prerequisite for this increase, and the chromatolytic response per se seems to be of minor importance for the extent of incorporation of ( 3 H)-leucine into neuronal proteins. (orig.)

  5. Effect of chromatolysis upon the incorporation of L-4,5-(/sup 3/H)-leucine into axotomized neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soereide, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to compare the rate of protein synthesis in neurons which showed different types of neuronal change after axotomy. Different types of axon reaction were obtained after crush lesion of the facial nerve in rats and young rabbits and after evulsion of the facial nerve in rats. The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-leucine into protein was determined after intraperitoneal injection by counting silver grains over facial neurons in autoradiograms prepared from paraffin sections. Crush lesion of the facial nerve in rats was followed by barely discernible changes in the neurons, no chromatolysis, and full functional recovery. The lesion caused a significant transitory increase in the protein synthesis. After nerve evulsion, the same neurons showed a severe central chromatolysis and ultimate nerve cell disintegration. The protein synthesis was unchanged during the early chromotolytic phase after evulsion and decreased at later stages. Crush lesion of the facial nerve in young rabbits was followed by severe central chromotolysis, full functional recovery, and no loss of neurons. There was a moderate increase in the protein synthesis during chromatolysis and a further increase during the phase of recovery. It is concluded that regeneration after axotomy is accompanied by an increase in protein synthesis, regardless of the type of morphologic change in the neurons. Chromatolysis is not a prerequisite for this increase, and the chromatolytic response per se seems to be of minor importance for the extent of incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-leucine into neuronal proteins.

  6. Protein synthesis in body wall and midgut during the larval moulting cycle of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Masao

    1976-01-01

    14 C-leucine was injected into larvae at various points of time during the fourth moulting cycle, and four hours after the injection, dissection was carried out. The intake of radioactivity into the proteins of body wall and midgut was investigated. The specific activity of the proteins changed with the moulting of larvae, but the specific activity of the amino acid pool in tissues also changed. Accordingly, the change of specific activity in proteins was not able to be regarded as the variation of synthetic capability. The ratio of the specific activity of proteins to that of amino acid pool was determined, and it was revealed that the capability of protein synthesis of body wall and midgut was high in feeding period and lowered in moulting period, and it was different according to various stages of moulting period. As the result of investigation on the time course of the specific activity of proteins of body wall and midgut after the injection of 14 C-leucine, it was shown that the specific activity reached the maximum earlier in feeding period than in moulting period. The intake of 14 C-leucine into body wall and midgut was examined with 20 min. labeling, consequently the specific activity of proteins was high in feeding period and low in moulting period. The capability of protein synthesis was active in feeding period and dwindled in moulting period in case of the whole body of larvae. (Kako, I.)

  7. The effect of chloramphenicol on synthesis of ΦX 174-specific proteins and detection of the cistron A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, D. Van Der; Zandberg, J.; Jansz, H.S.

    1972-01-01

    Synthesis of ΦX 174-specific proteins in Escherichia coli H 502 was examined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-acrylamide gels by coelectrophoresis of proteins from [3H]leucine-labelled infected cells and [14C]leucine-labelled reference cells, which had been infected with ultraviolet-light irradiated

  8. Expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans are components of the extracellular matrix and comprise a specific core protein substituted with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan chains. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a major family of proteoglycans and have key roles as potent effectors in cellular signaling pathways. Research during the last two decades has shown that SLRPs regulate biological functions in many tissues such as skin, tendon, kidney, liver, and heart. However, little is known of the expression of SLRPs, or the characteristics of the cells that produce them, in the anterior pituitary gland. Therefore, we have determined whether SLRPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. We have used real-time reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of SLRP genes and have identified the cells that produce SLRPs by using in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probe. We have clearly detected the mRNA expression of SLRP genes, and cells expressing decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), and osteoglycin are located in the anterior pituitary gland. We have also investigated the possible double-staining of SLRP mRNA and pituitary hormones, S100 protein (a marker of folliculostellate cells), desmin (a marker of capillary pericytes), and isolectin B4 (a marker of endothelial cells). Decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, PRELP, and osteoglycin mRNA have been identified in S100-protein-positive and desmin-positive cells. Thus, we conclude that folliculostellate cells and pericytes produce SLRPs in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  9. Protein carbonylation associated to high-fat, high-sucrose diet and its metabolic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lucía; Pazos, Manuel; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Gallardo, José M; Rosa Nogués, M; Torres, Josep L; Medina, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The present research draws a map of the characteristic carbonylation of proteins in rats fed high-caloric diets with the aim of providing a new insight of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases derived from the high consumption of fat and refined carbohydrates. Protein carbonylation was analyzed in plasma, liver and skeletal muscle of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet by a proteomics approach based on carbonyl-specific fluorescence-labeling, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins along with specific sites of oxidative damage were identified and discussed to illustrate the consequences of protein oxidation. The results indicated that long-term HFHS consumption increased protein oxidation in plasma and liver; meanwhile, protein carbonyls from skeletal muscle did not change. The increment of carbonylation by HFHS diet was singularly selective on specific target proteins: albumin from plasma and liver, and hepatic proteins such as mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (ammonia), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, argininosuccinate synthetase, regucalcin, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase subunit beta, actin cytoplasmic 1 and mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase 1. The possible consequences that these specific protein carbonylations have on the excessive weight gain, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease resulting from HFHS diet consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. degradable protein sources on performance of high-producing dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with high-quality, low·degradable protein sources prOViding47% UDP is advocated for ... saliva and through the rumen wall (Waldo, 1968). Based on this type of ... of the feed industry, but is based on very little solid evidence. (Huber, 1984). Chalupa ...... of rumen fermentation in relation to ammonia concentration. Br. J. Nutr.

  11. LRRML: a conformational database and an XML description of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tiandi; Gong, Jing; Jamitzky, Ferdinand; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Stark, Robert W; Rössle, Shaila C

    2008-11-05

    Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are present in more than 6000 proteins. They are found in organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes and play an important role in protein-ligand interactions. To date, more than one hundred crystal structures of LRR containing proteins have been determined. This knowledge has increased our ability to use the crystal structures as templates to model LRR proteins with unknown structures. Since the individual three-dimensional LRR structures are not directly available from the established databases and since there are only a few detailed annotations for them, a conformational LRR database useful for homology modeling of LRR proteins is desirable. We developed LRRML, a conformational database and an extensible markup language (XML) description of LRRs. The release 0.2 contains 1261 individual LRR structures, which were identified from 112 PDB structures and annotated manually. An XML structure was defined to exchange and store the LRRs. LRRML provides a source for homology modeling and structural analysis of LRR proteins. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the database we modeled the mouse Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) by multiple templates homology modeling and compared the result with the crystal structure. LRRML is an information source for investigators involved in both theoretical and applied research on LRR proteins. It is available at http://zeus.krist.geo.uni-muenchen.de/~lrrml.

  12. LRRML: a conformational database and an XML description of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Robert W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs are present in more than 6000 proteins. They are found in organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes and play an important role in protein-ligand interactions. To date, more than one hundred crystal structures of LRR containing proteins have been determined. This knowledge has increased our ability to use the crystal structures as templates to model LRR proteins with unknown structures. Since the individual three-dimensional LRR structures are not directly available from the established databases and since there are only a few detailed annotations for them, a conformational LRR database useful for homology modeling of LRR proteins is desirable. Description We developed LRRML, a conformational database and an extensible markup language (XML description of LRRs. The release 0.2 contains 1261 individual LRR structures, which were identified from 112 PDB structures and annotated manually. An XML structure was defined to exchange and store the LRRs. LRRML provides a source for homology modeling and structural analysis of LRR proteins. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the database we modeled the mouse Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 by multiple templates homology modeling and compared the result with the crystal structure. Conclusion LRRML is an information source for investigators involved in both theoretical and applied research on LRR proteins. It is available at http://zeus.krist.geo.uni-muenchen.de/~lrrml.

  13. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Ibeta/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 A without changing the crystallization conditions.

  14. Protein-directed modulation of high-LET hyperthermic radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A pair of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines, the wild-type CHO-SC1, and its temperature-sensitive mutant (CHO-tsH1) was used to examine the importance of protein synthesis in the development of thermotolerance. The classical biphasic thermotolerant survival response to hyperthermia was observed in the SC1 cells after continuous heating at 41.5C to 42.5C, while tsH1 showed no thermotolerance. In separate experiments, each cell line was triggered and challenged at 45C. The heat doses were separated with graded incubaton periods at 35C or 40C for thermotolerance development. SC1 cells expressed thermoresistance, with the synthesis of heat shock proteins, under both incubation conditions. tsH1 cells expressed thermotolerance similar to that seen in the SC1 cells when incubated at 35C, but the survival response with the non-permissive 40C incubation was much reduced in the absence of protein synthesis. The combined effects of heavy-ion radiation and hyperthermia were examined using the same cell system. A mild heat dose of 41.5C was used in conjunction with Neon particle radiation of various high LET values. The cell killing effects were highly dependent on the sequence of application of heat and Neon radiation. Heat applied immediately after Neon irradiation was more cytotoxic to SC1 cells than when heat was applied prior to the irradiation. The ability of cells to synthesize new proteins plays a key role in this sequence-dependent thermal radiosensitization. In the absence of protein synthesis in the tsH1 cells, the high-LET thermal enhancement for cell-killing was unchanged regardless of the sequence. In the presence of protein synthetic activity in the SC1 cells, the thermal enhancement of radiation-induced cell killing was LET-dependent

  15. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-11-08

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used to explore the feasibility of recombinant Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin production coupled with market prices of utilized materials. We found that recombinant protein production could be a feasible food source and an alternative to traditional sources.

  16. Can microbes compete with cows for sustainable protein production - A feasibility study on high quality protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mike; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-11-01

    An increasing population and their increased demand for high-protein diets will require dramatic changes in the food industry, as limited resources and environmental issues will make animal derived foods and proteins, gradually more unsustainable to produce. To explore alternatives to animal derived proteins, an economic model was built around the genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli to study the feasibility of recombinant protein production as a food source. Using a novel model, we predicted which microbial production strategies are optimal for economic return, by capturing the tradeoff between the market prices of substrates, product output and the efficiency of microbial production. A case study with the food protein, Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin was made to evaluate the upstream economic feasibilities. Simulations with different substrate profiles at maximum productivity were used to explore the feasibility of recombinant Bovine Alpha Lactalbumin production coupled with market prices of utilized materials. We found that recombinant protein production could be a feasible food source and an alternative to traditional sources.

  17. High-protein diets and renal status in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio, V. A.; Nebot, E.; García-del Moral, R.; Machado-Vílchez, M.; Porres, J. M.; Sánchez, C.; Aranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: High-protein (HP) diets might affect renal status. We aimed to examine the effects of a HP diet on plasma, urinary and morphological renal parameters in rats. Material and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 2 experimental groups with HP or normal-protein (NP) diets over 12 weeks. Results and discussion: Final body weight was a 10% lower in the HP group (p < 0.05) whereas we have not observed differences on food intake, carcass weight and muscle ashes conten...

  18. Cyanobacterial high-light-inducible proteins - Protectors of chlorophyll-protein synthesis and assembly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komenda, Josef; Sobotka, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1857, č. 3 (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1416; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/11/0377 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorophyll * Cyanobacteria * High-light-inducible protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.932, year: 2016

  19. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Martens, Eveline A P; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hamer, Henrike M; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Luc J C; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-01-01

    Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake. A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d) or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d) energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat) for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y) were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Psynthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042±0.01 vs 0.045±0.01%/h;P = 0.620). In the overnight fasted state, adaptation to a low-protein intake (0.4 g/kg/d) does not result in a more negative whole-body protein balance and

  20. High-level transient expression of recombinant protein in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Ewing, Nicholas N; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2005-09-30

    Transient expression following agroinfiltration of plant tissue was investigated as a system for producing recombinant protein. As a model system, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was vacuum infiltrated into lettuce leaf disks. Infiltration with a suspension of 10(9) colony forming units/mL followed by incubation for 72 h at 22 degrees C in continuous darkness produced a maximum of 0.16% GUS protein based on dry tissue or 1.1% GUS protein based on total soluble protein. This compares favorably to expression levels for commercially manufactured GUS protein from transgenic corn seeds. A. tumefaciens culture medium pH between 5.6 and 7.0 and surfactant concentrations lettuce to produce GUS protein more rapidly, but final levels did not exceed the GUS production in leaves incubated in continuous darkness after 72 h at 22 degrees C. The kinetics of GUS expression during incubation in continuous light and dark were represented well using a logistic model, with rate constants of 0.30 and 0.29/h, respectively. To semi-quantitatively measure the GUS expression in large numbers of leaf disks, a photometric enhancement of the standard histochemical staining method was developed. A linear relationship with an R2 value of 0.90 was determined between log10 (% leaf darkness) versus log10 (GUS activity). Although variability in expression level was observed, agroinfiltration appears to be a promising technology that could potentially be scaled up to produce high-value recombinant proteins in planta. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  1. Breeding high yielding, high protein spring wheats: Problems, progress and approaches to further advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzak, C.F.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary data offer promise that advances have been made in breeding hard red spring wheat selections with a yielding capacity about equal to current cultivars and with an increased capacity for producing high protein grain. The most promising new selections are derivatives of Magnif 41M1, CI17689, a semi-dwarf mutant of an Argentinian high protein cultivar. Rapid changes in disease and pest problems also required immediate attention and a reorientation of breeding materials and goals. Selection procedures suggested as promising include early generation (F 2 and F 3 ) screening for disease resistance and agronomic type, with screening for protein content delayed until F 4 or F 5 . Cultural conditions conducive for expressing the highest yield capacity are proposed as optimum for identifying those selections also able to produce high protein grain. A goal of routine production of 14.5% (or higher) protein grain is considered necessary and achievable under fertility management conditions required for maximum yield expression of agronomically competitive cultivars. Agronomically improved sources of high protein genes, an increasing number of induced high protein mutants, and numerous high protein crossbred derivatives of T. dicoccoides and Aegilops species have recently become available. These new or improved germplasm sources as well as a considerable reserve of yet untapped germplasm variability in other accessions of wild T. dicoccoides offer increased optimism that further, rapid advances in the breeding of adapted high yielding, high protein wheats are achievable. Improved breeding schemes, using induced male sterility mutants either to aid in crossing or to develop male sterile facilitated recurrent selection (MSFRS) populations, should contribute towards an earlier achievement of the desired goal while providing the basis for buffering against rapid changes in disease and pest problems

