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Sample records for high protein diets

  1. High-Protein Diets and Renal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Osther, Palle; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets (i.e., protein content of more than 25% of energy or more than 2 g/kg body weight per day) based on meat and dairy products are repeatedly promoted for weight reduction and better health, but the evidence supporting these notions is quite dubious. As described in the present re...

  2. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

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    Chiung-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17% restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories than in mice (~22%. We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378 in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  3. High Protein Diet and Huntington's Disease.

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    Chen, Chiung-Mei; Lin, Yow-Sien; Wu, Yih-Ru; Chen, Pei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Yang, Chueh-Lien; Tsao, Ya-Tzu; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, I-Shan; Chern, Yijuang; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the huntingtin (HTT) gene with expanded CAG repeats. In addition to the apparent brain abnormalities, impairments also occur in peripheral tissues. We previously reported that mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) exists in the liver and causes urea cycle deficiency. A low protein diet (17%) restores urea cycle activity and ameliorates symptoms in HD model mice. It remains unknown whether the dietary protein content should be monitored closely in HD patients because the normal protein consumption is lower in humans (~15% of total calories) than in mice (~22%). We assessed whether dietary protein content affects the urea cycle in HD patients. Thirty HD patients were hospitalized and received a standard protein diet (13.7% protein) for 5 days, followed by a high protein diet (HPD, 26.3% protein) for another 5 days. Urea cycle deficiency was monitored by the blood levels of citrulline and ammonia. HD progression was determined by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS). The HPD increased blood citrulline concentration from 15.19 μmol/l to 16.30 μmol/l (p = 0.0378) in HD patients but did not change blood ammonia concentration. A 2-year pilot study of 14 HD patients found no significant correlation between blood citrulline concentration and HD progression. Our results indicated a short period of the HPD did not markedly compromise urea cycle function. Blood citrulline concentration is not a reliable biomarker of HD progression.

  4. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PM, et al. Long term weight maintenance after advice to consume low carbohydrate, higher protein diets e A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2014;24:224. Liebman M. ...

  5. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

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    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  6. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Even, P.C.; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Tomé, D.; Azzout-Marniche, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  7. Glucose tolerance in response to a high-fat diet is improved by a high-protein diet.

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    Honors, Mary A; Hargrave, Sara L; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2012-09-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet results in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Weight loss is often recommended to reverse these metabolic alterations and the use of a high-protein (HP), low-carbohydrate diet is encouraged. In lean rats, consumption of a HP diet improves glycemic control. However, it is unknown whether this diet has a similar effectiveness in rodents with impaired glucose tolerance. Rats were fed a HF or a chow (CH) diet for 6 weeks and then switched to a HP diet or a CH or pair-fed (PF) to the amount of kcals consumed per day by the HP group. Following the diet switch, body weight gain was attenuated as compared to HF rats, and similar between HP, CH, and PF rats. Despite similar weight progression, HP and PF rats had a significant decrease in body fat after 2 weeks, as compared to HF rats. In contrast, CH rats did not show this effect. Glucose tolerance was attenuated more quickly in HP rats than in CH or PF rats. These results indicate that a HP diet may be more effective than a balanced diet for improving glycemic control in overweight individuals.

  8. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

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    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  9. High-protein diet suppresses corpus atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori infected Mongolian gerbils.

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    Shinozaki, Keiko; Kamada, Tomoari; Sugiu, Kuniaki; Kusunoki, Hiroaki; Manabe, Noriaki; Shiotani, Akiko; Hata, Jiro; Teramoto, Fusako; Haruma, Ken

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a high-protein diet on corpus atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori was administered orally to 5-wk-old Mongolian gerbils; and the animals were then fed a control diet (Group C); a high-fat diet (Group F: 40% fat); a high-protein diet (Group P: 32% protein); or a high-fat, high-protein diet (Group FP: 40% fat, 32% protein) for 50 wk beginning at 7 wk of age. In uninfected animals, the mucosal thickness of the corpus was significantly greater in Group P and Group FP than in Group C (P diet suppresses corpus atrophic gastritis in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

  10. Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans.

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    Martens, Eveline A; Lemmens, Sofie G; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-01

    The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, and appetite profile in response to protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio over 12 consecutive days and in relation to age, sex, BMI, and type of protein. A 12-d randomized crossover study was performed in 40 men and 39 women [mean ± SD age: 34.0 ± 17.6 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 23.7 ± 3.4] with the use of diets containing 5%, 15%, and 30% of energy from protein from a milk or plant source. Protein-content effects did not differ by age, sex, BMI, or type of protein. Total energy intake was significantly lower in the high-protein (7.21 ± 3.08 MJ/d) condition than in the low-protein (9.33 ± 3.52 MJ/d) and normal-protein (9.62 ± 3.51 MJ/d) conditions (P = 0.001), which was predominantly the result of a lower energy intake from meals (P = 0.001). Protein intake varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet (P = 0.001). The AUC of visual analog scale appetite ratings did not differ significantly, yet fluctuations in hunger (P = 0.019) and desire to eat (P = 0.026) over the day were attenuated in the high-protein condition compared with the normal-protein condition. We found evidence to support the protein leverage hypothesis in that individuals underate relative to energy balance from diets containing a higher protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio. No evidence for protein leverage effects from diets containing a lower ratio of protein to carbohydrate + fat was obtained. It remains to be shown whether a relatively low protein intake would cause overeating or would be the effect of overeating of carbohydrate and fat. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01320189.

  11. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

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    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  12. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Baak, Marleen van

    2010-01-01

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power.......Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power....

  13. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  14. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Schwarz, Jessica; Simonin-Foucault, Angélique; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the effects of high protein intake on the development of fat deposition and partitioning in response to high-fat and/or HS feeding. A total of thirty adult male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the six dietary regimens with low and high protein, sucrose and fat contents for 5 weeks. Body weight (BW) and food intake were measured weekly. Oral glucose tolerance tests and meal tolerance tests were performed after 4th and 5th weeks of the regimen, respectively. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a calibrated meal. Blood, tissues and organs were collected for analysis of circulating metabolites and hormones, body composition and mRNA expression in the liver and adipose tissues. No changes were observed in cumulative energy intake and BW gain after 5 weeks of dietary treatment. However, high-protein diets reduced by 20 % the adiposity gain induced by HS and high-sucrose high-fat (HS-HF) diets. Gene expression and transcriptomic analysis suggested that high protein intake reduced liver capacity for lipogenesis by reducing mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (fasn), acetyl-CoA carboxylase a and b (Acaca and Acacb) and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (Srebf-1c). Moreover, ketogenesis, as indicated by plasma β-hydroxybutyrate levels, was higher in HS-HF-fed mice that were also fed high protein levels. Taken together, these results suggest that high-protein diets may reduce adiposity by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating ketogenesis in the liver.

  15. The comparison of effects of high protein-low fat diet, and standard diet on weight loss

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    ebrahim Falahi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is one of the most important problems in the world. Suitable low calorie diets are among the best ways for weight loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effects and comparison of two kinds of low-calorie diets on weight loss. Materials and Methods: Seventy- six health women (20-55 yrs old were randomly divided into two groups for 3 months: 39 subjects in standard diet group (SD (carbohydrate 55%, fat 30%, protein 15%, and 37 persons in high protein-low fat diet group (HPD (carbohydrate 55%, fat 20%, protein 25%. Energy intake was 1000 kcal less than the daily needs in the two groups. In the beginning and at the end of each month the subjects were visited and food diet energy was adjusted. In the beginning and finally BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio were measured. Results: BMI decreased 4. 43±0.96 v. s 4. 15±0.76 in SD and HPD groups, respectively. The amount of weight loss was 10. 89 2.04 in SD and 10. 48 1.73 in HPD. Waist to hip ratio decreased 0. 02±0.014 v. s 0. 018±0. 014 in SD and HPD, respectively. For all variables there was no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: Both low calorie diets (SD and HPD decreased weight and other obesity indices. Therefore, HPD may be a suitable substitution for standard diet.

  16. Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Regulation of Phosphorus Homeostasis

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    Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Kratz, Mario; Weigle, David S.; Callahan, Holly S.; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Horgan, Angela M.; de Boer, Ian H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: High-protein diets, which are popular for weight loss, contain large quantities of phosphorus. Phosphorus excess and consequent changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones are implicated in vascular calcification and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a moderate increase in dietary phosphorus during a high-protein diet leads to changes in phosphorus-responsive hormones. Design, Participants, and Setting: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a sequential dietary modification trial in 19 healthy volunteers in the general community. Intervention: Participants received 2 weeks of a weight-maintaining, low-protein (15%) diet, followed by 2 weeks of an isocaloric, high-protein (30%) diet, followed by 12 weeks of an ad libitum high-protein (30%) diet. Main Outcome Measures: Using previously collected samples, plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured at 8 time points to assess 24-hour variability and in 24-hour pooled samples to delineate changes at the end of each diet period. Results: Mean dietary phosphorus intake during each study period was 1556, 2071, and 1622 mg/d, respectively. Plasma concentrations of FGF-23 and vitamin D metabolites varied in a diurnal pattern; plasma PTH concentrations varied in a bimodal pattern. After changing from a low- to high-protein isocaloric diet, plasma FGF-23 concentrations decreased slightly (mean −4.48 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval 1.88–7.07). There were no other statistically significant changes in phosphorus regulatory hormones in response to diet modifications. Conclusions: Among healthy people, an approximate 33% increase in dietary phosphorus after institution of a high-protein diet does not cause large changes in measured concentrations of phosphorus regulatory hormones. PMID:23393178

  17. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  18. GPRC6a is not required for the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight in mice.

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    Kinsey-Jones, James S; Alamshah, Amin; McGavigan, Anne K; Spreckley, Eleanor; Banks, Katherine; Cereceda Monteoliva, Nicholas; Norton, Mariana; Bewick, Gavin A; Murphy, Kevin G

    2015-06-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is activated by proteinogenic amino acids and may sense amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The study investigated whether GPRC6A was necessary for the effects of low- and high-protein diets on body weight and food intake in mice. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a low-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a knockout (GPRC6a-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low-protein diet (6% protein) for 9 days. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a-KO and WT mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a high-protein diet (50% protein) for 5 weeks. A high-protein diet reduced body weight gain and food intake compared with a control diet in both WT and GPRC6a-KO mice. A low-protein diet decreased body weight gain in GPRC6a-KO mice. GPRC6A was not necessary for the effects of a low- or high-protein diet on body weight and likely does not play a role in protein-induced satiety. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance.

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    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; van Baak, Marleen; Jebb, Susan A; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Pihlsgård, Mats; Stender, Steen; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne

    2010-11-25

    Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein-high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P=0.02 and P=0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein-high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P=0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P=0.003). The analysis involving participants who completed the intervention

  20. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

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    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  1. Diets with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; van Baak, Marleen; Jebb, Susan A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Pihlsgård, Mats; Stender, Steen; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H.M.; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of weight-control diets that are high in protein or low in glycemic index have reached varied conclusions, probably owing to the fact that the studies had insufficient power. Methods We enrolled overweight adults from eight European countries who had lost at least 8% of their initial body weight with a 3.3-MJ (800-kcal) low-calorie diet. Participants were randomly assigned, in a two-by-two factorial design, to one of five ad libitum diets to prevent weight regain over a 26-week period: a low-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a low-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and low-glycemic-index diet, a high-protein and high-glycemic-index diet, or a control diet. Results A total of 1209 adults were screened (mean age, 41 years; body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 34), of whom 938 entered the low-calorie-diet phase of the study. A total of 773 participants who completed that phase were randomly assigned to one of the five maintenance diets; 548 completed the intervention (71%). Fewer participants in the high-protein and the low-glycemic-index groups than in the low-protein–high-glycemic-index group dropped out of the study (26.4% and 25.6%, respectively, vs. 37.4%; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 for the respective comparisons). The mean initial weight loss with the low-calorie diet was 11.0 kg. In the analysis of participants who completed the study, only the low-protein–high-glycemic-index diet was associated with subsequent significant weight regain (1.67 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 2.87). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the weight regain was 0.93 kg less (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.55) in the groups assigned to a high-protein diet than in those assigned to a low-protein diet (P = 0.003) and 0.95 kg less (95% CI, 0.33 to 1.57) in the groups assigned to a low-glycemic-index diet than in those assigned to a high-glycemic-index diet (P = 0.003). The analysis involving

  2. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

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    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  3. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

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    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  4. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low

  5. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  6. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P < 0.05, but decreased the abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05. LC-MS-MS revealed a dynamic change of proteins from the diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  7. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P diet, host, and gut microbiota alongside the digestive tract. For dietary proteins, high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion. PMID:29033907

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  9. The efficacy of a high protein/low glycemic index diet intervention in non-obese patients with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Astrup, Arne

    2018-01-01

    protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet and the effects on body composition. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Of the 149 subjects who were included in the study, 76 subjects (30 males) were randomized into either a diet group (n = 38) or a control group (n = 38) and included in the present analysis. The 8 week...... intervention consisted of a high protein and low GI diet whilst the control group continued habitual diet. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients in the diet and 34 in the control group completed the study. The diet group reduced their energy intake by ~20% and had high dietary compliance. Intake of fatty fish doubled...... protein-low GI diet resulted in a greater loss of fat mass among non-obese patients with asthma. The subjects were satisfactory and highly compliant with the dietary regimen....

  10. High-Salt Diet Has a Certain Impact on Protein Digestion and Gut Microbiota: A Sequencing and Proteome Combined Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zixin; Yu, Kequan; Ding, Ruiling; Ye, Keping; Dai, Chen; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    High-salt diet has been considered to cause health problems, but it is still less known how high-salt diet affects gut microbiota, protein digestion, and passage in the digestive tract. In this study, C57BL/6J mice were fed low- or high-salt diets (0.25 vs. 3.15% NaCl) for 8 weeks, and then gut contents and feces were collected. Fecal microbiota was identified by sequencing the V4 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Proteins and digested products of duodenal, jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents were identified by LC-MS-MS. The results indicated that the high-salt diet increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, the abundances of genera Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcus (P high-salt diet seemed not influence its protein digestion and absorption. For host proteins, 20 proteins of lower abundance were identified in the high-salt diet group in duodenal contents, which were involved in digestive enzymes and pancreatic secretion. However, no significant differentially expressed proteins were detected in jejunal, cecal, and colonic contents. For bacterial proteins, proteins secreted by gut microbiota were involved in energy metabolism, sodium transport, and protein folding. Five proteins (cytidylate kinase, trigger factor, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transporter, and undecaprenyl-diphosphatase) had a higher abundance in the high-salt diet group than those in the low-salt group, while two proteins (acetylglutamate kinase and PBSX phage manganese-containing catalase) were over-expressed in the low-salt diet group than in the high-salt group. Consequently, high-salt diet may alter the composition of gut microbiota and has a certain impact on protein digestion.

  11. Consumption of diets high in prebiotic fiber or protein during growth influences the response to a high fat and sucrose diet in adulthood in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early dietary exposure can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. We examined the lasting effects of a high protein or high prebiotic fiber weaning diet when followed by a high energy diet in adulthood. Methods At birth, litters of Wistar rats were culled to 10 pups. At 21 d pups were weaned onto control (C, high prebiotic fiber (HF or high protein (HP diet. Rats consumed the experimental diets until 14 wk when they were switched to a high fat/sucrose (HFHS diet for 6 wk. Body composition and energy intake were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT performed. Blood was analyzed for satiety hormones and tissues collected for real-time PCR. Results Weight gain was attenuated in male rats fed HF from 12 wk until study completion. In females there were early reductions in body weight that moderated until the final two wk of HFHS diet wherein HF females weighed less than HP. Final body weight was significantly higher following the high fat challenge in male and female rats that consumed HP diet from weaning compared to HF. Lean mass was higher and fat mass lower with HF compared to HP and compared to C in males. Energy intake was highest in HP rats, particularly at the start of HFHS feeding. Plasma glucose was higher in HP rats compared to HF during an OGTT. Plasma amylin was higher in HF females compared to C and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 was higher in HF rats during the OGTT. Leptin was higher in HP rats during the OGTT. HF upregulated GLUT 5 mRNA expression in the intestine and downregulated hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Male rats fed HP had higher hepatic triglyceride content than C or HF. Conclusion These data suggest that while a long-term diet high in protein predisposes to an obese phenotype when rats are given a high energy diet in adulthood, consumption of a high fiber diet during growth may provide some protection.

  12. High protein diets do not attenuate decrements in testosterone and IGF-I during energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Paul C; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-05-01

    Energy deficit (ED) diminishes fat-free mass (FFM) with concomitant reductions in anabolic hormone secretion. A modest increase in protein to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) levels during ED minimally attenuates decrements in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The impact of dietary protein above the RDA on circulating anabolic hormones and their relationships with FFM in response to ED are not well described. Thirty-three adults were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 (RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g/kg/d for 31days. Testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I system components were assessed after a 10-day period of weight-maintenance (WM) and after a 21-day period of ED (40%) achieved by an increase in energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. Associations between the change in FFM and anabolic hormone levels were determined. As compared to WM and regardless of dietary protein intake, total and free testosterone, total IGF-I, and acid-labile subunit decreased (P<0.05), whereas SHBG and IGF binding proteins-1, -2, and -3 increased (P<0.05) during ED. There were no energy-by-protein interactions on any hormones or IGF-I system components measured. Changes in FFM in response to ED were negatively associated with acid-labile subunit (ALS) (r=-0.62, P<0.05) in 2×-RDA; however, no other relationships were observed. Consuming a high protein diet does not impact the androgenic and IGF-I system response to ED. These data suggest that the protective effects of high protein diets on FFM during ED are likely not influenced by anabolic hormone concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. DASH-like diets high in protein or monounsaturated fats improve metabolic syndrome and calculated vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Martin M; Dawson, Hannah R

    2013-01-01

    Weight-loss diets with varying proportions of macronutrients have had varying effects on weight loss, and components of metabolic syndrome and risk factors for vascular diseases. However, little work has examined the effect of weight-neutral dietary changes in macronutrients on these factors. This is an investigation using the OMNI Heart datasets available from the NHLBI BioLINCC program. This study compared a DASH-like diet high in carbohydrates with similar diets high in protein and high in unsaturated fats. Measures of metabolic syndrome, except waist, and measures of risk factors for vascular diseases were taken at the end of each dietary period. All 3 diets significantly lowered the number of metabolic syndrome components (p ≤ 0.002) with a standardized measure of changes in metabolic syndrome components, suggesting that the high-protein, high-fat diet was most efficacious overall (p = 0.035). All 3 diets lowered a calculated 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease, with the high-protein and unsaturated fat diet being the most efficacious (p fat diet showed a slightly decreased calculated 9-year risk of diabetes (p = 0.11). Of the 3 weight-neutral diets, those high in protein and unsaturated fats appeared partially or wholly most beneficial.

  14. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; Murison, Sandra D; Bremner, David M; Lobley, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (Pketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

  15. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  16. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P......The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...

  17. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even

    2016-01-01

    , affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat......Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein...... rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio....

  18. High-protein diet in lactation leads to a sudden infant death-like syndrome in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Walther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that reduced foetal growth and development resulting from maternal malnutrition are associated with a number of chronic conditions in later life. On the other hand such generation-transcending effects of over-nutrition and of high-protein consumption in pregnancy and lactation, a proven fact in all developed societies, are widely unknown. Thus, we intended to describe the generation-transcending effects of a high-protein diet, covering most relevant topics of human life like embryonic mortality, infant death, and physical health in later life. METHODS: Female mice received control food (21% protein or were fed a high protein diet (42% protein during mating. After fertilisation, females stayed on their respective diet until weaning. At birth, pups were put to foster mothers who were fed with standard food or with HP diet. After weaning, control diet was fed to all mice. All offspring were monitored up to 360 days after birth. We determined glucose-tolerance and measured cardiovascular parameters using a tip-catheter. Finally, abdominal fat amount was measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified a worried impact of high-protein diet during pregnancy on dams' body weight gain, body weight of newborns, number of offspring, and also survival in later life. Even more important is the discovery that high-protein diet during lactation caused a more than eight-fold increase in offspring mortality. The observed higher newborn mortality during lactation is a hitherto non-described, unique link to the still incompletely understood human sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. Thus, although offspring of lactating mothers on high-protein diet might have the advantage of lower abdominal fat within the second half of life, this benefit seems not to compensate the immense risk of an early sudden death during lactation. Our data may implicate that both pregnant women and lactating mothers should not follow classical high-protein

  19. Protein and energy metabolism in two lines of chickens selected for growth on high or low protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O; Sørensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Genetic adaptation was investigated in broilers selected for seven generations on a normal (A) or a low (B) protein diet. Protein and energy metabolism were studied in males from these selected lines fed on a diet of intermediate protein content. All selected birds retained more nitrogen than those...

  20. High-fat diet induced isoform changes of the Parkinson's disease protein DJ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschmann, Gereon; Seyfarth, Katrin; Besong Agbo, Daniela; Klafki, Hans-Wolfgang; Rozman, Jan; Wurst, Wolfgang; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Klingenspor, Martin; Stühler, Kai

    2014-05-02

    Genetic and environmental factors mediate via different physiological and molecular processes a shifted energy balance leading to overweight and obesity. To get insights into the underlying processes involved in energy intake and weight gain, we compared hypothalamic tissue of mice kept on a high-fat or control diet for 10 days by a proteomic approach. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis in combination with LC-MS/MS, we observed significant abundance changes in 15 protein spots. One isoform of the protein DJ-1 was elevated in the high-fat diet group in three different mouse strains SWR/J, C57BL/6N, and AKR/J analyzed. Large-scale validation of DJ-1 isoforms in individual samples and tissues confirmed a shift in the pattern of DJ-1 isoforms toward more acidic isoforms in several brain and peripheral tissues after feeding a high-fat diet for 10 days. The identification of oxidation of cysteine 106 as well as 2-succinyl modification of the same residue by mass spectrometry not only explains the isoelectric shift of DJ-1 but also links our results to similar shifts of DJ-1 observed in neurodegenerative disease states under oxidative stress. We hypothesize that DJ-1 is a common physiological sensor involved in both nutrition-induced effects and neurodegenerative disease states.

  1. High-protein diet promotes a moderate postpartum weight loss in a prospective cohort of Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Maria Beatriz T; Kac, Gilberto; de Leon, Antonio P; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-01-01

    Whether a high-protein (HP) diet promotes body weight loss (BWL) when compared with a low-protein (LP) diet is still unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an HP diet on BWL during postpartum. A food-frequency questionnaire with 81 items was applied at 6 mo after delivery to evaluate the diet of 430 postpartum women aged 18-45 y. Body weight was measured approximately at 0.5, 2, 6, and 9 mo after delivery. Body weight loss was modeled by comparing an HP diet (> or =1.2g . kg(-1) . d(-1)) with an LP diet (women in the HP group lost 316+/-0.062g of body weight more per month (Pweight loss. Further studies should evaluate the long-term consequences of an HP diet postpartum.

  2. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-06-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue, affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 is involved in food intake regulation in mice fed a high-protein diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Nässl

    Full Text Available High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid and peptide absorption has not yet been considered to contribute to satiety effects. We here demonstrate a novel finding that links intestinal peptide transport processes to food intake, but only when a protein-rich diet is provided. When mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 were fed diets containing 8 or 21 energy% of protein, no differences in food intake and weight gain were observed. However, upon feeding a high-protein (45 energy% diet, Pept1(-/- mice reduced food intake much more pronounced than control animals. Although there was a regain in food consumption after a few days, no weight gain was observed which was associated with a reduced intestinal energy assimilation and increased fecal energy losses. Pept1(-/- mice on high-protein diet displayed markedly reduced plasma leptin levels during the period of very low food intake, suggesting a failure of leptin signaling to increase energy intake. This together with an almost two-fold elevated plasma arginine level in Pept1(-/- but not wildtype mice, suggests that a cross-talk of arginine with leptin signaling in brain, as described previously, could cause these striking effects on food intake.

  4. The intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 is involved in food intake regulation in mice fed a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässl, Anna-Maria; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Sailer, Manuela; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-01-01

    High-protein diets are effective in achieving weight loss which is mainly explained by increased satiety and thermogenic effects. Recent studies suggest that the effects of protein-rich diets on satiety could be mediated by amino acids like leucine or arginine. Although high-protein diets require increased intestinal amino acid absorption, amino acid and peptide absorption has not yet been considered to contribute to satiety effects. We here demonstrate a novel finding that links intestinal peptide transport processes to food intake, but only when a protein-rich diet is provided. When mice lacking the intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 were fed diets containing 8 or 21 energy% of protein, no differences in food intake and weight gain were observed. However, upon feeding a high-protein (45 energy%) diet, Pept1(-/-) mice reduced food intake much more pronounced than control animals. Although there was a regain in food consumption after a few days, no weight gain was observed which was associated with a reduced intestinal energy assimilation and increased fecal energy losses. Pept1(-/-) mice on high-protein diet displayed markedly reduced plasma leptin levels during the period of very low food intake, suggesting a failure of leptin signaling to increase energy intake. This together with an almost two-fold elevated plasma arginine level in Pept1(-/-) but not wildtype mice, suggests that a cross-talk of arginine with leptin signaling in brain, as described previously, could cause these striking effects on food intake.

  5. Effect of a High-Protein Diet versus Standard-Protein Diet on Weight Loss and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Campos-Nonato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have shown that protein-enriched diets can lead to greater weight loss and improvements in biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MeS than standard protein diets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of increased protein intake on weight loss in Mexican adults with MeS. Methods: Randomized controlled trial in 118 adults aged 47.4 ± 11.5 years and meeting the established criteria for MeS were randomized to prescribed hypocaloric diets (500 kcal less than resting metabolic rate providing either 0.8 g/kg body weight (standard protein diet (SPD or 1.34 g/kg body weight (higher protein diet (HPD for 6 months. Body weight, waist circumference, percent body fat by bioimpedance analysis, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were measured at baseline, 3 months and at 6 months. Results: There were 105 subjects (51 for SPD and 54 for HPD who completed the trial. Overall weight loss was 5.1 ± 3.6 kg in the SPD group compared to 7.0 ± 3.7 kg in the in HPD group. Both groups lost a significant percent of centimeters of waist circumference (SPD -6.5 ± 2.6 cm and HPD -8.8 ± 2.6 cm. There was no statistical difference Except for the varying weight losses the two groups did not show any further differences overall. However in the subgroup judged to be adherent more than 75% of the time with the prescribed diets, there was a significant difference in mean weight loss (SPD -5.8% vs. HPD -9.5% after adjusting for baseline BMI. Both groups demonstrated significant decreases in waist circumference, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and VLDL cholesterol, but there were no differences between the groups. There were no changes in blood tests for

  6. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  7. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  8. Neandertals' large lower thorax may represent adaptation to high protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dor, Miki; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Humans are limited in their capacity to convert protein into energy. We present a hypothesis that a "bell" shaped thorax and a wide pelvis evolved in Neandertals, at least in part, as an adaptation to a high protein diet. A high protein diet created a need to house an enlarged liver and urinary system in a wider lower trunk. To test the hypothesis, we applied a model developed to identify points of nutritional stress. A ratio of obligatory dietary fat to total animal fat and protein sourced calories is calculated based on various known and estimated parameters. Stress is identified when the obligatory dietary fat ratio is higher than fat content ratios in available prey. The model predicts that during glacial winters, when carbohydrates weren't available, 74%-85% of Neandertals' caloric intake would have had to come from animal fat. Large animals contain around 50% fat calories, and their fat content is diminished during winter, so a significant stressful dietary fat deficit was identified by the model. This deficit could potentially be ameliorated by an increased capability to convert protein into energy. Given that high protein consumption is associated with larger liver and kidneys in animal models, it appears likely that the enlarged inferior section of the Neandertals thorax and possibly, in part, also his wide pelvis, represented an adaptation to provide encasement for those enlarged organs. Behavioral and evolutionary implications of the hypothesis are also discussed. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:367-378, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maternal High Fat Diet Affects Offspring's Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins Expression Levels.

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    Stuart Lanham

    Full Text Available Studies suggest bone growth & development and susceptibility to vascular disease in later life are influenced by maternal nutrition, during intrauterine and early postnatal life. There is evidence for a role of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs including Osteocalcin, Matrix-gla protein, Periostin, and Gas6, in bone and vascular development. This study extends the analysis of VKDPs previously conducted in 6 week old offspring, into offspring of 30 weeks of age, to assess the longer term effects of a maternal and postnatal high fat (HF diet on VKDP expression. Overall a HF maternal diet and offspring diet exacerbated the bone changes observed. Sex specific and tissue specific differences were observed in VKDP expression for both aorta and femoral tissues. In addition, significant correlations were observed between femoral OCN, Periostin Gas6, and Vkor expression levels and measures of femoral bone structure. Furthermore, MGP, OCN, Ggcx and Vkor expression levels correlated to mass and fat volume, in both sexes. In summary the current study has highlighted the importance of the long-term effects of maternal nutrition on offspring bone development and the correlation of VKDPs to bone structure.

  10. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  11. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs...... with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater (P...... N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased (P canola meal increased. Serum concentrations of IgG were reduced if canola meal was included in the diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case...

  12. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  13. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  14. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent-Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zuo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular diseases among men and women. Thus, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with heart healthy diet plan during weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of individuals with obesity. Methods: The experiment involved 40 adults with obesity (men, n = 21; women, n = 19 and was divided into two phases: (a 12-week high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1 and (b a 1-year (52-week weight loss maintenance comparing high-protein, intermittent-fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2. Body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control, 12 (weight loss, and 64 (12+52 week; weight loss maintenance.Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant with reductions in body weight, body mass index, blood lipids, and arterial compliance was enhanced (p < 0.05. No sex-specific differences were observed. During phase 2, high-protein, intermittent-fasting, low-calorie group demonstrated less weight regain and percentage change in aortic pulse wave velocity than heart healthy group (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high-protein, intermittent-fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with body weight loss and reduction in blood lipids. This diet also demonstrated a potential advantage in minimizing weight gain relapse as well as enhancing arterial compliance compared to the heart healthy diet in the long term.

  15. [Controversies around diet proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    Critical theories regarding proteins of anima origin are still and still popularized, though they are ungrounded from scientific point of view. Predominance of soya proteins over the animal ones in relation to their influence on calcium metabolism, bone break risk or risk of osteoporosis morbidity has not been confirmed in any honest, reliable research experiment. Statement, that sulphur amino acids influence disadvantageously on calcium metabolism of human organism and bone status, is completely groundless, the more so as presence of sulphur amino acids in diet (animal proteins are their best source) is the condition of endogenic synthesis of glutathione, the key antioxidant of the organism, and taurine stimulating brain functioning. Deficiency of proteins in the diet produce weakness of intellectual effectiveness and immune response. There is no doubt that limitation of consumption of animal proteins of standard value is not good for health.

  16. [The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Li-chuan; Li, Yin-yin; Zhao, Jia-jun; Li, Ming-long

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of long-term high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rats. Twenty-four diet-induced obesity rat models were established by feeding fat-enriched diet, then were randomly divided into two groups by stratified sampling method by weight: the high-protein diet group (HP, 36.7% of energy from protein), and the normal chow group (NC, 22.4% of energy from protein), 12 rats in each group. The total calorie intake of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks, then body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined, as well as protein expression of ghrelin in stomach, GLP-1 in ileum were detected by immunohistochemistry. After 24 weeks, body weight of HP, NC groups were (490.92 ± 39.47) g and (545.55 ± 31.08) g, respectively (t = -3.664, P 0.05), and plasma ghrelin level was negatively correlated to body weight (r = -0.370, t = -1.899, P body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline GLP-1 expression in diet-induced obesity rats.

  17. Mixed compared with single-source proteins in high-protein diets affect kidney structure and function differentially in obese fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Wojcik, Jennifer L; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; Aukema, Harold M

    2017-02-01

    Questions remain regarding the potential negative effects of dietary high protein (HP) on kidney health, particularly in the context of obesity in which the risk for renal disease is already increased. To examine whether some of the variability in HP effects on kidney health may be due to source of protein, obese fa/fa Zucker rats were given HP (35% of energy from protein) diets containing either casein, soy protein, or a mixed source of animal and plant proteins for 12 weeks. Control lean and obese rats were given diets containing casein at normal protein (15% of energy from protein) levels. Body weight and blood pressure were measured, and markers of renal structural changes, damage, and function were assessed. Obesity alone resulted in mild renal changes, as evidenced by higher kidney weights, proteinuria, and glomerular volumes. In obese rats, increasing the protein level using the single, but not mixed, protein sources resulted in higher renal fibrosis compared with the lean rats. The mixed-protein HP group also had lower levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, even though this diet further increased kidney and glomerular size. Soy and mixed-protein HP diets also resulted in a small number of damaged glomeruli, while soy compared with mixed-protein HP diet delayed the increase in blood pressure over time. Since obesity itself confers added risk of renal disease, an HP diet from mixed-protein sources that enables weight loss but has fewer risks to renal health may be advantageous.

  18. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  19. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberink, M F; Geleijnse, J M; Bakker, S J L

    2015-01-01

    in 420 overweight adults from the Diet, Obesity and Genes study. After an 8-week weight-loss period (>8% BW), subjects (42±6 years) were randomized to either a high-protein diet (23-28 en% protein) or a lower-protein control diet (10-15 en% protein) for 26 weeks. BMI after weight loss was 30.3±4.3 kg m......(-2), BP was 118/73 mm Hg and 28 subjects (6.5%) used antihypertensive agents. Systolic BP during 26 weeks of weight maintenance dietary intervention increased in both treatment groups, but it was 2.2 mm Hg less (95% CI: -4.6 to 0.2 mm Hg, P=0.08) in the high-protein group than in the lower...

  20. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased......To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high...