  2. Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 a hyperthermostable, high affinity calcium-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Liliana; Gomes, Ana S; Melo, Eduardo P; Canário, Adelino V; Power, Deborah M

    2013-03-01

    Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 (CRTAC2) is a novel protein present from prokaryotes to vertebrates with abundant expression in the teleost fish pituitary gland and an isoform of CRTAC1, a chondrocyte marker in humans. The two proteins are non-integrins containing N-terminal integrin-like Ca(2+)-binding motifs and their structure and function remain to be assigned. Structural studies of recombinant sea bream (sb)CRTAC2 revealed it is composed of 8.8% α-helix, 33.4% β-sheet and 57.8% unordered protein. sbCRTAC2 bound Ca(2+) with high affinity (K(d)=1.46nM) and favourable Gibbs free energy (∆G=-12.4kcal/mol). The stoichiometry for Ca(2+) bound to sbCRTAC2 at saturation indicated six Ca(2+) ligand-binding sites exist per protein molecule. No conformational change in sbCRTAC2 occurred in the presence of Ca(2+). Fluorescence emission revealed that the tertiary structure of the protein is hyperthermostable between 25°C and 95°C and the fully unfolded state is only induced by chemical denaturing (4M GndCl). sbCRTAC has a widespread tissue distribution and is present as high molecular weight aggregates, although strong reducing conditions promote formation of the monomer. sbCRTAC2 promotes epithelial cell outgrowth in vitro suggesting it may share functional homology with mammalian CRTAC1, recently implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporation of [14C]-L-leucine in splenic and hepatic tissue of rats 'chemically splenectomized' by ethyl palmitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebestik, V.; Kselikova, M.; Freiova, M.; Potmesilova, I.

    1978-01-01

    In experiments with 'chemically splenectomized' rats by an i.v. application of ethyl palmitate (EP) emulsion and using [ 14 C]-L-leucine, the protein synthesis in spleen and liver was followed. Two hours following EP application protein synthesis in the spleen was significantly decreased; after 24 hrs and 4 days the incorporation increased moderately above normal values, and in the subsequent intervals protein synthesis was again lowered. In the liver a significant increase of protein synthesis 24 hrs and 4 days after EP injection was observed. Changes of proteins synthesis in the spleen are evidently related to damage of the tissue and its subsequent regeneration. Changes in the liver are manifestations rather of an increased metabolic load during EP degradation. (author)

  4. Leucine-rich repeat-containing synaptic adhesion molecules as organizers of synaptic specificity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Anna; de Wit, Joris

    2018-04-09

    The brain harbors billions of neurons that form distinct neural circuits with exquisite specificity. Specific patterns of connectivity between distinct neuronal cell types permit the transfer and computation of information. The molecular correlates that give rise to synaptic specificity are incompletely understood. Recent studies indicate that cell-surface molecules are important determinants of cell type identity and suggest that these are essential players in the specification of synaptic connectivity. Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules in particular have emerged as key organizers of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Here, we discuss emerging evidence that LRR proteins regulate the assembly of specific connectivity patterns across neural circuits, and contribute to the diverse structural and functional properties of synapses, two key features that are critical for the proper formation and function of neural circuits.

  5. NESmapper: accurate prediction of leucine-rich nuclear export signals using activity-based profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Kosugi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear export of proteins is regulated largely through the exportin/CRM1 pathway, which involves the specific recognition of leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs in the cargo proteins, and modulates nuclear-cytoplasmic protein shuttling by antagonizing the nuclear import activity mediated by importins and the nuclear import signal (NLS. Although the prediction of NESs can help to define proteins that undergo regulated nuclear export, current methods of predicting NESs, including computational tools and consensus-sequence-based searches, have limited accuracy, especially in terms of their specificity. We found that each residue within an NES largely contributes independently and additively to the entire nuclear export activity. We created activity-based profiles of all classes of NESs with a comprehensive mutational analysis in mammalian cells. The profiles highlight a number of specific activity-affecting residues not only at the conserved hydrophobic positions but also in the linker and flanking regions. We then developed a computational tool, NESmapper, to predict NESs by using profiles that had been further optimized by training and combining the amino acid properties of the NES-flanking regions. This tool successfully reduced the considerable number of false positives, and the overall prediction accuracy was higher than that of other methods, including NESsential and Wregex. This profile-based prediction strategy is a reliable way to identify functional protein motifs. NESmapper is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/nesmapper.

  6. Canine serum protein patterns using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, O; Zanatta, R; Malisano, T; Dotta, U

    2000-03-01

    Serum protein values were determined in 26 healthy dogs using agarose gel electrophoresis (SPE), splitting the electrophoretic separation into six regions: albumin, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2)and gamma globulins. High-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was used to separate single proteins. Serum proteins from dogs (26 healthy and 20 affected by various diseases) were then characterized by electrophoretic immunofixation (IFE) and Sudan black staining on HRE film. Haemoglobin and normal canine plasma and serum were used to identify haptoglobin and fibrinogen, respectively. In the standard pattern, determined by HRE, the following proteins were identified: albumin, alpha(1)-lipoprotein (alpha(1)-region), haptoglobin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-region), beta -lipoprotein and C3 (beta(1)-region), transferrin and IgM (beta(2)-region), IgG (mostly in gamma -region and partly in beta(2)-region). The HRE pattern shown by healthy dogs could be compared with those of dogs affected by various diseases to obtain clinical information. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. I. Characterization of variant high-sulfur proteins of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, B

    1989-02-01

    In a survey of the proteins from human hair, a genetic electrophoretic variant has been observed in the high-sulfur protein region. S-carboxymethylated proteins were examined by 15% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. Out of 150 unrelated samples of Japanese head hairs analyzed, 107 showed 6 major high-sulfur protein bands (normal) and the remaining 43 samples showed an additional high-sulfur protein band (variant). Of 21 Caucasian samples analyzed only one variant sample was found. Characterization of the proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis evidenced a variant protein spot which showed an apparent molecular weight of 30 k Da. Isoelectric points of the high-sulfur proteins ranged from 3.25-3.55 and that of variant protein band from 3.3-3.4. Family studies of 21 matings resulting in 49 children indicated that this variant was inherited in an autosomal fashion.

  8. High-resolution neutron spectroscopy on protein solution samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaldo, M.; Henning, M.; Roosen-Runge, F.; Seydel, T.; Jalarvo, N.; Zamponi, M.; Zanini, F.; Zhang, F.; Schreiber, F.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins in solution are subject to a complex superposition of global translational and rotational diffusion as well as internal relaxations covering a wide range of time scales. With the advent of new high-flux neutron spectrometers in combination with enhanced analysis frameworks it has become possible to separate these different contributions. We discuss new approaches to the analysis by presenting example spectra and fits from data recorded on the backscattering spectrometers IN16, IN16B, and BASIS on the same protein solution sample. We illustrate the separation of the rotational and translational diffusion contribution, the accurate treatment of the solvent contribution, and the extraction of information on internal fluctuations. We also highlight the progress made in passing from second- to third-generation backscattering spectrometers. (authors)

  9. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  10. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  11. Differences in postprandial hemodynamic response on a high protein versus a high carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several intervention trials have shown that diet composition affects blood pressure (BP). In this study we focused on postprandial hemodynamic changes on a high carbohydrate versus a high protein diet. Design and Method: In this randomized double-blind parallel group study, 53 adult

  12. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; Wagner, William P.; Fall, Ray

    1999-01-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. l-Leucine, but not d-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of l-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only α-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d7)-l-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  13. Leucine insertion caused by a yeast amber suppressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebman, S W [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY; Stewart, J W; Parker, J H; Sherman, F

    1977-01-01

    The amber suppressor SUP52 can cause the production of approximately 15 to 20% of the normal amount of iso-l-cytochrome c when coupled to the amber (UAG) mutant cyc1-76. The suppressed iso-l-cytochrome c contains a residue of leucine at the position corresponding to the site of the amber codon. SUP52 also supresses another amber allele cyc1-179, but only with a low efficiency of approximately 2%. It does not appear to act at all on ochre (UAA) mutants. SUP52 was found to be on the left arm of chromosome X closely linked to the centromere.

  14. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-[1- 14 C]leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy

  15. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces

  16. S-40: Acute Phase Protein Increse in High Altitude Mountaineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available “Erciyes Tigers” are an elite group of high altitude climbers. They have been climbing ErciyesMountain (3500 m, in Kayseri, Turkey once a week at least for ten years. When they climb Erciyes in winter, they also take a snow bath. This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Venous blood samples were taken to investigate hematological, biochemical parameters and some hormone values from 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers at resting condition. The neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L ratio was calculated. The N/L was associated with an increased risk of long-term mortality and it could provide a good measure of exercise stress and subsequent recovery. Most of the hematological and biochemical parameters i.e., erythrocyte, leukocyte, hemoglobin and hematocrit values did not change significantly. The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L ratio was significantly (p<0.04 decreased in the mountaineer compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.000 and albumin (0.001 were lower, while ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase levels (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Our results show that regular high altitude climbing increased serum levels of some acute-phase proteins and these increments were not transient.

  17. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond the role of dietary protein and amino acids in the prevention of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzke, Klaus J; Freudenberg, Anne; Klaus, Susanne

    2014-01-20

    High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.

  19. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of nanocrystalline proteins at ultra-high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, Lindsay J.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2010-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy of uniformly- 13 C, 15 N labeled protein samples provides insight into atomic-resolution chemistry and structure. Data collection efficiency has advanced remarkably in the last decade; however, the study of larger proteins is still challenged by relatively low resolution in comparison to solution NMR. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of SSNMR protein spectra acquired at 11.7, 17.6 and 21.1 Tesla ( 1 H frequencies of 500, 750, and 900 MHz). For two protein systems-GB1, a 6 kDa nanocrystalline protein and DsbA, a 21 kDa nanocrystalline protein-line narrowing is demonstrated in all spectral regions with increasing field. Resolution enhancement is greatest in the aliphatic region, including methine, methylene and methyl sites. The resolution for GB1 increases markedly as a function of field, and for DsbA, resolution in the C-C region increases by 42%, according to the number of peaks that can be uniquely picked and integrated in the 900 MHz spectra when compared to the 500 MHz spectra. Additionally, chemical exchange is uniquely observed in the highest field spectra for at least two isoleucine Cδ1 sites in DsbA. These results further illustrate the benefits of high-field MAS SSNMR spectroscopy for protein structural studies.

  20. Conformational Heterogeneity in Antibody-Protein Antigen Recognition IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH AFFINITY PROTEIN COMPLEX FORMATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Addis, P. W.; Hall, c. J.; Bruton, S.; Veverka, Václav; Wilkinson, I. C.; Muskett, F. W.; Renshaw, P. S.; Prosser, C. E.; Carrington, B.; Lawson, A. D. G.; Griffin, R.; Taylor, R. J.; Waters, L. C.; Henry, A. J.; Carr, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 10 (2014), s. 7200-7210 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR * antibody * protein-protein interaction * protein conformation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.573, year: 2014

  1. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Hursel

    Full Text Available Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates.To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake.A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans.After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001. Whole-body protein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.03, synthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.01 and phenylalanine hydroxylation rates (4.1±0.6 vs 2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001 were significantly higher in the high vs low protein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042

  2. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  3. Amino acid metabolism and whole-body protein turnover in lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of protein supplementation of a wheat straw diet on the metabolism of lysine, leucine, methionine and urea, and on whole-body protein turnover rate was investigated in lambs. The metabolism of lysine and leucine is reported elsewhere (Cronje et aI., 1992); in this paper methionine metabolism is discussed, and ...

  4. CIP2A protein expression in high-grade, high-stage bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lisa P; Savoly, Diana; Sidi, Abraham A; Adelson, Martin E; Mordechai, Eli; Trama, Jason P

    2012-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Numerous markers have been evaluated for suitability of bladder cancer detection and surveillance. However, few of them are acceptable as a routine tool. Therefore, there exists a continuing need for an assay that detects the presence of bladder cancer in humans. It would be advantageous to develop an assay with a protein that is associated with the development of bladder cancer. We have identified the cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein as a novel bladder cancer biomarker. In this study, Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression level of CIP2A protein in bladder cancer cell lines and bladder cancer patient tissues (n = 43). Our studies indicated CIP2A protein was abundantly expressed in bladder cancer cell lines but not in nontumor epithelial cell lines. Furthermore, CIP2A was specifically expressed in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder tumor tissues but not in adjacent nontumor bladder tissue. Our data showed that CIP2A protein detection in high-grade TCC tissues had a sensitivity of 65%, which is 3.4-fold higher than that seen in low-grade TCC tissues (19%). The level of CIP2A protein expression increased with the stage of disease (12%, 27%, 67%, and 100% for pTa, pT1, pT2, and pT3 tumor, respectively). In conclusion, our studies suggest that CIP2A protein is specifically expressed in human bladder tumors. CIP2A is preferentially expressed in high-grade and high-stage TCC tumors, which are high-risk and invasive tumors. Our studies reported here support the role of CIP2A in bladder cancer progression and its usefulness for the surveillance of recurrence or progression of human bladder cancer

  5. Elaboration of biscuits with oatmeal and fat palm with added L-leucine and calcium for sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elita Bertolin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of oatmeal and palm fat in the elaboration of biscuits with added L-leucine and calcium in order to develop a product for sarcopenia in the elderly. The biscuits, or cookies, were elaborated applying a central composite rotational design with surface response methodology, and the significant linear, quadratic and interaction terms were used in the second order mathematical model. Physical, physicochemical and sensory analyses were performed by a trained panel. Based on the best results obtained, three cookie formulations were selected for sensory evaluation by the target group and physicochemical determinations. The formulations with the highest sensory scores for appearance and texture and medium scores for color and expansion index were selected. The addition of calcium and leucine increased significantly the concentration of these components in the biscuits elaborated resulting in a cookie with more than 30% of DRI (Dietary Reference Intake for calcium and leucine. The formulations selected showed high acceptance by the target group; therefore, they can be included in the diet of elderly with sarcopenia as a functional food.

  6. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  7. Fine-tuning of T-cell development by the CD3γ di-leucine-based TCR-sorting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Boding, Lasse; Buus, Terkild B

    2015-01-01

    The CD3γ di-leucine-based (diL) receptor-sorting motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation and in clonal expansion of virus-specific T cells. However, the role of the CD3γ diL motif in T-cell development is not known. In this study, we show that protein kinase C-induced TCR down-regulatio......The CD3γ di-leucine-based (diL) receptor-sorting motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation and in clonal expansion of virus-specific T cells. However, the role of the CD3γ diL motif in T-cell development is not known. In this study, we show that protein kinase C-induced TCR down...

  8. Metabolism of L-leucine-U-14C in young rats fed excess glycine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Tadauchi, Nobuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    As reported previously, while the growth-depressing effect of excess glycine was prevented by supplementing L-arginine and L-methionine, the degradation of glycine-U-(SUP 14)C into expired carbon dioxide was not accelerated by the supplement of both amino acids. However, it was found that the incorporation of the isotope into the lipids of livers and carcasses increased in the rats fed the excess glycine diet containing both amino acids. The lipid synthesis utilizing excess glycine may be accelerated by adding both amino acids to the 10% casein diet containing excess glycine. In the present experiment, the metabolic fate of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C was studied with the rats fed the excess glycine diet with or without L-arginine and L-methionine. 10% casein (10C), 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G), or 10C7G Supplemented with 1.4% L-arginine-HCL and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) was fed to each rat, and the diet suspension containing 4 sup(μ)Ci of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C per 100 g of body weight was fed forcibly after 12 hr fast. The radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide, TCA soluble fraction, protein, glycogen, lipids and urine, and the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma, livers and urine were measured. The body weight gain and food intake of the 10C7G group were much smaller than those of the other groups. The recovery of (SUP 14)C-radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide was much lower in the 10C7GArgMet group than that of the other groups. (Kako, I.)

  9. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN INCREASE IN HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Many middle-aged Turks go hiking in mountains to breathe some fresh air or to maintain fitness. Objective: This study investigated the effects of regular high altitude mountain climbing on the metabolic and hematological responses of mountaineers. Methods: Hematological and biochemical parameters were studied, as well as some hormonal values of 21 mountaineers and 16 healthy age-matched sedentary volunteers. Results: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR was significantly lower (p<0.04 in mountaineers compared with the sedentary group. Total protein (p<0.001 and albumin (p<0.001 were lower, while the levels of ferritin (p<0.04, creatine (p<0.03 and creatine phosphokinase (p<0.01 were higher in mountaineers. Other hematological and biochemical parameters, i.e., erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit, did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our results show that regular exposure to high altitude increased the serum levels of some acute phase proteins with anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Drying and hydration of proteins at high concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the building blocks of life and serve a wide range of essential functions in organisms. Many metabolic reactions in organisms are catalysed by enzymes, DNA is replicated by proteins and in cells proteins often facilitate active transport of e.g. glucose or ions. Proteins also serve

  11. Engineering of a novel zipFv using leucine zipper motif against rabies virus glycoprotein G with improved protection potency in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hualong; Zhang, Kaixin; Yin, Yanchun; Gu, Tiejun; Sun, Qing; Li, Zhuang; Cheng, Yue; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei; Wu, Yongge

    2017-06-01

    Rabies is an acute zoonotic infectious disease with a high fatality rate but is preventable with vaccination and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). The single-chain Fv fragment (scFv), a small engineered antigen-binding protein derived from antibody variable heavy (V H ) and light (V L ) chains connected by a peptide linker, can potentially be used to replace RIG. Here, we produced two peptides V H -JUN-HIS and V L -FOS-HA separately in Escherichia coli and assembled them to form zipFv successfully in vitro. The new zipFv utilizes FOS and JUN leucine zippers to form an antibody structure similar to the IgG counterpart with two free N-terminal ends of V H and V L . The zipFv protein showed notable improvement in binding ability and affinity over its corresponding scFv. The zipFv also demonstrated greater stability in serum and the same protective rate as RIG against challenge with a standard rabies virus (CVS-24) in mice. Our results indicated zipFv as a novel and efficient antibody form with enhanced neutralizing potency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Proteome-level assessment of origin, prevalence and function of Leucine-Aspartic Acid (LD) motifs

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2018-03-11

    Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs) contribute to almost every cellular function by connecting appropriate protein partners. Accurate prediction of SLiMs is difficult due to their shortness and sequence degeneracy. Leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs are SLiMs that link paxillin family proteins to factors controlling (cancer) cell adhesion, motility and survival. The existence and importance of LD motifs beyond the paxillin family is poorly understood. To enable a proteome-wide assessment of these motifs, we developed an active-learning based framework that iteratively integrates computational predictions with experimental validation. Our analysis of the human proteome identified a dozen proteins that contain LD motifs, all being involved in cell adhesion and migration, and revealed a new type of inverse LD motif consensus. Our evolutionary analysis suggested that LD motif signalling originated in the common unicellular ancestor of opisthokonts and amoebozoa by co-opting nuclear export sequences. Inter-species comparison revealed a conserved LD signalling core, and reveals the emergence of species-specific adaptive connections, while maintaining a strong functional focus of the LD motif interactome. Collectively, our data elucidate the mechanisms underlying the origin and adaptation of an ancestral SLiM.

  13. Biochemical Properties and Potential Applications of Recombinant Leucine Aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC 11223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of various factors on the activity and conformation of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase of Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC 11223 (BkLAP and potential utilization of BkLAP in the hydrolysis of anchovy protein. Optimal temperature and pH of BkLAP were 70 °C and 8.0 in potassium-phosphate buffer, respectively, and the activity was strongly stimulated by Ni2+, followed by Mn2+ and Co2+. Conformational studies via circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that various factors could influence the secondary structure of BkLAP to different extents and further induce the changes in enzymatic activity. The secondary structure of BkLAP was slightly modified by Ni2+ at the concentration of 1×10−4 M, however, significant changes on the secondary structures of the enzyme were observed when Hg2+ was added to the concentration of 1×10−4 M. The potential application of BkLAP was evaluated through combination with the commercial or endogenous enzyme to hydrolysis the anchovy protein. Results showed that combining the BkLAP with other enzymes could significantly increase the degree of hydrolysis and amino acid component of hydrolysate. In this regard, BkLAP is a potential enzyme that can be used in the protein hydrolysate industry.

  14. Small leucine rich proteoglycan family regulates multiple signalling pathways in neural development and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellett, Margaret; Hu, Wanzhou; Papadaki, Vasiliki; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRPs) family of proteins currently consists of five classes, based on their structural composition and chromosomal location. As biologically active components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), SLRPs were known to bind to various collagens, having a role in regulating fibril assembly, organization and degradation. More recently, as a function of their diverse proteins cores and glycosaminoglycan side chains, SLRPs have been shown to be able to bind various cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and other ECM components resulting in the ability to influence various cellular functions. Their involvement in several signaling pathways such as Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor receptor also highlights their role as matricellular proteins. SLRP family members are expressed during neural development and in adult neural tissues, including ocular tissues. This review focuses on describing SLRP family members involvement in neural development with a brief summary of their role in non-neural ocular tissues and in response to neural injury. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  15. The effect of first visual stimulation incorporation of labelled leucine into cerebral cortex of binocularly deprived kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitros, K.; Kossut, M.; Skangiel-Kramska, J.; Mueller, L.; Niemierko, S.; Zernicki, B.

    1978-01-01

    One-month old kittens, binocularly deprived with hoods from birth, were used. Before the experiments in which visual stimulation was applied the brainstem of kittens was transected at the pretrigeminal level. Cortical EEG activity and ocular behavior indicated that the isolated cerebrum of preparations was usually awake during experiment. Patterned visual stimulation was directed to one hemisphere, while the other was used as a control. Visual stimulation evoked in some cases (in 8 out of 17) an increase of incorporation of labelled leucine into the proteins of the striate cortex. Electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel did not reveal any differences in the pattern of insoluble proteins between the stimulated and control visual cortex. It is suggested that first visual stimulation may enhance the protein metabolism of striate cortex in young kittens. Some unknown up to now physiological factors (motivation, attention) may be critical for these phenomena. (author)

  16. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS, 1. Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine make algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed ecological life support system diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical carbon dioxide resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  17. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  18. Glomerular sieving of high molecular weight proteins in proteinuric rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolatus, J.A.; Abuyousef, M.; Hunsicker, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the permeability of the glomerular capillary wall to high molecular weight proteins in normal and proteinuric rats, we determined the glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) of radioiodinated marker proteins of known size and charge by means of a paired label, tissue accumulation method previously validated in this laboratory. In one group of rats (Series A) the GSCs of 125 I-anionic IgG (aIgG-molecular weight [mol wt] 150,000, pI 4.9) and 131 I-neutral IgG (nIgG-pI 7.4 to 7.6) were measured simultaneously. In Series B, the GSC of a second anionic marker, 131 I-human ceruloplasmin (Crp-mol wt 137,000, pI 4.9) was compared to that of 125 I-nIgG. As in the previous report, the labeled proteins were not degraded or deiodinated during the 20 minute clearance period for GSC determination. Within Series A and B, three subgroups of rats were studied: control saline-infused rats, rats made acutely proteinuric by infusion of the polycation hexadimethrine (HDM), and rats with chronic doxorubicin (Adriamycin-Adria) nephrosis. In the control rats, GSCs for the anionic markers aIgG (Series A) or Crp (Series B) were significantly greater than that of nIgG (both series). These large proteins crossed the filtration barrier by a different pathway from that available to smaller neutral molecules the size of albumin, which in our previous study had a much higher GSC than a native, anionic albumin marker. In a third group of control rats only (Series C), the GSCs of native anionic bovine albumin (BSA) and nIgG were compared directly. The GSC of BSA (0.0029) was only slightly larger than the GSC of nIgG (0.0025), indicating that most of the native albumin crosses the glomerular capillary wall via a nonselective pathway similar to that available to nIgG. The results in the control groups are compatible with recently-described heteroporous models of glomerular size selectivity

  19. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seldeen, Kenneth L.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Deegan, Brian J.; Farooq, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Jun and Fos are components of the AP1 family of transcription factors and bind to the promoters of a diverse multitude of genes involved in critical cellular responses such as cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle regulation, embryonic development and cancer. Here, using the powerful technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterize the thermodynamics of heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos. Our data suggest that the heterodimerization of leucine zippers is driven by enthalpic forces with unfavorable entropy change at physiological temperatures. Furthermore, the basic regions appear to modulate the heterodimerization of leucine zippers and may undergo at least partial folding upon heterodimerization. Large negative heat capacity changes accompanying the heterodimerization of leucine zippers are consistent with the view that leucine zippers do not retain α-helical conformations in isolation and that the formation of the native coiled-coil α-helical dimer is attained through a coupled folding-dimerization mechanism

  1. Effect of leucine-to-methionine substitutions on the diffraction quality of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Miki; Muto, Shinsuke; Horikoshi, Masami; Senda, Toshiya