  1. Chlorella Protein Hydrolysate Attenuates Glucose Metabolic Disorder and Fatty Liver in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naoto; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Rahman, Shaikh Mizanoor; Ando, Yotaro

    2016-07-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beijerinckii) powder is reported to show a preventive effect against metabolic syndromes such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Approximately 60% of the chlorella content is protein. In order to understand the role of chlorella protein, we prepared a chlorella protein hydrolysate (CPH) by protease treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: a normal diet group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and high-fat diet supplemented with CPH (HFD+CPH) group. The CPH administration improved glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue hypertrophy in the high-fat diet-fed mice. In addition, the HFD+CPH group had significantly decreased liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared with those in the HFD group. Furthermore, the HFD+CPH group had a decreased level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in serum and a lower MCP-1 mRNA expression level in adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. The present study suggests that chlorella protein hydrolysate can prevent a high-fat diet-induced glucose disorder and fatty liver by inhibiting adipocyte hypertrophy and reducing the MCP-1 protein and gene expression.

  2. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein....../sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our...... findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue...

  3. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Jose; Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Vargas, Leonel; Tamayo, Armando; Buehn, Richard; Peacock, Corey A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3 ± 3.9 yr; height 178.5 ± 8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9 ± 3.4 yr). In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d) for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100-168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects' normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD) 29.94 ± 5.65 kcals/kg/day and 2.51 ± 0.69 g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the high protein phase to 34.37 ± 5.88 kcals/kg/day and 3.32 ± 0.87 g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51-3.32 g/kg/d) for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass.

  4. A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high protein diet over a one-year period. Fourteen healthy resistance-trained men completed the study (mean ± SD; age 26.3±3.9 yr; height 178.5±8.4 cm; and average years of training 8.9±3.4 yr. In a randomized crossover design, subjects consumed their habitual or normal diet for 2 months and 4 months and alternated that with a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/d for 2 months and 4 months. Thus, on average, each subject was on their normal diet for 6 months and a higher protein diet for 6 months. Body composition was assessed via the Bod Pod®. Each subject provided approximately 100–168 daily dietary self-reports. During the subjects’ normal eating phase, they consumed (mean ± SD 29.94±5.65 kcals/kg/day and 2.51±0.69 g/kg/day of protein. This significantly increased (p<0.05 during the high protein phase to 34.37±5.88 kcals/kg/day and 3.32±0.87 g/kg/day of protein. Our investigation discovered that, in resistance-trained men that consumed a high protein diet (~2.51–3.32 g/kg/d for one year, there were no harmful effects on measures of blood lipids as well as liver and kidney function. In addition, despite the total increase in energy intake during the high protein phase, subjects did not experience an increase in fat mass.

  5. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Liver in Response to Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA Induced by High-concentrate Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Y. Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate protein expression patterns of liver in response to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA induced by high-concentrate diet. Sixteen healthy mid-lactating goats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed either a high-forage (HF diet or a high-concentrate (HC diet. The HC diet was expected to induce SARA. After ensuring the occurrence of SARA, liver samples were collected. Proteome analysis with differential in gel electrophoresis technology revealed that, 15 proteins were significantly modulated in liver in a comparison between HF and HC-fed goats. These proteins were found mainly associated with metabolism and energy transfer after identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight. The results indicated that glucose, lipid and protein catabolism could be enhanced when SARA occurred. It prompted that glucose, lipid and amine acid in the liver mainly participated in oxidation and energy supply when SARA occurred, which possibly consumed more precursors involved in milk protein and milk fat synthesis. These results suggest new candidate proteins that may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate liver adaptation to SARA.

  7. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-Term Hypocaloric High-Fiber and High-Protein Diet Improves Hepatic Steatosis Assessed by Controlled Attenuation Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanow, Anita; Teutsch, Melanie; Walle, Hardy; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank; Stokes, Caroline S

    2016-06-16

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases and increases the risk of fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current standard treatment focuses on lifestyle interventions. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term low-calorie diet on hepatic steatosis, using the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) as quantitative tool. In this prospective observational study, 60 patients with hepatic steatosis were monitored during a hypocaloric high-fiber, high-protein diet containing 1,000 kcal/day. At baseline and after 14 days, we measured hepatic fat contents using CAP during transient elastography, body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum liver function tests and lipid profiles using standard clinical-chemical assays. The median age was 56 years (25-78 years); 51.7% were women and median body mass index was 31.9 kg/m(2) (22.4-44.8 kg/m(2)). After 14 days, a significant CAP reduction (14.0%; PCAP improvements occur after only 14 days on short-term low-calorie diet, together with reductions of body composition parameters, serum lipids, and liver enzymes, pointing to the dynamics of hepatic lipid turnover.

  9. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (−9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P obesity. PMID:23883680

  10. Productive response of Duroc x Large White and Commercial Hybrid x Large White crosses fed high and low protein diets

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    Carla Fabro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Duroc x Large White (DUxLW and 43 Commercial Hybrid x Large White (CHxLW were fed two diets differing for the content of crude protein (CP, with the aim to evaluate the effects of these diets on growth, carcass and thigh traits. Pigs were allotted to two groups and fed high protein (HP and low protein (LP diet. Within each dietary group, 3 diets were formulated, for the initial phase of growth (from 79 to 112 days, 17.3% and 15.4% CP as fed basis for the HP and LP diet, respectively, for the intermediated phase of growth (from 113 to 196 days, 15.1% and 13.7% CP as fed basis for the HP and LP diet, respectively and for the finishing period (from 197 to 272 days, 13.4% and 11.4% CP as fed basis for the HP and LP diet, respectively. HP diets were supplemented with Lysine, LP were supplemented also with Methionine and Threonine. Pigs were slaughtered at nine months of age. Body weight (BW, average daily gain, total feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diet. Carcass weight, thigh weight, backfat and lean thickness and lean percentage (Fat-O-Meater, FOM were not affected by dietary treatments, whilst backfat thickness and FOM were significantly higher (P<0.01 in DUxLW and CHxLW pigs genotype respectively. A reduction of about 15% (12% to 17% of the dietary CP recommended by nutritional requirements does not affect the main productive performances and carcass characteristics of pigs slaughtered at around 160 kg of BW.

  11. Isoflavone and protein constituents of lactic acid-fermented soy milk combine to prevent dyslipidemia in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-12-10

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  12. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  13. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth performances and plasma metabolite levels in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S-Y; Chen, Y-H; Yang, S-K

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted by two trials to investigate effects of sequential feeding with low- and high-protein diets on growth traits and plasma metabolites in geese. In Trial I, the effect of sequential feeding under time-restricted feeding system was investigated. Seventy-two White Roman goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S1) or control feeding (C1) group. All goslings were fed for 1 h at morning and at evening, respectively, from 2 to 8 weeks of age. S1 group was offered 13% CP diet at morning and 19% CP diet at evening. C1 group was offered the same diet (16% CP; mixed equally with the two diets mentioned above) at both morning and evening. Blood samples were hourly collected for 4 h after feeding at both morning and evening for the determination of the postprandial plasma levels of glucose, triacylglycerol and uric acid at the end of experiment. Results showed that BW, average daily gain (ADG), and daily feed intake (FI) were not different between groups, but the feed efficiency (FE) in S1 group was significantly higher than that in C1 group (Peffect of sequential feeding under ad libitum feeding system was investigated. Twenty-four goslings were randomly allotted into either sequential feeding (S2) or control feeding (C2) group. Diets were altered at 0600 and 1800 h, respectively, and geese were fed ad libitum from 4 to 8 weeks of age. S2 group was offered 14% CP diet at morning and 20% CP diet at evening. C2 group was supplied the same diet (mixed with the two diets according to the ratio of diets consumed by S2 group on the preceded day) at both morning and evening. Results showed that the ADG in S2 group was higher than those in C2 group (P<0.05). Summarized data from both trials showed that sequential feeding improves daily gain and FE in growing geese.

  15. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

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    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  16. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  17. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

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    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  18. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  19. Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver Fat and Inflammation in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Mariya; Pivovarova, Olga; Hornemann, Silke; Sucher, Stephanie; Frahnow, Turid; Wegner, Katrin; Machann, Jürgen; Petzke, Klaus Jürgen; Hierholzer, Johannes; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Herder, Christian; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Roden, Michael; Rudovich, Natalia; Klaus, Susanne; Thomann, Ralph; Schneeweiss, Rosemarie; Rohn, Sascha; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2017-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat, but can induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein (AP) vs plant protein (PP), which differ in levels of methionine and BCAAs, in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue. We performed a prospective study of individuals with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD at a tertiary medical center in Germany from June 2013 through March 2015. We analyzed data from 37 subjects placed on a diet high in AP (rich in meat and dairy foods; n = 18) or PP (mainly legume protein; n = 19) without calorie restriction for 6 weeks. The diets were isocaloric with the same macronutrient composition (30% protein, 40% carbohydrates, and 30% fat). Participants were examined at the start of the study and after the 6-week diet period for body mass index, body composition, hip circumference, resting energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient. Body fat and intrahepatic fat were detected by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, respectively. Levels of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, and inflammation markers, as well as individual free fatty acids and free amino acids, were measured in collected blood samples. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps were performed to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression patterns and phosphorylation of signaling proteins. Postprandial levels of BCAAs and methionine were significantly higher in subjects on the AP vs the PP diet. The AP and PP diets each reduced liver fat by 36%-48% within 6 weeks (for AP diet P = .0002; for

  20. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

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    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  1. Soy protein is beneficial but high-fat diet and voluntary running are detrimental to bone structure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Graef, George L; Nielsen, Forrest H; Johnson, LuAnn K; Cao, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity and soy protein isolate (SPI) augmentation have been reported to be beneficial for bone health. We hypothesized that combining voluntary running and SPI intake would alleviate detrimental changes in bone induced by a high-fat diet. A 2 × 2 × 2 experiment was designed with diets containing 16% or 45% of energy as corn oil and 20% SPI or casein fed to sedentary or running male C57BL/6 mice for 14 weeks. Distal femurs were assessed for microstructural changes. The high-fat diet significantly decreased trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) and increased trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Soy protein instead of casein, regardless of fat content, in the diet significantly increased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and decreased Tb.Sp. Voluntary running, regardless of fat content, significantly decreased bone volume fraction, Tb.N, connectivity density, and BMD and increased Tb.Sp. The high-fat diet significantly decreased osteocalcin and increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) concentrations in plasma. Plasma concentrations of osteocalcin were increased by both SPI and running. Running alleviated the increase in TRAP 5b induced by the high-fat diet. These findings demonstrate that a high-fat diet is deleterious, and SPI is beneficial to trabecular bone properties. The deleterious effect of voluntary running on trabecular structural characteristics indicates that there may be a maximal threshold of running beyond which beneficial effects cease and detrimental effects occur. Increases in plasma osteocalcin and decreases in plasma TRAP 5b in running mice suggest that a compensatory response occurs to counteract the detrimental effects of excessive running. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and its interaction with vitamin D receptor genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of a high-Na, high-protein (calciuric) diet on Ca and bone metabolism was investigated in postmenopausal women (aged 5067 years) who were stratified by vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotype. In a crossover trial, twenty-four women were randomly assigned to a diet high in protein (90 g...... no differences in serum markers or urinary minerals between the basal and calciuric diet in either VDR genotype groups. While the calciuric diet significantly increased urinary NTx (by 25.6%, PVDR group (n 10; carrying one or more (f) Fok I alleles), it had no effect in the f - VDR group (n 14......; not carrying any Fok I alleles). It is concluded that the Na- and protein-induced urinary Ca loss is compensated for by increased bone resorption and that this response may be influenced by VDR genotype....

  3. Responses in gut hormones and hunger to diets with either high protein or a mixture of protein plus free amino acids supplied under weight-loss conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobley, Gerald E; Holtrop, Grietje; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire; Johnstone, Alexandra M

    2015-04-28

    High-protein diets are an effective means for weight loss (WL), but the mechanisms are unclear. One hypothesis relates to the release of gut hormones by either protein or amino acids (AA). The present study involved overweight and obese male volunteers (n 18, mean BMI 36·8 kg/m2) who consumed a maintenance diet for 7 d followed by fully randomised 10 d treatments with three iso-energetic WL diets, i.e. with either normal protein (NP, 15% of energy) or high protein (HP, 30%) or with a combination of protein and free AA, each 15% of energy (NPAA). Psychometric ratings of appetite were recorded hourly. On day 10, plasma samples were taken at 30 min intervals over two consecutive 5 h periods (covering post-breakfast and post-lunch) and analysed for AA, glucose and hormones (insulin, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, active ghrelin and total peptide YY (PYY)) plus leucine kinetics (first 5 h only). Composite hunger was 16% lower for the HP diet than for the NP diet (Phunger scores and net AUCi for either AA or gut peptides. Regulation of hunger may involve subtle interactions, and a range of signals may need to be integrated to produce the overall response.

  4. A high-protein diet is anti-steatotic and has no pro-inflammatory side effects in dyslipidaemic APOE2 knock-in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Caraballo, Sonia C.; Comhair, Tine M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Köhler, S. Eleonore

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are effective anti-steatotic treatment options for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but whether these diets also decrease steatosis in hyperlipidaemic conditions is not known. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a HP diet on hepatic

  5. Comparison of high protein and high fiber weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial

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    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that moderately high protein diets may be more appropriate than conventional low-fat high carbohydrate diets for individuals at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However in most such studies sources of dietary carbohydrate may not have been appropriate and protein intakes may have been excessively high. Thus, in a proof-of-concept study we compared two relatively low-fat weight loss diets - one high in protein and the other high in fiber-rich, minimally processed cereals and legumes - to determine whether a relatively high protein diet has the potential to confer greater benefits. Methods Eighty-three overweight or obese women, 18-65 years, were randomized to either a moderately high protein (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate diet (HP or to a high fiber, relatively high carbohydrate (50% carbohydrate, > 35 g total dietary fiber, 20% protein diet (HFib for 8 weeks. Energy intakes were reduced by 2000 - 4000 kJ per day in order to achieve weight loss of between 0.5 and 1 kg per week. Results Participants on both diets lost weight (HP: -4.5 kg [95% confidence interval (CI:-3.7, -5.4 kg] and HFib: -3.3 kg [95% CI: -4.2, -2.4 kg], and reduced total body fat (HP: -4.0 kg [5% CI:-4.6, -3.4 kg] and HFib: -2.5 kg [95% CI: -3.5, -1.6 kg], and waist circumference (HP: -5.4 cm [95% CI: -6.3, -4.5 cm] and HFib: -4.7 cm [95% CI: -5.8, -3.6 cm], as well as total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure. However participants on HP lost more body weight (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.5, -0.1 kg; p = 0.039] and total body fat (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.4, -0.1; p = 0.029]. Diastolic blood pressure decreased more on HP (-3.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -6.2, -1.1; p = 0.005]. Conclusions A realistic high protein weight-reducing diet was associated with greater fat loss and lower blood pressure when compared with a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet in high risk overweight and obese women.

  6. The metabolic response to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Gannon, Mary C

    2006-02-01

    We recently reported that in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus, a 5-week diet of 20:30:50 carbohydrate-protein-fat ratio resulted in a dramatic decrease in 24-hour integrated glucose and total glycohemoglobin compared with a control diet of 55:15:30. Body weight, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum ketones were unchanged; insulin and nonesterified fatty acids were decreased. We now present data on other hormones and metabolites considered to be affected by dietary macronutrient changes. The test diet resulted in an elevated fasting plasma total insulin-like growth factor 1, but not growth hormone. Urinary aldosterone was unchanged; free cortisol was increased, although not statistically. Urinary pH and calcium were unchanged. Blood pressure, creatinine clearance, serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, thyroid hormones, and uric acid were unchanged. Serum creatinine was modestly increased. Plasma alpha-amino nitrogen and urea nitrogen were increased. Urea production rate was increased such that a new steady state was present. The calculated urea production rate accounted for 87% of protein ingested on the control diet, but only 67% on the test diet, suggesting net nitrogen retention on the latter. The lack of negative effects, improved glucose control, and a positive nitrogen balance suggest beneficial effects for subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus at risk for loss of lean body mass.

  7. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  8. A high protein diet during pregnancy affects hepatic gene expression of energy sensing pathways along ontogenesis in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP) throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn). Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages.

  9. Maternal high-protein or high-prebiotic-fiber diets affect maternal milk composition and gut microbiota in rat dams and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Megan C; Barile, Daniela; Meyrand, Mickael; German, J Bruce; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-11-01

    Maternal gut microbiota and milk composition could modify offspring microbiota and therefore disease susceptibility. The effect of maternal high-protein (HP) or prebiotic diets on maternal milk composition and gut microbiota in rat dams and offspring was examined. Wistar rat dams were fed a control, HP (40% wt/wt), or high-prebiotic-fiber (21.6% wt/wt) (HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were challenged with a high-fat/sucrose diet from 14.5 to 22.5 weeks of age. Dam milk was analyzed for fat, protein, and oligosaccharides (OS). Fecal microbiota was analyzed in dams at parturition and 2 weeks post-partum and in offspring at 5 and 22 weeks along with cecal digesta at termination. Maternal milk differed only in OS content, each diet group being distinguishable. HF1 and HP1 offspring had decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide compared with C1. Offspring sex, maternal diet, and time (5 weeks vs. 22 weeks of age) affected the microbial groups examined. Bifidobacteria was higher in HF dams and offspring. Increasing protein or fiber content in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation modifies milk OS content and gut microbiota of dams which may influence establishment of gut microbiota in offspring. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. A high-fat, high-protein diet attenuates the negative impact of casein-induced chronic inflammation on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Lu; Zhao, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between obesity and chronic inflammation has been studied. Diet-induced obesity or chronic inflammation could reduce the testicular functions of males. However, the mechanism underlying the reproductive effects of fattening foods in males with or without chronic inflammation still needs further discussion. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of high-fat, high-protein diet on testicular steroidogenesis and sperm parameters in adult mice under physiological and chronic inflammatory conditions. Because casein can trigger a non-infectious systemic inflammatory response, we used casein injection to induce chronic inflammation in male adult Kunming mice. Twenty-four mice were randomly and equally divided into four groups: (i) normal diet+saline (Control); (ii) normal diet+casein (ND+CS); (iii) high-fat, high-protein diet+saline (HFPD+SI); (iv) high-fat, high-protein diet+casein (HFPD+CS). After 8weeks, there was a significant increase in body weight for groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS and a decrease in group ND+CS compared with the control. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and lipid profiles were increased markedly in groups ND+CS, HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control. A remarkable reduction of serum adiponectin level occurred in group HFPD+CS compared with group ND+CS. Sperm parameters (sperm count, viability and abnormality) were also adversely affected in groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI. Groups ND+CS and HFPD+SI showed severe pathological changes in testicular tissues. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical staining also showed significant reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS compared with the control, whereas testicular mRNA and protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in groups HFPD+SI and HFPD+CS significantly increased. The m

  11. Liver protein expression in young pigs in response to a high-fat diet and diet restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    in terms of increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis and decreased urea synthesis. Our results suggest that 5 liver proteins, namely acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain 1, sterol carrier protein 2, apolipoprotein C-III, liver fatty acid binding protein, and acyl-CoA-binding protein, play a role...

  12. Protein quality of pig diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Tetske

    2016-01-01

    The increasing world population and per capita income imposes a risk for protein scarcity. It is, therefore, necessary to use current ingredients more efficiently which includes the accurate assessment of protein quality before inclusion in animal diets. Protein quality is defined in this thesis as

  13. Long-Term Effects of High-Protein Diets on Renal Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, Anne-Lise; Strandgaard, Svend

    2017-01-01

    progression and even cause CKD in healthy people. The protein source may be important. Daily red meat consumption over years may increase CKD risk, whereas white meat and dairy proteins appear to have no such effect, and fruit and vegetable proteins may be renal protective. Few randomized trials exist......Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a prevalence of approximately 13% and is most frequently caused by diabetes and hypertension. In population studies, CKD etiology is often uncertain. Some experimental and observational human studies have suggested that high-protein intake may increase CKD...... with an observation time greater than 6 months, and most of these were conducted in patients with preexisting diseases that dispose to CKD. Results conflict and do not allow any conclusion about kidney-damaging effects of long-term, high-protein intake. Until additional data become available, present knowledge seems...

  14. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, A.R.; Toubro, Søren; Bulow, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to the high satiating effect of protein, a high-protein diet may be desirable in the treatment of obesity. However the long-term effect of different levels of protein intake on renal function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the renal effects of high vs low protein contents in fat...... groups. CONCLUSION: Moderate changes in dietary protein intake cause adaptive alterations in renal size and function without indications of adverse effects...

  15. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Marquez, Lorenzo; Moyano-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Tomas-Vidal, A.

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino...

  16. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de Lisette; Vries, de Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a

  17. Effect of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus supplementation with branched-chain amino acids on the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Margáin, A; Macías-Rodríguez, R U; Ríos-Torres, S L; Román-Calleja, B M; Méndez-Guerrero, O; Rodríguez-Córdova, P; Torre, A

    The potential benefits of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cirrhosis extend beyond just the improvement of nutritional status. Their effects include improvement of glucose tolerance, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers, as has been shown in several studies. A dual nutritional approach of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAAs in cirrhosis could have additional benefits, compared with BCAAs alone. Such an approach has not been explored and therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus BCAA supplementation over a 6-month period of time on the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis, as well as its safety and tolerability for those same patients. An open, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: the BCAAs+HPHF diet intervention group: a high-protein, high-fiber diet with 1.2g/kg protein and 30g of fiber plus supplementation with oral branched-chain amino acids 110g daily and the HPHF diet control group: a high-protein, high-fiber diet with 1.2g/kg protein and 30g of fiber. The differences between the treatment groups were compared using the unpaired T test and the differences at the end of treatment were compared using the paired T test. A total of 72 patients were included, 37 in the intervention group and 35 in the control group. At the end of the study period, ammonia and glucose levels showed no significant increase in either group, reflecting the safety of the BCAA supplement. Furthermore, muscle and fat mass were evaluated through triceps skinfold thickness and mid-arm muscle circumference measurements. There was an increase in muscle mass and a decrease in fat mass in the BCAA group, but not in the control group. After the intervention, there were no significant changes in the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score or the Critical Flicker Frequency score results in either group, and no episodes of hepatic

  18. High-protein goat's milk diet identified through newborn screening: clinical warning of a potentially dangerous dietetic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, Evelina; Gugelmo, Giorgia; Tadiotto, Elisa; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Campostrini, Natascia; Pasini, Andrea; Ion-Popa, Florina; Vincenzi, Monica; Teofoli, Francesca; Camilot, Marta; Bordugo, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing optimal food for infants' healthy growth and development and the WHO recommends that infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life. For mothers who are unable to breast-feed or who decide not to, infant formulas are the safest alternative. Despite recommendations, it is possible that parents make potentially harmful nutritional choices for their children because of cultural beliefs or misinformation on infant nutrition. We describe a possible health risk of not breast-feeding, highlighting a potentially dangerous dietetic practice. Design/Setting/Subjects We report the case of a newborn who was fed with undiluted goat's milk because her mother could not breast-feed and was not aware of infant formulas. The dietary mistake was detected because of a positive expanded newborn screening result, characterized by severe hypertyrosinaemia with high methionine and phenylalanine levels, a pattern suggestive of severe liver impairment. The pattern of plasma amino acids was related to a goat's milk diet, because of its very different composition compared with human milk and infant formula. Our experience demonstrates that, when breast-feeding is not possible or is not exclusive, infants may be at risk of dangerous nutritional practices, including diets with very high protein content, such as a goat's milk diet. Families of not breast-fed infants may need appropriate advice on safe alternatives for infant nutrition to avoid the risks of inappropriate diets.

  19. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  20. Effects of high-protein/low-carbohydrate swine diets during the final finishing phase on pork muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Wulf, D M; Clapper, J A; Thaler, R C; Maddock, R J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to lower the glycogen stores in pork muscle in order to improve pork muscle quality by feeding an ultra-high-protein/low-carbohydrate (HIPRO) diet. Forty-eight barrows (average live weight = 92 kg) were assigned across five treatments and two replications (four or five pigs per treatment by replication combination). All barrows were fed a control diet (13.1% CP) until their assigned treatment began. A treatment was the number of days the barrows were fed the HIPRO diet prior to slaughter (0, 2, 4, 7, or 14 d). The HIPRO diet (35.9% CP) was 97% extruded soybeans. Daily feed intake and weekly live weights were recorded for all barrows. At-death blood glucose levels were determined. Muscle pH, temperature, and electrical impedance were measured in the longissmus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles at 45 min, 3 h, and 24 h postmortem. Glycolytic potential; Minolta L*a*b* values; visual scores for color, firmness, and marbling; water-holding capacity traits (drip loss, purge loss, and cooking loss); and Warner-Bratzler shear force values were determined in the longissmus thoracis et lumborum. Weight gain per day decreased the longer the pigs were fed the HIPRO diet (P 0.05); therefore, no differences in rate of pH decline or ultimate pH among dietary treatments were found (P > 0.05). Likewise, there were no differences among dietary treatments in any of the measured meat quality attributes (P > 0.05). Feeding barrows the HIPRO diet for a time period prior to slaughter decreased feed intake, rate of gain, and feed efficiency and was not effective at lowering glycolytic potential or improving pork muscle quality.

  1. Isocaloric intake of diets differing in macronutrient content (high protein or high fat) in adult rats indicate adverse effects as analysed by hepatic transcriptomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Schothorst, van Evert; Keijer, Jaap; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  2. Dietary β-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Kishimoto, Kyoko; Miura, Shinji; Ezaki, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Mice fed a high-fat diet, especially that of saturated-fat-rich oil, develop fatty liver with an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ2 protein in liver. The fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet is improved by knockdown of liver PPARγ2. In this study, we investigated whether β-conglycinin (a major protein of soy protein) could reduce PPARγ2 protein and prevent high-fat-diet-induced fatty liver in ddY mice. Mice were fed a high-starch diet (70 energy% [en%] starch) plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in their drinking water or a high-safflower-oil diet (60 en%) or a high-butter diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks, by which fatty liver is developed. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Either β-conglycinin or casein (control) was given as dietary protein. β-Conglycinin supplementation completely prevented fatty liver induced by each type of diet, along with a reduction in adipose tissue weight. β-Conglycinin decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in sucrose-supplemented mice, whereas it decreased PPARγ2 mRNA (and its target genes CD36 and FSP27), but did not decrease SREBP-1c and ChREBP mRNAs, in mice fed a high-fat diet. β-Conglycinin decreased PPARγ2 protein and liver triglyceride (TG) concentration in a dose-dependent manner in mice fed a high-butter diet; a significant decrease in liver TG concentration was observed at a concentration of 15 en%. In conclusion, β-conglycinin effectively prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet through a decrease in liver PPARγ2 protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  4. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  5. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soofi, Abdul; Wolf, Katherine I; Emont, Margo P; Qi, Nathan; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Grimley, Edward; Ostwani, Wesam; Dressler, Gregory R

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and its associated complications such as insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are reaching epidemic proportions. In mice, the TGF-β superfamily is implicated in the regulation of white and brown adipose tissue differentiation. The kielin/chordin-like protein (KCP) is a secreted regulator of the TGF-β superfamily pathways that can inhibit both TGF-β and activin signals while enhancing bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. However, KCP's effects on metabolism and obesity have not been studied in animal models. Therefore, we examined the effects of KCP loss or gain of function in mice that were maintained on either a regular or a high-fat diet. KCP loss sensitized the mice to obesity and associated complications such as glucose intolerance and adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis. In contrast, transgenic mice that expressed KCP in the kidney, liver, and adipose tissues were resistant to developing high-fat diet-induced obesity and had significantly reduced white adipose tissue. Moreover, KCP overexpression shifted the pattern of SMAD signaling in vivo, increasing the levels of phospho (P)-SMAD1 and decreasing P-SMAD3. Adipocytes in culture showed a cell-autonomous effect in response to added TGF-β1 or BMP7. Metabolic profiling indicated increased energy expenditure in KCP-overexpressing mice and reduced expenditure in the KCP mutants with no effect on food intake or activity. These findings demonstrate that shifting the TGF-β superfamily signaling with a secreted protein can alter the physiology and thermogenic properties of adipose tissue to reduce obesity even when mice are fed a high-fat diet. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: A randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene H.; Kondrup, Jens; Zellner, Maria

    2011-01-01

    on muscle function, cognitive function, quality of life and biochemical regulators of protein metabolism. DesignA randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19–31 yrs). All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before......BackgroundRecommendations to use other criteria than N-balance for defining protein requirements have been proposed. However, little evidence to support other measures such as physiological functions is available. ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of a usual (UP) versus a high protein (HP) diet...... the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages. Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period...

  7. Improved energy kinetics following high protein diet in McArdle's syndrome. A 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K E; Jakobsen, J; Thomsen, C

    1990-01-01

    A patient with McArdle's syndrome was examined using bicycle ergometry and 31P NMR spectroscopy during exercise. The patients working capacity was approximately half the expected capacity of controls. Muscle energy kinetics improved significantly during intravenous glucose infusion and after 6...... weeks of high protein diet. During intravenous infusion of amino acids, no changes in working capacity could be detected. No decrease was seen in intracellular muscle pH during aerobic exercise. A significant decrease in muscle pH during aerobic exercise was detected in all controls....

  8. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet alters small peripheral artery reactivity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jordi; Kones, Richard; Ferré, Raimon; Plana, Núria; Girona, Josefa; Aragonés, Gemma; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Low carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular for weight loss. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, particularly in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or metabolic syndrome (MS), their net effect on vascular function remains unclear. Evaluate the relation between dietary macronutrient composition and the small artery reactive hyperaemia index (saRHI), a marker of small artery vascular function, in a cohort of MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 160 MS patients. Diet was evaluated by a 3-day food-intake register and reduced to a novel low-carbohydrate diet score (LCDS). Physical examination, demographic, biochemical and anthropometry parameters were recorded, and saRHI was measured in each patient. Individuals in the lowest LCDS quartile (Q1; 45% carbohydrate, 19% protein, 31% fat) had higher saRHI values than those in the top quartile (Q4; 30% carbohydrate, 25% protein, 43% fat) (1.84±0.42 vs. 1.55±0.25, P=.012). These results were similar in T2D patients (Q1=1.779±0.311 vs. Q4=1.618±0.352, P=.011) and also in all of the MS components, except for low HDLc. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that individuals in the highest LCDS quartile, that is, consuming less carbohydrates, had a significantly negative coefficient of saRHI which was independent of confounders (HR: -0.747; 95%CI: 0.201, 0.882; P=.029). These data suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by a low amount of carbohydrate, but reciprocally higher amounts of fat and protein, is associated with poorer vascular reactivity in patients with MS and T2D. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. High-protein diet improves sensitivity to cholecystokinin and shifts the cecal microbiome without altering brain inflammation in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Lagishetty, Venu; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wu, Shuping V; Million, Mulugeta; Reeve, Joseph R; Pisegna, Joseph R; Taché, Yvette

    2017-10-01

    High-protein diet (HPD) curtails obesity and/or fat mass, but it is unknown whether it reverses neuroinflammation or alters glucose levels, CCK sensitivity, and gut microbiome in rats fed a Western diet (WD)-induced obesity (DIO). Male rats fed a WD (high fat and sugar) for 12 wk were switched to a HPD for 6 wk. Body composition, food intake, meal pattern, sensitivity to intraperitoneal CCK-8S, blood glucose, brain signaling, and cecal microbiota were assessed. When compared with a normal diet, WD increased body weight (9.3%) and fat mass (73.4%). CCK-8S (1.8 or 5.2 nmol/kg) did not alter food intake and meal pattern in DIO rats. Switching to a HPD for 6 wk reduced fat mass (15.7%) with a nonsignificantly reduced body weight gain, normalized blood glucose, and decreased feeding after CCK-8S. DIO rats on the WD or switched to a HPD showed comparable microbial diversity. However, in HPD versus WD rats, there was enrichment of 114 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and depletion of 188 OTUs. Of those, Akkermansia muciniphila (enriched on a HPD), an unclassified Clostridiales, a member of the RF39 order, and a Phascolarctobacterium were significantly associated with fat mass. The WD increased cytokine expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal medulla that was unchanged by switching to HPD. These data indicate that HPD reduces body fat and restores glucose homeostasis and CCK sensitivity, while not modifying brain inflammation. In addition, expansion of cecal Akkermansia muciniphila correlated to fat mass loss may represent a potential peripheral mechanism of HPD beneficial effects.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  11. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  12. Effects of dietary starch and protein levels on milk production and composition of dairy cows fed high concentrate diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güçlü Sucak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twenty eight Holstein cows (averaged 41±31.5 and 82±24 days in milk, and 30.4±3.49 and 29.0±2.22 kg/d milk yield were fed a high concentrate diet (70:30 concentrate to forage to examine effects on milk production and composition. The cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Factors were starch (14% and 22% and protein (15% and 18%. Wheat straw was used as forage source. The study lasted 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was not affected (P> 0.05 by the dietary treatments in the study. Milk yield increased with increased dietary protein level (P< 0.01. Milk urea nitrogen concentrations were affected by dietary protein and starch levels, but there was no interaction effect. Nitrogen efficiency (Milk N/N intake was decreased by increasing in dietary protein level (P< 0.01. In conclusion, the cows fed total mixed ration (TMR containing low level of wheat straw responded better when dietary protein increased. But, efficiency of N use and N excretion to the environment were worsened. Key words: Dairy cattle, milk composition, protein, starch, wheat straw

  13. Effect of a high protein meat diet on muscle and cognitive functions: a randomised controlled dietary intervention trial in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lene H; Kondrup, Jens; Zellner, Maria; Tetens, Inge; Roth, Erich

    2011-06-01

    Recommendations to use other criteria than N-balance for defining protein requirements have been proposed. However, little evidence to support other measures such as physiological functions is available. To investigate the effects of a usual (UP) versus a high protein (HP) diet on muscle function, cognitive function, quality of life and biochemical regulators of protein metabolism. A randomised intervention study was conducted with 23 healthy males (aged 19-31 yrs). All subjects consumed a Usual Protein (UP) diet (1.5 g protein/kg BW) for a 1-wk run-in period before the intervention period where they were assigned to either a UP or a High Protein (HP) diet (3.0 g protein/kg BW) for 3-wks with controlled intake of food and beverages. Blood and urine samples were taken along with measurements of physiological functions at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. The HP group improved their reaction time significantly compared with the UP group. Branched chain amino acids and phenylalanine in plasma were significantly increased following the HP diet, which may explain the improved reaction time. Healthy young males fed a HP diet improved reaction time. No adverse effects of the HP diet were observed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00621231. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, William W; Dridi, Sami; Shouse, Stephanie A; Wu, Hexirui; Hawley, Aubree; Lee, Sun-Ok; Gu, Xuan; Baum, Jamie I

    2017-06-08

    A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa) and lean control (Fa/fa) rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy) or moderate-protein (20% energy) diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8), lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10), obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8), and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10). At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p weight (p muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA expression compared to O20 (p weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  15. Adaptive changes in thyroid function of female rats fed a high-fat and low-protein diet during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, P D; Ramos, C F; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

    2006-06-01

    The percent of lipids in the western diet has been continuously increasing in the last decades and is associated with a decrease in the proportion of protein intake. Recently, we demonstrated that protein malnutrition during lactation is associated with lower body weight and thyroid hypofunction in female rats and their offspring. Our objective in the present study was to determine if a high-fat and low-protein diet was associated with similar changes. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups with 8 animals each: high-fat and low-protein (40% lipid, 5% protein, and 55% carbohydrate of the total energy content) from the 3rd week of gestation to the end of lactation; control group--standard diet (11% lipid, 23% protein, and 66% carbohydrate of the total energy content). Food consumption and body weight were monitored daily. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by specific radioimmunoassay at the end of lactation. Animals receiving high-fat and low-protein diet had a significantly lower body weight (13.9% at weaning, P thyroid uptake (77%, P thyroid hyperfunction that differs from the thyroid hypofunction observed in dams fed a low-protein diet, a phenomenon that can be of adaptive importance for pup nurturing.