    2008-01-01

    The combination of leucine-to-methionine substitutions and optimization of cryoconditions improved the resolution of histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions, allowing successful structure determination of SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT by the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method. One of the most frequent problems in crystallization is poor quality of the crystals. In order to overcome this obstacle several methods have been utilized, including amino-acid substitutions of the target protein. Here, an example is presented of crystal-quality improvement by leucine-to-methionine substitutions. A variant protein with three amino-acid substitutions enabled improvement of the crystal quality of the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT when combined with optimization of the cryoconditions. This procedure improved the resolution of the SET/TAF-Iβ/INHAT crystals from around 5.5 to 2.3 Å without changing the crystallization conditions

  2. Hyperglucagonemia during insulin deficiency accelerates protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Matthews, D.E.; Welle, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperglucagonemia coexists with insulin deficiency or insulin resistance in many conditions where urinary nitrogen excretion is increased, but the precise role of glucagon in these conditions is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperglucagonemia on protein metabolism in insulin-deficient subjects. The authors used the stable isotope of an essential amino acid (L-[1- 13 C]leucine) as a tracer of in vivo protein metabolism. A combined deficiency of insulin and glucagon was induced by intravenous infusion of somatostatin. Hyperglucagonemia and hypoinsulinemia were induced by infusions of somatostatin and glucagon. When somatostatin alone was infused leucine flux increased, indicating a 6-17% increase in proteolysis. When somatostatin and glucagon were infused, leucine flux increased, indicating a 12-32% increase in proteolysis. The increase in leucine flux during the infusion of somatostatin and glucagon was higher than the increase during infusion of somatostatin alone. Somatostatin alone did not change leucine oxidation, whereas the somatostatin plus glucagon increased leucine oxidation 100%. They conclude that hyperglucagonemia accelerated proteolysis and leucine oxidation in insulin-deficient humans

  3. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Membranes for Detection of High-Mass Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Park, J.; Aksamija, Z.; Arbulu, M.; Blick, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical resonators realized on the nanoscale by now offer applications in mass sensing of biomolecules with extraordinary sensitivity. The general idea is that perfect mechanical mass sensors should be of extremely small size to achieve zepto- or yoctogram sensitivity in weighing single molecules similar to a classical scale. However, the small effective size and long response time for weighing biomolecules with a cantilever restricts their usefulness as a high-throughput method. Commercial mass spectrometry (MS), on the other hand, such as electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) and their charge-amplifying detectors are the gold standards to which nanomechanical resonators have to live up to. These two methods rely on the ionization and acceleration of biomolecules and the following ion detection after a mass selection step, such as TOF. The principle we describe here for ion detection is based on the conversion of kinetic energy of the biomolecules into thermal excitation of chemical vapor deposition diamond nanomembranes via phonons followed by phonon-mediated detection via field emission of thermally emitted electrons. We fabricate ultrathin diamond membranes with large lateral dimensions for MALDI TOF MS of high-mass proteins. These diamond membranes are realized by straightforward etching methods based on semiconductor processing. With a minimal thickness of 100 nm and cross sections of up to 400 ×400 μ m2 , the membranes offer extreme aspect ratios. Ion detection is demonstrated in MALDI TOF analysis over a broad range from insulin to albumin. The resulting data in detection show much enhanced resolution as compared to existing detectors, which can offer better sensitivity and overall performance in resolving protein masses.

  4. Leucine supplementation attenuates macrophage foam-cell formation: Studies in humans, mice, and cultured macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael

    2018-02-05

    Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  6. Cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II interacts with the leucin rich repeat of NLR family member Ipaf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Cividini

    Full Text Available IMP/GMP preferring cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II (cN-II is a bifunctional enzyme whose activities and expression play crucial roles in nucleotide pool maintenance, nucleotide-dependent pathways and programmed cell death. Alignment of primary amino acid sequences of cN-II from human and other organisms show a strong conservation throughout the entire vertebrata taxon suggesting a fundamental role in eukaryotic cells. With the aim to investigate the potential role of this homology in protein-protein interactions, a two hybrid system screening of cN-II interactors was performed in S. cerevisiae. Among the X positive hits, the Leucin Rich Repeat (LRR domain of Ipaf was found to interact with cN-II. Recombinant Ipaf isoform B (lacking the Nucleotide Binding Domain was used in an in vitro affinity chromatography assay confirming the interaction obtained in the screening. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation with proteins from wild type Human Embryonic Kidney 293 T cells demonstrated that endogenous cN-II co-immunoprecipitated both with wild type Ipaf and its LRR domain after transfection with corresponding expression vectors, but not with Ipaf lacking the LRR domain. These results suggest that the interaction takes place through the LRR domain of Ipaf. In addition, a proximity ligation assay was performed in A549 lung carcinoma cells and in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and showed a positive cytosolic signal, confirming that this interaction occurs in human cells. This is the first report of a protein-protein interaction involving cN-II, suggesting either novel functions or an additional level of regulation of this complex enzyme.

  7. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  8. Protein profiling reveals inter-individual protein homogeneity of arachnoid cyst fluid and high qualitative similarity to cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berle Magnus

    2011-05-01

    the majority of abundant proteins in AC fluid also can be found in CSF. Compared to plasma, as many as 104 proteins in AC were not found in the list of 3017 plasma proteins. Conclusions Based on the protein content of AC fluid, our data indicate that temporal AC is a homogenous condition, pointing towards a similar AC filling mechanism for the 14 patients examined. Most of the proteins identified in AC fluid have been identified in CSF, indicating high similarity in the qualitative protein content of AC to CSF, whereas this was not the case between AC and plasma. This indicates that AC is filled with a liquid similar to CSF. As far as we know, this is the first proteomics study that explores the AC fluid proteome.

  9. Leucine zipper, down regulated in cancer-1 gene expression in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Michele; Barone, Nunziata; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A.; Recupero, Domenico; Galia, Antonio; Fraggetta, Filippo; Aiello, Anna Maria; Pepe, Pietro; Castiglione, Roberto; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). DNA and protein microarrays have enabled the identification of genes associated with apoptosis, which is important in PCa development. Despite the molecular mechanisms are not entirely understood, inhibition of apoptosis is a critical pathophysiological factor that contributes to the onset and progression of PCa. Leucine zipper, down-regulated in cancer 1 (LDOC-1) is a known regulator of the nuclear factor (NF)-mediated pathway of apoptosis through the inhibition of NF-κB. The present study investigated the expression of the LDOC-1 gene in LNCaP, PC-3, PNT1A and PNT2 prostate cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition LDOC-1 protein expression in normal prostate tissues and PCa was studied by immunohistochemistry. LDOC-1 messenger RNA resulted overexpressed in LNCaP and PC-3 PCa cell lines compared with the two normal prostate cell lines PNT1A and PNT2. The results of immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive cytoplasmic LDOC-1 staining in all PCa and normal prostate samples, whereas no nuclear staining was observed in any sample. Furthermore, a more intense signal was evidenced in PCa samples. LDOC-1 gene overexpression in PCa suggests an activity of LDOC-1 in PCa cell lines. PMID:27698860

  10. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  11. Protein metabolism in the rat cerebral cortex in vivo and in vitro as affected by the acquisition enhancing drug piracetam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nickolson, V.J.; Wolthuis, O.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of Piracetam on rat cerebral protein metabolism in vivo and in vitro was studied. It was found that the drug stimulates the uptake of labelled leucine by cerebral cortex slices, has no effect on the incorporation of leucine into cerebral protein, neither in slices nor in vivo, but

  12. Pretreatment of flaxseed protein isolate by high hydrostatic pressure: Impacts on protein structure, enzymatic hydrolysis and final hydrolysate antioxidant capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Véronique; Hénaux, Loïc; Bazinet, Laurent; Doyen, Alain

    2017-04-15

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on flaxseed protein structure and peptide profiles, obtained after protein hydrolysis, was investigated. Isolated flaxseed protein (1%, m/v) was subjected to HHP (600MPa, 5min or 20min at 20°C) prior to hydrolysis with trypsin only and trypsin-pronase. The results demonstrated that HHP treatment induced dissociation of flaxseed proteins and generated higher molecular weight aggregates as a function of processing duration. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that HHP treatment, as well as processing duration, had an impact on flaxseed protein structure since exposition of hydrophobic amino acid tyrosine was modified. Except for some specific peptides, the concentrations of which were modified, similar peptide profiles were obtained after hydrolysis of pressure-treated proteins using trypsin. Finally, hydrolysates obtained using trypsin-pronase had a greater antioxidant capacity (ORAC) than control samples; these results confirmed that HHP enhanced the generation of antioxidant peptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural determinants at the interface of the ARC2 and leucine-rich repeat domains control the activation of the plant immune receptors Rx1 and Gpa2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, Erik J; Spiridon, Laurentiu N; Roosien, Jan; Butterbach, Patrick; Pomp, Rikus; Westerhof, Lotte; Wilbers, Ruud; Bakker, Erin; Bakker, Jaap; Petrescu, Andrei-José; Smant, Geert; Goverse, Aska

    2013-07-01

    Many plant and animal immune receptors have a modular nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) architecture in which a nucleotide-binding switch domain, NB-ARC, is tethered to a LRR sensor domain. The cooperation between the switch and sensor domains, which regulates the activation of these proteins, is poorly understood. Here, we report structural determinants governing the interaction between the NB-ARC and LRR in the highly homologous plant immune receptors Gpa2 and Rx1, which recognize the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida and Potato virus X, respectively. Systematic shuffling of polymorphic sites between Gpa2 and Rx1 showed that a minimal region in the ARC2 and N-terminal repeats of the LRR domain coordinate the activation state of the protein. We identified two closely spaced amino acid residues in this region of the ARC2 (positions 401 and 403) that distinguish between autoactivation and effector-triggered activation. Furthermore, a highly acidic loop region in the ARC2 domain and basic patches in the N-terminal end of the LRR domain were demonstrated to be required for the physical interaction between the ARC2 and LRR. The NB-ARC and LRR domains dissociate upon effector-dependent activation, and the complementary-charged regions are predicted to mediate a fast reassociation, enabling multiple rounds of activation. Finally, we present a mechanistic model showing how the ARC2, NB, and N-terminal half of the LRR form a clamp, which regulates the dissociation and reassociation of the switch and sensor domains in NB-LRR proteins.

  14. Proteomic analysis of coronary sinus serum reveals leucine-rich alpha2-glycoprotein as a novel biomarker of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) prevention strategies require biomarkers that identify disease manifestation. Increases in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) correlate with increased risk of cardiovascular events and HF development. We hypothesize that coronary sinus serum from a high BNP hypertensive population reflects an active pathological process and can be used for biomarker exploration. Our aim was to discover differentially expressed disease-associated proteins that identify patients with ventricular dysfunction and HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary sinus serum from 11 asymptomatic, hypertensive patients underwent quantitative differential protein expression analysis by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry and then studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera from 40 asymptomatic, hypertensive patients and 105 patients across the spectrum of ventricular dysfunction (32 asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, 26 diastolic HF, and 47 systolic HF patients). Leucine-rich alpha2-glycoprotein (LRG) was consistently overexpressed in high BNP serum. LRG levels correlate significantly with BNP in hypertensive, asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, diastolic HF, and systolic HF patient groups (P<\\/=0.05). LRG levels were able to identify HF independent of BNP. LRG correlates with coronary sinus serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P=0.009) and interleukin-6 (P=0.021). LRG is expressed in myocardial tissue and correlates with transforming growth factor-betaR1 (P<0.001) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (P=0.025) expression. CONCLUSIONS: LRG was identified as a serum biomarker that accurately identifies patients with HF. Multivariable modeling confirmed that LRG is a stronger identifier of HF than BNP and this is independent of age, sex, creatinine, ischemia, beta-blocker therapy, and BNP.

  15. Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The provision of sufficient amounts of dietary proteins is central to muscle health as it ensures the supply of essential amino acids and stimulates protein synthesis. Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of “anabolic resistance” in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age.

  16. L-leucine methyl ester stimulates insulin secretion and islet glutamate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P; Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A

    1983-01-01

    Column perifusion of collagenase-isolated mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the dynamics of insulin release in experiments lasting for several hours. The methyl esters of L-leucine and L-arginine were synthesized. Whereas L-arginine methyl ester (L-arginine OMe) had no effect, L-leucine OMe...... stimulated the release of insulin. The effect of L-leucine OMe was maximal at 5 mmol/liter. Whereas the Km for glucose-stimulated insulin release was unaffected by 1 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe, the maximal release of D-glucose was increased by the amino acid derivative that appeared more effective than L......-leucine. L-Leucine OMe was also a potent stimulus of insulin release from the perfused mouse pancreas. In the presence of 10 mmol/liter L-glutamine, 1 mmol/liter L-leucine OMe induced a 50- to 75-fold increase in insulin release. A similar stimulatory effect was also observed in column-perifused RIN 5F cells...