  16. Potential use of high levels of vegetal proteins in diets for market-sized gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Ortiz, Raquel; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; Márquez, Lorenzo; Moyano, Francisco Javier; Jover-Cerdá, Miguel; Tomás-Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The effect of partial or total dietary substitution of fishmeal (FM) by vegetal protein sources on growth and feed efficiency was carried out in on-growing gilthead sea bream (mean initial weight 131 g). The Control diet (FM 100) contained FM as the primary protein source, while in Diets FM 25 and FM 0 the FM protein was replaced at 75% and 100%, respectively, by a vegetable protein mixture consisting of wheat gluten, soybean meal, rapeseed meal and crystalline amino acids. Diets FM 25 and FM 0 also contained krill meal at 47 g/kg in order to improve palatability. At the end of the trial (after 158 d), fish survival was above 90%. Final weight and the specific growth rate were statistically lower in fish fed the Control diet (361 g and 0.64%/d), compared with 390-396 g and 0.69-0.70%/d after feeding vegetal diets. No significant differences were found regarding feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The digestibility of protein and amino acids (determined with chromium oxide as indicator) was similar in all diets. The blood parameters were not significantly affected by treatments. The activity of trypsin and pepsin was significantly reduced after feeding Diet FM 0. In the distal intestine, the villi length in fish fed Diet FM 25 was significantly longer and the intestine of the fish fed the FM 100 diet showed a smaller number of goblet cells. In conclusion, a total FM substitution by a vegetal mix supplemented with synthetic amino acids in on-growing sea bream is feasible.

  17. (Cyprinus carpio) diets by protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    nutritional value of HM replacing the protein in SBM in the diets of carp fingerlings. Details ... 1000. Composition (g/kg). Dry matter. 891.2. 887.0. 885.3. 890.0. Crude protein. 371.0. 370.2. 369.6. 373.2. Crude fat. 165.5. 170.0. 168.8. 173.3. Crude ash. 72.0 ..... Raw and heat treated Culban (Vicia peregrine) seeds as dietary.

  18. Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Homeira Hamayeli; Salehpour, Saghar; Amiri, Zohreh; Farahani, Sara Jalali; Meyer, Barbara J; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2012-04-01

    The recommended composition of a hypocaloric diet for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load diet compared with a conventional hypocaloric diet on reproductive hormones, inflammatory markers, lipids, glucose, and insulin levels in obese women with PCOS. A total of 60 overweight and obese women with PCOS who did not use insulin-sensitizing agents were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 hypocaloric diet groups for a single-blind clinical trial. The groups included a conventional hypocaloric diet (CHCD) (15% of daily energy from protein) and a modified hypocaloric diet (MHCD) with a high-protein, low-glycemic load (30% of daily energy from protein plus low-glycemic-load foods selected from a list) that was prescribed via counseling visits weekly during 12 weeks of study. Anthropometric assessments and biochemical measurements including reproductive hormones, inflammatory factors, lipids, glucose, and insulin were performed on fasting blood samples at baseline and after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Weight loss was significant and similar in the 2 groups. Mean of testosterone in the MHCD and CHCD groups decreased from 1.78 ± 0.32 to 1.31 ± 0.26 ng/ml and from 1.51 ± 0.12 to 1.15 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively (p diets significantly led to reduced body weight and androgen levels in these two groups of women with PCOS. The combination of high-protein and low-glycemic-load foods in a modified diet caused a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in hsCRP level when compared with a conventional diet.

  19. Soy protein isolate inhibits high fat diet-induced senescence pathways in osteoblasts to maintain bone acquisition in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic consumption by experimental animals of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life has been demonstrated to impair skeletal development. However, the underlying mechanism by which high fat, energy dense diets affect bone-forming cell phenotypes is poor...

  20. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing ...

  1. Effect of a high-protein diet on maintenance of blood pressure levels achieved after initial weight loss: the DiOGenes randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Larsen, T.

    2015-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown significant blood pressure (BP) reductions after increased protein compared with carbohydrate intake, but the effect on BP maintenance after initial weight loss is unclear. We examined the effect of a high-protein diet on the maintenance of reduced BP after weight loss

  2. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A

    2016-05-01

    This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P composition (fat mass or lean mass) between groups. Compared to a healthy control diet, energy-restricted high-protein diets containing different proportions of fat and CHO confer no advantage to weight loss or change in body composition in the presence of an appropriate exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  4. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  5. Moderate energy restriction with high protein diet results in healthier outcome in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puurtinen Risto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study compares two different weight reduction regimens both with a moderately high protein intake on body composition, serum hormone concentration and strength performance in non-competitive female athletes. Methods Fifteen normal weighted women involved in recreational resistance training and aerobic training were recruited for the study (age 28.5 ± 6.3 yr, height 167.0 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 66.3 ± 4.2 kg, body mass index 23.8 ± 1.8, mean ± SD. They were randomized into two groups. The 1 KG group (n = 8; energy deficit 1100 kcal/day was supervised to reduce body weight by 1 kg per week and the 0.5 KG group (n = 7; energy deficit 550 kcal/day by 0.5 kg per week, respectively. In both groups protein intake was kept at least 1.4 g/kg body weight/day and the weight reduction lasted four weeks. At the beginning of the study the energy need was calculated using food and training diaries. The same measurements were done before and after the 4-week weight reduction period including total body composition (DXA, serum hormone concentrations, jumping ability and strength measurements Results During the 4-week weight reduction period there were no changes in lean body mass and bone mass, but total body mass, fat mass and fat percentage decreased significantly in both groups. The changes were greater in the 1 KG group than in the 0.5 KG group in total body mass (p Conclusion It is concluded that a weight reduction by 0.5 kg per week with ~1.4 g protein/kg body weight/day can be recommended to normal weighted, physically active women instead of a larger (e.g. 1 kg per week weight reduction because the latter may lead to a catabolic state. Vertical jumping performance is improved when fat mass and body weight decrease. Thus a moderate weight reduction prior to a major event could be considered beneficial for normal built athletes in jumping events.

  6. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Periodic usage of low-protein methionine-fortified diets in broiler chickens under high ambient temperature conditions: effects on performance, slaughter traits, leukocyte profiles and antibody response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Ghasemi, Rohollah; Torki, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of adding methionine supplements to low-protein diets and subsequent re-feeding with a normal diet on the productive performance, slaughter parameters, leukocyte profiles and antibody response in broiler chickens reared under heat stress conditions. During the whole experimental period (6-49 days), the birds were raised in battery cages located in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. A total of 360 6-day-old male chickens were divided into six treatments in six replicates with ten chicks each. Six isoenergetic diets, with similar total sulfur amino acids levels, were formulated to provide 100 and 100 (control), 85 and 100 (85S), 70 and 100 (70S), 85 and 85 (85SG), 70 and 85 (70S85G), and 70 and 70 % (70SG) of National Research Council recommended levels for crude protein during the starter (6-21 day) and grower (22-42 day) periods, respectively. Subsequently, all groups received a diet containing the same nutrients during the finisher period (43-49 day). The results showed that, under heat stress conditions, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio and performance index from day 6 to 49, breast and thigh yields and antibody titer against Newcastle disease in the birds fed diets 85S, 70S and 85SG were similar to those of birds fed control diet, whereas feeding diets 70S85G and 70SG significantly decreased the values of above-mentioned parameters. Additionally, diets 85S, 70S and 85SG significantly decreased mortality rate and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio compared with the control diet. In conclusion, the results indicate that supplementation of methionine to diets 85S, 70S and 85SG, and then re-feeding with a conventional diet is an effective tool to maintain productive performance and to improve health indices and heat resistance in broilers under high ambient temperature conditions.

  8. Diets high in protein or saturated fat do not affect insulin sensitivity or plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sally; Williams, Paul T; Dawson, Taylor; Bergman, Richard N; Stefanovski, Darko; Watkins, Steven M; Krauss, Ronald M

    2014-11-01

    Previous human studies reported inconsistent effects of dietary protein and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on insulin action and glucose metabolism. Similarly, it is unclear whether saturated fat (SF) intake influences these metabolic variables. The objective of this study was to test the effects of high [30% of energy (%E)] vs. moderate (20%E) intakes of protein (primarily whey) on insulin action and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in the context of both high (15%E) and low (7%E) SF diets. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial in 158 overweight and obese men and women. After a 4-wk baseline diet [55%E carbohydrate, 15%E protein, 30%E fat (7%E SF)], participants were randomly assigned to 4 wk of either the baseline diet or 1 of 4 test diets containing 35%E carbohydrate and either 20%E or 30%E protein and either 7%E or 15%E SF. Frequently sampled i.v. glucose tolerance tests were administered after each dietary period. Other than significantly higher fasting glucose concentrations for high vs. moderate protein intakes with a low-fat diet (difference ± SE: 0.47 ± 0.14 mmol/L; P = 0.001), there were no significant effects of dietary protein or SF on glucose metabolism, plasma insulin, or concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Changes in plasma BCAAs across all diets were negatively correlated with changes in the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (ρ = -0.18, P = 0.03) and positively correlated with changes in the acute insulin response to glucose (ρ = 0.15, P = 0.05). These findings suggest that short-term intake of BCAAs can influence insulin dynamics. However, in this group of overweight and obese individuals, neither high protein nor SF intake affected insulin sensitivity or plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00508937. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  10. Perinatal protein malnutrition affects mitochondrial function in adult and results in a resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Jousse

    Full Text Available Epidemiological findings indicate that transient environmental influences during perinatal life, especially nutrition, may have deleterious heritable health effects lasting for the entire life. Indeed, the fetal organism develops specific adaptations that permanently change its physiology/metabolism and that persist even in the absence of the stimulus that initiated them. This process is termed "nutritional programming". We previously demonstrated that mothers fed a Low-Protein-Diet (LPD during gestation and lactation give birth to F1-LPD animals presenting metabolic consequences that are different from those observed when the nutritional stress is applied during gestation only. Compared to control mice, adult F1-LPD animals have a lower body weight and exhibit a higher food intake suggesting that maternal protein under-nutrition during gestation and lactation affects the energy metabolism of F1-LPD offspring. In this study, we investigated the origin of this apparent energy wasting process in F1-LPD and demonstrated that minimal energy expenditure is increased, due to both an increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and an increased mitochondrial density in White Adipose Tissue. Importantly, F1-LPD mice are protected against high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Clearly, different paradigms of exposure to malnutrition may be associated with differences in energy expenditure, food intake, weight and different susceptibilities to various symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome. Taken together these results demonstrate that intra-uterine environment is a major contributor to the future of individuals and disturbance at a critical period of development may compromise their health. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms may give access to useful knowledge regarding the onset of metabolic diseases.

  11. Feasibility and efficacy of an isocaloric high-protein vs. standard diet on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luger, M; Holstein, B; Schindler, K

    2013-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a high-protein diet compared with a standard diet aiming for weight maintenance in insulin treated type-2 diabetic patients on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks.......To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a high-protein diet compared with a standard diet aiming for weight maintenance in insulin treated type-2 diabetic patients on insulin requirement, body weight and metabolic parameters over 12 weeks....

  12. Effects of lipid-lowering pharmaceutical clofibrate on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellal Val.) fed with the high non-protein energy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoze; Liang, Xu-Fang; Fang, Liu; Yuan, Xiaochen; Zhou, Yi; He, Shan; Shen, Dan

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of clofibrate treatment on blood lipids, hepatic enzyme activities and relative expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of grass carp fed with high non-protein energy diets. For that purpose, five diets were formulated: a commercial-like diet (Control), a high-carbohydrate diet (HC), a high-fat diet (HF) and two diets identical to the HC and HF diets, but supplemented with 1.25 g kg(-1) clofibrate (HC + Clo and HF + Clo diets). Grass carp fed the HC and HF diet exhibited increases in blood lipids and body fat compared with the control group after 4 weeks. In the clofibrate treatment groups, there was a marked decrease in triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations of plasma, and total lipids of the whole body, mesentery adipose tissue and liver tissue. Fish treated with clofibrate exhibited increased hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase activity, but did not show any changes in carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I activity compared with HC and HF diets without clofibrate. Clofibrate treatment had no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and CPT I mRNA expression. However, there was an increase in lipoprotein lipase expression in the clofibrate-treated groups. In addition, the relative mRNA expression levels of hepatic de novo lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase and acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase) were significantly higher in the fish fed the HC diet than those of other groups, and clofibrate inhibited this increase. These results suggest that clofibrate has the hypolipidaemic effects and affects lipid metabolism in grass carp.

  13. Stearic acid supplementation in high protein to carbohydrate (P:C) ratio diet improves physiological and mitochondrial functions of Drosophila melanogaster parkin null mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Rijan; Bustamante, S; Ballard, J William O

    2017-12-11

    Optimizing dietary macronutrients benefits the prevention and management of many human diseases but there is conflicting dietary advice for Parkinson's disease (PD), and no single strategy is universally recommended. Recently, it was shown that dietary stearic acid (C18:0) improves survival and mitochondrial functions in the parkin null Drosophila model of PD. Here we incorporate stearic acid into high protein and high carbohydrate diets and study survival, climbing ability, mitochondrial membrane potential, respiration, basal reactive oxygen species and conduct lipidomics assays. We observed parkin null flies showed improvement in all assays tested when stearic acid was added to high protein but not to the high carbohydrate diet. When lipid proportion was examined we observed higher levels in flies fed the high protein diet with stearic acid and the high carbohydrate diet. Unexpectedly, free levels of fatty acids exhibited opposite trend. Combined, these data suggest that dietary Protein: Carbohydrate ratio and stearic acid influences levels of bound fatty acids. The mechanisms that influence free and bound fatty-acid levels remain to be explored, but one possible explanation is that breakdown products can bind to membranes and improve the mitochondrial functions of parkin null flies. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among Overweight and Obese Women: A Parallel Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the effects of high protein (HP diets on cardiovascular (CVD risk factors have reported contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effects of an HP diet on CVD risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP among overweight and obese women. In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 60 overweight and obese women, aged 20–65, into an HP or energy-restricted control diet for three months (protein, carbohydrate, and fat: 25%, 45%, and 30% versus 15%, 55%, and 30%, resp.. Total protein was divided between animal and plant sources in a 1 : 1 ratio, and animal sources were distributed equally between meats and dairy products. Fasting blood samples, hs-CRP, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed using standard guidelines. Percent change was significantly different between the two diet groups for weight (standard protein (SP: −3.90 ± 0.26 versus HP: −6.10 ± 0.34%; , resp. and waist circumference (SP: −3.03 ± 0.21 versus HP: −5.06 ± 0.28%; , resp.. Percent change of fasting blood glucose (FBG substantially decreased in the control group compared to the HP group (−9.13 ± 0.67 versus −4.93 ± 1.4%; P = 0.01, resp.. Total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP decreased both in the HP and in the control diet groups (P = 0.06, P = 0.07, and P = 0.09, resp.; however, the results were marginally significant. Serum levels of hs-CRP were reduced both in the control (−0.08 ± 0.11%, P = 0.06 and in the high protein groups (−0.04 ± 0.09%, P = 0.06. The energy-restricted HP diet resulted in more beneficial effects on weight loss and reduction of waist circumference. CVD risk factors may improve with HP diets among overweight and obese women. When using isoenergetic weight loss diets, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, and SBP were marginally significantly reduced, independent of dietary protein content

  15. High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Julie; Roberts, Susan B; Dallal, Gerard; Saltzman, Edward

    2002-07-01

    Recommendations for increased consumption of protein are among the most common approaches of popular or fad diets. This review summarizes the effects of dietary protein on satiety, energy intake, thermogenesis, and weight loss, as well as its effect on a variety of health outcomes in adults. In short-term studies, dietary protein modulates energy intake via the sensation of satiety and increases total energy expenditure by increasing the thermic effect of feeding. Whereas these effects did not contribute to weight and fat loss in those studies in which energy intake was fixed, one ad libitum study does suggest that a high-protein diet results in a greater decrease in energy intake, and therefore greater weight and fat loss. In terms of safety, there is little long-term information on the health effects of high-protein diets. From the available data, however, it is evident that the consumption of protein greater than two to three times the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance contributes to urinary calcium loss and may, in the long term, predispose to bone loss. Caution with these diets is recommended in those individuals who may be predisposed to nephrolithiasis or kidney disease, and particularly in those with diabetes mellitus.

  16. Adaptation to a high-protein diet progressively increases the postprandial accumulation of carbon skeletons from dietary amino acids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Khodorova, Nadezda; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether oxidative pathways adapt to the overproduction of carbon skeletons resulting from the progressive activation of amino acid (AA) deamination and ureagenesis under a high-protein (HP) diet. Ninety-four male Wistar rats, of which 54 were implanted with a permanent jugular catheter, were fed a normal protein diet for 1 wk and were then switched to an HP diet for 1, 3, 6, or 14 days. On the experimental day, they were given their meal containing a mixture of 20 U-[15N]-[13C] AA, whose metabolic fate was followed for 4 h. Gastric emptying tended to be slower during the first 3 days of adaptation. 15N excretion in urine increased progressively during the first 6 days, reaching 29% of ingested protein. 13CO2 excretion was maximal, as early as the first day, and represented only 16% of the ingested proteins. Consequently, the amount of carbon skeletons remaining in the metabolic pools 4 h after the meal ingestion progressively increased to 42% of the deaminated dietary AA after 6 days of HP diet. In contrast, 13C enrichment of plasma glucose tended to increase from 1 to 14 days of the HP diet. We conclude that there is no oxidative adaptation in the early postprandial period to an excess of carbon skeletons resulting from AA deamination in HP diets. This leads to an increase in the postprandial accumulation of carbon skeletons throughout the adaptation to an HP diet, which can contribute to the sustainable satiating effect of this diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. High fat diet reduces neuroprotection of isoflurane post-treatment: role of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein-Akt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hai; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective High fat diet (HFD) contributes to the increased prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia in young adults, a possible cause for their recent increase in stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment provides neuroprotection. We determined whether isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in HFD-fed mice. Design and Methods Six-week old CD-1 male mice were fed HFD or regular diet (RD) for 5 or 10 weeks. Their hippocampal slices (400 ?m) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)....

  18. Long-Term Intake of a High-Protein Diet Affects Body Phenotype, Metabolism, and Plasma Hormones in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Luong, Leon; Parsons, William F; Oh, Suwan; Sanford, Daniel; Gabalski, Arielle; Lighton, John Rb; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2017-12-01

    Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake.Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points.Results: HPD mice had significantly lower body weight (in means ± SEMs; 25.73 ± 1.49 compared with 32.5 ± 1.31 g; P = 0.003) and fat mass (9.55% ± 1.24% compared with 15.78% ± 2.07%; P = 0.05) during the first 6 wk compared with CD mice, and higher lean mass throughout the study starting at week 2 (85.45% ± 2.25% compared with 75.29% ± 1.90%; P = 0.0001). Energy intake, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were significantly lower in HPD compared with CD mice as shown by cumulative energy intake and eating rate. Water vapor was significantly higher in HPD mice during both dark and light phases. In HPD mice, concentrations of leptin [feed-deprived: 41.31 ± 11.60 compared with 3041 ± 683 pg/mL (P = 0.0004); postprandial: 112.5 ± 102.0 compared with 8273 ± 1415 pg/mL (P weight and fat mass loss, but throughout the study preserved body lean mass and significantly reduced energy intake and expenditure as well as leptin and GLP-1 concentrations while elevating postprandial glucagon concentrations. This study suggests that long-term use of HPDs may be an effective strategy to decrease energy intake and expenditure and to maintain body lean mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  20. Dietary restriction in moderately obese rats improves body size and glucose handling without the renal and hepatic alterations observed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devassy, Jessay G; Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Ibrahim, Naser H M; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing worldwide, and high-protein (HP) diets are widely used for weight loss. However, the overall safety of HP diets is not well established in obese individuals, who make up a significant proportion of the population. To evaluate the health effects of an HP diet in obesity, obesity-prone (OP) Sprague-Dawley rats were given high-fat diets for 12 weeks to induce obesity. Following this, for 8 more weeks, these rats were given either a normal-protein (NP) (15% of energy) or an HP (35% of energy) diet ad libitum, or the NP diet at a restricted level to achieve body weights similar to those of the HP group (pair-weighted (PW) group). Obesity-resistant (OR) control rats were also given the NP diet throughout the feeding period. The HP-OP group had higher food intake but lower body weight, improved glucose handling, and lowered serum haptoglobin compared with the NP-OP group. These benefits were also observed in PW-OP rats. In addition, PW-OP rats had less fat accumulation when compared with NP-OP rats, and an improved Lee index, lower liver size, and lower serum alanine aminotransferase when compared with HP-OP rats. On the other hand, kidney size, proteinuria, and serum homocysteine were increased in HP-OP rats compared with NP-OP rats, whereas PW-OP rats did not experience these effects. These results indicate that in obese rats, more benefits are obtained via dietary restriction with an NP diet and without some of the potentially detrimental effects of an HP diet.

  1. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A deficiency improves survival of mice on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Bale, Laurie K; Marler, Ronald J

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is on the rise in westernized countries, and visceral obesity in particular is associated with enhanced risk of developing metabolic disease and accelerated aging. Various dietary restriction regimens have been shown to extend healthy lifespan in a variety of species. However, identification of alternative approaches that could be more acceptable to humans is actively being pursued. We have shown previously that mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have an extended healthy lifespan on a regular chow diet. In this study, we determined the lifespan of PAPP-A knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates fed a high fat diet (HFD) starting at 12 months of age. PAPP-A KO and WT mice had equivalent weight gain as measured over 25 weeks on HFD. However, PAPP-A KO mice on HFD had a significant increase in lifespan (P=0.018). Body composition and tissue pathology were assessed in a separate cohort of mice after 30 weeks on HFD. Percent body fat was equivalent in the two groups. However, there was a decrease in visceral fat depot weights and an increase in serum adiponectin levels in PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice. Major pathological differences were seen in kidney, heart and testes, with PAPP-A KO mice having little, if any, evidence of inflammation, mineralization, or degeneration in these tissues compared to WT mice. Thus, PAPP-A is a novel drug target with the potential to promote healthy longevity without a need for dietary restriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone can be adversely affected by obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. The objective of this study was to determine whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects found in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung...

  3. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; Schothorst, van Evert M.; Oliver, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular

  4. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  5. Post-weaning selenium and folate supplementation affects gene and protein expression and global DNA methylation in mice fed high-fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of high-fat diets has negative impacts on health and well-being, some of which may be epigenetically regulated. Selenium and folate are two compounds which influence epigenetic mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that post-weaning supplementation with adequate levels of selenium and folate in offspring of female mice fed a high-fat, low selenium and folate diet during gestation and lactation will lead to epigenetic changes of potential importance for long-term health. Methods Female offspring of mothers fed the experimental diet were either maintained on this diet (HF-low-low), or weaned onto a high-fat diet with sufficient levels of selenium and folate (HF-low-suf), for 8 weeks. Gene and protein expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications were measured in colon and liver of female offspring. Results Adequate levels of selenium and folate post-weaning affected gene expression in colon and liver of offspring, including decreasing Slc2a4 gene expression. Protein expression was only altered in the liver. There was no effect of adequate levels of selenium and folate on global histone modifications in the liver. Global liver DNA methylation was decreased in mice switched to adequate levels of selenium and folate, but there was no effect on methylation of specific CpG sites within the Slc2a4 gene in liver. Conclusions Post-weaning supplementation with adequate levels of selenium and folate in female offspring of mice fed high-fat diets inadequate in selenium and folate during gestation and lactation can alter global DNA methylation in liver. This may be one factor through which the negative effects of a poor diet during early life can be ameliorated. Further research is required to establish what role epigenetic changes play in mediating observed changes in gene and protein expression, and the relevance of these changes to health. PMID:23497688

  6. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampeebhorn Boonloh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF diet causes insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MS. Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet on brain PER2 and BMAL1 protein expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; la Fleur, Susanne E; Mendoza, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian rhythmic activity. These brain oscillators are functionally coupled to coordinate the daily rhythm of food intake. In rats, a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet leads to a rapid increase of calorie intake and body weight gain. Interestingly, under a fcHFHS condition, rats ingest a similar amount of sugar during day time (rest phase) as during night time (active phase), but keep the rhythmic intake of regular chow-food. The out of phase between feeding patterns of regular (chow) and highly rewarding food (sugar) may involve alterations of brain circadian oscillators regulating feeding. Here, we report that the fcHFHS diet is a successful model to induce calorie intake, body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation in mice, extending its effectiveness as previously reported in rats. Moreover, we observed that whereas in the SCN the day-night difference in the PER2 clock protein expression was similar between chow-fed and fcHFHS-fed animals, in the LHb, this day-night difference was altered in fcHFHS-exposed animals compared to control chow mice. These findings confirm previous observations in rats showing disrupted daily patterns of feeding behavior under a fcHFHS diet exposure, and extend our insights on the effects of the diet on circadian gene expression in brain clocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Xie

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. The study aims to answer whether maternal undernutrition by protein restriction affects the ATM M1 or M2 phenotype under postnatal high fat diet in F1 offspring. Using a rat model of prenatal low protein (LP, 8% protein diet followed by a postnatal high fat energy diet (HE, 45% fat or low fat normal energy diet (NE, 10% fat for 12 weeks, we investigated the effects of these diets on adiposity, programming of the offspring ATM phenotype, and the associated inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Fat mass in newborn and 12-week old LP fed offspring was lower than that of normal protein (20%; NP fed offspring; however, the adipose tissue growth rate was higher compared to the NP fed offspring. While LP did not affect the number of CD68+ or CD206+ cells in adipose tissue of NE offspring, it attenuated the number of these cells in offspring fed HE. In offspring fed HE, LP offspring had a lower percentage of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs, whose abundancy was correlated with the size of the adipocytes. Noteworthy, similar to HE treatment, LP increased gene expression of IL-6 within ATMs. Two-way ANOVA showed an interaction of prenatal LP and postnatal HE on IL-6 and IL-1β transcription. Overall, both LP and HE diets impact ATM phenotype by affecting the ratio of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs and the expression of IL-6.

  10. Long-term intake of a high protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben

    2017-04-19

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid–base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid–base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences.

  11. Emodin protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity via regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2012-06-01

    Emodin is an active herbal component traditionally used in China for treating a variety of diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emodin on the reducing lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. After being fed a high-fat diet for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with emodin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg/day) or pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day), once daily for eight weeks. Changes in body weight, feeding pattern, serum lipids, coronary artery risk index, and atherogenic index were investigated. Subcutaneous white adipose tissues were isolated for pathology histology and Western blot analyses. Changes of triglyceride accumulation in differentiated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes were also investigated. Emodin exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of triglyceride in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Emodin (80 mg/kg/day) displayed similar characteristics to pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day) in reducing body weight gain and plasma lipid levels as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin also caused dose related reductions in epididymal white adipose tissue sizes in high-fat diet-fed rats. Emodin and pioglitazone enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, upregulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and downregulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the epididymal white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats. Our findings suggest that emodin could attenuate lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue through AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Pro-HEART - a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of a high protein diet targeting obese individuals with heart failure: rationale, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Hamilton, Michele; Lombardo, Dawn; Cooper, Dan M; Galassetti, Pietro R; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2013-11-01

    There is ample research to support the potential benefits of a high protein diet on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese, diabetic subjects. However, nutritional management of overweight/obese individuals with heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS) is poorly understood and few clinical guidelines related to nutritional approaches exist for this subgroup. This article describes the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of study participants enrolled in Pro-HEART, a randomized clinical trial to determine the short term and long term effects of a high protein diet (30% protein [~110 g/day], 40% carbohydrates [150 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) versus a standard protein diet (15% protein [~55 g/day], 55% carbohydrates [~200 g/day], 30% fat [~50 g/day]) on body weight and adiposity, cardiac structure and function, functional status, lipid profile, glycemic control, and quality of life. Between August, 2009 and May, 2013, 61 individuals agreed to participate in the study; 52 (85%) - mean age 58.2 ± 9.8 years; 15.4% Blacks; 57.7% Whites; 19.2% Hispanics; 7.7% Asians; 73.1% male; weight 112.0 ± 22.6 kg - were randomized to a 3-month intensive weight management program of either a high protein or standard protein diet; data were collected at baseline, 3 months, and 15 months. This study has the potential to reveal significant details about the role of macronutrients in weight management of overweight/obese individuals with HF and DM or MS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  14. Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia differentially affects glucose and protein metabolism: a high-throughput metabolomic approach in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, U; de la Garza, A L; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2013-09-01

    Metabolomics is a high-throughput tool that quantifies and identifies the complete set of biofluid metabolites. This "omics" science is playing an increasing role in understanding the mechanisms involved in disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether a nontargeted metabolomic approach could be applied to investigate metabolic differences between obese rats fed a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 9 weeks and control diet-fed rats. Animals fed with the HFS diet became obese, hyperleptinemic, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and resistant to insulin. Serum samples of overnight-fasted animals were analyzed by (1)H NMR technique, and 49 metabolites were identified and quantified. The biochemical changes observed suggest that major metabolic processes like carbohydrate metabolism, β-oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, Kennedy pathway, and folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism were altered in obese rats. The circulating levels of most amino acids were lower in obese animals. Serum levels of docosahexaenoic acid, linoleic acid, unsaturated n-6 fatty acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids also decreased in HFS-fed rats. The circulating levels of urea, six water-soluble metabolites (creatine, creatinine, choline, acetyl carnitine, formate, and allantoin), and two lipid compounds (phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelin) were also significantly reduced by the HFS diet intake. This study offers further insight of the possible mechanisms implicated in the development of diet-induced obesity. It suggests that the HFS diet-induced hyperinsulinemia is responsible for the decrease in the circulating levels of urea, creatinine, and many amino acids, despite an increase in serum glucose levels.

  15. Effects of a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate Diet versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Role of a Genetic Variation in the rs9939609 FTO Gene Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Urdiales, Silvia; Romero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The common polymorphism rs9939609 of the fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been linked to obesity. Our aim was to investigate its role in weight loss after the administration of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet compared to a standard hypocaloric diet (1,000 kcal/day). During 9 months, 195 patients were randomly allocated to a high-protein hypocaloric diet (HP diet) and a standard hypocaloric diet (S diet). With the HP diet, BMI (-1.9 ± 1.2 vs. -2.10 ± 1.8; p < 0.05), weight (-6.5 ± 2.1 vs. -10.1 ± 4.1 kg; p < 0.05), fat mass (-3.9 ± 3.2 vs. -6.0 ± 3.4 kg; p < 0.05) and waist circumference (-5.7 ± 5.0 vs. -9.9 ± 5.5 cm; p < 0.05) decreased in both genotype groups (TT vs. AT + AA). With the S diet, BMI (-0.9 ± 1.1 vs. -1.8 ± 1.2; p < 0.05), weight (-3.2 ± 3.0 vs. -9.1 ± 3.6 kg; p < 0.05), fat mass (-3.0 ± 3.1 vs. -5.2 ± 3.1 kg; p < 0.05) and waist circumference (-3.1 ± 4.0 vs. -8.1 ± 4.9 cm; p < 0.05) decreased in both genotype groups. With the HP diet and in both genotype groups, glucose, insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) decreased. With the S diet, total cholesterol and LDL decreased. Weight loss was better in A allele carriers than noncarriers, and metabolic improvement was better with the HP diet. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to high-protein diets during energy deficit in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jay J; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Young, Andrew J; Combs, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    Although consuming dietary protein above current recommendations during energy deficit (ED) preserves lean body mass, concerns have been raised regarding the effects of high-protein diets on bone health. The objective was to determine whether calcium homeostasis and bone turnover are affected by high-protein diets during weight maintenance (WM) and ED. In a randomized, parallel-design, controlled trial of 32 men and 7 women, volunteers were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 [Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)], 1.6 (2 × RDA), or 2.4 (3 × RDA) g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for 31 d. Ten days of WM preceded 21 d of ED, during which total daily ED was 40%, achieved by reduced dietary energy intake (∼30%) and increased physical activity (∼10%). The macronutrient composition (protein g · kg(-1) · d(-1) and % fat) was held constant from WM to ED. Calcium absorption (ratio of (44)Ca to (42)Ca) and circulating indexes of bone turnover were determined at day 8 (WM) and day 29 (ED). Regardless of energy state, mean (±SEM) urinary pH was lower (P 0.05) or the amount of calcium retained (P > 0.05). ED decreased serum insulin-like growth factor I concentrations and increased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (P 0.05). These data demonstrate that short-term consumption of high-protein diets does not disrupt calcium homeostasis and is not detrimental to skeletal integrity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01292395.

  17. The effects of a high protein diet on indices of health and body composition--a crossover trial in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Jose; Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Vargas, Leonel; Peacock, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Eight weeks of a high protein diet (>3 g/kg/day) coupled with a periodized heavy resistance training program has been shown to positively affect body composition with no deleterious effects on health. Using a randomized, crossover design, resistance-trained male subjects underwent a 16-week intervention (i.e., two 8-week periods) in which they consumed either their normal (i.e., habitual) or a higher protein diet (>3 g/kg/day). Thus, the purpose of this study was to ascertain if significantly increasing protein intake would affect clinical markers of health (i.e., lipids, kidney function, etc.) as well as performance and body composition in young males with extensive resistance training experience. Twelve healthy resistance-trained men volunteered for this study (mean ± SD: age 25.9 ± 3.7 years; height 178.0 ± 8.5 cm; years of resistance training experience 7.6 ± 3.6) with 11 subjects completing most of the assessments. In a randomized crossover trial, subjects were tested at baseline and after two 8-week treatment periods (i.e., habitual [normal] diet and high protein diet) for body composition, measures of health (i.e., blood lipids, comprehensive metabolic panel) and performance. Each subject maintained a food diary for the 16-week treatment period (i.e., 8 weeks on their normal or habitual diet and 8 weeks on a high protein diet). Each subject provided a food diary of two weekdays and one weekend day per week. In addition, subjects kept a diary of their training regimen that was used to calculate total work performed. During the normal and high protein phase of the treatment period, subjects consumed 2.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.8 g/kg/day of dietary protein, respectively. The mean protein intake over the 4-month period was 2.9 ± 0.9 g/kg/day. The high protein group consumed significantly more calories and protein (p composition or markers of health in either group. There were no side effects (i.e., blood lipids, glucose

  18. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

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    Masato Maesako

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We reported that a high fat diet (HFD promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ. On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage.

  19. High Fat Diet Enhances β-Site Cleavage of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) via Promoting β-Site APP Cleaving Enzyme 1/Adaptor Protein 2/Clathrin Complex Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Maiko; Tashiro, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Noda, Yasuha; Ueda, Karin; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Kubota, Masakazu; Okawa, Katsuya; Ihara, Masafumi; Shimohama, Shun; Uemura, Kengo; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported that a high fat diet (HFD) promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) without increasing BACE1 levels in APP transgenic mice. However, the detailed mechanism had remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that HFD promotes BACE1/Adaptor protein-2 (AP-2)/clathrin complex formation by increasing AP-2 levels in APP transgenic mice. In Swedish APP overexpressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as well as in SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of AP-2 promoted the formation of BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, increasing the level of the soluble form of APP β (sAPPβ). On the other hand, mutant D495R BACE1, which inhibits formation of this trimeric complex, was shown to decrease the level of sAPPβ. Overexpression of AP-2 promoted the internalization of BACE1 from the cell surface, thus reducing the cell surface BACE1 level. As such, we concluded that HFD may induce the formation of the BACE1/AP-2/clathrin complex, which is followed by its transport of BACE1 from the cell surface to the intracellular compartments. These events might be associated with the enhancement of β-site cleavage of APP in APP transgenic mice. Here we present evidence that HFD, by regulation of subcellular trafficking of BACE1, promotes APP cleavage.

  20. A gestational high protein diet affects the abundance of muscle transcripts related to cell cycle regulation throughout development in porcine progeny.

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    Michael Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In various animal models pregnancy diets have been shown to affect offspring phenotype. Indeed, the underlying programming of development is associated with modulations in birth weight, body composition, and continual diet-dependent modifications of offspring metabolism until adulthood, producing the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptome is permanently altered depending on maternal diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess alterations of the offspring's transcriptome due to gestational protein supply, German Landrace sows were fed isoenergetic diets containing protein levels of either 30% (high protein--HP or 12% (adequate protein--AP throughout their pregnancy. Offspring muscle tissue (M. longissimus dorsi was collected at 94 days post conception (dpc, and 1, 28, and 188 days post natum (dpn for use with Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays and subsequent statistical and Ingenuity pathway analyses. Numerous transcripts were found to have altered abundance at 94 dpc and 1 dpn; at 28 dpn no transcripts were altered, and at 188 dpn only a few transcripts showed a different abundance between diet groups. However, when assessing transcriptional changes across developmental time points, marked differences were obvious among the dietary groups. Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, short- and long-term effects were observed for mRNA expression of genes related to cell cycle regulation, energy metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, and nucleic acid metabolism. In particular, the abundance of transcripts related to cell cycle remained divergent among the groups during development. CONCLUSION: Expression analysis indicates that maternal protein supply induced programming of the offspring's genome; early postnatal compensation of the slight growth retardation obvious at birth in HP piglets resulted, as did a permanently different developmental alteration and responsiveness to the common environment of the

  1. Subcutaneous and segmental fat loss with and without supportive supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie high protein diet in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Paul H; Tai, Chih Yin; Carson, Laura R; Joy, Jordan M; Mosman, Matt M; Vogel, Roxanne M; McCann, Tyler R; Crona, Kevin P; Griffin, J Daniel; Kim, Michael P; Moon, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss benefits of multi-ingredient supplements in conjunction with a low-calorie, high-protein diet in young women are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a three-week low-calorie diet with and without supplementation on body composition. Thirty-seven recreationally-trained women (n = 37; age = 27.1 ± 4.2; height = 165.1 ± 6.4; weight = 68.5 ± 10.1; BMI = 25.1 ± 3.4) completed one of the following three-week interventions: no change in diet (CON); a high-protein, low-calorie diet supplemented with a thermogenic, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a protein gel, and a multi-vitamin (SUP); or the high-protein diet with isocaloric placebo supplements (PLA). Before and after the three-week intervention, body weight, %Fat via dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), segmental fat mass via DXA, %Fat via skinfolds, and skinfold thicknesses at seven sites were measured. SUP and PLA significantly decreased body weight (SUP: PRE, 70.47 ± 8.01 kg to POST, 67.51 ± 8.10 kg; PLA: PRE, 67.88 ± 12.28 kg vs. POST, 66.38 ± 11.94 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with a greater (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in SUP than PLA or CON. SUP and PLA significantly decreased %Fat according to DXA (SUP: PRE, 34.98 ± 7.05% to POST, 32.99 ± 6.89%; PLA: PRE, 34.22 ± 6.36% vs. POST, 32.69 ± 5.84%; p ≤ 0.05), whereas only SUP significantly decreased %Fat according to skinfolds (SUP: PRE, 27.40 ± 4.09% to POST, 24.08 ± 4.31%; p ≤ 0.05). SUP significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased thicknesses at five skinfolds (chest, waist, hip, subscapular, and tricep) compared to PLA, but not at two skinfolds (axilla and thigh). The addition of a thermogenic, CLA, protein, and a multi-vitamin to a three-week low-calorie diet improved weight loss, total fat loss and subcutaneous fat loss, compared to diet alone.

  2. Dietary protein intake and kidney disease in Western diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Components of the diet related to changes in eating habits that characterize the modern Western world are important factors in the increasingly high prevalence of chronic disease, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension and as a consequence, chronic kidney disease. The healthy diets recommended for the general population to promote longevity (such as the Mediterranean diet), are defined based on epidemiological and intervention studies and are usually characterized by a relatively higher amount of protein than the usual Western diet. Unfortunately, very few clinical studies focused on diet-based strategies of prevention of kidney disorders. Furthermore, this review will propose that the concept that protein restricted diets decrease the risk of developing kidney disease in the general population is not supported by the scientific literature. Indeed, preliminary studies showing a positive effect of relatively high protein diets on risk factors for chronic kidney disease (particularly on obesity, hypertension and diabetes) point to the need for future studies addressing diets that could prevent the increasingly high prevalence of kidney disease in the Western world. On the other hand, there is a potential role for protein restriction in patients with established kidney disease, particularly in patients with significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The exact protective action of protein restriction in patients with established renal disease needs further analysis, taking into account the more broad effects of protein restriction (lower phosphate, acidosis, uric acid) and a more current definition of malnutrition.

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 deficiency reduces insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Jan Freark de Boer

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue inflammation is considered an important contributor to insulin resistance. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 is a major downstream target of p38 MAPK and enhances inflammatory processes. In line with the role of MK2 as contributor to inflammation, MK2-/- mice are protected against inflammation in different disease models. Therefore, MK2 is considered an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. This study tested the impact of MK2-deficiency on high-fat diet (HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. After feeding MK2-/- and WT control mice a HFD (60% energy from fat for 24 weeks, body weight was not different between groups. Also, liver weight and the amount of abdominal fat remained unchanged. However, in MK2-/- mice plasma cholesterol levels were significantly increased. Surprisingly, macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue was not altered. However, adipose tissue macrophages were more skewed to the inflammatory M1 phenotype in MK2-/- mice. This differerence in macrophage polarization did however not translate in significantly altered expression levels of Mcp-1, Tnfα and Il6. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests demonstrated that MK2-/- mice had a significantly reduced glucose tolerance and increased insulin resistance. Noteworthy, the expression of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 in adipose tissue of MK2-/- mice was reduced by 55% (p<0.05 and 33% (p<0.05 on the mRNA and protein level, respectively, compared to WT mice. In conclusion, HFD-fed MK2-/- display decreased glucose tolerance and increased insulin resistance compared to WT controls. Decreased adipose tissue expression of GLUT4 might contribute to this phenotype. The data obtained in this study indicate that clinical use of MK2 inhibitors has to be evaluated with caution, taking potential metabolic adverse effects into account.

  4. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

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    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  5. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

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    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  6. Change in Proportional Protein Intake in a 10-Week Energy-Restricted Low- or High-Fat Diet, in Relation to Changes in Body Size and Metabolic Factors

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    Tanja Stocks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771 were randomised to a 600 kcal energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat% or high-fat (40-45 fat% diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2 on outcomes. Results: The low-fat group with >2 prot% increase lost 1.1 kg more weight (p = 0.03 and reduced cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l more (p = 0.003 than the high-fat group with >2 prot% decrease. These differences were 2.5-fold and 1.8-fold greater than the differences between the low-fat and high-fat groups while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet.

  7. Effect of a low-glycaemic index--low-fat--high protein diet on the atherogenic metabolic risk profile of abdominally obese men.

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    Dumesnil, J G; Turgeon, J; Tremblay, A; Poirier, P; Gilbert, M; Gagnon, L; St-Pierre, S; Garneau, C; Lemieux, I; Pascot, A; Bergeron, J; Després, J P

    2001-11-01

    It has been suggested that the current dietary recommendations (low-fat-high-carbohydrate diet) may promote the intake of sugar and highly refined starches which could have adverse effects on the metabolic risk profile. We have investigated the short-term (6-d) nutritional and metabolic effects of an ad libitum low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high-protein diet (prepared according to the Montignac method) compared with the American Heart Association (AHA) phase I diet consumed ad libitum as well as with a pair-fed session consisting of the same daily energy intake as the former but with the same macronutrient composition as the AHA phase I diet. Twelve overweight men (BMI 33.0 (sd 3.5) kg/m2) without other diseases were involved in three experimental conditions with a minimal washout period of 2 weeks separating each intervention. By protocol design, the first two conditions were administered randomly whereas the pair-fed session had to be administered last. During the ad libitum version of the AHA diet, subjects consumed 11695.0 (sd 1163.0) kJ/d and this diet induced a 28 % increase in plasma triacylglycerol levels (1.77 (sd 0.79) v. 2.27 (sd 0.92) mmol/l, P<0.05) and a 10 % reduction in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations (0.92 (sd 0.16) v. 0.83 (sd 0.09) mmol/l, P<0.01) which contributed to a significant increase in cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P<0.05), this lipid index being commonly used to assess the risk of coronary heart disease. In contrast, the low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high-protein diet consumed ad libitum resulted in a spontaneous 25 % decrease (P<0.001) in total energy intake which averaged 8815.0 (sd 738.0) kJ/d. As opposed to the AHA diet, the low-glycaemic index-low-fat-high-protein diet produced a substantial decrease (-35 %) in plasma triacylglycerol levels (2.00 (sd 0.83) v. 1.31 (sd 0.38) mmol/l, P<0.0005), a significant increase (+1.6 %) in LDL peak particle diameter (251 (sd 5) v. 255 (sd 5) A, P<0.02) and marked decreases in plasma

  8. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

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    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P < 0.05) in kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P < 0.05) in kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P < 0.05) in kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  9. Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Cao, Jay J; Margolis, Lee M; Sauter, Edward R; Whigham, Leah D; McClung, James P; Rood, Jennifer C; Carbone, John W; Combs, Gerald F; Young, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of varying levels of dietary protein on body composition and muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit (ED). A randomized controlled trial of 39 adults assigned the subjects diets providing protein at 0.8 (recommended dietary allowance; RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g kg(-1) d(-1) for 31 d. A 10-d weight-maintenance (WM) period was followed by a 21 d, 40% ED. Body composition and postabsorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis were assessed during WM (d 9-10) and ED (d 30-31). Volunteers lost (Pregardless of dietary protein. The proportion of weight loss due to reductions in fat-free mass was lower (P0.05) from WM for 2×-RDA and 3×-RDA, but was lower during ED than WM for those consuming RDA levels of protein (energy × protein interaction, P<0.05). To assess muscle protein metabolic responses to varied protein intakes during ED, RDA served as the study control. In summary, we determined that consuming dietary protein at levels exceeding the RDA may protect fat-free mass during short-term weight loss.

  10. Supplemental epilactose prevents metabolic disorders through uncoupling protein-1 induction in the skeletal muscle of mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Saburi, Wataru; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is one of the major health problems throughout the world. The present study investigated the preventive effect of epilactose--a rare non-digestible disaccharide--on obesity and metabolic disorders in mice fed high-fat (HF) diets. Feeding with HF diets increased body weight gain, fat pad weight and adipocyte size in mice (Pmuscle (P=0·04) and to 1·3-fold in the brown adipose tissue (P=0·02) in mice fed HF diets. Feeding HF diets induced pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue, as indicated by the increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, TNF-α and F4/80, and these increases were attenuated by supplemental epilactose. In differentiated myogenic-like C2C12 cells, propionic acid, but not acetic or n-butyric acids, directly enhanced UCP-1 expression by approximately 2-fold (Pskeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue can enhance whole-body energy expenditure, leading to effective prevention of obesity and metabolic disorders in mice fed HF diets. It is suggested that propionic acid--a bacterial metabolite--acts as a mediator to induce UCP-1 expression in skeletal muscles.

  11. The Effect of a Diet Moderately High in Protein and Fiber on Insulin Sensitivity Measured Using the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST

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    Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that weight loss improves insulin sensitivity but few studies have examined the effect of macronutrient composition independently of weight loss on direct measures of insulin sensitivity. We randomised 89 overweight or obese women to either a standard diet (StdD, that was intended to be low in fat and relatively high in carbohydrate (n = 42 or to a relatively high protein (up to 30% of energy, relatively high fibre (>30 g/day diet (HPHFib (n = 47 for 10 weeks. Advice regarding strict adherence to energy intake goals was not given. Insulin sensitivity and secretion was assessed by a novel method—the Dynamic Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion Test (DISST. Although there were significant improvements in body composition and most cardiometabolic risk factors on HPHFib, insulin sensitivity was reduced by 19.3% (95% CI: 31.8%, 4.5%; p = 0.013 in comparison with StdD. We conclude that the reduction in insulin sensitivity after a diet relatively high in both protein and fibre, despite cardiometabolic improvements, suggests insulin sensitivity may reflect metabolic adaptations to dietary composition for maintenance of glucose homeostasis, rather than impaired metabolism.

  12. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  13. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  14. Contrarily to whey and high protein diets, dietary free leucine supplementation cannot reverse the lack of recovery of muscle mass after prolonged immobilization during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Hugues; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Combaret, Lydie; Rémond, Didier; Dardevet, Dominique

    2012-04-15

    During ageing, immobilization periods increase and are partially responsible of sarcopaenia by inducing a muscle atrophy which is hardly recovered from. Immobilization-induced atrophy is due to an increase of muscle apoptotic and proteolytic processes and decreased protein synthesis. Moreover, previous data suggested that the lack of muscle mass recovery might be due to a defect in protein synthesis response during rehabilitation. This study was conducted to explore protein synthesis during reloading and leucine supplementation effect as a nutritional strategy for muscle recovery. Old rats (22–24 months old) were subjected to unilateral hindlimb casting for 8 days (I8) and allowed to recover for 10–40 days (R10–R40). They were fed a casein (±leucine) diet during the recovery. Immobilized gastrocnemius muscles atrophied by 20%, and did not recover even at R40. Amount of polyubiquitinated conjugates and chymotrypsin- and trypsin-like activities of the 26S proteasome increased. These changes paralleled an ‘anabolic resistance' of the protein synthesis at the postprandial state (decrease of protein synthesis, P-S6 and P-4E-BP1). During the recovery, proteasome activities remained elevated until R10 before complete normalization and protein synthesis was slightly increased. With free leucine supplementation during recovery, if proteasome activities were normalized earlier and protein synthesis was higher during the whole recovery, it nevertheless failed in muscle mass gain. This discrepancy could be due to a ‘desynchronization' between the leucine signal and the availability of amino acids coming from casein digestion. Thus, when supplemented with leucine-rich proteins (i.e. whey) and high protein diets, animals partially recovered the muscle mass loss.

  15. Comparison of high vs. normal/low protein diets on renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Schwingshackl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It was the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of high protein (HP versus normal/low protein (LP/NP diets on parameters of renal function in subjects without chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Queries of literature were performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Trial Register until 27th February 2014. Study specific weighted mean differences (MD were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.1. FINDINGS: 30 studies including 2160 subjects met the objectives and were included in the meta-analyses. HP regimens resulted in a significantly more pronounced increase in glomerular filtration rate [MD: 7.18 ml/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI 4.45 to 9.91, p<0.001], serum urea [MD: 1.75 mmol/l, 95% CI 1.13 to 237, p<0.001], and urinary calcium excretion [MD: 25.43 mg/24h, 95% CI 13.62 to 37.24, p<0.001] when compared to the respective LP/NP protocol. CONCLUSION: HP diets were associated with increased GFR, serum urea, urinary calcium excretion, and serum concentrations of uric acid. In the light of the high risk of kidney disease among obese, weight reduction programs recommending HP diets especially from animal sources should be handled with caution.

  16. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  17. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  18. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals.

  19. Deteriorated glucose metabolism with a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in db mice, an animal model of type 2 diabetes, might be caused by insufficient insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Emi; Pulong, Wijang Pralampita; Marchianti, Ancah Caesarina Novi; Nakakuma, Miwa; Abe, Masaharu; Ushikai, Miharu; Horiuchi, Masahisa

    2017-02-01

    We previously showed the deleterious effects of increased dietary protein on renal manifestations and glucose metabolism in leptin receptor-deficient (db) mice. Here, we further examined its effects on glucose metabolism, including urinary C-peptide. We also orally administered mixtures corresponding to low- or high-protein diets to diabetic mice. In diet experiments, under pair-feeding (equivalent energy and fat) conditions using a metabolic cage, mice were fed diets with different protein content (L diet: 12 % protein, 71 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat; H diet: 24 % protein, 59 % carbohydrate, 17 % fat) for 15 days. In oral administration experiments, the respective mixtures (L mixture: 12 % proline, 71 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid; H mixture: 24 % proline, 59 % maltose or starch, 17 % linoleic acid) were supplied to mice. Biochemical parameters related to glucose metabolism were measured. The db-H diet mice showed significantly higher water intake, urinary volume, and glucose levels than db-L diet mice but similar levels of excreted urinary C-peptide. In contrast, control-H diet mice showed significantly higher C-peptide excretion than control-L diet mice. Both types of mice fed H diet excreted high levels of urinary albumin. When maltose mixtures were administered, db-L mixture mice showed significantly higher blood glucose after 30 min than db-H mixture mice. However, db mice administered starch-H mixture showed significantly higher blood glucose 120-300 min post-administration than db-L mixture mice, although both groups exhibited similar insulin levels. High-protein, low-carbohydrate diets deteriorated diabetic conditions and were associated with insufficient insulin secretion in db mice. Our findings may have implications for dietary management of diabetic symptoms in human patients.

  20. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    -month intervention period.Results:During the LCD period subjects lost 11.2 (10.8, 12.0) kg (mean (95% CI)). Average weight regain over the 12-month intervention period was 3.9 (95% CI 3.0 to 4.8) kg. Subjects on the HP diets regained less weight than subjects on the LP diets. The difference in weight......Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight...

  1. A high-protein diet during hospitalization is associated with an accelerated decrease in soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in acutely ill elderly medical patients with SIRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavenier, Juliette; Haupt, Thomas Huneck; Andersen, Aino L

    2017-01-01

    Acute illness and hospitalization in elderly individuals are often accompanied by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and malnutrition, both associated with wasting and mortality. Nutritional support and resistance training were shown to increase muscle anabolism and reduce...... inflammation in healthy elderly. We hypothesized that nutritional support and resistance training would accelerate the resolution of inflammation in hospitalized elderly patients with SIRS. Acutely admitted patients aged >65 years with SIRS were randomized to an intervention consisting of a high-protein diet...... accelerate recovery in acutely ill elderly medical patients....

  2. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Jose; Peacock, Corey A; Ellerbroek, Anya; Fromhoff, Brandon; Silver, Tobin

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of dietary protein is important for resistance-trained individuals. It has been posited that intakes of 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/day are needed for physically active individuals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a very high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained men and women. Thirty healthy resistance-trained individuals participated in this study (mean ± SD; age: 24.1 ± 5.6 yr; height: 171.4 ± 8.8 cm; weight: 73.3 ± 11.5 kg). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Control (CON) or high protein (HP). The CON group was instructed to maintain the same training and dietary habits over the course of the 8 week study. The HP group was instructed to consume 4.4 grams of protein per kg body weight daily. They were also instructed to maintain the same training and dietary habits (e.g. maintain the same fat and carbohydrate intake). Body composition (Bod Pod®), training volume (i.e. volume load), and food intake were determined at baseline and over the 8 week treatment period. The HP group consumed significantly more protein and calories pre vs post (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HP group consumed significantly more protein and calories than the CON (p < 0.05). The HP group consumed on average 307 ± 69 grams of protein compared to 138 ± 42 in the CON. When expressed per unit body weight, the HP group consumed 4.4 ± 0.8 g/kg/d of protein versus 1.8 ± 0.4 g/kg/d in the CON. There were no changes in training volume for either group. Moreover, there were no significant changes over time or between groups for body weight, fat mass, fat free mass, or percent body fat. Consuming 5.5 times the recommended daily allowance of protein has no effect on body composition in resistance-trained individuals who otherwise maintain the same training regimen. This is the first interventional study to demonstrate that consuming a hypercaloric high protein diet does not result in an

  3. Chenodeoxycholic acid attenuates high-fat diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia via the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 and proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaosong; Yan, Liu; Guo, Zhihui; Chen, Ying; Li, Ming; Huang, Chushan; Chen, Zhaohong; Meng, Xiyong

    2017-12-01

    G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) serves a key function in regulating glycometabolism. TGR5 is highly expressed in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and downregulates adenosine triphosphate synthesis via the bile acid-TGR5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-2-iodothyronine deiodinase (D2)-triiodothyronine-uncoupling protein pathway, thus regulating energy homeostasis and reducing body weight. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), the primary bile acid, is a natural ligand of TGR5. The present study aimed to characterize the ability of CDCA to reduce high-fat diet-induced obesity and improve glucose tolerance. A mouse model of diet-induced obesity was constructed. The results demonstrated that a high-fat diet significantly increased the weight of mice after 10 weeks (Pfat diet group treated with CDCA and the group fed a normal diet. Furthermore, CDCA treatment significantly increased glucose tolerance (Pfat diet alone. Staining of the liver with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O revealed that the CDCA-treated group exhibited significantly lower fat accumulation in BAT and WAT compared with mice fed a high-fat diet alone (Pfat diet-induced obesity. In addition, CDCA inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited ligand-stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transcriptional activity. These results suggest that CDCA may prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia, and that these beneficial effects are mediated via the activation of TGR5 and inhibition of PPARγ transcriptional activity.

  4. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat, but also low in protein contents to be clearly ketogenic. Independent of the macronutrient composition, LC-HFD-induced weight loss is not due to increased EE and LA.

  5. Dieta rica em proteína na redução do peso corporal High-protein diet for body weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Graça Pedrosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A proporção ideal dos macronutrientes em dietas de emagrecimento é atualmente bastante discutida. Existem evidências de que dietas com maior proporção de proteína aumentam a perda de peso e de gordura corporal e diminuem a perda de massa corporal magra durante o emagrecimento. Todavia, os mecanismos responsáveis por estes efeitos não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Além disso, existem poucas conclusões a respeito dos possíveis efeitos colaterais dessas dietas na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio. Assim, este artigo objetiva trazer informações atuais sobre os efeitos de dietas ricas em proteína na perda de peso e na composição corporal e dos mecanismos envolvidos, bem como seus efeitos na função renal e no estado nutricional relativo ao cálcio.The ideal proportion of macronutrients in weight loss diets is currently under debate. There are evidences indicating that a higher proportion of protein during weight loss diets enhances the loss of body weight and fat mass, and reduces the loss of lean body mass. Nevertheless, the responsible mechanisms for these effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies that evaluated the possible side effects of these diets on the renal function and on the nutritional state of calcium have shown inconclusive results. Therefore, this article has the objective to convey recent information about the effects of high-protein diets in the regulation of the body weight and body composition, besides its involved mechanisms, and its effects on the renal function and on the calcium nutritional status.

  6. A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet alters insulin sensitivity and expression of insulin signalling and lipid metabolism genes and proteins in male rat offspring: effect of folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Candace E; Foster, Jerome E; Ramdath, D Dan

    2017-10-01

    A maternal high-fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diet alters offspring glucose and lipid homoeostasis through unknown mechanisms and may be modulated by folic acid. We investigated the effect of a maternal HFS diet on glucose homoeostasis, expression of genes and proteins associated with insulin signalling and lipid metabolism and the effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation (HFS/F) in male rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly fed control (CON), HFS or HFS/F diets. Offspring were weaned on CON; at postnatal day 70, fasting plasma insulin and glucose and liver and skeletal muscle gene and protein expression were measured. Treatment effects were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Maternal HFS diet induced higher fasting glucose in offspring v. HFS/F (P=0·027) and down-regulation (Pinsulin resistance v. CON (P=0·030) and HFS/F was associated with higher insulin (P=0·016) and lower glucose (P=0·025). Maternal HFS diet alters offspring insulin sensitivity and de novo hepatic lipogenesis via altered gene and protein expression, which appears to be potentiated by folate supplementation.

  7. Differential expression of liver proteins between obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats in response to a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Choi, Jung-Won; Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Tae Seok; Choi, Duk Kwon; Yun, Jong Won

    2011-08-01

    Rodents respond to a chronic high-fat diet (HFD) in two ways: some readily become obese (obesity prone, OP) and others do not (obesity resistant, OR). Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the mechanisms underlying the inter-individual susceptibility to diet-induced obesity remain to be fully defined. In the present study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight MS was carried out for identification of differentially expressed liver proteins in OP and OR rats fed a HFD, in an attempt to discover marker proteins involved in susceptibility and/or resistance to obesity in rat liver. The 2-DE analysis demonstrated that forty spots from 380 visualised spots were differentially regulated between the groups. Among these forty spots, twelve were differentially expressed proteins between OP and OR rats, reaching statistical significance. Of these, five proteins have already been linked to obesity; however, seven proteins involved in obesity susceptibility or resistance were identified for the first time in the present study. In order to validate the proteomic results and gain insight into the metabolic changes between the OP and OR groups, we further confirmed the expression pattern of some proteins of interest by Western blot analysis. Combined results of proteomic analysis with Western blot analysis revealed that reduced lipogenesis and increased fat oxidation were achieved in the livers of OR rats. In conclusion, the present proteomic study is an important advance over the previous steps required for identification of OP and OR rats, and should prove valuable in the search for the pathogenesis of obesity in humans.

  8. Effects of high-fat diets with different carbohydrate-to-protein ratios on energy homeostasis in rats with impaired brain melanocortin receptor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morens, C.; Keijzer, M.; de Vries, K.; Scheurink, A; van Dijk, G

    Changes in dietary macronutrient composition and/or central nervous system neuronal activity can underlie obesity and disturbed fuel homeostasis. We examined whether switching rats from a diet with high carbohydrate content (HC; i.e., regular chow) to diets with either high fat (HF) or high fat/high

  9. Long-Term Effects of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing High Protein or High Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diets on Testosterone, SHBG, Erectile and Urinary Function in Overweight and Obese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Brinkworth, Grant D; Martin, Sean; Wycherley, Thomas P; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Lutze, Janna; Clifton, Peter M; Wittert, Gary A; Noakes, Manny

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with reduced testosterone and worsened erectile and sexual function in men. Weight loss improves these outcomes. High protein diets potentially offer anthropometric and metabolic benefits, but their effects on reproductive and sexual outcomes is not known. To examine the long-term effects of weight loss with a higher protein or carbohydrate diet on testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire in overweight and obese men. One-hundred and eighteen overweight or obese men (body mass index 27-40 kg/m2, age 20-65 years) were randomly assigned to an energy restricted higher protein low fat (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate, 25% fat; n = 57) or higher carbohydrate low fat diet (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 25% fat, n = 61) diet for 52 weeks (12 weeks weight loss, 40 weeks weight maintenance). Primary outcomes were serum total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone. Secondary outcomes were erectile function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) (total score and erectile function domain), lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire. Total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free testosterone increased (Ptestosterone (P = 0.037) and sex hormone binding globulin (Ptestosterone from week 12-52 (P = 0.002). Increases in free testosterone occurred from week 12-52 (p = 0.002). The IIEF erectile functon domain, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual desire did not change in either group (P≥0.126). In overweight and obese men, weight loss with both high protein and carbohydrate diets improve testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and overall sexual function. Anzctr.org.au ACTRN12606000002583.

  10. Glucose uptake by the brain on chronic high-protein weight-loss diets with either moderate or low amounts of carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobley, Gerald E; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Fyfe, Claire; Horgan, Graham W; Holtrop, Grietje; Bremner, David M; Broom, Iain; Schweiger, Lutz; Welch, Andy

    2014-02-01

    Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m², took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30% of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An ¹⁸fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-¹³C]acetoacetate, [2,4-¹³C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-²H₂]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14% lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5% lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.

  11. Comparison of the effects of weight loss from a high-protein versus standard-protein energy-restricted diet on strength and aerobic capacity in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wycherley, Thomas P; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2013-02-01

    To compare the effects of two low-fat, hypoenergetic diets differing in carbohydrate-to-protein ratio, on strength and aerobic capacity measures in overweight and obese men. In a parallel design, 56 men (age, 45.5 ± 8.7 years; BMI, 33.6 ± 3.9 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a low-fat, energy-restricted diet (7,000 kJ/day) with either high protein (HP: protein/carbohydrate/fat % energy, 35:40:25) or standard protein (SP, 17:58:25). Body weight, body composition, muscle strength and aerobic capacity were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Forty-two participants completed the study (HP, n = 21; SP, n = 21). Both groups experienced similar reductions in body weight (HP, -10.7 ± 5.3 kg [-9.8%]; SP, -8.7 ± 3.5 kg [-8.4%]) and fat-free mass (HP, -2.8 ± 3.6 kg; SP, -3.2 ± 2.7 kg; P 0.14 time × group interaction). There was a trend for a greater reduction in fat mass in the HP diet group, (-7.7 ± 4.3 kg [-21.2%] vs. -5.4 ± 3.3 kg [-15.1%]; P weight and improved body composition with similar effects on strength and aerobic capacity.

  12. Analysis of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1c target genes in mouse liver during aging and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, Frédéric; Rolland-Valognes, Gaëlle; Dacquet, Catherine; Brun, Manuel; Lonchampt, Michel; Ktorza, Alain; Lockhart, Brian; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1c contributes to the transcriptional coordination of cholesterol, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolisms. Alterations in these processes accelerate the progression of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance during aging and obesity. Using an ex vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to microarray (ChIP-on-chip) technique combined with genome-wide gene expression analysis, we analyzed the transcriptomic adaptations mediated by Srebp-1c binding to gene promoters in the liver of mice fed with a low-fat diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for either 1 or 12 months. Aging had a higher transcriptional impact than HFD and modified the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and oxidative stress. HFD was associated with a marked induction of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. The prolonged high-fat feeding together with the aging effects stimulates inflammatory pathways. ChIP-on-chip applied to aging and HFD analyses revealed that the binding of SREBP-1c to a series of promoters accompanied a paralleled modification of gene expression. Therefore, SREBP-1c could play a role in aging and high-fat feeding through the regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. This study represents an original ex vivo experiment to elucidate the molecular events involved in metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Unilateral hindlimb casting induced a delayed generalized muscle atrophy during rehabilitation that is prevented by a whey or a high protein diet but not a free leucine-enriched diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Magne

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is the general muscle mass and strength loss associated with ageing. Muscle atrophy could be made worse by exposure to acute periods of immobilization, because muscle disuse by itself is a stimulus for atrophy. Using a model of unilateral hindlimb casting in old adult rats, we have already demonstrated that the primary effect of immobilization was atrophy in the casted leg, but was also surprisingly associated with a retarded atrophy in the non-casted leg during rehabilitation. In search of mechanisms involved in this generalized atrophy, we demonstrated in the present study that contrary to pair-fed non-immobilized control animals, muscle protein synthesis in the non-immobilized limb was unable to adapt and to respond positively to food intake. Because pair-fed control rats did not lose muscle mass, this defect in muscle protein synthesis may represent one of the explanation for the muscle mass loss observed in the non-immobilized rats. Nevertheless, in order to stimulate protein turn over and generate a positive nitrogen balance required to maintain the whole muscle mass in immobilized rats, we tested a dietary free leucine supplementation (an amino acid known for its stimulatory effect on protein metabolism during the rehabilitation period. Leucine supplementation was able to overcome the anabolic resistance in the non-immobilized limb. A greater muscle protein synthesis up-regulation associated with a stimulation of the mTOR signalling pathway was indeed recorded but it remained inefficient to prevent the loss of muscle in the non-immobilized limb. By contrast, we demonstrated here that whey protein or high protein diets were able to prevent the muscle mass loss of the non-immobilized limb by sustaining muscle protein synthesis during the entire rehabilitation period.