  17. Conformational composition of neutral leucine. Matrix isolation infrared and ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanian, Stepan G.; Ivanov, Alexander Yu.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • FTIR spectra of leucine isolated in argon, neon and xenon matrices are obtained. • UV irradiation is used to separate bands of the leucine conformers. • Populations of the leucine conformers is determined. - Abstract: Low-temperature matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy and ab initio calculations are employed to determine conformational composition of neutral leucine. The presence of three leucine conformers in the matrices is revealed. This is in agreement with the results of a detailed study of the potential energy surface of leucine which demonstrates that only five out of 105 possible conformers should have populations in the matrices larger than 2% and only three conformers, which are the ones detected in the experiment, should have populations larger than 10%. UV irradiation of the matrix samples are used to separate bands of the different conformers. We also show that the populations of the leucine conformers in the gas phase at 440 K are significantly different from the ones in matrices. The population of the lowest energy conformer in the gas phase being approximately 23% in the gas phase increases to over 64% in matrices

  18. Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase (MELK: A Novel Regulator in Cell Cycle Control, Embryonic Development, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK functions as a modulator of intracellular signaling and affects various cellular and biological processes, including cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, spliceosome assembly, gene expression, embryonic development, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis. In these cellular processes, MELK functions by binding to numerous proteins. In general, the effects of multiple protein interactions with MELK are oncogenic in nature, and the overexpression of MELK in kinds of cancer provides some evidence that it may be involved in tumorigenic process. In this review, our current knowledge of MELK function and recent discoveries in MELK signaling pathway were discussed. The regulation of MELK in cancers and its potential as a therapeutic target were also described.

  19. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase

  20. The Effects of Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium Supplements on Inflammatory Events of the Respiratory System in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Amani, Morvarid; Mazadeh, Anis; Mirani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of serious micro- and macrovascular diseases that affect nearly every system in the body, including the respiratory system. Non-enzymatic protein glycation due to hyperglycaemic stress has fundamental implications due to the large capillary network and amount of connective tissue in the lung. The current study was designed to determine whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence the function and histological structure of the respiratory tract in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven rats were divided into eleven groups, consisting of 7 animals each. One group served as negative control and insulin and glibenclamide were used as positive control drugs. Thus, eight groups received the nutritional supplements alone or in combination with each other. Nutritional supplements and glibenclamide were added to the drinking water and neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin was subcutaneously injected during the 4 weeks of treatment period. The induction of type 2 diabetes in the rats caused an infiltration of mononuclear cells and edema in the submucosa of the trachea and lung, severe fibrosis around the vessels and airways, and perivascular and peribronchial infiltration of inflammatory cells and fibrin. In the diabetic group, the total inflammation score and Reid index significantly increased. Diabetes induction significantly reduced the total antioxidant status and elevated the lipid peroxidation products in the serum, lung lavage and lung tissue of the diabetic animals. Treatment with nutritional supplements significantly decreased the histopathological changes and inflammatory indices in the diabetic animals. Supplementation of diabetic rats with leucine, zinc, and chromium, alone and in combination, significantly increased the total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation level in the diabetic animals. The nutritional supplements improved the enzymatic antioxidant activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase

  1. Protein source in a high-protein diet modulates reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Jennifer L; Devassy, Jessay G; Wu, Yinghong; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    High-protein diets are being promoted to reduce insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the effect of protein source in high-protein diets on reducing insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was examined. Fa/fa Zucker rats were provided normal-protein (15% of energy) casein, high-protein (35% of energy) casein, high-protein soy, or high-protein mixed diets with animal and plant proteins. The high-protein mixed diet reduced area under the curve for insulin during glucose tolerance testing, fasting serum insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, homeostatic model assessment index, insulin to glucose ratio, and pancreatic islet cell area. The high-protein mixed and the high-protein soy diets reduced hepatic lipid concentrations, liver to body weight ratio, and hepatic steatosis rating. These improvements were observed despite no differences in body weight, feed intake, or adiposity among high-protein diet groups. The high-protein casein diet had minimal benefits. A high-protein mixed diet was the most effective for modulating reductions in insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of weight loss, indicating that the source of protein within a high-protein diet is critical for the management of these metabolic syndrome parameters. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Protein substitution to produce a processed cheese with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies report the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation to improve plasma amino acids imbalance, several neurologic diseases, protein energy malnutrition, and subsequently the survival rate of cirrhotic patients. Methods: In the present study we used a protein substitution technique to synthesize a new ...

  3. Coronavirus nucleocapsid proteins assemble constitutively in high molecular oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cong, Yingying; Kriegenburg, Franziska; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoV) are enveloped viruses and rely on their nucleocapsid N protein to incorporate the positive-stranded genomic RNA into the virions. CoV N proteins form oligomers but the mechanism and relevance underlying their multimerization remain to be fully understood. Using in vitro pull-down

  4. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  5. Optimization of a process for high fibre and high protein biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Rakhi; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Gautam, Anuj Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Biscuits are popular and convenient food products due to their ready to eat nature. Biscuits were prepared from sorghum and whole wheat flour with the addition of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) powder to produce high fibre and high protein biscuit. Levels of ingredients in biscuits such as spirulina powder, sorghum flour and guar gum were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for its sensory, textural and antioxidant attributes. Sensory attributes as colour intensity (R2 = 0.89, P powder and sorghum flour was found to have significant effect on the responses.

  6. Effect of partially purified components of zoospores and mycelia of phytophthora infestans on uptake of 3H-leucine by potato tuber disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Norio; Tomiyama, Kohei; Doke, Noriyuki

    1980-01-01

    The zoosporial component of Phytophthora infestans, which was previously reported to cause reduction of 3 H-leucine uptake by potato tuber disks, was partially purified. Precipitate (A-fraction) was obtained by homogenizing zoospores with acetate buffer at pH 4.5 and centrifuging at 20,000 x g, and the A-fraction was suspended in borate buffer at pH 8.8, boiled for 1 hr and then centrifuged at 20,000 x g, giving the precipitate (B-fraction) and supernatant (C-fraction). Ten ml of 10 mM tris-HCl buffer containing 1 mM CaCl 2 at pH 7.4 was used to suspend A and B-fraction. The buffer was used as a control. A, B and C fractions obtained from 5 - 6 x 10 6 zoosprores reducted uptake of 3 H-leucine by the tuber disks of potato cv. Rishiri, but the inhibition rates caused by these fractions differed markedly. However, very high correlation was found between inhibition rates of 3 H-leucine uptake and sugar contents of these fractions. There was no difference in the inhibition rates between the zoosporial components of incompatible and compatible races, when the activities were expressed in terms of the sugar contents. The mycelial components of P. infestans extracted by the modified method of Lisker and Kuc which was used to extract phytoalexin elicitor from that of P. infestans, also had the same effect as the zoosporial components (A, B, and C-fraction) on 3 H-leucine uptake by the disks. C-fraction containing 15 μg of sugar per ml sufficed to inhibit 3 H-leucine uptake at the maximum rate, and the maximum rate of inhibition was attained within 2 hr after the zoosporial component (C-fraction containing 30 μg sugar/ml) was administered to the disks. (author)

  7. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Koh; Arthanari, Haribabu; Shimada, Ichio; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Detection of 15 N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached 15 N nuclei (TROSY 15 N H ) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow 15 N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low 15 N sensitivity. The 15 N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY 15 N H component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a 15 N-detected 2D 1 H– 15 N TROSY-HSQC ( 15 N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ c  ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for 1 H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit 15 N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording 15 N TROSY of proteins expressed in H 2 O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D 2 O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of 15 N H -detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz

  8. Nitrogen detected TROSY at high field yields high resolution and sensitivity for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Detection of {sup 15}N in multidimensional NMR experiments of proteins has sparsely been utilized because of the low gyromagnetic ratio (γ) of nitrogen and the presumed low sensitivity of such experiments. Here we show that selecting the TROSY components of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei (TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H}) yields high quality spectra in high field magnets (>600 MHz) by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation and compensating for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. The {sup 15}N TROSY transverse relaxation rates increase modestly with molecular weight but the TROSY gain in peak heights depends strongly on the magnetic field strength. Theoretical simulations predict that the narrowest line width for the TROSY {sup 15}N{sub H} component can be obtained at 900 MHz, but sensitivity reaches its maximum around 1.2 GHz. Based on these considerations, a {sup 15}N-detected 2D {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N TROSY-HSQC ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY-HSQC) experiment was developed and high-quality 2D spectra were recorded at 800 MHz in 2 h for 1 mM maltose-binding protein at 278 K (τ{sub c} ∼ 40 ns). Unlike for {sup 1}H detected TROSY, deuteration is not mandatory to benefit {sup 15}N detected TROSY due to reduced dipolar broadening, which facilitates studies of proteins that cannot be deuterated, especially in cases where production requires eukaryotic expression systems. The option of recording {sup 15}N TROSY of proteins expressed in H{sub 2}O media also alleviates the problem of incomplete amide proton back exchange, which often hampers the detection of amide groups in the core of large molecular weight proteins that are expressed in D{sub 2}O culture media and cannot be refolded for amide back exchange. These results illustrate the potential of {sup 15}N{sub H}-detected TROSY experiments as a means to exploit the high resolution offered by high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  9. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  10. Phosphotyrosine signaling proteins that drive oncogenesis tend to be highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koytiger, Grigoriy; Kaushansky, Alexis; Gordus, Andrew; Rush, John; Sorger, Peter K; MacBeath, Gavin

    2013-05-01

    Mutation and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases or the proteins they regulate serve as oncogenic drivers in diverse cancers. To better understand receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and its link to oncogenesis, we used protein microarrays to systematically and quantitatively measure interactions between virtually every SH2 or PTB domain encoded in the human genome and all known sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on 40 receptor tyrosine kinases and on most of the SH2 and PTB domain-containing adaptor proteins. We found that adaptor proteins, like RTKs, have many high affinity bindings sites for other adaptor proteins. In addition, proteins that drive cancer, including both receptors and adaptor proteins, tend to be much more highly interconnected via networks of SH2 and PTB domain-mediated interactions than nononcogenic proteins. Our results suggest that network topological properties such as connectivity can be used to prioritize new drug targets in this well-studied family of signaling proteins.

  11. Analysis of protein incorporation of radioactive isotopes in the Chinese hamster ovary cell cycle by electronic sorting and gel microelectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipkin, J.L.; Anson, J.F.; Hinson, W.G.; Schol, H.; Burns, E.R.; Casciano, D.A.

    1986-03-01

    The patterns of (3H)-leucine and (32P)-phosphate incorporation of proteins extracted with varying molarities of sodium chloride were analyzed from nuclei physically sorted from six fluorescence windows after propidium iodine staining of the G0 + G1 and G2 + M phases of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cycle. Eight hundred nanograms of protein were used in each electrophoretic analysis obtained from 200,000 nuclei, a portion of the sample, from each window. Autoradiography was performed in a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel ultra-microelectrophoresis apparatus (UMEA) designed and fabricated in this laboratory. There was a net reduction and/or loss of (3H)-leucine- and (32P)-phosphate-labeled protein regions from the autoradiographs occurring primarily in the G2 + M phase. Two phosphorylated proteins that were stage specific were observed in partitions of the G2 + M phase. The use of isolated proteins and the coelectrophoresis of these markers demonstrated the similarity in mobility of a number of proteins seen in the autoradiographs of proteins extracted with high and low salt molarities and implied they are synonymous. Coelectrophoresis indicated that a substantial number of high molecular weight proteins that decreased or disappeared at late stages of G2 + M and early mitosis were composed, in part, of nucleolar proteins.

  12. Systematic high-yield production of human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xueyu; Chen Qiang; Lian Min; Zhou Yanfeng; Zhou Mo; Lu Shanyun; Chen Yunjia; Luo Jingchu; Gu Xiaocheng; Jiang Ying; Luo Ming; Zheng Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Human secreted proteins play a very important role in signal transduction. In order to study all potential secreted proteins identified from the human genome sequence, systematic production of large amounts of biologically active secreted proteins is a prerequisite. We selected 25 novel genes as a trial case for establishing a reliable expression system to produce active human secreted proteins in Escherichia coli. Expression of proteins with or without signal peptides was examined and compared in E. coli strains. The results indicated that deletion of signal peptides, to a certain extent, can improve the expression of these proteins and their solubilities. More importantly, under expression conditions such as induction temperature, N-terminus fusion peptides need to be optimized in order to express adequate amounts of soluble proteins. These recombinant proteins were characterized as well-folded proteins. This system enables us to rapidly obtain soluble and highly purified human secreted proteins for further functional studies

  13. Influence of extracellular HCO3- and pH on lysine (LYS) and leucine (LEU) uptake and metabolism in swine renal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patience, J.F.; Esteve-Garcia, E.; Austic, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fragments of renal tubules prepared by collagenase treatment of renal cortex were suspended to Krebs-Henseleit buffers which were modified to contain 10, 25 and 35 mM HCO 3 - at pH 7.4, or 25 mM HCO 3 - at pH 7.1, 7.4 and 7.7. Buffers were oxygenated with O 2 -CO 2 gas mixtures varying in carbon dioxide concentration prior to incubation. Approximately 100 mg tubules were incubated with shaking at 37 0 C for 30 min in serum-stoppered 25 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in 3.0 ml of buffer containing 0.1% dialyzed bovine serum albumin, 5 mM D-glucose and 0.3 mM L-[U- 14 C]-lysine or L-[1- 14 C]-leucine. The incorporation of carbon-14 into CO 2 and into 10% sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-soluble and SSA-insoluble fractions of the incubation mixture was determined. Low (10mM) bicarbonate reduced the incorporation of lys and leu into protein but did not substantially affect the recovery of 14 CO 2 from either amino acid. High pH (7.7) resulted in reduced incorporation of lys and leu into protein, and decreased the oxidation of lys but not leu. The specific activity of lys (leu was not determined) in the SSA-soluble fraction was unaffected by bicarbonate or pH. The authors conclude that variations in extracellular pH and HCO 3 - (or pCO 2 ) affect the metabolism of amino acids by renal tubules and that low extracellular HCO 3 - (or pCO 2 ) may depress the incorporation of amino acids into protein

  14. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  15. Protein substitution to produce a processed cheese with high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoida A.M. El-Shazly

    for liver enzymes; serum total and differential cholesterol profile, serum albumin, globulin and total protein along with .... Colorimetric method was used to determine AST and ALT ..... Studies on inter-organ ammonia exchange in liver cirrhosis ...