  14. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-02-06

    Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. We included 100 overweight and obese adults (55-80 year) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design and intention-to-treat analysis. During a 10-week weight loss program all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet. Subjects were randomly allocated to either a high protein (1.3 g/kg body weight) or normal protein diet (0.8 g/kg), with or without a resistance exercise program 3 times/week. FFM was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. At baseline, mean (±SD) BMI was 32 ± 4 kg/m 2 . During intervention, protein intake was 1.13 ± 0.35 g/kg in the high protein groups vs. 0.98 ± 0.29 in the normal protein groups, which reflects a 16.3 ± 5.2 g/d higher protein intake in the high protein groups. Both high protein diet and exercise did not significantly affect change in body weight, FFM and fat mass (FM). No significant protein*exercise interaction effect was observed for FFM. However, within-group analysis showed that high protein in combination with exercise significantly increased FFM (+0.6 ± 1.3 kg, p = 0.011). A high protein diet, though lower than targeted, did not significantly affect changes in FFM during modest weight loss in older overweight and obese adults. There was no significant interaction between the high protein diet and resistance exercise for change in FFM. However, only the group with the combined intervention of high protein diet and resistance exercise significantly increased in FFM. Dutch Trial Register, number NTR4556, date 05-01-2014.

  15. Effect of an intensive nutrition intervention of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on weight of kidney transplant recipients: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrollo, Elis Forcellini; Nicoletto, Bruna Bellincanta; Carpes, Larissa Salomoni; de Freitas, Júlia de Melo Cardoso; Buboltz, Julia Roberta; Forte, Cristina Carra; Bauer, Andrea Carla; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti; Souza, Gabriela Corrêa; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2017-09-06

    Excessive weight gain is commonly observed within the first year after kidney transplantation and is associated with negative outcomes, such as graft loss and cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. We designed a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of a high protein (1.3-1.4 g/kg/day) and low-glycemic index diet versus a conventional diet (0.8-1.0 g/kg/day of protein) on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. A total of 120 eligible patients 2 months after transplantation will be recruited. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate through the modification of diet of renal disease (MDRD) formula  300 mg/24 h will be excluded. Patients' diets will be allocated through simple sequential randomization. Patients will be followed-up for 12 months with nine clinic appointments with a dietitian and the evaluations will include nutritional assessment (anthropometrics, body composition, and resting metabolic rate) and laboratory tests. The primary outcome is weight maintenance or body weight gain under 5% after 12 months. Secondary outcomes include body composition, resting metabolic rate, satiety sensation, kidney function, and other metabolic parameters. Diets with higher protein content and lower glycemic index may lead to weight loss because of higher satiety sensation. However, there is a concern about the association of high protein intake and kidney damage. Nevertheless, there is little evidence on the impact of high protein intake on long-term kidney function outcome. Therefore, we designed a study to test if a high protein diet with low-glycemic index will be an effective and safe nutritional intervention to prevent weight gain in kidney transplant patients. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02883777 . Registered on 3 August 2016.

  16. Soy protein isolate inhibits high-Ffat diet-induced senescence pathways in osteoblasts to maintain bone acquisition in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic consumption by experimental animals of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life has been demonstrated to impair skeletal development. However, underlying mechanism by which high fat, energy dense diets affect bone forming cell phenotypes is poorly u...

  17. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C.; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J.; Chelikani, Prasanth K.

    2016-01-01

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance. PMID:27122299

  18. Low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Singh, Arashdeep; Yee, Nicholas J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2016-04-28

    Diets deficient in protein often increase food consumption, body weight and fat mass; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of diets varying in protein concentrations on energy balance in obesity-prone rats. We demonstrate that protein-free (0% protein calories) diets decreased energy intake and increased energy expenditure, very low protein (5% protein) diets increased energy intake and expenditure, whereas moderately low protein (10% protein) diets increased energy intake without altering expenditure, relative to control diet (15% protein). These diet-induced alterations in energy expenditure are in part mediated through enhanced serotonergic and β-adrenergic signaling coupled with upregulation of key thermogenic markers in brown fat and skeletal muscle. The protein-free and very low protein diets decreased plasma concentrations of multiple essential amino acids, anorexigenic and metabolic hormones, but these diets increased the tissue expression and plasma concentrations of fibroblast growth factor-21. Protein-free and very low protein diets induced fatty liver, reduced energy digestibility, and decreased lean mass and body weight that persisted beyond the restriction period. In contrast, moderately low protein diets promoted gain in body weight and adiposity following the period of protein restriction. Together, our findings demonstrate that low protein diets produce divergent effects on energy balance.

  19. Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-05-12

    The intake of protein and antioxidants has been inversely associated with frailty, individually. However, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated these associations in considering antioxidants or protein intakes as respective confounders. Further, the cooperative effect of dietary protein and antioxidants on frailty has not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the association of high protein and high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with frailty under the adjustment for dietary TAC or protein intake, respectively. The association between the combination of high dietary protein and high dietary TAC and frailty was also investigated. A total of 2108 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 years and older participated in this cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 85 dietetic schools in Japan. Dietary variables, including protein intake, and dietary TAC were estimated from a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Frailty was defined as a score of three or more points obtained from the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. Median (interquartile range) age of the present subjects was 74 (71-78) years. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for frailty in the highest compared to the lowest tertile were 0.66 (0.49, 0.87) for total protein intake (P for trend = 0.003) and 0.51 (0.37, 0.69) for dietary TAC (P for trend high dietary protein and high dietary TAC was strongly inversely associated with the prevalence of frailty in this population. To select food combinations that allow for an increase of both protein and antioxidants in diet according to the local food culture and dietary habits may be an effective strategy for frailty prevention.

  20. Role of 14-3-3η protein on cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization after high fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Koga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Harima, Meilei; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a metabolic disorder, is one of the leading causes of mortality around the world and its pathogenesis involves cardiac inflammation and altered metabolic profile. Altered fatty acid metabolism during DCM can cause macrophage polarization in which inflammatory M1 phenotype dominates over the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Hence, it is essential to identify a specific target, which could revert the metabolic profile and thereby reducing the M1 macrophage polarization. 14-3-3η protein has several cellular protective functions especially in the heart as plenty of reports available in various animal models of heart failure including diabetes mellitus. However, its role in the cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization remains unidentified. The present study has been designed to delineate the effect of cardiospecific dominant negative mutation of 14-3-3η protein (DN14-3-3) on various lipid metabolism related marker proteins expressions and cardiac macrophage phenotype in high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Feeding HFD for 12 weeks has produced significant increase in body weight in the DN14-3-3 (TG) mice than C57BL6/J (WT) mice. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining analysis of the heart tissue has revealed an increase in the expression of markers of cardiac fatty acid synthesis related proteins in addition to the reduced expression of fatty acid oxidation related proteins in TG mice fed HFD than WT mice fed HFD. Furthermore, the M1 macrophage marker proteins were increasingly expressed while M2 markers expressions were reduced in the hearts of TG mice fed HFD. In conclusion, our current study has identified that there is a definite role for the 14-3-3η protein against the pathogenesis of heart failure via regulation of cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; de Lima, Daniel Carvalho; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and of muscles play important roles in energy balance. For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on sympathetic stimulation. However, the effects of endurance training in animals fed with high-sugar diets are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of diet and exercise on UCP1 and UCP3 levels and energy balance efficiency. Rats fed with standard or high-sugar (HSD) diets were simultaneously subjected to running training over an 8-week period. After the training period, the rats were decapitated, and the iBAT and gastrocnemius muscle tissues were removed for evaluation of the β₃-receptor, Ucp1, and Ucp3 mRNA and protein expression, which were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Groups fed with an HSD displayed a higher adiposity index and iBAT weight (P < .05), whereas exhibited an up-regulation of Ucp1 mRNA and protein levels (P < .05). Training increased β₃-receptor mRNA in iBAT and reduced the Ucp3 mRNA in muscle tissues. In association with an HSD, training restored the increasing β₃-receptor mRNA and greatly up-regulated the levels of Ucp3 mRNA. Therefore, training blocked the HSD-induced up-regulation of UCP1 expression in iBAT, whereas it up-regulated the expression of Ucp3 mRNA in muscle. These results suggest that training enhances the relationship between Ucp1/Ucp3 mRNA levels, which could result in higher energy efficiency, but not when HSD-induced elevated sympathetic activity is maintained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effects of high protein and balanced diets on lipid profiles and inflammation biomarkers in obese and overweight women at aerobic clubs: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Amini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the effects of high protein (HP and balanced diets (BDs on lipid profiles, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in obese and overweight women. Methods: In a parallel designed randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 healthy women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 , aged 20-46 years, enrolled in an 8-week investigation at aerobic clubs. They were categorized into two groups (HP and BDs, randomly. Fasting lipid profile and hs-CRP levels were evaluated at the beginning and end of the trial. We assessed dietary intake by 3-day records and also used SPSS (version 18; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA for data analyzing. Results: Fifty-six participants completed the intervention. Concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.023 in HP group and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.001 in BD group vs. P =0.002 in HP group increased significantly in both groups. Circulating triglycerides levels increased in both intervention grows, but the change in the HP group was not significant compared with the other group (P = 0.007 in BD group vs. P =0.099 in HP group. Whereas total cholesterol concentration decreased but not significantly so (P = 0.53 in BD group vs. P =0.73 in HP group. There were marginally significant decreases in the hs-CRP levels due to both diets (P = 0.057 in BD group vs. P =0.086 in HP group; however, there were no significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Administration of HP and BD in overweight and obese women with regular aerobic exercise showed improvement in lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels within the groups, but there were no significant differences between groups.

  3. Lipolysis stimulating peptides of potato protein hydrolysate effectively suppresses high-fat-diet-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fibrosis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Dee Chiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the most common outcomes of obesity and is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides, increased tissue apoptosis, and fibrosis. NAFLD is more common among elderly than in younger age groups, and it causes serious hepatic complications. Objective: In this study, alcalase treatment derived potato protein hydrolysate (APPH with lipolysis-stimulating property has been evaluated for its efficiency to provide hepato-protection in a high-fat-diet (HFD-fed aging rats. Design: Twenty-four-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=8: aged rats fed with standard chow, HFD-induced aged obese rats, HFD with low-dose (15 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, HFD with moderate (45 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, HFD with high (75 mg/kg/day APPH treatment, and HFD with probucol. Results: APPH was found to reduce the NAFLD-related effects in rat livers induced by HFD and all of the HFD-fed rats exhibited heavier body weight than those with control chow diet. However, the HFD-induced hepatic fat accumulation was effectively attenuated in rats administered with low (15 mg/kg/day, moderate (45 mg/kg/day, and high (75 mg/kg/day doses of APPH. APPH oral administration also suppressed the hepatic apoptosis- and fibrosis-related proteins induced by HFD. Conclusions: Our results thus indicate that APPH potentially attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation and anti-apoptosis and fibrosis effects in HFD-induced rats. APPH may have therapeutic potential in the amelioration of NAFLD liver damage.

  4. Lipolysis stimulating peptides of potato protein hydrolysate effectively suppresses high-fat-diet-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fibrosis in aging rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wen-Dee; Huang, Chih Yang; Paul, Catherine Reena; Lee, Zong-Yan; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common outcomes of obesity and is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides, increased tissue apoptosis, and fibrosis. NAFLD is more common among elderly than in younger age groups, and it causes serious hepatic complications. Objective In this study, alcalase treatment derived potato protein hydrolysate (APPH) with lipolysis-stimulating property has been evaluated for its efficiency to provide hepato-protection in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed aging rats. Design Twenty-four-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=8): aged rats fed with standard chow, HFD-induced aged obese rats, HFD with low-dose (15 mg/kg/day) APPH treatment, HFD with moderate (45 mg/kg/day) APPH treatment, HFD with high (75 mg/kg/day) APPH treatment, and HFD with probucol. Results APPH was found to reduce the NAFLD-related effects in rat livers induced by HFD and all of the HFD-fed rats exhibited heavier body weight than those with control chow diet. However, the HFD-induced hepatic fat accumulation was effectively attenuated in rats administered with low (15 mg/kg/day), moderate (45 mg/kg/day), and high (75 mg/kg/day) doses of APPH. APPH oral administration also suppressed the hepatic apoptosis- and fibrosis-related proteins induced by HFD. Conclusions Our results thus indicate that APPH potentially attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation and anti-apoptosis and fibrosis effects in HFD-induced rats. APPH may have therapeutic potential in the amelioration of NAFLD liver damage. PMID:27415158

  5. Curcumin ameliorates the tumor-enhancing effects of a high-protein diet in an azoxymethane-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, So-Young; Kim, Dan-Bi; Kim, Eunjung

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that a high-protein diet (HPD) is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the proposed mechanisms is that an HPD increases the delivery of protein to the colon and generates various toxic metabolites that contribute to colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin was shown to exert significant preventive properties against CRC. We therefore hypothesized that curcumin can reverse the tumor-enhancing effects of an HPD. This study examined the effects of curcumin on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal tumors in HPD-fed mice. A total of 30 female Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: those fed a normal diet (20% casein), those fed an HPD (HPD; 50% casein), and those fed an HPD supplemented with curcumin (HPDC; 0.02% curcumin). The mice were subjected to an AOM-dextran sodium sulfate colon carcinogenesis protocol. Mice in the HPDC group exhibited a significant (40%) reduction in colorectal tumor multiplicity when compared with those in the HPD group. The expression of colonic inflammatory proteins (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase), the levels of plasma inflammatory markers (nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α), fecal ammonia, short- and branched-chain fatty acid levels, and the rate of colonocyte proliferation were significantly lower in the HPDC than the HPD group. In conclusion, curcumin inhibited the development of colorectal tumors in an AOM-induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis by attenuating colonic inflammation, proliferation, and toxic metabolite production. Curcumin might be useful in the chemoprevention of CRC in individuals consuming an HPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Krill Oil Supplementation Improves Dyslipidemia and Lowers Body Weight in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Goowon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangsu; Kwak, Dongyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2016-12-01

    Krill oil is a novel, commercially available marine oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Compared with fish oil, the effects of krill oil supplementation on human health and its underlying action mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of krill oil supplementation on metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Krill oil supplementation in mice fed a HFD for 10 weeks resulted in an ∼15% lower body weight gain and a dramatic suppression of hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with significantly lower serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. We further uncovered a novel underlying mechanism, showing that AMP-activated protein kinase, a master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, mediates the beneficial effects of krill oil.

  7. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  8. High-fat diet reduces neuroprotection of isoflurane post-treatment: Role of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein-Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-11-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) contributes to the increased prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia in young adults, a possible cause for their recent increase in stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment provides neuroprotection. Isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in HFD-fed mice was determined. Six-week old CD-1 male mice were fed HFD or regular diet (RD) for 5 or 10 weeks. Their hippocampal slices (400 µm) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Some slices were exposed to isoflurane for 30 min immediately after OGD. Some mice had a 90-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion and were post-treated with 2% isoflurane for 30 min. OGD time-dependently induced cell injury. This injury was dose-dependently reduced by isoflurane. The effect was apparent at 1% or 2% isoflurane in RD-fed mice but required 3% isoflurane in HFD-fed mice. HFD influenced the isoflurane effects in DG. OGD increased carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an Akt inhibitor, and decreased Akt signaling. Isoflurane reduced these effects. LY294002, an Akt activation inhibitor, attenuated the isoflurane effects. HFD increased CTMP and reduced Akt signaling. Isoflurane improved neurological outcome in the RD-fed mice but not in the HFD-fed mice. HFD attenuated isoflurane post-treatment-induced neuroprotection possibly because of decreased prosurvival Akt signaling. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  9. Protein retention and liver aminotransferase activities in Atlantic salmon fed diets containing different energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fynn-Aikins, K.; Hughes, S.G.; Vandenberg, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fingerlings (14.4 g) were fed diets containing either glucose, dextrin, raw corn starch and lipid, or a high protein U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service open-formula diet (ASD2-30) for 12 weeks. Significant differences in weight gain and feed: gain ratio were not observed among salmon fed the diets containing glucose, dextrin or ASD2-30. Diets containing dextrin and glucose supported greater protein retention and reduction in alanine aminotransferase activity than the other diets. Activity of aspartate aminotransferase was not affected by the dietary treatment. Protein retention correlated highly with alanine aminotransferase activity.

  10. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  11. The reduced energy intake of rats fed a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet explains the lower fat deposition, but macronutrient substitution accounts for the improved glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouet, Clémence; Mariotti, François; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Bos, Cécile; Mathé, Véronique; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François

    2006-07-01

    The metabolic effect of high-protein low-carbohydrate (HP) diets on body composition and glucose homeostasis remains incompletely understood. This study assesses the respective roles of the increased protein:carbohydrate ratio (P:C) and the resulting moderate decrease in energy intake in the metabolic effects of HP diets. Rats had free access to normal (NP; 14%) or high (HP; 53%) total milk protein isoenergetic diets, or were fed the NP diet but restricted to the energy intake of HP rats (NPr), which was 89.1 +/- 9.3% that of NP rats. After 8 wk, body weight was lower in HP and NPr rats than in NP rats. In HP rats, the lower body weight was associated with a lower adipose tissue mass and a reduced proportion of large adipocytes. HP rats also had an improved oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostatic model assessment index, compared with NPr and NP rats, and these effects were related solely to the increased P:C. These data suggest that the reduced energy intake of rats fed a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet explains the lower fat deposition but an increased P:C per se improves glucose homeostasis.

  12. High-Protein and High-Dietary Fiber Breakfasts Result in Equal Feelings of Fullness and Better Diet Quality in Low-Income Preschoolers Compared with Their Usual Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Campbell, Wayne W; Mattes, Rickard D; Schwichtenberg, Amy J

    2017-03-01

    Background: In the United States, 17% of children are currently obese. Increasing feelings of fullness may prevent excessive energy intake, lead to better diet quality, and promote long-term maintenance of healthy weight.Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a fullness-rating tool (aim 1) and to determine whether a high-protein (HP), high-fiber (HF), and combined HP and HF (HPHF) breakfast increases preschoolers' feelings of fullness before (pre) and after (post) breakfast and pre-lunch, as well as their diet quality, as measured by using a composite diet quality assessment tool, the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (aim 2).Methods: Children aged 4 and 5 y (n = 41; 22 girls and 19 boys) from local Head Start centers participated in this randomized intervention trial. Sixteen percent of boys and 32% of girls were overweight or obese. After the baseline week, children rotated through four 1-wk periods of consuming ad libitum HP (19-20 g protein), HF (10-11 g fiber), HPHF (19-21 g protein, 10-12 g fiber), or usual (control) breakfasts. Food intake at breakfast was estimated daily, and for breakfast, lunch, and snack on day 3 of each study week Student's t tests and ANOVA were used to determine statistical differences.Results: Children's post-breakfast and pre-lunch fullness ratings were ≥1 point higher than those of pre-breakfast (aim 1). Although children consumed, on average, 65 kcal less energy during the intervention breakfasts (P < 0.007) than during the control breakfast, fullness ratings did not differ (P = 0.76). Relative to the control breakfast, improved diet quality (12%) was calculated for the HP and HF breakfasts (P < 0.027) but not for the HPHF breakfast (aim 2).Conclusions: Post-breakfast fullness ratings were not affected by the intervention breakfasts relative to the control breakfast. HP and HF breakfasts resulted in higher diet quality. Serving HP or HF breakfasts may be valuable in improving diet quality without lowering

  13. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  14. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper retrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    The fruits of Piper retrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300mg/kg/day for 8weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Consistent with the in vitro results, PRPA activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in liver and skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronologically scheduled snacking with high-protein products within the habitual diet in type-2 diabetes patients leads to a fat mass loss: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez J Alfredo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is the most relevant overnutrition disease worldwide and is associated to different metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Low glycemic load foods and diets and moderately high protein intake have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass, exerting also beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, postprandial glucose curve and HDL-cholesterol levels. The present study aimed at studying the potential functionality of a series of low glycemic index products with moderately high protein content, as possible coadjuvants in the control of type-2 diabetes and weight management following a chronologically planned snacking offer (morning and afternoon. Methods The current trial followed a single group, sequential, longitudinal design, with two consecutive periods of 4 weeks each. A total of 17 volunteers participated in the study. The first period was a free living period, with volunteers' habitual ad libitum dietary pattern, while the second period was a free-living period with structured meal replacements at breakfast, morning snack and afternoon snack, which were exchanged by specific products with moderately high protein content and controlled low glycemic index, following a scheduled temporal consumption. Blood extractions were performed at the beginning and at the end of each period (free-living and intervention. Parameters analysed were: fasting glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, C - reactive protein and Homocysteine concentrations. Postprandial glucose and insulin were also measured. Anthropometrical parameters were monitored each 2 weeks during the whole study. Results A modest but significant (p = 0.002 reduction on body weight (1 kg was observed during the intervention period, mainly due to the fat mass loss (0.8 kg, p = 0.02. This weight reduction was observed without apparently associated changes in

  16. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control, Satiety, and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Todd, Chelsie B; Zino, Adam Z; Immel, Jordan E; Mukherjea, Ratna; Shafer, Rebecca S; Ortinau, Laura C; Braun, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Data concerning the effects of afternoon snacking on ingestive behavior, mood, and cognition are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents. Thirty-one healthy adolescents (age: 17 ± 1 y) consumed the following afternoon snacks (in randomized order) for 3 d: HP snack (26 g of protein/6 g of fat per 27 g of carbohydrates), HF snack (4 g of protein/12 g of fat per 32 g of carbohydrates), and no snack (NoS). On day 4 of each treatment, the participants completed an 8-h testing day containing pre- and postsnack appetite questionnaires, food cue-stimulated functional MRI brain scans, mood, cognitive function, and eating initiation. Ad libitum dinner and evening snacks were provided and assessed. HP, but not HF, delayed eating initiation vs. NoS (P brain regions controlling food motivation/reward vs. NoS (P sugar evening snacks than NoS (P < 0.01) and HF (P = 0.09). Although no treatment effects were detected for mood and cognition, HP tended to reduce confusion-bewilderment (P = 0.07) and increase cognitive flexibility (P = 0.09), whereas NoS reduced tension-anxiety (P < 0.05) and vigor-activity (P < 0.05). Afternoon snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01781286. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Exercise training performed simultaneously to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in mice

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    Farias JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n = 6: chow standard diet and sedentary (C; chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T; fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO; and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T. Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day, five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days. Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. Results IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, ADIPOR2 (liver, and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue.

  18. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of high Protein Complete (lActo VEgetaRian (PACER diet in non-diabetic obese Asian Indians in North India

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    Swati Bhardwaj

    2017-12-01

    There was significant weight loss along with improvements in cardio-metabolic risk factors among both the groups post intervention. Percent reductions in the intervention group for weight (6.1± 2.9; p < 0.001, WC (3.9 ± 1.7; p < 0.001, FPG (5.9 ± 3.2; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (10.2 ± 6.3: p < 0.001, serum triacylglycerol (13.6 ± 10.6; p < 0.001 and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9 ± 7.1; p < 0.001] were significantly greater than the control diet group. In summary, intervention with a PACER diet (high protein, high fat and moderately low carbohydrate, lacto-vegetarian diet showed significant improvement in weight loss, body composition and cardio-metabolic profile as compared to a standard vegetarian diet among obese Asian Indians in north India.

  19. Diets High in Fiber and Vegetable Protein Are Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Athletes with Oligoamenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elizabeth; Cano Sokoloff, Natalia; Maffazioli, Giovana D N; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M; Anderson, Ellen J; Misra, Madhusmita

    2016-03-01

    Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in populations more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). To determine dietary intake of specific food components in athletes with oligoamenorrhea (OA) compared to athletes with eumenorrhea (EA) and nonathletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA individuals aged 14 to 23 years. Measurements included 4-day food records, a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (all P values fiber (β=-.30; P=0.01), vegetable protein (β= -.28; P=0.02), phytic acid (β=-.27; P=0.02), genistein (β=-.25; P=0.01), and daidzein (β=-.24; P=0.01), and positively associated with percent energy from fatty acids (β=.32; P=0.0006). Compared with EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein, and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD z scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreijen, Amely M; Engberink, Mariëlle F; Memelink, Robert G; van der Plas, Suzanne E; Visser, Marjolein; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for accelerated muscle mass loss. We investigated whether a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise preserves fat free mass (FFM) during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults. METHODS: We included 100

  1. The Protein-Sparing Modified Fast Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Bakhach MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF is a rigorous way of rapidly losing a large amount of weight. Although adult studies have shown the PSMF to be effective, data in adolescents are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of the PSMF in severely obese adolescents. Methods: 12 subjects who were evaluated in the Obesity Management Program at the Cleveland Clinic from 2011 to 2014 were included. The subjects were initiated on the PSMF after failing other conventional methods of weight loss. Once the goal weight was achieved, subjects were transitioned to the refeeding phase for weight maintenance. Results: Follow-up was scheduled at 3-month (11 patients and 6-month (6 patients intervals. At the 6-month follow-up visit, the average weight loss was 11.19 kg (95% confidence interval = -5.4, -27.8, P = .028, with average of 9.8% from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects had >5% weight loss and 20% had >10% weight loss. Four patients were lost to the follow-up (40%. An improvement was noted in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein. Due to a small sample size these results were not statistically significant. Side effects reported by subjects were mild dehydration due to nausea (2 patients, decreased energy (1 patient, and transient labile mood (1 patient. No life-threatening side effects were reported. Conclusion: Our results show that the PSMF diet can be used as an effective and safe method in the outpatient setting for rapid weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity.

  2. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  3. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-10-29

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibited lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles.

  4. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 2 Deficiency Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Dikkers, Arne; Jurdzinski, Angelika; von Felden, Johann; Gaestel, Matthias; Bavendiek, Udo; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is considered an important contributor to insulin resistance. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) is a major downstream target of p38 MAPK and enhances inflammatory processes. In line with the role of MK2 as contributor to inflammation,

  5. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  6. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorne, C.W. van; Eling, W.M.C.; Luyken, R.

    1998-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats were fed a purified, vegetable, low-protein diet containing 6% protein from maize gluten and 2% from soy protein isolate, or comparable diets in which maize gluten was replaced partly or completely by the equivalent amount of a milk protein concentrate. Diets with adequate

  7. Evaluation of yeast single cell protein (SCP) diets on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the possibility of replacing fishmeal with graded levels of yeast single cell protein (SCP; 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) in isonitrogenous feed formulations (30% protein) in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for a period of 12 weeks. The control diet had fishmeal as the primary protein ...

  8. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  9. Relevant associations of the glucokinase regulatory protein/glucokinase gene variation with TAG concentrations in a high-cardiovascular risk population: modulation by the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Guillén, Marisa; Vicente Sorli, Jose; Portolés, Olga; Guillem-Saiz, Patricia; Ignacio Gonzalez, Jose; Qi, Lu; Corella, Dolores

    2013-01-28

    The SNP rs1260326 (P446L) and rs1799884 (-30G>A) for the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) and glucokinase (GCK) genes, respectively, have been associated with opposing effects on TAG and glucose concentrations. However, their genetic modulation by diet (dietary patterns or foods) remains to be investigated. We studied 945 high-cardiovascular risk subjects aged 67 (sd 6) years who participated in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea-Valencia Study. Demographic, clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and food intake were measured by validated questionnaires. Carriers of the L allele of GKCR had significantly higher TAG concentrations (PP: 1.34 (SD 0.05) mmol/l v. PL+LL: 1.54 (SD 0.03) mmol/l; P= 0.014) and LL carriers had lower glucose concentrations (PL+PP: 6.85 (SD 0.08) mmol/l v. LL: 6.40 (SD 0.16) mmol/l; P= 0.032) after multivariate adjustment. Conversely, homozygous subjects for the variant allele (A) in the GCK gene had significantly lower TAG (GG+GA: 1.48 (SD 0.03) mmol/l v. AA: 1.17 (SD 0.18) mmol/l; P= 0.033) and a higher risk of diabetes (OR 3.3, 95 % CI 1.2, 9.2). Combined effects for both SNP increased TAG concentrations by 37 % (P= 0.033). Adherence to the MD modulated the effects of GCKR polymorphism on TAG: subjects with genetic risk had lower TAG (L-allele carriers; PP: 1.48 (SD 0.14) mmol/l v. PL+LL: 1.51 (SD 0.08) mmol/l; P= 0.917) compared with those with a higher adherence. Analysis of the joint effects of the GCKR and individual food items identified significant associations (olive oil (P= 0.035), vegetables (P= 0.012), red meat (P= 0.017), butter (P= 0.039), sweetened carbonated beverages (P= 0.036) and nuts (P= 0.038)). In conclusion, we found that rs1260326 (GCKR) is significantly associated with higher TAG concentrations, but is modulated by adherence to the MD.

  10. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, Nicholas Robert; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Caterson, Ian Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

  11. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low densi...

  12. Effect of omnivorous and vegan diets with different protein and carbohydrate content on growth and metabolism of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Morlacchini, Mauro; Crippa, Luca; Capraro, Jessica; Paganini, Beatrice; Gallo, Antonio; Rossi, Filippo

    2017-11-05

    The purpose of this study was to observe, in a rat animal model, the short and medium term effects of vegan (VEG) or omnivorous (OMNI) diets with different energy partition between nutrients (zone or classic). Six different diets were administered, for 72 days to 120 growing male Sprague-Dawley rats: (i) VEG zone diet; (ii) VEG classic diet; (iii) OMNI zone diet; (iv) OMNI classic diet; (v) OMNI zone diet with added fibre and (vi) OMNI classic diet with added fibre. Zone diets (high protein and low carbohydrates), resulted in better growth , feed efficiency, lower blood glucose and insulin responses. VEG diets have lowered cholesterol blood level. Histopathological analysis evidenced no damage to liver and kidney tissue by the intake of any of the diet types. Further longer animal and human duration studies should be performed to exclude detrimental effect of higher protein diet.

  13. Efeito da adição dietética de milho de alta qualidade protéica em camundongos Effect of adding high-quality protein maize to the diet of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Castro Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo consistiu em avaliar os efeitos da adição de milho quality protein maize BR473 sobre aspectos bioquímicos e fisiológicos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, 6-7 semanas, foram alimentados com rações comerciais, rações comerciais com milho híbrido (1:1, rações comerciais com milho de alta qualidade protéica (1:1. Foram avaliados, durante 3 meses, o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e de tecido adiposo retroperitoneal e os valores plasmáticos de proteínas, triglicerídeos, colesterol e glicose. RESULTADOS: A adição dietética de milho quality protein maize BR473 reduziu o consumo alimentar e o tecido adiposo retroperitoneal, porém manteve a glicemia e trigliceridemia em relação à adição de milho híbrido na ração comercial. CONCLUSÃO: A melhor eficiência alimentar e os impactos sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos do sangue sugerem o potencial do uso do milho quality protein maize BR473 como um importante complemento para garantir a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the biochemical and physiological effects of adding quality protein maize BR473 to the diet of mice. METHODS:Female Swiss mice, 6-7 weeks old, were fed commercial diet alone or supplemented with either hybrid maize (1:1 or quality protein maize (1:1. Food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and plasma glucose, proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were evaluated for 3 months. RESULTS: Dietary addition of the quality protein maize BR473 reduced food intake and abdominal fat, yet plasma glucose and triglycerides remained the same when compared with the addition of hybrid maize to the commercial feed. CONCLUSION: A better dietary efficiency and the impacts on the biochemical parameters of the blood suggest that the quality protein maize BR473 is an important complement to guarantee dietary and nutritional security.

  14. Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghua; O'Connor, Lauren E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2014-01-01

    High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function. Both the quantity and predominant source of protein influence changes in bone with diet-induced weight loss. Higher-protein, high-dairy diets may help attenuate bone loss during weight loss. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preferential impact of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A deficiency on visceral fat in mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Harstad, Sara L; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat, more so than subcutaneous fat, is strongly associated with severe metabolic complications. However, the factors regulating depot-specific adipogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we show differential expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a secreted regulator of local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action, in adipose tissue of mice. PAPP-A mRNA expression was fivefold higher in visceral (mesenteric) fat compared with subcutaneous (inguinal, subscapular), perirenal, and brown fat of mice. To investigate the possible role of depot-specific PAPP-A expression in fat accumulation, wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 20 wk. Adipocyte size increased in subcutaneous and perirenal depots similarly in WT and PAPP-A KO mice. However, fat cell size and in vivo lipid uptake were significantly reduced in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. After 20 wk on HFD, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream signaling intermediate of IGF-I and insulin receptor activation, was significantly decreased by 50% in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in WT mice, but was significantly increased threefold in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in PAPP-A KO mice. This appeared to be because of enhanced insulin-stimulated signaling in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO mice. These data establish fat depot-specific expression of PAPP-A and indicate preferential impact of PAPP-A deficiency on visceral fat in the mouse that is associated with enhanced insulin receptor signaling. Thus, PAPP-A may be a potential target for treatment and/or prevention strategies for visceral obesity and related morbidities.

  16. Continuation of exercise is necessary to inhibit high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Maesako

    Full Text Available High fat diet (HFD is prevalent in many modern societies and HFD-induced metabolic condition is a growing concern worldwide. It has been previously reported that HFD clearly worsens cognitive function in amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that voluntary exercise in an enriched environment is an effective intervention to rescue HFD-induced β-amyloid (Aβ deposition and memory deficit. However, it had been unclear whether consumption of HFD after exercising abolished the beneficial effect of exercise on the inhibition of Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. To examine this question, we exposed wild type (WT and APP mice fed with HFD to exercise conditions at different time periods. In our previous experiment, we gave HFD to mice for 20 weeks and subjected them to exercise during weeks 10-20. In the present study, mice were subjected to exercise conditions during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 while being on HFD. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function was not abolished in WT mice even if they kept having HFD after finishing exercise. However, in APP transgenic mice, HFD clearly disrupted the effect of exercise during weeks 0-10 or weeks 5-15 on memory function. Importantly, we observed that the level of Aβ oligomer was significantly elevated in the APP mice that exercised during weeks 0-10: this might have been caused by the up-regulation of Aβ production. These results provide solid evidence that continuation of exercise is necessary to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in the pathological setting of AD.

  17. Renal Diet for Vegetarians: Which Protein Sources Are Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labels. Many ready-to-eat foods, canned beans, vegan meats, and soy- and rice-based cheeses are ... important nutrients. Type of vegetarian diet Protein sources Vegan — allows only plant-based foods Soy protein (tofu, ...

  18. Protein Sparing Effects of Lipids in The Practical Diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palm oil based diets also gave significant difference (P<0.05) in the MWG, SGR, PER and ANPU. There was significant ... ensure reduction in the crude protein inclusion level in the diets of O. niloticus using these lipid sources. INTRODUCTION .... low apparent net protein utilization (ANPU) value recorded. The low ANPU ...

  19. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  20. A high protein diet (3.4 g/kg/d) combined with a heavy resistance training program improves body composition in healthy trained men and women--a follow-up investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Jose; Ellerbroek, Anya; Silver, Tobin; Orris, Steve; Scheiner, Max; Gonzalez, Adriana; Peacock, Corey A

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of a high protein diet (>4 g/kg/d) in trained men and women who did not alter their exercise program has been previously shown to have no significant effect on body composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if a high protein diet in conjunction with a periodized heavy resistance training program would affect indices of body composition, performance and health. Forty-eight healthy resistance-trained men and women completed this study (mean ± SD; Normal Protein group [NP n = 17, four female and 13 male]: 24.8 ± 6.9 yr; 174.0 ± 9.5 cm height; 74.7 ± 9.6 kg body weight; 2.4 ± 1.7 yr of training; High Protein group [HP n = 31, seven female and 24 male]: 22.9 ± 3.1 yr; 172.3 ± 7.7 cm; 74.3 ± 12.4 kg; 4.9 ± 4.1 yr of training). Moreover, all subjects participated in a split-routine, periodized heavy resistance-training program. Training and daily diet logs were kept by each subject. Subjects in the NP and HP groups were instructed to consume their baseline (~2 g/kg/d) and >3 g/kg/d of dietary protein, respectively. Subjects in the NP and HP groups consumed 2.3 and 3.4 g/kg/day of dietary protein during the treatment period. The NP group consumed significantly (p diet (3.4 g/kg/d) in conjunction with a heavy resistance-training program may confer benefits with regards to body composition. Furthermore, there is no evidence that consuming a high protein diet has any deleterious effects.

  1. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  2. Alternative plant protein sources in sea bass diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo D’Agaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A control diet (C containing animal protein (mainly fish meal was compared with 6 experimental diets containing different  plant proteins (soybean meal, SM; rapeseed meal, RM; potato protein concentrate, PPC and a mix of the three vegetable  protein sources, M. The plant protein replaced either 25 (1 or 50 (2% of the animal protein with the exception of diet  RM2 where the substitution rate was lowered to 35%, and in diet M where 55% of the total protein given was replaced in  equal amounts by the three plant proteins. For the growth trial, which lasted 97 days, 528 European sea bass (initial live  weight 107 ± 0,06g, distributed among 24 fibreglass tanks with three replicates per treatment, were used. The pelleted  feed was distributed 5 times per day using an automatic dispenser. Energy, crude protein and crude fat digestibility values  for fish meal and soybean meal were similar and not statistically different while the values for rapeseed meal and potato  protein concentrate were significantly lower. Digestive utilization for NFE was higher in fish meal and decreased significant-  ly in soybean meal, rapeseed meal and even more noticeably in potato protein concentrate. Diet digestibility values showed  a similar trend with a clear worsening effect at the higher inclusion rates used. Diet M gave digestibility coefficients lower  than those observed with diets C, SM1, SM2, RS1and RS2and higher than those of diets PPC1and PPC2. Fish fed a diet in  which 25% of the total protein was replaced by soybean had similar performances to those of the control group. On the  other hand, sea bass fed diets SM2, RS1, RS2and M had lower growth rates and worse feed utilization than those observed  with the control. Finally, specific growth rates and food conversion efficiency in sea bass fed diets containing potato protein  concentrate were poor because of the low palatability. These results show that soybean meal can substitute up to 25% of

  3. Short communication: Supplementing lysine and methionine in a lactation diet containing a high concentration of wet corn gluten feed did not alter milk protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, C R; Weber, D; Block, E; Smith, J F; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2013-08-01

    Primiparous (n=33) and multiparous (n=63) lactating Holstein cows (186±51 d in milk) were used to evaluate the effects of supplementing metabolizable amino acids using lysine in a matrix of Ca salts of fatty acids (Megamine-L, Arm & Hammer Animal Nutrition, Princeton, NJ) and the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (MetaSmart, Adisseo Inc., Antony, France) in diets containing >26% wet corn gluten feed (dry matter basis). Cows were blocked by production level, parity, and pregnancy status, then randomly assigned to 1 of 8 pens and allowed a 7-d adaption period before receiving dietary treatments for 28 d. Pens were assigned randomly to either of 2 diets formulated to differ by metabolizable amino acid supply. Dry matter intake and production were monitored daily and milk components analyzed 3d/wk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. The original design of the study consisted of a control diet predicted to be deficient in lysine and methionine; however, after ingredient nutrients were analyzed and modeled with animal requirements at dry matter intake [26.6±0.35 kg/d (mean ± SEM)] and milk production levels achieved during the study (40.1±0.46 kg/d), only marginal deficiencies were predicted for the control (-8.1g/d for lysine; -1g/d for methionine) according to the National Research Council method, whereas the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System 5.0 and 6.1 models indicated positive balances for these amino acids (25.9 and 21.8 g/d for lysine, 14.7 and 18.9 g/d for methionine, respectively). Supplementing 30 g/d of metabolizable lysine in a Ca soap matrix and 2.4 g/d of metabolizable methionine as 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid led to positive predicted lysine and methionine balances by all 3 models, and predicted metabolizable lysine-to-methionine ratios ranging from 2.9 to 3.1. No treatment effects were observed for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk component concentrations or yields, or energy

  4. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  5. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  6. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  7. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J

    2017-12-01

    The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of

  8. The current strategy was the use of neuroprotective protein diet purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Rotova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the scientific evidences on the use of low-protein diet by patients with chronic kidney disease. Their analysis show that low-protein diet refers to the recommendations of a high lavel of conclusiveness. Low-protein diet, especially in conjunction with the reception ketoaminoacid has nephroprotective properties that allows to continue predialysis period for patients with chronic kidney disease.

  9. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...

  10. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  11. Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets on Performance, Immune Response and Carcass Characteristics in Broilers. ... of thigh, breast, and drum stick in the control and 1.0% methionine diets were similar There was no effect of methionine, CP or their interaction on the antibody titre against IBD.

  12. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Effects of an High-Fat Diet Enriched in Lard or in Fish Oil on the Hypothalamic Amp-Activated Protein Kinase and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Mollica, Maria Pina; Lionetti, Lillà; Cavaliere, Gina; Trinchese, Giovanna; De Filippo, Chiara; Chieffi, Sergio; Gaita, Marcello; Barletta, Antonio; De Luca, Bruno; Crispino, Marianna; Monda, Marcellino

    2016-01-01

    The high fat diet (HFD) rich in lard induces obesity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and the deregulation of hypothalamic nuclei plays an important role in this mechanism. One important factor involved in the food intake and inflammation is adenosine monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK), a serine/threonine kinase activated by phosphorylation. Omega (ω)3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are dietary compounds known to attenuate the obesity-related diseases, although the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions in the hypothalamus are not completely understood. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of PUFA may be mediated by AMPK in the hypothalamus. To this aim, rats were fed a control diet (CD), or isocaloric HFD containing either fish oil (FD; rich in ω3-PUFA) or lard for 6 weeks, and the activation of AMPK, inflammatory state (IKKβ, TNF-α) and oxidative stress were analyzed in the hypothalamus. In addition, we also studied serum lipid profile, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and pro-inflammatory parameters. Our results showed, at the hypothalamic level of LD-fed rats, an increase of AMPK activation, inflammation and oxidative stress, while no modifications were detected in FD-fed animals compared to CD. In addition body weight gain, serum lipid profile, pro-inflammatory parameters and insulin resistance were reduced in FD animals compared to LD. In conclusion, our data indicate that the substitution of saturated by unsaturated fatty acids in the diet has beneficial effects on modulation of hypothalamic inflammation and function in obesity, underlying, at hypothalamic level, the interaction among insulin and/or leptin resistance, AMPK activation and hyperphagia. PMID:27375435

  14. The mAb against adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2E4 attenuates the inflammation in the mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity via toll-like receptor 4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wang; Lv, Xiaobo; Wang, Min; Yin, Hongping

    2015-03-05

    Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) plays an important role in fatty acid-mediated processes and related metabolic and inflammatory responses. In this study, we prepared a novel monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, designated 2E4. Our data showed that 2E4 specifically binded to the recombinant A-FABP and native A-FABP of mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of 2E4 on metabolic and inflammatory responses in C57BL/6J obese mice fed on a high fat diet. 2E4 administration improved glucose response in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. The 2E4 treated groups exhibited lower free fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue, including tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and interleukin-6. Meanwhile, our data demonstrated that 2E4 significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of A-FABP in adipose tissue of mice. Further experiments showed that 2E4 notably suppressed the phosphorylation of IκBα and jun-N-terminal kinase through toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. Taken together, 2E4 is an effective monoclonal antibody against A-FABP, which attenuated the inflammatory responses induced in the high-fat-diet mice. These findings may provide scientific insight into the treatment of chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A proteomics study reveals a predominant change in MaoB expression in platelets of healthy volunteers after high protein meat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Jakobsen, Lene Holm

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating the impact of high meat intake on cognition have yielded contradictory results as some show improved cognitive performance, whereas others report an increase of risk factors for dementia. However, few studies were designed to directly assess the effect of a high protein (HP)...... showed improved cognitive function and counteract well-known dementia biomarkers such as platelet MaoB and components of the methylation cycle such as vitamin B(12) and homocysteine....

  16. Effect of high-fat diet on hepatic proteomics of hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Chung; Lin, Ya-Lin; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-02-18

    A high-fat diet contributes to the etiology of metabolic diseases. As the liver plays a crucial role in metabolism, an insight into the hepatic proteomics will help to illustrate the physiological effect of a high-fat diet. Fourteen nine-week old male Syrian hamsters were maintained on either control (C) or high-fat (HF) diets (0.2% cholesterol +22% fat) for 8 weeks. Hamsters were chosen because they show close similarity to human lipid metabolism. At the end of study, blood and livers were collected for analysis. Liver proteins were fractionated by electrophoresis, digested by trypsin, and then separated by label-free nano-LC/MS/MS. The TurboSequest algorithm was used to identify the peptide sequences against the hamster database in Universal Proteins Resource Knowledgebase (UniProt). The results indicate that 1191 hepatic proteins were identified and 135 of them were expressed differentially in the high-fat group (p diet had significantly (p diet also had significantly (p diet (p diet (p diet (p diet, including carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1), ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase 1 (ARG 1). Post-translational modifications (PTM) of ANXA3, ANXA5, and XDH were also analyzed. A set of differentially expressed proteins were identified as molecular markers for elucidating the pathological mechanism of high-fat diet.

  17. Effects of Selected Protein Diets on Biochemical profiles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare, using randomized controlled design, the metabolic effects of four low-protein diets, A, B, C and D obtained from different protein sources, in out-patients with moderate Chronic Renal Failure (CRF). Thirty two adult outpatients (20 males and 12 females) aged 43.9+17.3 years were ...

  18. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or SSMP diet.

  20. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  1. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookaew, Intawat; Gabrielsson, Britt G; Holmäng, Agneta; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Nielsen, Jens

    2010-08-24

    Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/-) mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  2. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  3. Growth response of broiler chickens to finisher diets containing high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of including high amounts of wheat bran (WB) in finisher diets on growth performance and economy of gain of broiler chickens. The WB contained g kg-1 of dry matter, 894.3; crude protein, 193.5; ether extract, 42.1; crude fibre, 97.1; ash, 49.5; neutral detergent fibre, 503.8; acid detergent ...

  4. Effects of a High Protein and Omega-3-Enriched Diet with or Without Creatine Supplementation on Markers of Soreness and Inflammation During 5 Consecutive Days of High Volume Resistance Exercise in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hayward, Colin D. Wilborn, Lem W. Taylor, Stacie L. Urbina, Jordan J. Outlaw, Cliffa A. Foster, Michael D. Roberts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4 followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8. Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a no intervention (CTL, n = 10 b a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d (DI, n = 8, and c the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d (DI+C, n = 10. During week 9, participants resistance-trained for five consecutive days whereby 8 sets of 10 target repetitions at 70% one repetition maximum (1RM were performed each day for bench press, back squat, deadlift, and hip-thrusters with the intent of eliciting muscle soreness and inflammation. Prior to and 24 h following each of the 5 bouts muscle soreness (DOMS was assessed via questionnaire, and fasting blood was obtained and analyzed for serum cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. No group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for training volume over the 5-d overreaching protocol. Furthermore, no group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for serum cortisol, IL-6 or CRP, and DOMS actually decreased in all groups 24 h following the fifth day training bout. This study demonstrates that, regardless of protein, omega-3 fatty acid and/or creatine supplementation, 5 days of consecutive resistance training does not alter perceived muscle soreness, training volume, and/or markers of inflammation in novice resistance-trained females.

  5. Diets higher in dairy foods and dietary protein support bone health during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss in overweight and obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Andrea R; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Consolidation and maintenance of peak bone mass in young adulthood may be compromised by inactivity, low dietary calcium, and diet-induced weight loss. We aimed to determine whether higher intakes of dairy foods, dietary calcium, and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss affected markers of bone health. Participants included premenopausal overweight and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized into three groups (n = 30 per group): high protein and high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein and medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein and low dairy (APLD), differing in dietary protein (30, 15, or 15% of energy, respectively), dairy foods (15, 7.5, or protein, respectively), and dietary calcium (∼1600, ∼1000, or dietary calcium, and protein with daily exercise, favorably affected important bone health biomarkers vs. diets with less of these bone-supporting nutrients.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Chung Hun Wha Dam Tang (CHWDT on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jamal Uddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chung Hun Wha Dam Tang (CHWDT herbal combination was reported to cease dizziness and phlegm. However, the effect of CHWDT in obesity has not yet been known mechanically. Therefore, we investigated whether this CHWDT could protect the cells from lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation in both in vivo and in vitro. CHWDT significantly decreased body weight, epididymal and perirenal fat content without affecting feed intake in high-fat diet-induced obese mice model. Additionally, CHWDT inhibited obesity-induced SREBP1, FAS, PGC1α, G6Pase, PEPCK and increased CPT1, ACO, and LCAD genes expression in vivo and in vitro. Proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and iNOS expression were reduced by CHWDT in both Raw264.7 macrophages and HepG2 cells. In addition, NO production was also significantly decreased by CHWDT in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, AMPKα activation by CHWDT was involved in inhibition of obesity by reducing triglycerides production and increasing CPT1 expression. Based on all of the results, we suggest that CHWDT has inhibitory effects on obesity-induced lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation via AMPKα activation.

  7. EFEK DIET TINGGI KARBOHIDRAT DAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK TERHADAP KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH DAN KEPADATAN SEL BETA PANKREAS PADA TIKUS WISTAR (EFFECT OF HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIET AND HIGH FAT DIET ON BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BETA CELL PANCREAS DENSITY IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Mutiyani

    2014-12-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and obesity associated with the increasing risk of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and death both in less developed and developed countries in the world. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increasES every year. The aim of this study was to assess blood glucose level using Glucose Oksidase (GOD-PAP and beta cell pancreas density using microscope.  Blood glucose concentration and beta cell pancreas density were compared in rats fed isocalorically a high carbohydrate diet for 12 w (80,57% carbohydrate, 14% protein, and 5.41% fat or a high fat diet for 12 w (55,63% carbohydrate; 14,25% protein; and 30,10% fat. At the end of the study, high carbohydrate rats had higher blood glucose concentration than the high fat group (293.57 mg/dl. High carbohydrate and high fat diet both resulted in elevated beta cell pancreas density, but the density was seen lowest in high carbohydrate fed (45,06 mm2. The findings suggest that both high carbohydrate and high fat fed elevated blood glucose concentration and decreased the density of beta cell in rats. Keywords: high carbohydrate diet, high fat diet, blood glucose, beta cell pancreas density

  8. Effects of protein and fat concentration in coproduct-based growing calf diets on performance and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, J R; Faulkner, D B; Retallick, K M; Shike, D W

    2014-12-01

    Angus×Simmental crossbred heifers (n=150) and steers (n=100) were used to evaluate 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) a corn-based growing diet (CRN); 2) a high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; 3) a high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend; 4) a low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend; and 5) a low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend in a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Low-protein and low-fat diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isofat to CRN (16.0% CP and 3.0% fat), and high-protein and high-fat diets were formulated to have 20.0% CP and 5.0% fat, respectively. Calves were weaned at 85±1.2 d, blocked by weight, and allotted to pens (10 calves/pen) within sex (10 pens of steers and 15 pens of heifers). The objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of protein or fat or their interaction in coproducts used in growing diets fed to early-weaned calves affects feedlot performance or carcass composition. Starting on d 0, calves (141±1.2 d of age) were fed experimental diets for 112 d and then fed a common feedlot diet for an additional 112 d. Body weight, hip height, and ultrasound data were collected at the end of each 112-d feeding phase. Carcass data included HCW, LM area (LMA), 12th-rib back fat (BF), marbling score (MS), KPH, and USDA quality grade. There was no fat×protein interaction (P≥0.27); therefore, only main effects are discussed. No effects (P≥0.47) of CRN, protein, or fat were detected for BW at d 112 or 224. Increased dietary protein resulted in greater (P=0.04) ADG at d 112 compared to calves fed low protein. Feeding cattle CRN decreased (P=0.04) DMI and increased (Pdiets increased (P=0.05) BF in calves at d 112 compared to low-fat diets. High-protein diets decreased (P=0.02) ultrasound MS at d 112 compared to low-protein diets. Carcasses from cattle fed high-fat diets had greater (P=0.03) MS compared to those from cattle fed low-fat diets. No differences (P≥0.14) were observed for HCW, LMA, BF, KPH, or yield grade. These data

  9. Effects of different protein and glycemic index diets on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Marjet J; Geraedts, Maartje C; Saris, Wim H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary glycemic index (GI) and protein affects postprandial insulin responses and consequently 24 h glucose metabolism and therefore substrate partitioning. This study investigated the mechanistic effects of different protein and GI diets on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning. After 3 days of diet and physical activity standardization, 10 healthy male subjects (BMI: 22.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) stayed in a respiration chamber 4 times for 36 h each time to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received four isoenergetic diets: a normal (15En%) dairy protein and low GI (60 units) (NDP-HGI) diet. During the day, blood was sampled at fixed time points for the measurement of metabolic markers and satiety hormones. The HDP-LGI diet increased 24 h protein oxidation and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p carbohydrate and fat oxidation (day and night) were found between all intervention diets. Net incremental area under the curve (net iAUC) of 24 h plasma glucose decreased in the HDP-LGI diet compared with the NDP-LGI diet (p insulin levels. No difference in appetite profiles were observed between all intervention diets. The lower 24 h glycemic profile as a result of a high dairy protein diet did not lead to changes in 24 h substrate partitioning in lean healthy subjects with a normal insulin sensitivity.

  10. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: effects on exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S T; Vissing, J

    2008-12-01

    Two single case studies suggest that a protein-rich diet may be beneficial for patients with McArdle disease, based on improvements in either endurance or muscle energetics, as assessed by phosphorous MR spectroscopy. In healthy subjects, proteins contribute very little to energy metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. In a crossover, open design, we studied seven patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for 3 days before testing. Calorific intake on each diet was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. During the constant workload, heart rate and perceived exertion were consistently lower (pexercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to everyday activities, but will probably also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease.

  11. Does low-protein diet improve broiler performance under heat stress conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Furlan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition for broilers under high temperatures is extremely important for brazilian broiler chicken industry because the amounts of consumed nutrients and environmental temperature have great effects on bird performance and carcass quality. Among diet nutrients, protein has the highest heat increment; thus, during many years, diets with low protein level were recommended in order to reduce heat production in broiler chickens under heat stress. However, reports have shown that low-protein diets have negative effects on broiler performance when environmental temperature is high, because during heat stress, low food intake associated to a low diet protein induce amino acid deficiencies. Other studies have shown that broilers fed low-protein diets increase their energy requirement for maintenance with higher heat production. Thus, with the growth of broiler industry in tropical areas more challenges need to be faced by the farmers. So, both the ambient and nutritional conditions ought to be well managed to avoid negative effects on poultry production once they can affect the metabolism (body heat production under low temperature and body heat dissipation under high temperature with consequence on poultry performance (meat and eggs.

  12. Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Nazha, Marta; Capizzi, Irene; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Consiglio, Valentina; Mongilardi, Elena; Bilocati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Versino, Elisabetta

    2016-12-07

    There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored). Dialysis-free follow-up and survival were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves according to diet, comorbidity and age. Compliance and metabolic control were estimated in 147 subjects on diet at March 2015, with recent complete data, prescribed protein intake 0.6 g/Kg/day. Protein intake was assessed by Maroni Mitch formula. Four hundreds and forty nine patients followed a LPD in December, 2007- March, 2015 (90% moderately restricted LPDs, 0.6 g/Kg/day of protein, 10% at lower targets); age (median 70 (19-97)) and comorbidity (Charlson index: 7) characterized our population as being in line with the usual CKD European population. Median e-GFR at start of the diet was 20 mL/min, 33.2% of the patients were diabetics. Baseline data differ significantly across diets: protein-free schemas are preferred by older, high-comorbidity patients (median age 76 years, Charlson index 8, GFR 20.5 mL/min, Proteinuria: 0.3 g/day), supplemented vegan diets by younger patients with lower GFR and higher proteinuria (median age 65 years, Charlson index 6, GFR 18.9 mL/min; Proteinuria: 1.2 g/day); other diets are chosen by an intermediate population (median age 71 years, Charlson index 6; GFR 22.5 mL/min; Proteinuria: 0.9 g/day); (p <0.001 for age, Charlson index, proteinuria, GFR

  13. Low-protein diet changes thyroid function in lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C F; Teixeira, C V; Passos, M C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Curty, F H; de Moura, E G

    2000-09-01

    Lactating rats were fed with free access to an 8% protein-restricted diet (PR); the control group was fed a 23% protein diet (C). An energy-restricted (pair-fed) group was given the same food as the animals in the control group, but the amounts of food consumed by both PF and PR were about the same. The body weight and serum albumin concentration of PR and PF dams were significantly (P thyroid I131 uptake (67%, 64%, and 74%, respectively). Protein malnutrition during lactation did not alter thyroid or liver 5'-deiodinase activity significantly. However, PF dams had a significantly lower (25%) thyroid 5'-deiodinase activity. These data suggest that protein-restricted lactating dams had an adaptive change in the thyroid function, which could be important to increase the transference of iodine or triiodothyronine through the milk to their pups and prevent sequelae of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  14. Postweaning low-calcium diet promotes later-life obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Li, Song-Tao; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Guan; He, Ying; Liao, Xi-Lu; Sun, Chang-Hao; Li, Ying

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a postweaning low-calcium diet on later obesity and explore the underlying mechanisms. Ninety-six male rats were weaned at 3 weeks of age, fed standard (STD: 0.50% calcium, n=48) and low-calcium (LC: 0.15% calcium, n=48) diets for 3 weeks, and then fed the standard diet for a 3-week washout period successively. Finally, the STD rats were divided into STD control and high-fat diet (HFD) groups, and the LC ones into LC control and LC+HFD (LCHF) groups. The STD and LC rats were fed the standard diet, while the HFD control and LCFD ones were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. During the three feeding periods, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its responsive proteins phospho-acetyl-coA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 3 were persistently down-regulated in the LC group (decreased by 18%, 24%, 18% and 20%, respectively) versus the STD group, and these effects were significantly more pronounced in the LCHFD group (decreased by 21%, 30%, 23% and 25%, respectively) than the HFD group by a later high-fat stimuli, causing more fat and body weight in adulthood. However, lipolysis enzymes, serum leptin, insulin and lipids were not significantly affected until the body weight and fat content changed at 15 weeks of age. The results suggest that the low-calcium diet after weaning promotes rat adult-onset obesity induced by high-fat diet, which might be achieved by programming expressions of genes involved in AMPK pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ( Archachatina marginata ) to diets containing quality protein maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to determine the effects of inclusion of quality protein maize (QPM) as substitute for normal maize in the diet of growing snails on feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency, shell growth, and carcass composition. A total of one hundred and twenty growing snails of relatively the same size were ...

  16. Protein consumption and sustainability: Diet diversity in EU-15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Helms, M.; Aiking, H.

    2006-01-01

    In search of viable ways to create more sustainable diets, it is extremely valuable to analyse how people in various countries are supplied with dietary proteins from plant-based and animal-based sources. As a cross-national comparison of food ingredients may easily lead to misleading

  17. Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was to assess the effect of feeding low protein diet with or without supplemental lysine to meet NRC (1998) requirement on growth performance, carcass trait, meat composition, and meat quality of pigs. An experiment of 126 days was conducted on 21 crossbred Landrace pigs (average weight 11.72 ...

  18. Sirt1 Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Damage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul T. Pfluger; Daniel Herranz; Susana Velasco-Miguel; Manuel Serrano; Matthias H. Tschöp

    2008-01-01

    .... Mammalian Sirt1 is a protein deacetylase that has been involved in resveratrol-mediated protection from high-fat diet-induced metabolic damage, but direct proof for the implication of Sirt1 has remained elusive...

  19. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  20. Effect of protein deficient diets on the growth and carcass protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the prices of fish feed ingredients continue to soar due to economic and environmental challenges, many fish farmers now produce practical fish diets deficient in protein, to minimize costs and maximize profits. This study evaluated the effects of such diets on the growth performance and carcass quality of African catfish, ...

  1. The postprandial use of dietary amino acids as an energy substrate is delayed after the deamination process in rats adapted for 2 weeks to a high protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, Claire; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick; Luengo, Catherine; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of dietary amino acids (AA) to energy metabolism under high protein (HP) diets, using a double tracer method to follow simultaneously the metabolic fate of α-amino groups and carbon skeletons. Sixty-seven male Wistar rats were fed a normal (NP) or HP diet for 14 days. Fifteen of them were equipped with a permanent catheter. On day 15, after fasting overnight, they received a 4-g meal extrinsically labeled with a mixture of 20 U-[(15)N]-[(13)C] AA. Energy metabolism, dietary AA deamination and oxidation and their transfer to plasma glucose were measured kinetically for 4 h in the catheterized rats. The transfer of dietary AA to liver glycogen was determined at 4 h. The digestive kinetics of dietary AA, their transfer into liver AA and proteins and the liver glycogen content were measured in the 52 other rats that were killed sequentially hourly over a 4-h period. [(15)N] and [(13)C] kinetics in the splanchnic protein pools were perfectly similar. Deamination increased fivefold in HP rats compared to NP rats. In the latter, all deaminated AA were oxidized. In HP rats, the oxidation rate was slower than deamination, so that half of the deaminated AA was non-oxidized within 4 h. Non-oxidized carbon skeletons were poorly sequestrated in glycogen, although there was a significant postprandial production of hepatic glycogen. Our results strongly suggest that excess dietary AA-derived carbon skeletons above the ATP production capacity, are temporarily retained in intermediate metabolic pools until the oxidative capacities of the liver are no longer overwhelmed by an excess of substrates.

  2. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β......-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected...

  3. The Effect of Vegan Protein-Based Diets on Metabolic Parameters, Expressions of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Song, Jia; Chen, Yan; Ding, Qiang; Peng, Anfang; Mao, Limei

    2016-10-18

    Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet), soy protein (SOY), and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM). Changes in metabolic parameters as well as the expressions of adiponectin and its receptors were identified. Compared to CAS diet, both SOY and GSM diets led to decreases in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides, but only GSM diet led to an increase in HDL-cholesterol; no marked difference was observed in blood glucose in all three groups; HOMA-IR was found lower only in SOY group. Among groups, the order of serum adiponectin level was found as GSM > SOY > CAS. Similar order pattern was also observed in expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue and AdipoR1 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Our results suggested for the first time that, besides SOY diet, GSM diet could also be a possible substitute of animal protein to prevent MetS.

  4. The Effect of Vegan Protein-Based Diets on Metabolic Parameters, Expressions of Adiponectin and Its Receptors in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegan protein-based diet has attracted increasing interest in the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Meanwhile, adiponectin has become a highly potential molecular target in the prevention of MetS. Our study will identify a potential vegan protein diet for the prevention of MetS using rat models. Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups and given diets containing one of the following proteins for 12 weeks: casein (CAS, control diet, soy protein (SOY, and gluten-soy mixed protein (GSM. Changes in metabolic parameters as well as the expressions of adiponectin and its receptors were identified. Compared to CAS diet, both SOY and GSM diets led to decreases in blood total cholesterol and triglycerides, but only GSM diet led to an increase in HDL-cholesterol; no marked difference was observed in blood glucose in all three groups; HOMA-IR was found lower only in SOY group. Among groups, the order of serum adiponectin level was found as GSM > SOY > CAS. Similar order pattern was also observed in expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue and AdipoR1 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Our results suggested for the first time that, besides SOY diet, GSM diet could also be a possible substitute of animal protein to prevent MetS.

  5. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  6. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  8. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins

  9. Downregulation of Cellular Protective Factors of Rumen Epithelium in Goats Fed High Energy Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Hollmann; Ingrid Miller; Karin Hummel; Sonja Sabitzer; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Qendrim Zebeli

    2013-01-01

    Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 sp...

  10. High dietary protein intake and protein-related acid load on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is an essential nutrient for humans and is required for maintaining optimal bone structure and growth. Consumption of high protein diets in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of (0.8 g protein/kg body weight/d) is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lea...

  11. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  12. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  13. High-fat diet enhances and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficiency reduces bone loss in mice with pulmonary metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is adversely affected by metastasis and metastasis-associated complications. Obesity is a risk factor for both bone and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces pro-inflammatory adipokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), that contribute to obesity and obesit...

  14. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. However, it is not known whether maternal undernutrition increases ATM phenotypic expression in F1 offspring. Us...

  15. Effect of prescribing a high protein diet and increasing the dose of dialysis on nutrition in stable chronic haemodialysis patients : a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; Kremer Hovinga, T; Vastenburg, G; Vos, P; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    Background. Protein requirements in stable, adequately dialysed haemodialysis patients are not known and recommendations vary. It is not known whether increasing the dialysis dose above the accepted adequate level has a favourable effect on nutrition. The aim of this study was to determine whether

  16. High-Fat-Diet-Induced Deficits in Dopamine Terminal Function Are Reversed by Restoring Insulin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Jones, Sara R

    2017-02-15

    Systemically released insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to insulin receptors on several neural cell types, including dopaminergic neurons. Insulin has been shown to decrease dopamine neuron firing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but potentiate release and reuptake at dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here we show that prolonged consumption of a high fat diet blocks insulin's effects in the NAc, but insulin's effects are restored by inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which supports insulin receptor signaling. Mice fed a high fat diet (60% kcals from fat) displayed significantly higher fasting blood glucose 160 mg/dL, compared to 101 mg/dL for control-diet-fed mice, and high-fat-diet-fed mice showed reduced blood glucose clearance after an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Using fast scan cyclic voltammetry to measure electrically evoked dopamine in brain slices containing the NAc core, high-fat-diet-fed mice exhibited slower dopamine reuptake compared to control-diet-fed mice (2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.67 ± 0.15 μM/s, respectively). Moreover, glucose clearance rate was negatively correlated with Vmax. Insulin (10 nM to 1 μM) dose dependently increased reuptake rates in control-diet-fed mice compared with in the high-fat-diet group; however, the small molecule insulin receptor sensitizing agent, TCS 401 (300 nM), restored reuptake in high-fat-diet-fed mice to control-diet levels, and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin receptor, BMS 536924 (300 nM), attenuated reuptake, similar to high-fat-diet-fed mice. These data show that a high-fat diet impairs dopamine reuptake by attenuating insulin signaling at dopamine terminals.