  16. High-resolution protein design with backbone freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbury, P B; Plecs, J J; Tidor, B; Alber, T; Kim, P S

    1998-11-20

    Recent advances in computational techniques have allowed the design of precise side-chain packing in proteins with predetermined, naturally occurring backbone structures. Because these methods do not model protein main-chain flexibility, they lack the breadth to explore novel backbone conformations. Here the de novo design of a family of alpha-helical bundle proteins with a right-handed superhelical twist is described. In the design, the overall protein fold was specified by hydrophobic-polar residue patterning, whereas the bundle oligomerization state, detailed main-chain conformation, and interior side-chain rotamers were engineered by computational enumerations of packing in alternate backbone structures. Main-chain flexibility was incorporated through an algebraic parameterization of the backbone. The designed peptides form alpha-helical dimers, trimers, and tetramers in accord with the design goals. The crystal structure of the tetramer matches the designed structure in atomic detail.

  17. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  18. The SALM/Lrfn family of leucine-rich repeat-containing cell adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jungyong; Mah, Won; Kim, Eunjoon

    2011-07-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules play important roles in various stages of neuronal development, including neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. The SALM (synaptic adhesion-like molecule) family of adhesion molecules, also known as Lrfn, belongs to the superfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules. Proteins of the SALM family, which includes five known members (SALMs 1-5), have been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and branching, and synapse formation and maturation. Despite sharing a similar domain structure, individual SALM family proteins appear to have distinct functions. SALMs 1-3 contain a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, which interacts with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 lack PDZ binding. SALM1 directly interacts with NMDA receptors but not with AMPA receptors, whereas SALM2 associates with both NMDA and AMPA receptors. SALMs 1-3 form homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other in a cis manner, whereas SALM4 and SALM5 do not, but instead participate in homophilic, trans-cellular adhesion. SALM3 and SALM5, but not other SALMs, possess synaptogenic activity, inducing presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. All SALMs promote neurite outgrowth, while SALM4 uniquely increases the number of primary processes extending from the cell body. In addition to these functional diversities, the fifth member of the SALM family, SALM5/Lrfn5, has recently been implicated in severe progressive autism and familial schizophrenia, pointing to the clinical importance of SALMs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu

    2018-02-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni 2+ . Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of high carbohydrate or high protein diets on the uptake of [57Co] cyanocobalamin in the rat organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamdar-Deshmukh, A.B.; Jathar, V.S.

    1978-01-01

    The mean total body radiocyanocobalamin uptake in rats fed high casein or high carbohydrate diet did not show any significant difference, though there was marked variation in their body-weights. It seems that the body possesses the mechanism to maintain its B 12 store constant though the protein status altered at an early stage of under or over protein nutrition. (author)

  1. Interplay between human high mobility group protein 1 and replication protein A on psoralen-cross-linked DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Madhava C; Christensen, Jesper; Vasquez, Karen M

    2005-01-01

    -DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) to a specific site to determine the effect of HMGB proteins on recognition of these lesions. Our results reveal that human HMGB1 (but not HMGB2) binds with high affinity and specificity to psoralen ICLs, and interacts with the essential NER protein, replication protein A (RPA......), at these lesions. RPA, shown previously to bind tightly to these lesions, also binds in the presence of HMGB1, without displacing HMGB1. A discrete ternary complex is formed, containing HMGB1, RPA, and psoralen-damaged DNA. Thus, HMGB1 has the ability to recognize ICLs, can cooperate with RPA in doing so...

  2. SIRT4 Is a Lysine Deacylase that Controls Leucine Metabolism and Insulin Secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Kristin A; Huynh, Frank K; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    in leucine oxidation, and we show a primary role for SIRT4 in controlling this pathway in mice. Furthermore, we find that dysregulated leucine metabolism in SIRT4KO mice leads to elevated basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which progressively develops into glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....... These findings identify a robust enzymatic activity for SIRT4, uncover a mechanism controlling branched-chain amino acid flux, and position SIRT4 as a crucial player maintaining insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis during aging....

  3. Isovalerianeacidæmi--en sjælden og alvorlig defekt i nedbrydningen af leucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ann-Britt Kiholm; Lund, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Isovaleric acidaemia (IVA) is an organic acidemia caused by deficient metabolism of the essential amino acid leucine. We describe the biochemistry, diagnostics, and treatment of IVA, and present the known Danish patients.......Isovaleric acidaemia (IVA) is an organic acidemia caused by deficient metabolism of the essential amino acid leucine. We describe the biochemistry, diagnostics, and treatment of IVA, and present the known Danish patients....

  4. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein gro...

  5. High dimensional and high resolution pulse sequences for backbone resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor, E-mail: kozmin@chem.uw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Sanderova, Hana; Krasny, Libor [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Bacteria, Department of Bacteriology (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Four novel 5D (HACA(N)CONH, HNCOCACB, (HACA)CON(CA)CONH, (H)NCO(NCA)CONH), and one 6D ((H)NCO(N)CACONH) NMR pulse sequences are proposed. The new experiments employ non-uniform sampling that enables achieving high resolution in indirectly detected dimensions. The experiments facilitate resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins. The novel pulse sequences were successfully tested using {delta} subunit (20 kDa) of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase that has an 81-amino acid disordered part containing various repetitive sequences.

  6. HIPPI: highly accurate protein family classification with ensembles of HMMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-phuong Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given a new biological sequence, detecting membership in a known family is a basic step in many bioinformatics analyses, with applications to protein structure and function prediction and metagenomic taxon identification and abundance profiling, among others. Yet family identification of sequences that are distantly related to sequences in public databases or that are fragmentary remains one of the more difficult analytical problems in bioinformatics. Results We present a new technique for family identification called HIPPI (Hierarchical Profile Hidden Markov Models for Protein family Identification. HIPPI uses a novel technique to represent a multiple sequence alignment for a given protein family or superfamily by an ensemble of profile hidden Markov models computed using HMMER. An evaluation of HIPPI on the Pfam database shows that HIPPI has better overall precision and recall than blastp, HMMER, and pipelines based on HHsearch, and maintains good accuracy even for fragmentary query sequences and for protein families with low average pairwise sequence identity, both conditions where other methods degrade in accuracy. Conclusion HIPPI provides accurate protein family identification and is robust to difficult model conditions. Our results, combined with observations from previous studies, show that ensembles of profile Hidden Markov models can better represent multiple sequence alignments than a single profile Hidden Markov model, and thus can improve downstream analyses for various bioinformatic tasks. Further research is needed to determine the best practices for building the ensemble of profile Hidden Markov models. HIPPI is available on GitHub at https://github.com/smirarab/sepp .

  7. Detection of dysregulated protein-association networks by high-throughput proteomics predicts cancer vulnerabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapek, John D; Greninger, Patricia; Morris, Robert; Amzallag, Arnaud; Pruteanu-Malinici, Iulian; Benes, Cyril H; Haas, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    The formation of protein complexes and the co-regulation of the cellular concentrations of proteins are essential mechanisms for cellular signaling and for maintaining homeostasis. Here we use isobaric-labeling multiplexed proteomics to analyze protein co-regulation and show that this allows the identification of protein-protein associations with high accuracy. We apply this 'interactome mapping by high-throughput quantitative proteome analysis' (IMAHP) method to a panel of 41 breast cancer cell lines and show that deviations of the observed protein co-regulations in specific cell lines from the consensus network affects cellular fitness. Furthermore, these aberrant interactions serve as biomarkers that predict the drug sensitivity of cell lines in screens across 195 drugs. We expect that IMAHP can be broadly used to gain insight into how changing landscapes of protein-protein associations affect the phenotype of biological systems.

  8. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Increased Dietary Leucine Reduces Doxorubicin-Associated Cardiac Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Fidale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxicity is one of the most significant adverse effects of the oncologic treatment with doxorubicin, which is responsible for a substantial morbid and mortality. The occurrence of heart failure with ventricular dysfunction may lead to severe cardiomyopathy and ultimately to death. Studies have focused on the effects of leucine supplementation as a strategy to minimize or revert the clinical condition of induced proteolysis by several clinical onsets. However, the impact of leucine supplementation in heart failure induced by doxorubicin is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of leucine supplementation on the cardiotoxicity in the heart of rats treated with doxorubicin. Rats treated with a 7.5 mg/kg cumulative dose of doxorubicin for 14 days presented a dilatation of the left ventricle (LV, and a reduction of the ejection fraction (FE. The 5% supplementation of leucine in the rats' food prevented the malfunctioning of the LV when administered with doxorubicin. Some alterations in the extracellular matrix remodeling were confirmed by the increase of collagen fibers in the doxorubicin group, which did not increase when the treatment was associated with leucine supplementation. Leucine attenuates heart failure in this experimental model with doxorubicin. Such protection is followed by the maintenance of interstitial collagen fibers.

  10. Metabolic Mechanism for l-Leucine-Induced Metabolome To Eliminate Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chao-Chao; Yang, Man-Jun; Li, Min-Yi; Yang, Jun; Peng, Bo; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2017-05-05

    Crucial metabolites that modulate hosts' metabolome to eliminate bacterial pathogens have been documented, but the metabolic mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study explores the metabolic mechanism for l-leucine-induced metabolome to eliminate Streptococcus iniae in tilapia. GC-MS-based metabolomics was used to investigate the tilapia liver metabolic profile in the presence of exogenous l-leucine. Thirty-seven metabolites of differential abundance were determined, and 11 metabolic pathways were enriched. Pattern recognition analysis identified serine and proline as crucial metabolites, which are the two metabolites identified in survived tilapias during S. iniae infection, suggesting that the two metabolites play crucial roles in l-leucine-induced elimination of the pathogen by the host. Exogenous l-serine reduces the mortality of tilapias infected by S. iniae, providing a robust proof supporting the conclusion. Furthermore, exogenous l-serine elevates expression of genes IL-1β and IL-8 in tilapia spleen, but not TNFα, CXCR4 and Mx, suggesting that the metabolite promotes a phagocytosis role of macrophages, which is consistent with the finding that l-leucine promotes macrophages to kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the ability of phagocytosis enhanced by exogenous l-leucine is partly attributed to elevation of l-serine. These results demonstrate a metabolic mechanism by which exogenous l-leucine modulates tilapias' metabolome to enhance innate immunity and eliminate pathogens.

  11. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Julienne C; King, Alyssa N; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Edgell, David R; Murphy, Michael E P; Brinsmade, Shaun R; Heinrichs, David E

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  12. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne C Kaiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  13. A highly sensitive method for detection of molybdenum-containing proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalakutskii, K.L.; Shvetsov, A.A.; Bursakov, S.A.; Letarov, A.V.; Zabolotnyi, A.I.; L'vov, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sensitive method for detection of molybdenum-containing proteins in gels after electrophoresis has been developed. The method involves in vitro labeling of the proteins with the radioactive isotope 185 W. The method used to detect molybdenum-accumulating proteins in lupine seeds, xanthine dehydrogenase and another molybdenum-containing protein in wheat, barley, and pea seedlings, and nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase in bacteroides from lupine nodules. Nitrogenase could not be detected by the method. 16 refs., 5 figs

  14. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  15. High pressure effects on protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V V; Heremans, K; Frank, J; Masson, P; Balny, C

    1996-01-01

    Many biochemists would regard pressure as a physical parameter mainly of theoretical interest and of rather limited value in experimental biochemistry. The goal of this overview is to show that pressure is a powerful tool for the study of proteins and modulation of enzymatic activity.

  16. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  17. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. SUMMARY: Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS...... seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic...

  18. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 expression in gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the gastric cancer tissues, and its relationship to cellular adhesion protein. ... related to cellular adhesion protein, but not to mRNA level. ... malignant tumors, and is correlated with gastric, ... The present study was aimed at investigating the.

  19. Autoimmune encephalitis associated with voltage-gated potassium channels-complex and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celicanin, Marko; Blaabjerg, M; Maersk-Moller, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe clinical and paraclinical characteristics of all Danish patients who tested positive for anti-voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-complex, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and anti-contactin-associated protein-2......, electroencephalography and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans were re-evaluated by experts in the field. RESULTS: A total of 28/192 patients tested positive for VGKC-complex antibodies by radioimmunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence; 17 had antibodies to LGI1 and 6/7 of the available....... CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with anti-LGI1 autoimmune encephalitis increased significantly from 2009 to 2014, probably due to increased awareness. In contrast to seropositive anti-VGKC-complex patients, all anti-LGI1-positive patients presented with a classical limbic encephalitis. The majority...