  17. Fructo-oligosaccharides reduce energy intake but do not affect adiposity in rats fed a low-fat diet but increase energy intake and reduce fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Rasoamanana, Rojo; Fromentin, Gilles; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Even, Patrick C; Gaudichon, Claire; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Chaumontet, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    The ingestion of low or high lipid diets enriched with fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects energy homeostasis. Ingesting protein diets also induces a depression of energy intake and decreases body weight. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of FOS, combined or not with a high level of protein (P), to affect energy intake and body composition when included in diets containing different levels of lipids (L). We performed two studies of similar design over a period of 5weeks. During the first experiment (exp1), after a 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-low fat diet, the rats received one of the following four diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein (14% P/E (Energy) low fat (10% L/E) diet, (ii) normal protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein (55%P/E) low fat diet, and (iv) high protein, low fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In a second experiment (exp2) after the 3-week period of adaptation to a normal protein-high fat diet, the rats received one of the following 4 diets for 5weeks (6 rats per group): (i) normal protein, high fat diet (35% of fat), (ii) normal protein, high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS, (iii) high protein high fat diet and (iv) high protein high fat diet supplemented with 10% FOS. In low-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass but the protein level reduced fat mass and tended to reduce adiposity. In high-fat fed rats, FOS did not affect LBM but reduced fat mass and adiposity. No additive or antagonistic effects between FOS and the protein level were observed. FOS reduced energy intake in low-fat fed rats, did not affect energy intake in normal-protein high-fat fed rats but surprisingly, and significantly, increased energy intake in high-protein high-fat fed rats. The results thus showed that FOS added to a high-fat diet reduced body fat and body adiposity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Caralluma fimbriata and metformin protection of rat pancreas from high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2018-02-01

    A high fat diet promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the development of pancreatic fibrosis. We compared the protective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) to metformin (Met) in the pancreas of Wistar rats fed a high fat diet. The experimental animals were divided into five groups: control (C), treated with CFE (C + CFE), treated with high fat diet (HFD), high fat diet treated with CFE (HFD + CFE), and high fat diet treated with metformin (Met) (HFD + Met). CFE was administered orally to groups C + CFE and HFD + CFE rats for 90 days. Met was given to the HFD + Met group. After 90 days, oxidative stress markers in the pancreas including reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid oxidation (LO), protein oxidation (PO), and activities of antioxidant and polyol pathway enzymes, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) were assayed and tissue histology was examined. Establishment of oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats was verified by elevated LO and PO, decreased GSH, decreased activities of antioxidants and increased activities of polyol pathway enzymes. Oxidative stress was prevented in HFD + CFE and HFD + Met groups. Group C + CFE exhibited improved antioxidant status compared to group C. CFE treatment prevented high fat diet induced acinar cell degeneration, necrosis, edema and hemorrhage. CFE could be used as adjuvant therapy for preventing or managing high fat diet induced pancreatic damage.

  19. APD668, a G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist improves fat tolerance and attenuates fatty liver in high-trans fat diet induced steatohepatitis model in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahirat, Umakant Ashok; Shenoy, Rekha Raghuveer; Goel, Rajan Naresh; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2017-04-15

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) receptor is a rhodopsin-like, class A Gαs-coupled receptor, predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet cells and intestinal entero-endocrine cells. GPR119 has been emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone and in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on oral fat tolerance test. Our findings demonstrate that APD668, a GPR119 agonist inhibits the intestinal triglyceride absorption after acute fat load in mice. Single dose administration of APD668 increases incretin secretion and enhances total PYY levels in presence of fat load in mice. We found that, the anti-dyslipidemic action of APD668 was reversed in presence of exendin-3 in oral fat tolerance test. In addition, our results showed that exendin-3 (9-39) failed to block the effect of APD668 on gastric emptying indicating that gastric emptying effects of APD668 are indeed mediated through GPR119 receptor dependent mechanism. Combined administration of APD668 and linagliptin significantly increased plasma active GLP-1 levels in-vivo and showed improvement in fat tolerance. However, APD668 failed to show anti-dyslipidemic activity in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the chronic effects of APD668 on hepatic steatosis in high trans-fat diet fed steatohepatitis model in mice. Oral administration of APD668 in HTF diet fed mice ameliorated hepatic endpoints such as plasma ALT, AST, liver weight and steatosis. These findings suggest that GPR119 agonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tous, N.; Lizardo, R.; Vilà, B.; Gispert, M.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Esteve-Garcia, E.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of dietary crude protein (CP) reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF) content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc) × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg) were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each): four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu) and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids). The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05), final weight (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) and average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05) in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01) and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05). Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  1. Addition of arginine and leucine to low or normal protein diets: performance, carcass characteristics and intramuscular fat of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Tous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary crude protein (CP reduction, supplementation with arginine or leucine on intramuscular fat (IMF content was evaluated in (Landrace × Duroc × Pietrain pigs. One-hundred and eight barrows (67 ± 4 kg were assigned to six diets (n=6 pens of 3 pigs each: four normal CP diets containing 16% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 13% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (normal protein; normal protein high Arg, normal protein high Leu or normal protein high Arg and Leu and two low CP diets containing 14% CP from 60 to 90 kg and 11.8% CP from 90 to 115 kg live weight (with or without supplementation of both amino acids. The high Leu and Arg diets were supplemented to obtain ratios of standard ileal digestible Leu/Lys and Arg/Lys of 4 and 2, respectively. While feed to gain ratio tended to increase (p<0.05, final weight (p<0.01, average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.05 and average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 were reduced in animals fed low-protein diets supplemented with Arg and Leu compared to the ones fed low-protein diet unsupplemented. Marbling and IMF content in loin were reduced when Arg was supplemented (p<0.05 in normal protein diets. Supplementing these diets with Arg also reduced belly weight (p<0.01 and increased lean meat percentage (p<0.05. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, reduction of CP or dietary supplementation with Leu had no effect on IMF content and supplementation with Arg reduced it.

  2. Postprandial changes in cardiometabolic disease risk in young Chinese men following isocaloric high or low protein diets, stratified by either high or low meal frequency - a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Alexander; Haldar, Sumanto; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-03-15

    Cardio-Metabolic Disease (CMD) is the leading cause of death globally and particularly in Asia. Postprandial elevation of glycaemia, insulinaemia, triglyceridaemia are associated with an increased risk of CMD. While studies have shown that higher protein intake or increased meal frequency may benefit postprandial metabolism, their combined effect has rarely been investigated using composite mixed meals. We therefore examined the combined effects of increasing meal frequency (2-large vs 6-smaller meals), with high or low-protein (40 % vs 10 % energy from protein respectively) isocaloric mixed meals on a range of postprandial CMD risk markers. In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy Chinese males (Age: 29 ± 7 years; BMI: 21.9 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) underwent 4 dietary treatments: CON-2 (2 large Low-Protein meals), CON-6 (6 Small Low-Protein meals), PRO-2 (2 Large High-Protein meals) and PRO-6 (6 Small High-Protein meals). Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at regular intervals for 8.5 h to monitor postprandial changes in glucose, insulin, triglycerides and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Blood pressure was measured at regular intervals pre- and post- meal consumption. Urine was collected to measure excretion of creatinine and F2-isoprostanes and its metabolites over the 8.5 h postprandial period. The high-protein meals, irrespective of meal frequency were beneficial for glycaemic health since glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for PRO-2 (185 ± 166 mmol.min.L(-1)) and PRO-6 (214 ± 188 mmol.min.L(-1)) were 66 and 60 % lower respectively (both p postprandial responses in other measurements between the dietary treatments. The consumption of composite meals with higher protein content, irrespective of meal frequency appears to be beneficial for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in young, healthy Chinese males. Implications of this study may be useful in the Asian

  3. A High Fiber and Vegetable Protein Diet is Associated with Low Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Young Oligo-amenorrheic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Elizabeth; Sokoloff, Natalia Cano; Maffazioli, Giovana D. N.; Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Woolley, Ryan; Holmes, Tara M.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations of bone mineral density (BMD) with specific food components, including dietary fiber and isoflavones (that have a negative association with serum estrogen), are unclear and need to be determined, particularly in a population more likely to consume large amounts of these nutrients (such as young athletes). Objective To determine dietary intake of specific food components in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA) compared to eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA), and associations of the dietary intake of these nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Design and Subjects This cross-sectional study evaluated 68 OA, 24 EA, and 26 NA 14–23 years old. Measurements included four-day food records (assessed using Nutrient Data System for Research software), a DXA scan evaluating lumbar spine BMD and body composition, and hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate associations of nutrients with lumbar spine BMD. Results Compared with EA and NA, OA had higher intake of fiber, phytic acid, and vegetable protein (pisoflavones, genistein and daidzein, was higher in OA than NA (p=0.003 and 0.0002 respectively). OA had lower consumption of energy from saturated fatty acids (%SFA) than NA (p=0.002). After controlling for confounders such as body weight, menstrual status (indicative of estrogen status), calcium intake, and serum vitamin D (known BMD determinants), lumbar spine BMD Z-scores were inversely associated with dietary fiber [β coefficient (β)= −0.30; p=0.01], vegetable protein (β = −0.28, p=0.02), phytic acid (β = −0.27, p=0.02), genistein (β = −0.25, p=0.01), and daidzein (β = −0.24, p=0.01), and positively with %SFA (β =0.32, p=0.0006)]. Conclusions Compared to EA and NA, OA had a higher dietary intake of fiber, vegetable protein and phytic acid, which were inversely associated with lumbar spine BMD Z-scores. Further studies are needed to assess dietary recommendations for OA to optimize bone accrual. PMID:26686817

  4. Formononetin, an isoflavone, activates AMP-activated protein kinase/β-catenin signalling to inhibit adipogenesis and rescues C57BL/6 mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jyoti; Khedgikar, Vikram; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Dixit, Preety; Singh, Divya; Maurya, Rakesh; Trivedi, Ritu

    2017-03-01

    Balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation is the key link of disease progression in obesity and osteoporosis. We have previously reported that formononetin (FNT), an isoflavone extracted from Butea monosperma, stimulates osteoblast formation and protects against postmenopausal bone loss. The inverse relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes prompted us to analyse the effect of FNT on adipogenesis and in vivo bone loss, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of FNT was determined in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese male mice. Our findings show that FNT suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, through down-regulation of key adipogenic markers such as PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and inhibits intracellular TAG accumulation. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation accompanied by stabilisation of β-catenin were attributed to the anti-adipogenic action of FNT. In vivo, 12 weeks of FNT treatment inhibited the development of obesity in mice by attenuating HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. The anti-obesity effect of FNT results from increased energy expenditure. FNT also protects against HFD-induced dyslipidaemia and rescues deterioration of trabecular bone volume by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorbtion caused by HFD. FNT's rescuing action against obesity-induced osteoporosis commenced at the level of progenitors, as bone marrow progenitor cells, obtained from the HFD mice group supplemented with FNT, showed increased osteogenic and decreased adipogenic potentials. Our findings suggest that FNT inhibits adipogenesis through AMPK/β-catenin signal transduction pathways and protects against HFD-induced obesity and bone loss.

  5. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Syun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH, a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day and probucol (500 mg/kg/day. APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  6. The Heart Protection Effect of Alcalase Potato Protein Hydrolysate Is through IGF1R-PI3K-Akt Compensatory Reactivation in Aging Rats on High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Syun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Chiang, Wen-Dee; Pai, Peiying; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Chang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-05-05

    The prevalence of obesity is high in older adults. Alcalase potato protein hydrolysate (APPH), a nutraceutical food, might have greater benefits and be more economical than hypolipidemic drugs. In this study, serum lipid profiles and heart protective effects were evaluated in high fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia in aging rats treated with APPH (15, 45 and 75 mg/kg/day) and probucol (500 mg/kg/day). APPH treatments reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels to the normal levels expressed in the control group. Additionally, the IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway was reactivated, and Fas-FADD (Fas-associated death domain) induced apoptosis was inhibited by APPH treatments (15 and 45 mg/kg/day) in HFD aging rat hearts. APPH (75 mg/kg/day) rather than probucol (500 mg/kg/day) treatment could reduce serum lipids without affecting HDL expression. The heart protective effect of APPH in aging rats with hyperlipidemia was through lowering serum lipids and enhancing the activation of the compensatory IGF1R-PI3K-Akt survival pathway.

  7. Effect of High-Fat Diet upon Inflammatory Markers and Aortic Stiffening in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bento Chaves Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle such as increase in high-fat food consumption are an important cause for vascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of ACE and TGF-β in the aorta stiffness induced by high-fat diet. C57BL/6 male mice were divided in two groups according to their diet for 8 weeks: standard diet (ST and high-fat diet (HF. At the end of the protocol, body weight gain, adipose tissue content, serum lipids and glucose levels, and aorta morphometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Analysis of collagen fibers by picrosirius staining of aorta slices showed that HF diet promoted increase of thin (55% and thick (100% collagen fibers deposition and concomitant disorganization of these fibers orientations in the aorta vascular wall (50%. To unravel the mechanism involved, myeloperoxidase (MPO and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE were evaluated by protein expression and enzyme activity. HF diet increased MPO (90% and ACE (28% activities, as well as protein expression of ACE. TGF-β was also increased in aorta tissue of HF diet mice after 8 weeks. Altogether, we have observed that the HF diet-induced aortic stiffening may be associated with increased oxidative stress damage and activation of the RAS in vascular tissue.

  8. The effect of protein inclusion level in diets formulated to contain an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of diets containing 14%, 16%, 18% or 20% crude protein. Lysine, tryptophan, threonine and total sulphur-containing amino acids were included in all diets at levels equivalent to that supplied by the 18% crude protein diet. In experiment one, 144 pigs (72 boars and 72 gilts) of initial mass 30 kg were ...

  9. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  10. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Wayne; Rivera, Osvaldo; Talbert, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control) diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation. PMID:29141990

  11. RNA-Sequencing of Drosophila melanogaster Head Tissue on High-Sugar and High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Hemphill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein, or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline. We subjected flies to variants of the high-sugar diet, high-fat diet, or normal (control diet, followed by a total RNA extraction from fly heads of each diet group for the purpose of Poly-A selected RNA-Sequencing. Our objective was to identify the effects of obesogenic diets on transcriptome patterns, how they differed between obesogenic diets, and identify genes that may relate to pathogenesis accompanying an obesity-like state. Gene ontology analysis indicated an overrepresentation of affected genes associated with immunity, metabolism, and hemocyanin in the high-fat diet group, and CHK, cell cycle activity, and DNA binding and transcription in the high-sugar diet group. Our results also indicate differences in the effects of the high-fat diet and high-sugar diet on expression profiles in head tissue of flies, despite the reportedly similar phenotypic impacts of the diets. The impacted genes, and how they may relate to pathogenesis in the Drosophila obesity-like state, warrant further experimental investigation.

  12. Nitrogen and food production: proteins for human diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smil, Vaclav

    2002-03-01

    Nitrogen was the most commonly yield-limiting nutrient in all pre-industrial agricultures. Only the Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia broke this barrier. The rising dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers, which represents the largest human interference in the biospheric N cycle, has two different roles. In affluent nations it helps to produce excess of food in general, and of animal foods in particular, and it boosts agricultural exports. But for at least a third of humanity in the world's most populous countries the use of N fertilizers makes the difference between malnutrition and adequate diet. Our understanding of human N (protein) needs has undergone many revisions and although some uncertainties still remain it is clear that average protein intakes are excessive in rich countries and inadequate for hundreds of millions of people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. More dietary protein will be needed to eliminate these disparities but the future global use of N fertilizers can be moderated not just by better agronomic practices but also by higher feeding efficiencies and by gradual changes of prevailing diets. As a result, it could be possible to supply adequate nutrition to the world's growing population without any massive increases of N inputs.

  13. The potential of blue lupins as a protein source, in the diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R.F. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Layers diets typically contain 15–20% soya due to its high crude protein content (ca. 36%. Reliance on soya for protein can result in large increases in cost of feed due to the law of supply and demand as a global commodity. Lupin grains have high protein content (35–40% but previous experience with white lupins has shown toxic effects in poultry due to high levels alkaloids and poor performance due to anti-nutritional Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. Here blue lupins either processed or whole were trialled for their potential as a protein source. Point of lay chickens (64 at 16 weeks of age were weighed and allocated to 16 coops of four hens. Coops, as the experimental unit, were randomly allocated to four treatments: layers mash with soya (Control; or layers mash with 150 g of lupin/kg diet with the lupin either: whole (Whole; dehulled (Dehulled or dehulled + a solid state fermentation enzyme extract (SSF; 150 g/tonne DM. All diets were ground and formulated to be balanced for energy, crude protein and essential amino acids using NIRS. No difference in growth rate, final hen weight, DM and water intake, eggs per day, mean egg weight, yellowness of yolk or chroma was found between treatments. There was a trend (P<0.1 for the SSF treatment to produce less heavy shells and a significant effect for the lupin treatments to have redder yolks (P<0.001. Fecal DM and bacterial counts were not different and there was no sign of enteritis or intestinal tissue hyperplasia from hen autopsies. Inclusion of blue lupins in the diet of laying hens at a rate of 150 g/kg DM resulted in no adverse effects in production or hen health and could be used as part of a balanced ration with inclusion of NSP degrading enzymes to reduce reliance on soya protein.

  14. degradable protein sources on performance of high-producing dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low-degradable protein sources. Diet A was formulated with only natural protein sources (55% UDP),diet A1 contained 1,6% urea in the total diet (41% UDP) and diet A2 contained 1,0% urea in the total diet. (47% UDP).The experimental diets were allocated to 21 cows per treatment from week 4 through 33 of lactation.

  15. Obesity-inducing diet promotes acylation stimulating protein resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Alexandre; Lapointe, Marc; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-08-02

    Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine derived from the immune complement system that is involved in energy homeostasis and inflammation. ASP acts on and correlates positively with postprandial fat clearance in healthy subjects. However, in obesity, ASP levels are elevated and correlate inversely with fat clearance, indicative of a potential resistance to ASP. Using a mouse model, we hypothesized that, over time, diet-induced obesity (DIO) would result in development of ASP insensitivity, as compared to chow-fed animals as controls. Injection of recombinant ASP in DIO mice failed to accelerate fat clearance to the same extent as in chow-fed mice. DIO mice exhibited higher basal levels of plasma ASP and, after 30weeks of diet, showed lower ASP receptor (C5L2) expression in adipose tissue compared to chow-fed mice. Additionally, ex vivo ASP stimulation failed to induce normal Ser(473)AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue from DIO mice VS chow-fed controls. These results demonstrate for the first time a state of diet-induced ASP resistance. Changes in the ASP-C5L2 pathway dynamics in obesity could alter the development of obesity and co-morbidities such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets on apparent digestibility of minerals and trace elements in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, Lena; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Menhofer, Dominik; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Kienzle, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diets reduce growth and bone mineral density in children with epilepsy and in rats. Part of this effect might be due to a reduced availability of calcium in high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to determine mineral digestibility by total collection method in LCHF diets compared with a chow diet and a standard high-fat diet (HFD, high in fat and carbohydrates). Twelve-wk-old male Wistar rats were pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of either six different LCHF diets based on tallow and casein (crude fat 75%-50%, crude protein 10%-35%), with chow or with a HFD diet. Mineral-to-energy ratio was matched in all diets. Circulating parathyroid hormone was measured by immunoassay. The apparent digestibility of calcium was reduced in all HFDs (high-fat diets, LCHF diets and the HFD diet) by at least 30% compared with the chow diet (P diet. The alteration of apparent calcium and phosphorus digestibility may affect the impact of HFDs on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein?losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative ca...

  18. Haploinsufficiency of the retinoblastoma protein gene reduces diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Ribot, Joan; Murano, Incoronata

    2009-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue activity dissipates energy as heat, and there is evidence that lack of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) may favor the development of the brown adipocyte phenotype in adipose cells. In this work we assessed the impact of germ-line haploinsufficiency of the pRb gene (Rb......) on the response to high fat diet feeding in mice. Rb(+/-) mice had body weight and adiposity indistinguishable from that of wild-type (Rb(+/+)) littermates when maintained on a standard diet, yet they gained less body weight and body fat after long-term high fat diet feeding, coupled to reduced feed efficiency...... and increased rectal temperature. Rb haploinsufficiency ameliorated insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis after high fat diet in male mice, in which these disturbances were more marked than in females. Compared to wild-type littermates Rb(+/-) mice fed a high fat diet displayed higher expression of peroxisome...

  19. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP, fatty acid synthase (FAS and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP. Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  20. Transcriptional responses of ecologically diverse Drosophila species to larval diets differing in relative sugar and protein ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor O Nazario-Yepiz

    Full Text Available We utilized three ecologically diverse Drosophila species to explore the influence of ecological adaptation on transcriptomic responses to isocaloric diets differing in their relative proportions of protein to sugar. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan species that breeds in decaying fruit, exemplifies individuals long exposed to a Western diet higher in sugar, while the natural diet of the cactophilic D. mojavensis, is much lower in carbohydrates. Drosophila arizonae, the sister species of D. mojavensis, is largely cactophilic, but also utilizes rotting fruits that are higher in sugars than cacti. We exposed third instar larvae for 24 hours to diets either (1 high in protein relative to sugar, (2 diets with equal amounts of protein and sugar, and (3 diets low in protein but high in sugar. As we predicted, based upon earlier interspecific studies of development and metabolism, the most extreme differences in gene expression under different dietary conditions were found in D. mojavensis followed by D. arizonae. No differential expression among diets was observed for D. melanogaster, a species that survives well under all three conditions, with little impact on its metabolism. We suggest that these three species together provide a model to examine individual and population differences in vulnerability to lifestyle-associated health problems such as metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  1. Niemann-Pick C2 protein expression regulates lithogenic diet-induced gallstone formation and dietary cholesterol metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa, Elisa; Morales, Gabriela; Aylwin, Paula; Carrasco, Gonzalo; Amigo, Ludwig; Castro, Juan; Rigotti, Attilio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C2 protein (NPC2) is a lysosomal soluble protein that is highly expressed in the liver; it binds to cholesterol and is involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking, allowing the exit of lysosomal cholesterol obtained via the lipoprotein endocytic pathway. Thus, this protein may play an important role in controlling hepatic cholesterol transport and metabolism. The aim of this work was to study the relevance of NPC2 protein expression in hepatic cholesterol metabolism, biliary lipid secretion and gallstone formation by comparing NPC2 hypomorph [NPC2 (h/h)] and wild-type mice fed control, 2% cholesterol, and lithogenic diets. NPC2 (h/h) mice exhibited resistance to a diet-induced increase in plasma cholesterol levels. When consuming the chow diet, we observed increased biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretions in NPC2 (h/h) mice. When fed the 2% cholesterol diet, NPC2 (h/h) mice exhibited low and high gallbladder bile cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations, respectively. NPC2 (h/h) mice fed with the lithogenic diet showed reduced biliary cholesterol secretion, gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation, and cholesterol crystal and gallstone formation. This work indicates that hepatic NPC2 expression is an important factor in the regulation of diet-derived cholesterol metabolism and disposal as well as in diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in mice.

  2. Helicobacter pylori adaptation in vivo in response to a high-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, John T; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Algood, Holly M Scott; Gaudieri, Silvana; Mallal, Simon; Cover, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated whether the diversification of H. pylori is influenced by the composition of the diet. Specifically, we investigated the effect of a high-salt diet (a known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma) on H. pylori diversification within a host. We analyzed H. pylori strains isolated from Mongolian gerbils fed either a high-salt diet or a regular diet for 4 months by proteomic and whole-genome sequencing methods. Compared to the input strain and output strains from animals fed a regular diet, the output strains from animals fed a high-salt diet produced higher levels of proteins involved in iron acquisition and oxidative-stress resistance. Several of these changes were attributable to a nonsynonymous mutation in fur (fur-R88H). Further experiments indicated that this mutation conferred increased resistance to high-salt conditions and oxidative stress. We propose a model in which a high-salt diet leads to high levels of gastric inflammation and associated oxidative stress in H. pylori-infected animals and that these conditions, along with the high intraluminal concentrations of sodium chloride, lead to selection of H. pylori strains that are most fit for growth in this environment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Dietary Protein in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity and Co-Morbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup

    mice were fed obesity‐promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from...... protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co‐morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet‐induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair‐fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... that the source and form of protein has great impact on development and prevention of diet‐induced adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and impairment of glucose tolerance through modulations of voluntary locomotor activity, energy expenditure and energy substrate metabolism in mice...

  4. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26580650

  5. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Effect of high plant (cowpeas) and animal (casein) proteins on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were not significant. Conclusion: This study has clearly shown that the intake of a high plant protein, cowpeas leads to mild increase in NAG and microalbumin in urine. On the other hand, an intake of high casein diet, an animal protein, resulted in a marked increase in urinary NAG and mild increase in microalbumin.

  7. Soluble arabinoxylan alters digesta flow and protein digestion of red meat-containing diets in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dagong; Williams, Barbara A; Mikkelsen, Deirdre; Li, Xiuhua; Keates, Helen L; Lisle, Allan T; Collins, Helen M; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Gidley, Michael J; Bryden, Wayne L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how a moderate increase in dietary meat content combined (or not) with soluble fibre would influence protein digestion as well as digesta characteristics and flow. Four groups of pigs were fed Western-style diets (high-protein/high-fat) containing two types of barbecued red meat, one with and one without a wheat arabinoxylan-rich fraction. After 4 wk, digesta samples were collected from small and large intestinal sites and analyzed for protein, amino acids, dry matter, and acid-insoluble ash. Tissue samples were also collected from each site. Arabinoxylan consumption led to somewhat lower apparent protein digestibility within the small and large intestines as well as shorter mean retention times. This suggests that the lowered protein digestibility is due, at least partly, to shorter access time to digestive proteases and absorptive surfaces. Additionally, digesta mass was higher in pigs fed arabinoxylan while dry matter (%) was lower, indicating an increased digesta water-holding capacity due to the presence of a soluble dietary fiber. Data showed that solubilized wheat arabinoxylan provides potential health benefits through decreased protein digestibility, increased digesta mass, and reduced mean retention time, even for diets with a moderately higher protein content. These factors are associated with efficiency of digestion and satiety, both of which have implications for prevention of obesity and other health disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect on digestion and performance of dietary protein content and of increased substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean protein concentrate in starter diets for young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Gómez-Conde, M S; Pérez de Rozas, A M; Badiola, I; Carabaño, R; De Blas, J C

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of protein source / availability on the intestinal microbiota, digestive traits and nutritional performance of early-weaned rabbits. The effects of supplemental antibiotics in the drinking water were also evaluated. Four isoenergetic and isofibrous diets were formulated: a control diet with a high protein (207 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and lucerne hay content (HPHL), a diet with low crude protein (CP) (179 g/kg DM) and high lucerne hay content (LPHL) and low protein diets in which the lucerne hay in diet LPHL was replaced partially (LPML) or totally (LPLL) with soya-bean protein concentrate. Rabbits, weaned at 25 days (52 per diet), were fed the experimental diets for a 2-week period and thereafter received a commercial diet until 56 days of age. The incidence of mortality was investigated using 70 animals per diet without supplemental medication. The profile of the ileal microbiota was studied at 35 days of age in rabbits treated (18 per diet) or not (12 per diet) with antibiotic. As expected, supplementation with antibiotics effectively reduced fattening mortality rate and microbial biodiversity. However, lowering of also the dietary CP content led to a reduction in the mortality rate ( P treated with (by 80%) or without (by 39%) antibiotics. In addition, there was a reduction ( P < 0.05) in the frequency of Clostridium perfringens in non-medicated animals. Neither jejunal morphology nor growth performance, over the whole fattening period, was affected by dietary CP content of the experimental diets. However, with HPHL, feed efficiency was higher (by 4.8%; P < 0.01) than with LPHL diets. Substitution of lucerne hay with soya-bean meal in low protein diets did not affect apparent faecal or ileal digestibility of DM and CP. However, the ileal digestibility of cystine, alanine, aspartic acid, and proline was lowered ( P < 0.05) with increasing substitution by soya bean. Nevertheless, ileal CP flow, incidence of

  9. Dietary Egg Yolk Supplementation Improves Low-Protein-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erami, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yasutake; Kawamura, Sayaka; Miyago, Motonori; Sawazaki, Ai; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Sato, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Egg yolk is an important source of nutrients and contains different bioactive substances. In the present study, we studied the benefits of egg yolk in preventing low-protein-diet-induced fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed the following diets, which were based on the AIN-76 formula, for 2 wk: an adequate-protein diet containing 20% casein (C), a low-protein diet containing 5% casein (LP-C), a low-protein diet supplemented with 12.5% egg yolk (LP-EY), and a low-protein diet supplemented with 4.1% egg yolk oil (LP-EYO). The low-protein diets were adjusted to contain 4.13% protein and 4.7% lipids. The LP-C diet resulted in a greater increase in the liver trigriceride (TG) and the vacuolation and a greater decrease in the serum TG and free fatty acid (FFA) than did the C diet. These deviations in the serum and liver TG, serum FFA levels and the liver histopathology were corrected in rats fed the LP-EY diet but not in those fed the LP-EYO diet. Compared to rats fed the LP-C diet, although the activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes (fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme) decreased in rats fed both of the LP-EY and LP-EYO diets, the level of the microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) increased only in rats fed the LP-EY diet. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary egg yolk supplementation decreases the LP diet-induced accumulation of TG in the liver by increasing transport of TG in the liver, and egg yolk oil alone is not sufficient enough to bring about these benefits.

  10. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p cows supplemented with G240 compared with C (23.8 vs. 25.3 respectively). G240 diets presented lower crude protein digestibility (g/kg) (p cows receiving control diet, compared to other diets. G240 diet resulted in significantly lower milk and protein yield (p dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Diet choice by dairy cows. 1. Selection of feed protein content during the first half of lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, B.J.; Dewhurst, R.J.; Friggens, N.C.; Kyriazakis, I.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Oldham, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of weeks in milk and milk yield on diet choice were recorded during the first half of lactation. Low and high protein feeds were used, and both consisted of 30% concentrate and 70% grass silage (fresh matter basis). Both feeds contained similar amounts of energy, but the crude protein

  12. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ...) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase...

  13. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jinhee; Shin, Ki Ok; Park, So Young; Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun

    2013-10-08

    Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1-4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5-8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning capacity unlike dietary control.

  14. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  15. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM; Waldo, Geoffrey S [Santa Fe, NM; Kiss, Csaba [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  16. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fermentation and addition of enzymes to a diet based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas improve digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides, crude protein, and phosphorus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, G V; Jensen, B B; Bach Knudsen, K E; Canibe, N

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating prices of cereals have led to an interest in alternative ingredients for feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fermentation and the addition of nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes on the ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients of a diet based on locally grown crops. Four diets were fed including a nonfermented liquid standard grower diet (Control) and 3 experimental diets based on high-moisture corn, rapeseed cake, and peas fed as nonfermented liquid feed (nFLF), fermented liquid feed (FLF), or FLF supplemented with an enzyme mixture of β-glucanase + xylanase + pectinase (FLF+Enz). The FLF was prepared by mixing feed and water (1:2.5, wt/wt) and, once daily, replacing 50% of the mixture with an equal amount of fresh feed and water. The diets were fed to 8 ileal cannulated barrows in a double Latin square design. Ileal digesta and feces were collected after an adaption period of 10 d. Results showed microbiologically good-quality fermented diets. The levels of Enterobacteriaceae were 5.1 to 5.4 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the ileum and 5.1 to 5.2 log cfu/g in FLF and FLF+Enz vs. 6.3 log cfu/g in nFLF in the feces. Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP was increased by fermentation (73.2% in FLF vs. 69.0% in nFLF; P = 0.033), and digestibility of P showed a tendency (P = 0.073) toward an increase. Addition of the enzyme mixture resulted in a pronounced reduction of dietary NSP compared with FLF (12.8% total NSP in FLF+Enz vs. 15.9% total NSP in FLF; Pdigestibility (AID) of total and insoluble NSP (total NSP, 31.1% in FLF+Enz vs. 13.6% in FLF; P = 0.002). The Control did not, in general, show higher digestibility values than the experimental diet. However, in the cases were it did, fermentation and enzyme addition brought the digestibility to the level of the Control. In conclusion, fermentation increased the ATTD of CP and the AID of P, with the same tendency (P ≤ 0

  18. Dietary Protein Source and Cyclooxygenase-Inhibition Influence Development of Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Homeostasis and Brown Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aune, Ulrike Liisberg

    , at least in part, due to the maintenance of a classical interscapular brown depot with high expression of UCP1 in these mice. Conversely, proteins from terrestrial animals promoted gain of adipose mass, hyperinsulinemia and impaired glucose tolerance. In addition, when combined in a typical Western diet...... that indomethacin prevented diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance, but not insulin resistance. The development of obesity is largely dependent on an imbalance in energy intake relative to expenditure. Thus, strategies that influence energy utilization is of relevance in anti-obesity treatment. High protein...... diets, in general, have shown promise in reducing and maintaining bodyweight, but less is established when it comes to different protein sources. Here, we present results from experiments investigating the effect of various protein sources given to mice in different dietary compositions. We report...

  19. Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria; Larsen, Thomas M; Damsgaard, Camilla T; van Baak, Marleen A; Jebb, Susan; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kunešová, Marie; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Kafatos, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status. Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention. Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P < 0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P < 0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial η(2) = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes. Neither protein nor GI affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nicotine plus a high-fat diet triggers cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Falz, Mark; Chalfant, Victor; Hasan, Mohammad Kamrul; Espinoza-Derout, Jorge; Lee, Desean L; Sims, Carl; Tran, Peter; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or saline for 16 weeks. An additional group of nicotine-treated mice on HFD received twice-daily IP injections of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg BW), a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, for 16 weeks. Nicotine when combined with HFD led to a massive increase in CM apoptosis that was fully prevented by mecamylamine treatment. Induction of CM apoptosis was associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, nicotine treatment significantly (P nicotine, when combined with HFD, triggers CM apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress and inactivation of AMPK together with the activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling independently of FGF21 and SIRT1.

  1. Linarin Enriched Extract Attenuates Liver Injury and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jie Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the potential beneficial effects of linarin enriched Flos Chrysanthemi extract (Lin-extract on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet in rats. SD rats received normal diet, HFHC diet, or HFHC diet plus different doses of Lin-extract. The liver content of triglyceride and total cholesterol markedly increased in HFHC diet-fed model rats while middle and high dose of Lin-extract lowered liver cholesterol significantly. The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 was upregulated by HFHC diet and further elevated by high dose Lin-extract. High dose of Lin-extract also markedly lowered the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by HFHC in livers. The HFHC-increased mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation cytokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, were suppressed by Lin-extract dose-dependently. Furthermore, pathology evaluation showed that high dose Lin-extract greatly improved lobular inflammation. Our results suggest that Lin-extract could attenuate liver injury and inflammation induced by HFHC diet in rats. Its modulatory effect on lipid metabolism may partially contribute to this protective effect.