  20. Impact of High-Level Expression of Heterologous Protein on Lactococcus lactis Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina; Jin, Yerin; An, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jaehan

    2017-07-28

    The impact of overproduction of a heterologous protein on the metabolic system of host Lactococcus lactis was investigated. The protein expression profiles of L. lactis IL1403 containing two near-identical plasmids that expressed high- and low-level of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) were examined via shotgun proteomics. Analysis of the two strains via high-throughput LC-MS/MS proteomics identified the expression of 294 proteins. The relative amount of each protein in the proteome of both strains was determined by label-free quantification using the spectral counting method. Although expression level of most proteins were similar, several significant alterations in metabolic network were identified in the high GFP-producing strain. These changes include alterations in the pyruvate fermentation pathway, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and de novo synthesis pathway for pyrimidine RNA. Expression of enzymes for the synthesis of dTDP-rhamnose and N -acetylglucosamine from glucose was suppressed in the high GFP strain. In addition, enzymes involved in the amino acid synthesis or interconversion pathway were downregulated. The most noticeable changes in the high GFP-producing strain were a 3.4-fold increase in the expression of stress response and chaperone proteins and increase of caseinolytic peptidase family proteins. Characterization of these host expression changes witnessed during overexpression of GFP was might suggested the metabolic requirements and networks that may limit protein expression, and will aid in the future development of lactococcal hosts to produce more heterologous protein.

  1. Chronic leucine supplementation improves glycemic control in etiologically distinct mouse models of obesity and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine may function as a signaling molecule to regulate metabolism. We have previously shown that dietary leucine supplementation significantly improves glucose and energy metabolism in diet-induced obese mice, suggesting that leucine supplementation could potentially be a useful adjuvant therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Since the underlying cause for obesity and type 2 diabetes is multifold, we further investigated metabolic effects of leucine supplementation in obese/diabetes mouse models with different etiologies, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Leucine supplementation was carried out in NONcNZO10/LtJ (RCS10 - a polygenic model predisposed to beta cell failure and type 2 diabetes, and in B6.Cg-Ay/J (Ay - a monogenic model for impaired central melanocortin receptor signaling, obesity, and severe insulin resistance. Mice in the treatment group received the drinking water containing 1.5% leucine for up to 8 months; control mice received the tap water. Body weight, body composition, blood HbA1c levels, and plasma glucose and insulin levels were monitored throughout and/or at the end of the study period. Indirect calorimetry, skeletal muscle gene expression, and adipose tissue inflammation were also assessed in Ay mice. Results Leucine supplementation significantly reduced HbA1c levels throughout the study period in both RCS10 and Ay mice. However, the treatment had no long term effect on body weight or adiposity. The improvement in glycemic control was associated with an increased insulin response to food challenge in RCS10 mice and decreased plasma insulin levels in Ay mice. In leucine-treated Ay mice, energy expenditure was increased by ~10% (p y mice whereas the expression levels of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue were significantly reduced. Conclusions Chronic leucine supplementation significantly improves glycemic control in multiple mouse models of

  2. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  3. Influence of xanthan gum on the structural characteristics of myofibrillar proteins treated by high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamonte, Gina; Jury, Vanessa; Jung, Stéphanie; de Lamballerie, Marie

    2015-03-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the structural modifications of myofibrillar proteins (0.3 M NaCl, pH 6) induced by high pressure (200, 400, and 600 MPa, 6 min) were investigated. The changes in the secondary and tertiary structures of myofibrillar proteins were analyzed by circular dichroism. The protein denaturation was also evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. Likewise, the protein surface hydrophobicity and the solubility of myofibrillar proteins were measured. High pressure (600 MPa) induced the loss of α-helix structures and an increase of β-sheet structures. However, the presence of xanthan gum hindered the former mechanism of protein denaturation by high pressure. In fact, changes in the secondary (600 MPa) and the tertiary structure fingerprint of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins (400 to 600 MPa) were observed in the presence of xanthan gum. These modifications were confirmed by the thermal analysis, the thermal transitions of high-pressure (400 to 600 MPa)-treated myofibrillar proteins were modified in systems containing xanthan gum. As consequence, the high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins with xanthan gum showed increased solubility from 400 MPa, in contrast to high-pressure treatment (600 MPa) without xanthan gum. Moreover, the surface hydrophobicity of high-pressure-treated myofibrillar proteins was enhanced in the presence of xanthan gum. These effects could be due to the unfolding of myofibrillar proteins at high-pressure levels, which exposed sites that most likely interacted with the anionic polysaccharide. This study suggests that the role of food additives could be considered for the development of meat products produced by high-pressure processing. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Structural analysis of recombinant human protein QM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualberto, D.C.H.; Fernandes, J.L.; Silva, F.S.; Saraiva, K.W.; Affonso, R.; Pereira, L.M.; Silva, I.D.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The ribosomal protein QM belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins, which is highly conserved from yeast to humans. The presence of the QM protein is necessary for joining the 60S and 40S subunits in a late step of the initiation of mRNA translation. Although the exact extra-ribosomal functions of QM are not yet fully understood, it has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor. This protein was reported to interact with the transcription factor c-Jun and thereby prevent c-Jun actives genes of the cellular growth. In this study, the human QM protein was expressed in bacterial system, in the soluble form and this structure was analyzed by Circular Dichroism and Fluorescence. The results of Circular Dichroism showed that this protein has less alpha helix than beta sheet, as described in the literature. QM protein does not contain a leucine zipper region; however the ion zinc is necessary for binding of QM to c-Jun. Then we analyzed the relationship between the removal of zinc ions and folding of protein. Preliminary results obtained by the technique Fluorescence showed a gradual increase in fluorescence with the addition of increasing concentration of EDTA. This suggests that the zinc is important in the tertiary structure of the protein. More studies are being made for better understand these results. (author)

  5. Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 regulates osteoclast function by modulating RAC1/Cdc42 Small GTPase phosphorylation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Canjun; Goodluck, Helen; Qin, Xuezhong; Liu, Bo; Mohan, Subburaman; Xing, Weirong

    2016-10-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase-1 (Lrrk1) consists of ankyrin repeats (ANK), leucine-rich repeats (LRR), a GTPase-like domain of Roc (ROC), a COR domain, a serine/threonine kinase domain (KD), and WD40 repeats (WD40). Previous studies have revealed that knockout (KO) of Lrrk1 in mice causes severe osteopetrosis, and a human mutation of Lrrk1 leads to osteosclerotic metaphysial dysplasia. The molecular mechanism by which Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function is unknown. In this study, we generated a series of Lrrk1 mutants and evaluated their ability to rescue defective bone resorption in Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts by use of pit formation assays. Overexpression of Lrrk1 or LRR-truncated Lrrk1, but not ANK-truncated Lrrk1, WD40-truncated Lrrk1, Lrrk1-KD, or K651A mutant Lrrk1, rescued bone resorption function of Lrrk1 KO osteoclasts. We next examined whether RAC1/Cdc42 small GTPases are direct substrates of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts. Western blot and pull-down assays revealed that Lrrk1 deficiency in osteoclasts resulted in reduced phosphorylation and activation of RAC1/Cdc42. In vitro kinase assays confirmed that recombinant Lrrk1 phosphorylated RAC1-GST protein, and immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction of Lrrk1 with RAC1 occurred within 10 min after RANKL treatment. Overexpression of constitutively active Q61L RAC1 partially rescued the resorptive function of Lrrk1-deficient osteoclasts. Furthermore, lack of Lrrk1 in osteoclasts led to reduced autophosphorylation of p21 protein-activated kinase-1 at Ser 144 , catalyzed by RAC1/Cdc42 binding and activation. Our data indicate that Lrrk1 regulates osteoclast function by directly modulating phosphorylation and activation of small GTPase RAC1/Cdc42 and that its function depends on ANK, ROC, WD40, and kinase domains. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Deceiving proteins! A case of lymphoma and high creatinine

    OpenAIRE

    Metraiah, El Hakem Abdelkarim; Regan, Helen; Louw, Johanna; Kidder, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of kidney function by measuring serum creatinine is one the commonest laboratory tests conducted in clinical practice. Enzymatic methods are often used to measure serum creatinine. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of these methods, such as test interference with paraproteins.We present a case of falsely elevated serum creatinine in a patient referred for renal biopsy. The combination of fluctuating creatinine and normal blood urea level was unusual. Serum protein elect...

  7. Water polygons in high-resolution protein crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonas; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-07-01

    We have analyzed the interstitial water (ISW) structures in 1500 protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank that have greater than 1.5 A resolution with less than 90% sequence similarity with each other. We observed varieties of polygonal water structures composed of three to eight water molecules. These polygons may represent the time- and space-averaged structures of "stable" water oligomers present in liquid water, and their presence as well as relative population may be relevant in understanding physical properties of liquid water at a given temperature. On an average, 13% of ISWs are localized enough to be visible by X-ray diffraction. Of those, averages of 78% are water molecules in the first water layer on the protein surface. Of the localized ISWs beyond the first layer, almost half of them form water polygons such as trigons, tetragons, as well as expected pentagons, hexagons, higher polygons, partial dodecahedrons, and disordered networks. Most of the octagons and nanogons are formed by fusion of smaller polygons. The trigons are most commonly observed. We suggest that our observation provides an experimental basis for including these water polygon structures in correlating and predicting various water properties in liquid state.

  8. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  9. Prevention and reversal of hepatic steatosis with a high-protein diet in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Verheyen, Fons; Gaemers, Ingrid; Schaap, Frank G.; Houten, Sander M.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of NAFLD is steatosis of unknown etiology. We tested the effect of a high-protein (HP)(2) diet on diet-induced steatosis in male C57BL/6 mice with and without pre-existing fatty liver. Mice were fed all combinations of semisynthetic low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) and low-protein (LP) or

  10. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: Interventions to counteract the 'anabolic resistance' of ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Stuart M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related muscle wasting (sarcopenia is accompanied by a loss of strength which can compromise the functional abilities of the elderly. Muscle proteins are in a dynamic equilibrium between their respective rates of synthesis and breakdown. It has been suggested that age-related sarcopenia is due to: i elevated basal-fasted rates of muscle protein breakdown, ii a reduction in basal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, or iii a combination of the two factors. However, basal rates of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown are unchanged with advancing healthy age. Instead, it appears that the muscles of the elderly are resistant to normally robust anabolic stimuli such as amino acids and resistance exercise. Ageing muscle is less sensitive to lower doses of amino acids than the young and may require higher quantities of protein to acutely stimulate equivalent muscle protein synthesis above rest and accrue muscle proteins. With regard to dietary protein recommendations, emerging evidence suggests that the elderly may need to distribute protein intake evenly throughout the day, so as to promote an optimal per meal stimulation of MPS. The branched-chain amino acid leucine is thought to play a central role in mediating mRNA translation for MPS, and the elderly should ensure sufficient leucine is provided with dietary protein intake. With regards to physical activity, lower, than previously realized, intensity high-volume resistance exercise can stimulate a robust muscle protein synthetic response similar to traditional high-intensity low volume training, which may be beneficial for older adults. Resistance exercise combined with amino acid ingestion elicits the greatest anabolic response and may assist elderly in producing a 'youthful' muscle protein synthetic response provided sufficient protein is ingested following exercise.

  11. Acidic ribosomal proteins and histone H3 from Leishmania present a high rate of divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysabel Montoya

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Another additional peculiarity in Leishmania will be discussed about of the amino acid divergence rate of three structural proteins: acidic ribosomal P1 and P2b proteins, and histone H3 by using multiple sequence alignment and dendrograms. These structural proteins present a high rate of divergence regarding to their homologous protein in Trypanosoma cruzi. At this regard, L. (V. peruviana P1 and T. cruzi P1 showed 57.4% of divergence rate. Likewise, L. (V. braziliensis histone H3 and acidic ribosomal P2 protein exhibited 31.8% and 41.7% respectively of rate of divergence in comparison with their homologous in T. cruzi.

  12. Enhancing protein to extremely high content in photosynthetic bacteria during biogas slurry treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anqi; Zhang, Guangming; Meng, Fan; Lu, Pei; Wang, Xintian; Peng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This work proposed a novel approach to achieve an extremely high protein content in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) using biogas slurry as a culturing medium. The results showed the protein content of PSB could be enhanced strongly to 90% in the biogas slurry, which was much higher than reported microbial protein contents. The slurry was partially purified at the same time. Dark-aerobic was more beneficial than light-anaerobic condition for protein accumulation. High salinity and high ammonia of the biogas slurry were the main causes for protein enhancement. In addition, the biogas slurry provided a good buffer system for PSB to grow. The biosynthesis mechanism of protein in PSB was explored according to theoretical analysis. During biogas slurry treatment, the activities of glutamate synthase and glutamine synthetase were increased by 26.55%, 46.95% respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender-Associated Impact of Early Leucine Supplementation on Adult Predisposition to Obesity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age, this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF or high-carbohydrate (HC content, for two months, to induce obesity. Female offspring from Leu-supplemented dams showed higher increases in body weight and in body fat (62% than their respective controls; whereas males were somehow protected (15% less fat than the corresponding controls. This profile in Leu-females was associated with altered neuronal architecture at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, involving neuropeptide Y (NPY fibers and impaired expression of neuropeptides and factors of the mTOR signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue at weaning and at the time before the onset of obesity could be defined as early biomarkers of metabolic disturbance, predisposing towards adult obesity under the appropriate environment.

  14. Gender-Associated Impact of Early Leucine Supplementation on Adult Predisposition to Obesity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Nora; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Serra, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity. Female offspring from Leu-supplemented dams showed higher increases in body weight and in body fat (62%) than their respective controls; whereas males were somehow protected (15% less fat than the corresponding controls). This profile in Leu-females was associated with altered neuronal architecture at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), involving neuropeptide Y (NPY) fibers and impaired expression of neuropeptides and factors of the mTOR signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue at weaning and at the time before the onset of obesity could be defined as early biomarkers of metabolic disturbance, predisposing towards adult obesity under the appropriate environment. PMID:29329236

  15. High-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein using the high-pressure cryocooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiura, Akifumi; Ohta, Kazunori; Masaki, Mika; Sato, Masaru; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. This is the first ultra-high-resolution structure obtained from a high-pressure cryocooled crystal. Recently, many technical improvements in macromolecular X-ray crystallography have increased the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank and improved the resolution limit of protein structures. Almost all high-resolution structures have been determined using a synchrotron radiation source in conjunction with cryocooling techniques, which are required in order to minimize radiation damage. However, optimization of cryoprotectant conditions is a time-consuming and difficult step. To overcome this problem, the high-pressure cryocooling method was developed (Kim et al., 2005 ▶) and successfully applied to many protein-structure analyses. In this report, using the high-pressure cryocooling method, the X-ray crystal structure of bovine H-protein was determined at 0.86 Å resolution. Structural comparisons between high- and ambient-pressure cryocooled crystals at ultra-high resolution illustrate the versatility of this technique. This is the first ultra-high-resolution X-ray structure obtained using the high-pressure cryocooling method

  16. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E.

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using 14 C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors

  17. Rapid directed evolution of stabilized proteins with cellular high-throughput encapsulation solubilization and screening (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, K J; Scott, D J

    2015-03-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful method for engineering proteins towards user-defined goals and has been used to generate novel proteins for industrial processes, biological research and drug discovery. Typical directed evolution techniques include cellular display, phage display, ribosome display and water-in-oil compartmentalization, all of which physically link individual members of diverse gene libraries to their translated proteins. This allows the screening or selection for a desired protein function and subsequent isolation of the encoding gene from diverse populations. For biotechnological and industrial applications there is a need to engineer proteins that are functional under conditions that are not compatible with these techniques, such as high temperatures and harsh detergents. Cellular High-throughput Encapsulation Solubilization and Screening (CHESS), is a directed evolution method originally developed to engineer detergent-stable G proteins-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for structural biology. With CHESS, library-transformed bacterial cells are encapsulated in detergent-resistant polymers to form capsules, which serve to contain mutant genes and their encoded proteins upon detergent mediated solubilization of cell membranes. Populations of capsules can be screened like single cells to enable rapid isolation of genes encoding detergent-stable protein mutants. To demonstrate the general applicability of CHESS to other proteins, we have characterized the stability and permeability of CHESS microcapsules and employed CHESS to generate thermostable, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutants, the first soluble proteins to be engineered using CHESS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Machine learning in computational biology to accelerate high-throughput protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sastry, Anand; Monk, Jonathan M.; Tegel, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    and machine learning identifies protein properties that hinder the HPA high-throughput antibody production pipeline. We predict protein expression and solubility with accuracies of 70% and 80%, respectively, based on a subset of key properties (aromaticity, hydropathy and isoelectric point). We guide...... the selection of protein fragments based on these characteristics to optimize high-throughput experimentation. Availability and implementation: We present the machine learning workflow as a series of IPython notebooks hosted on GitHub (https://github.com/SBRG/Protein_ML). The workflow can be used as a template...

  19. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  20. High-protein diets prevent steatosis and induce hepatic accumulation of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Houten, Sander M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, S. Eleonore

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is steatosis of unknown etiology. To test how dietary protein decreases steatosis, we fed female C57BL/6 J mice low-fat (8 en%) or high-fat (42 en%) combined with low-protein (11 en%), high-protein (HP; 35 en%) or extra-high-protein (HPX; 58 en%)

  1. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  2. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  3. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A.B. Pedroso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  4. Interactions between the metabolism of L-leucine and D-glucose in the pancreatic. beta. -cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylfe, E; Sehlin, J [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Histology

    1976-01-01

    ..beta..-cell-rich pancreatic islets microdissected from obese-hyperglycemic mice were used to study interactions between the metabolism of L-leucine and D-glucose. L-leucine reduced the islet content of aspartic acid whereas D-glucose, when added to L-leucine-incubated islets, increased the contents of aspartic acid and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA). D-glucose also increased the incorporation of L-leucine carbon into aspartic acid, GABA and glutamic acid, suggesting stimulation of a malate shuttle mechanism. When expressed per mole of the individual amino acids, the incorporation of L-leucine carbon into GABA was 2.5 - 4 times higher than into glutamic acid indicating intracellular compartmentation of the latter amino acid. Both L-leucine and D-leucine stimulated /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from /sup 14/C-labelled D-glucose. L-leucine did not affect /sup 3/H/sub 2/O production from tritiated D-glucose. The present data do not indicate a role of other amino acids or D-glucose in L-leucine-stimulated insulin release.

  5. The CD3 gamma leucine-based receptor-sorting motif is required for efficient ligand-mediated TCR down-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Menné, Charlotte; Nielsen, Bodil L

    2002-01-01

    . The other pathway is dependent on protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of the CD3 gamma di-leucine-based receptor-sorting motif. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate a connection between ligand- and PKC-induced TCR down-regulation. Thus, although an apparent paradox, the dogma has been...... that ligand- and PKC-induced TCR down-regulations are not interrelated. By analyses of a newly developed CD3 gamma-negative T cell variant, freshly isolated and PHA-activated PBMC, and a mouse T cell line, we challenged this dogma and demonstrate in this work that PKC activation and the CD3 gamma di...

  6. The Leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus as a model for the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters – insights into function and ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova

    In her PhD studies, Adriana K. Kantcheva looked into the structural perspective of a bacterial transporter – the leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus (LeuT) – which is a homologue to neurotransmitter sodium symporters (NSS) found in humans, such as the serotonin transporter. Two crystal...... structures of LeuT elucidated new insights regarding ion and substrate binding to this transporter. Studying members of the NSS family is important as these proteins are found in the central nervous system of humans at the synaptic cleft and are implicated in serious conditions such as Parkinson’s disease...

  7. Human platelet glycoprotein IX: An adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins with flank-center-flank structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, M.J.; Williams, S.A.; Roth, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX complex on the surface of human platelets functions as the von Willebrand factor receptor and mediates von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. GPIX is a relatively small (M r , 17,000) protein that may provide for membrane insertion and orientation of the larger component of the complex. GPIb (M r , 165,000). Using antibody screening, the authors cloned a cDNA encoding GPIX from a human erythroleukemia cell cDNA library constructed in phage λgt11. Lacking a 5' untranslated region and start codon, the cDNA sequence includes 604 nucleotides, beginning with 495 bases at the 5' end coding for 165 amino acids, followed by a stop codon and 106 noncoding bases at the 3' end. By Northern blot analysis, the GPIX cDNA hybridizes with a single 1.0-kilobase species of platelet poly(A) + RNA. Translation of the cDNA sequence gives a predicted protein sequence beginning with a truncated putative signal sequence of 5 amino acids followed by a sequence of 17 amino acids matching that determined directly by Edman degradation of intact GPIX. GPIX contains a leucine-rich glycoprotein (LRG) sequence of 24 amino acids similar to conserved LRG sequences in GPIb and other proteins from humans, Drosophila, and yeast. The role of the flank-LRG center-flank structure in the evolution and function of the LRG proteins remains to be defined

  8. Expression of small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycans biglycan and lumican reveals oral lichen planus malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lončar-Brzak, Božana; Klobučar, Marko; Veliki-Dalić, Irena; Sabol, Ivan; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Krušlin, Božo; Mravak-Stipetić, Marinka

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine molecular alterations on the protein level in lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy mucosa. Global protein profiling methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used, with a special emphasis on evaluation of deregulated extracellular matrix molecules expression, as well as on analyses of IG2F and IGFR2 expression in healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues by comparative semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics profiling of healthy mucosa, OLP and OSCC tissues (and accompanied histologically unaltered tissues, respectively) identified 55 extracellular matrix proteins. Twenty among identified proteins were common to all groups of samples. Expression of small leucine-rich extracellular matrix proteoglycans lumican and biglycan was found both in OSCC and OLP and they were validated by Western blot analysis as putative biomarkers. A significant increase (p < 0.05) of biglycan expression in OLP-AT group was determined in comparison with OLP-T group, while lumican showed significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) in OLP-T and OSCC-T groups vs. adjacent and control tissue groups. Biglycan expression was only determined in OSCC-AT group. Immunohistochemical analysis of IGF2 and IG2FR expression revealed no significant difference among groups of samples. Biglycan and lumican were identified as important pathogenesis biomarkers of OLP that point to its malignant potential.

  9. Electron microscopic localization of 3H-leucine in the neurons of the hypoglossal nerve during axonal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylybov, G.P.; Chuchkov, Ch.Kh.; Davidov, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of tritium-labelled leucine in the neuronal organelles with the aim of a follow-up of the dynamics in the protein synthesis in the motoneurons affected during axonal reaction was investigated. The experiments were carried out with rats, of which one of the hypoglossal nerve was crushed and the other was left intact. The labelled amino-acid was injected in the lateral cerebral ventricle 30 to 40 min before the sacrificing of each animal. The examination of the histological preparations shows that the neurons of the hypoglossal nerve cumulate to a larger extent the labelled precursor in comparison with the neuroglia. The perinuclear region, the nucleus, the nucleolus and the axonal hillock show preponderance in the accumulation. The activity greatly decreases at the more remote parts of the axon. The electron=microscopic data confirm these results and supplement them by exactly determining the localization of the labels in the individual organelles. The highest activity was found in the mitochondria, in the Golgi apparatus and in the lysosomes. This can be viewed as the result of intensified transfer of proteins from the ribosomes toward these organelles. There is, however, another possibility - the directly elevated biosynthesis. The elevated activity of the protein synthesis in the cell organelles, assume the authors, is related not only to preserving their structural proteins but also to intensifying axonal transport. (A.B.)

  10. Effect of altitude on protein metabolism in Bolivian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufrere, B.; Gachon, P.; Boirie, Y.; San Miguel, J.L.; Maubois, J.L.; Coudert, J.

    1994-01-01

    Protein utilization during feeding is difficult to assess by classical tracer methodology, particularly under field conditions. We propose a new approach using the measurement of tracer recovery (expired 13 CO 2 ) after the ingestion of a single oral dose of a 13 C-leucine labelled milk protein. Protein will be obtained by infusing a cow with 13 C-leucine. The difference between the amounts of tracer given and recovered should be an index of protein utilization. Since altitude might influence protein absorption, this non-invasive method will be used in Bolivian children, living either at 3600 m (La Paz) or at sea level. (author). 14 refs

  11. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To impr......Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli...... membrane protein F (OmpF) and osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY). Based on the results of this initial study, we carried out an extended expression screen employing the OsmY fusion and multiple constructs of a more diverse set of human proteins. Using this high-throughput compatible system, we clearly...

  12. Infusion and sampling site effects on two-pool model estimates of leucine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, S.J.; Grisdale-Helland, B.; Nissen, S.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of site of isotope infusion on estimates of leucine metabolism infusions of alpha-[4,5-3H]ketoisocaproate (KIC) and [U- 14 C]leucine were made into the left or right ventricles of sheep and pigs. Blood was sampled from the opposite ventricle. In both species, left ventricular infusions resulted in significantly lower specific radioactivities (SA) of [ 14 C]leucine and [ 3 H]KIC. [ 14 C]KIC SA was found to be insensitive to infusion and sampling sites. [ 14 C]KIC was in addition found to be equal to the SA of [ 14 C]leucine only during the left heart infusions. Therefore, [ 14 C]KIC SA was used as the only estimate for [ 14 C]SA in the equations for the two-pool model. This model eliminated the influence of site of infusion and blood sampling on the estimates for leucine entry and reduced the impact on the estimates for proteolysis and oxidation. This two-pool model could not compensate for the underestimation of transamination reactions occurring during the traditional venous isotope infusion and arterial blood sampling

  13. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.

  14. Deceiving proteins! A case of lymphoma and high creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraiah, El Hakem Abdelkarim; Regan, Helen; Louw, Johanna; Kidder, Dana

    2017-01-23

    Estimation of kidney function by measuring serum creatinine is one the commonest laboratory tests conducted in clinical practice. Enzymatic methods are often used to measure serum creatinine. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of these methods, such as test interference with paraproteins.We present a case of falsely elevated serum creatinine in a patient referred for renal biopsy. The combination of fluctuating creatinine and normal blood urea level was unusual. Serum protein