  2. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  3. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group, a diet with 35% fat (HF group, or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group. The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  4. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  5. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  6. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  7. Red algae (Gelidium amansii) hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA) hot-water extracts (GHE) on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO). All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal) weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Red algae (Gelidium amansii hot-water extract ameliorates lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA hot-water extracts (GHE on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1 control diet group (CON; (2 high-fat diet group (HF; (3 HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE; (4 HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO. All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet.

  9. Effect of high plant protein cowpeas ( Vigna unguculata ) and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent trends in weight loss diets have been formulated that led to a substantial increase in protein intake. It has however been established that high protein intake impacts negatively on already compromised kidney, while its effect on a healthy kidney remains unclear. Our aim therefore was to study the effect of animal ...

  10. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health

  11. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  12. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Sarter, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Acocella, Steve

    2010-11-07

    People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health as well as weight loss. Because our

  13. Reduction in the protein level and addition of oil in diets for finishing pugs under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Elizabeth Barreto Rodrigues

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing the crude protein (CP with the use of amino acids in diets with the same amount of calories anddifferent levels of soybean oil (SO for finishing pigs kept in two different ambient temperatures. A total of 120 barrows (initial weight of 68.0±1.9 kg were utilized for the experiment. The design was of randomized blocks in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement (two levels of CP, 16.2 and 13.7%; three levels of SO, 1.5; 3.0 and 4.5%; and two ambient temperatures, 19 and 31 ºC, totaling twelve treatments with five replicates for thirty days. The heat reduced feed intake (FI of the animals, regardless of the levels of CP and SO used, and reduced weight gain (WG in diets with reduced CP and SO or higher SO. The increased level of CP and SO improved feed conversion (FC when the animals were kept in thermoneutral environment and given a diet with higher protein content. The reduction in CP increased FI only in the thermoneutral environment. In the heat, WG increased in diets with higher levels of SO, without influencing FC. The manipulation of diet and temperature did not affect most carcass traits. The SO reduced backfat thickness (BT only in diets with high CP and animals kept in thermoneutral environment. The reduction of CP increased the BT only in diets with high content of SO, both in hot and thermoneutral environments. Heat reduces FI and the inclusion of SO does not improve performance or carcass characteristics in these conditions. The reduction in CP improves WG only in diets with high oil content; however, it increases BT. In thermoneutral environment, increasing the SO is beneficial for performance and carcass characteristics, except when diets with reduced CP are used. The reduction in CP improves performance only in diets with low oil content.

  14. Animal Proteins as Important Contributors to a Healthy Human Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Meyer, Alexa L

    2017-02-08

    Adequate protein intake is critical for health and development. Generally, protein of animal origin is of higher quality for humans owing to its amino acid pattern and good digestibility. When administered in mixtures it can enhance the quality of plant proteins, but its availability is often low in low-income communities, especially in young children, the elderly, and pregnant and lactating women, who have increased requirements and in whom high-quality protein also stimulates (bone) growth and maintenance. Although high protein intake was associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk, milk and seafood are good sources of branched chain amino acids and taurine, which act beneficially on glucose metabolism and blood pressure. However, high consumption of protein-rich animal food is also associated with adverse health effects and higher risk for noncommunicable diseases, partly related to other components of these foods, like saturated fatty acids and potential carcinogens in processed meat but also the atherogenic methionine metabolite homocysteine. In moderation, however, animal proteins are especially important for health maintenance in vulnerable persons.

  15. Beef, Chicken, and Soy Proteins in Diets Induce Different Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have paid much attention to the associations between high intake of meat and host health. Our previous study showed that the intake of meat proteins can maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria as compared to soy protein diet. However, the associations between dietary protein source, gut bacteria, and host health were still unclear. In this study, we collected colonic contents from the growing rats fed with casein, beef, chicken or soy proteins for 90 days, and analyzed the compositions of gut microbiota and metabolites. Compared to the casein group (control, the chicken protein group showed the highest relative abundance of Lactobacillus and the highest levels of organic acids, including lactate, which can in turn promote the growth of Lactobacillus. The soy protein group had the highest relative abundance of Ruminococcus but the lowest relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Long-term intake of soy protein led to the up-regulation of transcription factor CD14 receptor and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP in liver, an indicator for elevated bacterial endotoxins. In addition, the intake of soy protein also increased the levels of glutathione S-transferases in liver, which implicates elevated defense and stress responses. These results confirmed that meat protein intake may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria and reduce the antigen load and inflammatory response from gut bacteria to the host.

  16. Dietary calcium regulates ROS production in aP2-agouti transgenic mice on high-fat/high-sucrose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Zemel, M B

    2006-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 promotes adipocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We have now evaluated whether decreasing 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 levels by increasing dietary calcium will decrease oxidative stress in vivo. We fed low-calcium (0.4% Ca) and high-calcium (1.2% Ca from CaCO3) obesity-promoting (high sucrose/high fat) diets to aP2-agouti transgenic mice and assessed regulation of ROS production in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Mice on the high-calcium diet gained 50% of the body weight (P=0.04) and fat (Pcalcium diet (0.4% Ca). The high-calcium diet significantly reduced adipose intracellular ROS production by 64 and 18% (Pphosphate oxidase expression by 49% (P=0.012) and 63% (P=0.05) in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, respectively. Adipocyte intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels were suppressed in mice on the high-calcium diet by 73-80% (Pcalcium diet also induced 367 and 191% increases in adipose mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression (Pcalcium diet also suppressed 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) expression in visceral adipose tissue by 39% (P=0.034). 11beta-HSD expression was markedly higher in visceral vs subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice on the low-calcium diet (P=0.034), whereas no difference was observed between the fat depots in mice on the high-calcium diet. These data support a potential role for dietary calcium in the regulation of obesity-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser Dale; Sarter Barbara; Fuhrman Joel; Acocella Steve

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrie...

  18. Myocardial Structural and Biological Anomalies Induced by High Fat Diet in Psammomys obesus Gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Sahraoui

    Full Text Available Psammomys obesus gerbils are particularly prone to develop diabetes and obesity after brief period of abundant food intake. A hypercaloric high fat diet has been shown to affect cardiac function. Here, we sought to determine whether a short period of high fat feeding might alter myocardial structure and expression of calcium handling proteins in this particular strain of gerbils.Twenty Psammomys obesus gerbils were randomly assigned to receive a normal plant diet (controls or a high fat diet. At baseline and 16-week later, body weight, plasma biochemical parameters (including lipid and carbohydrate levels were evaluated. Myocardial samples were collected for pathobiological evaluation.Sixteen-week high fat dieting resulted in body weight gain and hyperlipidemia, while levels of carbohydrates remained unchanged. At myocardial level, high fat diet induced structural disorganization, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, lipid accumulation, interstitial and perivascular fibrosis and increased number of infiltrating neutrophils. Myocardial expressions of pro-apoptotic Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α], intercellular (ICAM1 and vascular adhesion molecules (VCAM1 increased, while gene encoding cardiac muscle protein, the alpha myosin heavy polypeptide (MYH6, was downregulated. Myocardial expressions of sarco(endoplasmic calcium-ATPase (SERCA2 and voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cacna1c decreased, while protein kinase A (PKA and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK2D expressions increased. Myocardial expressions of ryanodine receptor, phospholamban and sodium/calcium exchanger (Slc8a1 did not change.We conclude that a relative short period of high fat diet in Psammomys obesus results in severe alterations of cardiac structure, activation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes, and altered expression of calcium-cycling determinants.

  19. Fungal Fermented Protein (FFP : Alternative Ingredient to be Used in Muscovy Duck Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usaneeporn Soipeth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal fermented protein (FFP was the alternative feedstuff from Aspergillus niger and can be an interesting choice in poultry diets because these product was containing 20.49 % of crude protein and high leucine (0.58 %, phenylalanine (0.58 % and lysine (0.38 % and contained no aflatoxin. The experiments were performed using a completely randomized design with 6 treatments and 3 replications employing eight 1-day-old, mixed sex muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata per experimental unit. The control birds were fed with a basal diet whereas the test birds were fed with FFP at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % of diet. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The feed intake of the starter showed no significant difference while the grower and finisher had higher feed intake with higher levels of FFP. In contrast, the high level of FFP yielded the lower final body weight and body weight gain, resulting in the high feed conversion ratio (4.38. For the performance of overall period, the ducks fed with 20 % FFP had higher average daily gain (29.40 g/b/d, body weight gain (2,471 g/b and feed conversion ratio (3.63. No deaths were found in any pens and the ducks remained in good health.

  20. Composição corporal e puberdade de leitoas alimentadas com níveis alto e baixo de proteína na dieta Body composition and puberty of gilts fed low and high protein diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Enrique Lemos Budiño

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar alterarações na composição corporal, diferentes níveis protéicos (12 e 18% PB foram utilizados na dieta de leitoas de reposição, dos 100 aos 221 dias de idade. Durante esse período foram avaliados o peso corporal, espessura de toucinho (ET, manifestação de estro, características do trato reprodutivo e o balanço nitrogenado. Para a determinação do balanço nitrogenado, as leitoas foram submetidas a dois ensaios de digestibilidade (aos 136 e aos 201 dias de idade. Em ambos os ensaios, as leitoas alimentadas com 18% PB apresentaram maior ingestão, retenção e excreção de nitrogênio e maiores níveis de uréia plasmática e urinária (P0,05. Houve redução de 48% na excreção de nitrogênio com a dieta menos protéica. Leitoas alimentadas com 12% PB apresentaram maior ganho de ET (7,4 mm em comparação às alimentadas com 18% PB (4,5 mm, dos 100 aos 207 dias de idade (PWith the aim of altering body composition, diets with different protein levels (12 and 18 CP were offered to breeding gilts from 100 to 221 days of age. During this period, body weight, backfat thickness, oestrus manifestation, characteristics of reproductive tract and nitrogen balance were evaluated. Nitrogen balance was measured during two metabolism trials (at 136 and at 201 days of age. In both trials, gilts fed 18% CP showed higher nitrogen intake, retention and excretion and higher plasmatic and urinary urea levels (P.05. The low-protein diet reduced by 48% the excretion of nitrogen. Gilts fed 12% CP showed a greater backfat change (7.4 mm than those fed 18% CP (4.5 mm, between 100 and 207 days of age (P<.02. Body weight, uterine weight, uterine horns length and number of corpora lutea were not influenced by the level of dietary protein. The rate of oestrus detection, up to 25 days after male exposure, was similar to females receiving 12% (71% and 18% CP (75%. The protein level affected body composition without altering body

  1. Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Loi, Valentina; Colla, Loredana; Rossetti, Maura; Gerbino, Martina; Maxia, Stefania; Alemanno, Maria Grazia; Minelli, Fosca; Piccoli, Ettore; Versino, Elisabetta; Biolcati, Marilisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15?years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or?>?=1?g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for c...

  2. Effect of different amino acids density diets on lysine, methionine and protein efficiency in Arian broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages provided by amino acid (AA densities to broiler performance have been well documented, but little research has been reported on comparing the effect of different densities, i.e. high, medium, standard and low amino acid levels (HAA, MAA, SAA, and LAA, on protein and energy efficiency in broiler. This study evaluated the effects of the four different amino acid densities in a completely randomized experimental design on 800 male (10 replicates per treatment broilers. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In broilers receiving HAA, there had been a significant increase in body weight at Day 42. Feeding broilers with HAA diets significantly increased protein and energy intake in the grower period and during the overall study period (0-42 days of age (P<0.05. There was a significant difference in efficiency of lysine and methionine during all time periods (P<0.05 and HAA levels were significantly higher than SAA. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and energy efficiency ratio (EER were not affected by an increase in AA density. AA levels had a significant effect on production efficiency factor (PEF. The results of this study suggest that additional lysine and methionine at 120% and other AA at 110% of National Research Council recommendations in starter and grower diets significantly improved body weight and PEF.

  3. Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, T; Manz, F

    1994-06-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether it is possible to reliably estimate the renal net acid excretion (NAE) produced by adults consuming different amounts of dietary protein. A physiologically based calculation model that corrects for intestinal absorption of minerals and sulfur-containing protein and assumes a rate of urinary excretion of organic acids proportional to body surface area was used to estimate NAE. Urinary excretion of different minerals and NAE was measured during the last 48 h of each of four separate 5-d diet periods in six healthy adults. On the basis of food tables, the four nearly isoenergetic diets (one lacto-vegetarian and one high- and two moderate-protein diets) were estimated to yield the following NAE values: 3.7, 117.5, 62.2, and 102.2 mEq/d, respectively. The analytically determined urinary NAE (24.1 +/- 10.7, 135.5 +/- 16.4, 69.7 +/- 21.4, and 112.6 +/- 10.9 mEq/d) corresponded reasonably well to these estimates, suggesting that the calculation model is appropriate to predict the renal NAE from nutrient intake and anthropometric data.

  4. Effect of diet of Varying Protein concentrations on the Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alterations in protein diet have been reported to result in alterations in calcium homeostasis in the body. Ca2+Mg2+ATPase is an ubiquitous enzyme important in calcium homeostasis in the body. The effect of varying protein diet on the activities of Ca2+ pump across cell membranes is however yet to be fully elucidated.

  5. High-fructose diet is as detrimental as high-fat diet in the induction of insulin resistance and diabetes mediated by hepatic/pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, M; Raji, L; Prabhu, D; Sathishkumar, C; Prabu, P; Mohan, V; Balasubramanyam, M

    2016-12-01

    In the context of high human consumption of fructose diets, there is an imperative need to understand how dietary fructose intake influence cellular and molecular mechanisms and thereby affect β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. While evidence exists for a relationship between high-fat-induced insulin resistance and metabolic disorders, there is lack of studies in relation to high-fructose diet. Therefore, we attempted to study the effect of different diets viz., high-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose diet (HFS), and a combination (HFS + HFD) diet on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats compared to control animals fed with normal pellet diet. Investigations include oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, histopathology by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining, mRNA expression by real-time PCR, protein expression by Western blot, and caspase-3 activity by colorimetry. Rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets became glucose intolerant, insulin-resistant, and dyslipidemic. Compared to control animals, rats subjected to different combination of fat/fructose diets showed increased mRNA and protein expression of a battery of ER stress markers both in pancreas and liver. Transcription factors of β-cell function (INSIG1, SREBP1c and PDX1) as well as hepatic gluconeogenesis (FOXO1 and PEPCK) were adversely affected in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats. The convergence of chronic ER stress towards apoptosis in pancreas/liver was also indicated by increased levels of CHOP mRNA & increased activity of both JNK and Caspase-3 in rats subjected to high-fat/fructose diets. Our study exposes the experimental support in that high-fructose diet is equally detrimental in causing metabolic disorders.

  6. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögebakan, Ozlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A; van Baak, Marleen A; Jebb, Susan A; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Hlavaty, Petr; Weickert, Martin O; Holst, Claus; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2011-12-20

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes). DiOGenes is a pan-European controlled dietary intervention study in 932 overweight adults who first lost body weight on an 8-week low-calorie diet and were then randomized to 1 of 5 ad libitum diets for 26 weeks. The diets were either high or low protein or high or low glycemic index in 4 combinations or control. Weight loss (-11.23 kg; 95% confidence interval, -11.54 to -10.92; Pdiets than in those on high-glycemic-index diets (Pdiets achieved a -0.25 mg/L greater reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (95% confidence interval, -0.59 to -0.17) than those on high-protein diets (Peffects. Low-glycemic-index carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, low-protein intake may specifically reduce low-grade inflammation and associated comorbidities in overweight/obese adults. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00390637.

  7. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (pGLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  8. Downregulation of cellular protective factors of rumen epithelium in goats fed high energy diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hollmann

    Full Text Available Energy-rich diets can challenge metabolic and protective functions of the rumen epithelial cells, but the underlying factors are unclear. This study sought to evaluate proteomic changes of the rumen epithelium in goats fed a low, medium, or high energy diet. Expression of protein changes were compared by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification with matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of about 2,000 spots commonly detected in all gels, 64 spots were significantly regulated, which were traced back to 24 unique proteins. Interestingly, the expression profiles of several chaperone proteins with important cellular protective functions such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, peroxiredoxin-6, serpin H1, protein disulfide-isomerase, and selenium-binding protein were collectively downregulated in response to high dietary energy supply. Similar regulation patterns were obtained for some other proteins involved in transport or metabolic functions. In contrast, metabolic enzymes like retinal dehydrogenase 1 and ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor were upregulated in response to high energy diet. Lower expressions of chaperone proteins in the rumen epithelial cells in response to high energy supply may suggest that these cells were less protected against the potentially harmful rumen toxic compounds, which might have consequences for rumen and systemic health. Our findings also suggest that energy-rich diets and the resulting acidotic insult may render rumen epithelial cells more vulnerable to cellular damage by attenuating their cell defense system, hence facilitating the impairment of rumen barrier function, typically observed in energy-rich fed ruminants.

  9. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  10. The different impact of a high fat diet on dystrophic mdx and control C57Bl/10 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Fiorotto, Marta L; Grounds, Miranda D

    2011-11-15

    The absence of functional dystrophin protein in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic mdx mice leads to fragile myofibre membranes and cycles of myofibre necrosis and regeneration. It is proposed that both DMD patients and mdx mice have an altered metabolism and impaired energy status and that nutritional supplementation may reduce the severity of dystropathology. This research compares the in vivo responses of dystrophic mdx and normal control C57Bl/10 mice to a high protein (50%) or a high fat (16%) diet. Consumption of a high protein diet had minimal effects on the body composition or muscle morphology in both strains of mice. In contrast, differences between the strains were seen in response to the high fat diet; this response also varied between mdx mice aged contrast, after consuming the high fat diet for 16 weeks the mdx mice (improve muscle function.

  11. Structuring high-protein foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.

    2012-01-01

    Increased protein consumption gives rise to various health benefits. High-protein intake can lead to muscle development, body weight control and suppression of sarcopenia progression. However, increasing the protein content in food products leads to textural changes over time. These changes result

  12. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  13. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Völker, Uwe; Adams, Volker; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  14. Vascular changes in rat hippocampus following a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Linnea R; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2012-04-01

    The long-term effects of a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol on the hippocampus were evaluated in this study. It has previously been shown that this type of diet is detrimental to health, particularly affecting peripheral organs such as the heart and liver. However, effects on the brain have not been fully evaluated. This study focused on the hippocampus, a brain region instrumental for learning and memory and vulnerable to ischemic damage. Reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and increased microgliosis were observed in the hippocampus of rats fed a high-saturated-fat and cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 6 months. Interestingly, an increase in hippocampal protein levels of occludin, a tight junction protein, was found in HFHC-treated rats as well. Further investigation revealed decreased expression of the occludin protein in blood vessels and increased expression in the dentate gyrus hilar neurons and mossy fibers of the hippocampal cornus ammonis 3 in HFHC-treated rats. Our results show alterations in BBB integrity and expression of tight junction proteins after long-term exposure to HFHC diet in rats. These findings may suggest a biologic mechanism for previously observed behavioral deficits occurring in rats fed this diet.

  15. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  16. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta: Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidrih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10 % protein. It is therefore oft en excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40 % dry matter without (plain high-protein pasta or with 3 % dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40 % of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  17. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta:
Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrih, Rajko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77% carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10% protein. It is therefore often excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40% dry matter) without (plain high-protein pasta) or with 3% dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta) to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40% of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets. PMID:27904361

  18. Ruscogenin protects against high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Lin, Sheng Da; Yang, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Chang; Liu, I-Min

    2014-07-01

    The protective effects of ruscogenin on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Ruscogenin (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg/day) was orally administered by gavage once daily for eight weeks. A high-fat diet induced increases in plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, while the degree of insulin resistance was lowered by ruscogenin. High-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation were improved by ruscogenin. Gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB were also increased in the high-fat diet group, which were attenuted by ruscogenin. Ruscogenin decreased hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its lipogenic target genes. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, together with its target genes responsible for fatty acid β-oxidation were upregulated by ruscogenin. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ruscogenin may attenuate high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis through anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing hepatic lipogenic gene expression, and upregulating proteins in the fatty acid oxidation process. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Glycemic index differences of high-fat diets modulate primarily lipid metabolism in murine adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schothorst, Evert M; Bunschoten, Annelies; Verlinde, Eline; Schrauwen, Patrick; Keijer, Jaap

    2011-08-16

    A low vs. high glycemic index of a high-fat (HF) diet (LGI and HGI, respectively) significantly retarded adverse health effects in adult male C57BL/6J mice, as shown recently (Van Schothorst EM, Bunschoten A, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP, Keijer J. FASEB J 23: 1092-1101, 2009). The LGI diet enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and repressed HF diet-induced body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight gain, resulting in significantly reduced serum leptin and resistin levels and increased adiponectin levels. We questioned how WAT is modulated and characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycemic index-mediated effects using whole genome microarrays. This showed that the LGI diet mainly exerts its beneficial effects via substrate metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism. In addition, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton remodeling showed reduced expression, in line with lower WAT mass. An important transcription factor showing enhanced expression is PPAR-γ. Furthermore, serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were all significantly reduced by LGI diet, and simultaneously muscle insulin sensitivity was significantly increased as analyzed by protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation. Cumulatively, even though these mice were fed an HF diet, the LGI diet induced significantly favorable changes in metabolism in WAT. These effects suggest a partial overlap with pharmacological approaches by thiazolidinediones to treat insulin resistance and statins for hypercholesterolemia. It is therefore tempting to speculate that such a dietary approach might beneficially support pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance or hypercholesterolemia in humans.

  20. Non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) increased by high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Marckmann, P; Sandström, B

    1994-01-01

    :Bt/FVII:Am (a measure of FVII activation) increased from fasting levels on both diets, but most markedly on the high-fat diet. In contrast, FVII:Am (a measure of FVII protein) tended to decrease from fasting levels on both diets. FVII:C rose from fasting levels on the high-fat diet, but not on the low-fat diet......Preliminary observations have suggested that non-fasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) may be related to the dietary fat content. To confirm this, we performed a randomised cross-over study. Seventeen young volunteers were served 2 controlled isoenergetic diets differing in fat content (20......% or 50% of energy). The 2 diets were served on 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected at 8.00 h, 16.30 h and 19.30 h, and analysed for triglycerides, FVII coagulant activity using human (FVII:C) or bovine thromboplastin (FVII:Bt), and FVII amidolytic activity (FVII:Am). The ratio FVII...

  1. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  2. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  3. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring's plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring's plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  4. Effects of feeding low protein diets to piglets on plasma urea nitrogen, faecal ammonia nitrogen, the incidence of diarrhoea and performance after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Min; Kim, Jae-Cheol; Hansen, Christian Fink; Mullan, Bruce P; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2008-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding pigs low protein (LP) diets for different lengths of time after weaning on indices of protein fermentation, the incidence of postweaning diarrhoea (PWD), growth performance, and total-tract apparent digestibility. Sixty weaner pigs weighing 6.1 +/- 0.13 kg (mean +/- SEM) were used in a completely randomised design having five treatments: (i) a high protein diet (HP, 243 g/kg CP) fed for 14 d after weaning (HP14); (ii) a low protein diet (LP, 173 g CP/kg) fed for 5 d after weaning (LP5); (iii) LP diet fed for 7 d after weaning (LP7); (iv) LP diet fed for 10 d after weaning (LP10), and (v) LP diet fed for 14 d after weaning (LP14). All diets were supplemented with lysine, methionine, tryptophan and threonine, with all LP diets additionally fortified with crystalline isoleucine and valine to conform to a proposed ideal amino acid (AA) pattern. A second-stage diet (215 g CP/kg) was fed to pigs at the conclusion of each treatment. None of the diets contained antimicrobial compounds. Feeding a LP diet, regardless of duration of feeding, decreased plasma urea nitrogen (p 0.05) growth performance up to 106 days after weaning compared to pigs fed the HP diet. Total-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, energy and crude protein were similar (p > 0.05) between treatments. Our data suggest that feeding a LP diet, supplemented with AA to conform to an ideal AA pattern, for 7-10 days after weaning can reduce PWD in pigs fed antibiotic-free diets without compromising production.

  5. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  6. Ingested capsaicinoids can prevent low-fat-high-carbohydrate diet and high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating the NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    Capsaicinoids (CAPs), most commonly found in chili peppers, have a multitude of pharmacological and physiological effects, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that CAPs mitigate obesity in rats and the possible mechanisms thereof. Rats were divided into six groups, including control (±10 mg CAPs/kg body weight [BW]), low-fat-high-sucrose diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW), and high-fat diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW). Blood samples and liver and aortic tissues were taken at the end of the study. CAPs supplementation significantly reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (P<0.001) and ameliorated oxidative damage by reducing malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and liver and by increasing total antioxidant capacity in serum induced by the low-fat-high-sucrose and high-fat diets (P<0.001 for all). CAPs also depressed levels of NFκB p65, gp91phox, and p22phox, essential components of NADPH oxidase, in the aorta of rats. However, levels of Nrf2, Sirt1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly increased in the aorta. CAPs may at least partially reduce adverse effects due to high-fat diet and sucrose consumption through regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and proteins involved in vasoprotection.

  7. Ingested capsaicinoids can prevent low-fat–high-carbohydrate diet and high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating the NADPH oxidase and Nrf2 pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    Objective Capsaicinoids (CAPs), most commonly found in chili peppers, have a multitude of pharmacological and physiological effects, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. In the present study, we set out to investigate the hypothesis that CAPs mitigate obesity in rats and the possible mechanisms thereof. Materials and methods Rats were divided into six groups, including control (±10 mg CAPs/kg body weight [BW]), low-fat–high-sucrose diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW), and high-fat diet (±10 mg CAPs/kg BW). Blood samples and liver and aortic tissues were taken at the end of the study. Results CAPs supplementation significantly reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (P<0.001) and ameliorated oxidative damage by reducing malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and liver and by increasing total antioxidant capacity in serum induced by the low-fat–high-sucrose and high-fat diets (P<0.001 for all). CAPs also depressed levels of NFκB p65, gp91phox, and p22phox, essential components of NADPH oxidase, in the aorta of rats. However, levels of Nrf2, Sirt1, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were significantly increased in the aorta. Conclusion CAPs may at least partially reduce adverse effects due to high-fat diet and sucrose consumption through regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and proteins involved in vasoprotection. PMID:29180887

  8. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids. This porcine model may be used to study interactive mechanisms between excess fat intake and selenoprotein function. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Effect of sorghum tannins in sheep fed with high-concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L.S. Cabral Filho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of three sorghum cultivars with different concentrations of condensed tannins in sheep diets. Six adult sheep (LW=56kg with rumen and duodenal fistulas were assigned to experimental groups using two 3x3 Latin Square designs. The diets were formulated using three sorghum cultivars: LTC (low-tannin cultivar, MTC (medium-tannin cultivar and HTC (high-tannin cultivar. Microbial nitrogen (MN concentration in the duodenum was measured using a 15N trace technique. LTC, MTC and HTC diets presented values of 788, 722 and 747 (SE=20.6 g kg-1 for dry matter digestibility and 633, 535 and 530 (SE=35.8 g/kg for crude protein digestibility. The LTC diet was significantly different from the other diets (P0.05 between the diets. The presence of condensed tannins in the sorghum interfered with the sheep's nitrogen retention; however, the microbial protein supply to the duodenum of the animals was not inhibited.

  10. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation in a Reduced Protein Diet Affects Carcass Traits and the Profile of Muscle Amino Acids and Fatty Acids in Finishing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changchuan; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Zhu, Jinlong; Liu, Ying; Ye, Qianhong; Qiao, Shiyan; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation in a reduced protein diet affected carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 120 gilts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 40 days, including a standard protein diet (SP), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.7% l-alanine (RP + Ala), a reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.0% l-arginine (RP + Arg), and a reduced protein diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG and 1.7% l-alanine (RP + NCG). NCG supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of l-arginine. The RP + NCG diet significantly increased the loin eye area (p protein diet was effective to produce functional pork with a high content of leucine (p dietary NCG supplementation. In conclusion, the RP + NCG diet is effective to increase the longissimus dorsi muscle area, decrease back fat accretion, and produce functional pork with a high content of leucine but without a negative impact on the muscle fatty acid profile in finishing pigs.

  11. Influence of arsenic on selected biochemical blood parameters in rats fed diet with different fat and protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkowska, Monika; Łoźna, Karolina; Figurska-Ciura, Danuta; Styczyńska, Marzena; Orzeł, Dagmara; Biernat, Jadwiga; Troskiewicz, Paulina; Bogusz, Justyna; Waligóra, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment. The main routes of absorption of inorganic arsenic compounds are the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Arsenates both (III) and (V) are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in 55-95%, while the organic arsenic compounds in 75-85%. Arsenic poisoning leads to damage the activities and morphological changes in the stomach and intestines, causing the occurrence of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Arsenic compounds may also be the cause of the development of certain cancers (lung, skin and liver). The first changes caused by arsenic poisoning usually remain unnoticed. Arsenic affects haematological and both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It also causes changes in the organs involved in metabolism, so biochemical parameters or enzymes activity are therefore a good indicator of poisoning changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of protein and fat content in diet on selected biochemical blood parameters in rats. Rats (11 groups n = 88) were fed with 5 types of diet: control, low-protein, high-protein, low-fat and high-fat. Animals received water without arsenic (control group) or water with 10 or 20 µg As/mL. In animals fed a low protein diets, regardless of the dose of arsenic, it was a decreasing of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose in serum observed, compared to the control group. In the groups fed with low-protein diet revealed a significantly less damage in the liver as compared to the control group. In animals fed high-protein diets and with varying addition of arsenic a significant higher concentration of various biochemical parameters were found, in comparison to the respective control groups. In animals fed the high protein diet and poisoned with 20 µg As/mL of the arsenic significantly higher liver damage were found, compared to control group. Symptoms of arsenic hepatotoxicity measured with enzyme activity were highest in the groups of animals fed with low-protein diet

  12. Protein-Losing Enteropathy as a Complication of the Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won Kee; Park, Soyoung; Kim, Heung Dong

    2017-07-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective treatment for the patients with intractable epilepsy, however, the diet therapy can sometimes be discontinued by complications. Protein-losing enteropathy is a rarely reported serious complication of the ketogenic diet. We present a 16-month-old Down syndrome baby with protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet as a treatment for West syndrome. He suffered from diarrhea, general edema and hypoalbuminemia which were not controlled by conservative care for over 1 month. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and stool alpha-1 antitrypsin indicated protein-losing enteropathy. Related symptoms were relieved after cessation of the ketogenic diet. Unexplained hypoalbuminemia combined with edema and diarrhea during ketogenic suggests the possibility of protein-losing enteropathy, and proper evaluation is recommended in order to expeditiously detect it and to act accordingly. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  13. A visual screen for diet-regulated proteins in the Drosophila ovary using GFP protein trap lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hwei-Jan; Drummond-Barbosa, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet. Multiple diet-dependent factors, including insulin-like peptides, the steroid ecdysone, the nutrient sensor Target of Rapamycin, AMP-dependent kinase, and adipocyte factors mediate this complex response. Here, we describe the results of a visual screen using a collection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) protein trap lines to identify additional factors potentially involved in this response. In each GFP protein trap line, an artificial GFP exon is fused in frame to an endogenous protein, such that the GFP fusion pattern parallels the levels and subcellular localization of the corresponding native protein. We identified 53 GFP-tagged proteins that exhibit changes in levels and/or subcellular localization in the ovary at 12-16 hours after switching females from rich to poor diets, suggesting them as potential candidates for future functional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Protein and Potassium, Diet-Dependent Net Acid Load, and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Mandel, Ernest I; Curhan, Gary C; Gambaro, Giovanni; Taylor, Eric N

    2016-10-07

    Protein and potassium intake and the resulting diet-dependent net acid load may affect kidney stone formation. It is not known whether protein type or net acid load is associated with risk of kidney stones. We prospectively examined intakes of protein (dairy, nondairy animal, and vegetable), potassium, and animal protein-to-potassium ratio (an estimate of net acid load) and risk of incident kidney stones in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (n=42,919), the Nurses' Health Study I (n=60,128), and the Nurses' Health Study II (n=90,629). Multivariable models were adjusted for age, body mass index, diet, and other factors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations with 24-hour urine (n=6129). During 3,108,264 person-years of follow-up, there were 6308 incident kidney stones. Dairy protein was associated with lower risk in the Nurses' Health Study II (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quintile, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.96; P value for trend <0.01). The hazard ratios for nondairy animal protein were 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.36; P value for trend =0.04) in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.46; P value for trend =0.06) in the Nurses' Health Study I. Potassium intake was associated with lower risk in all three cohorts (hazard ratios from 0.44 [95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53] to 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.57 to 0.78]; P values for trend <0.001). Animal protein-to-potassium ratio was associated with higher risk (P value for trend =0.004), even after adjustment for animal protein and potassium. Higher dietary potassium was associated with higher urine citrate, pH, and volume (P values for trend <0.002). Kidney stone risk may vary by protein type. Diets high in potassium or with a relative abundance of potassium compared with animal protein could represent a means of stone prevention. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. A low protein diet increases the hypoxic tolerance in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O(2 and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses.

  16. A low-fat liquid diet increases protein accretion and alters cellular signaling for protein synthesis in 10-day-old pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W T; Miles, J R

    2010-08-01

    Previous research showed that neonatal pigs respond to decreases in energy density of liquid diets with increased feed intake, resulting in similar performance to pigs fed a more energy-dense diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether a high- (25%, HF) or low-fat (2%, LF) liquid diet would affect nutrient accretion rate and select proteins involved in energy homeostasis and protein synthesis in early weaned pigs. Ninety-six pigs, with an initial BW of 3,637 +/- 85 g, were weaned from the sow at 10 d of age and utilized in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by BW and then assigned to pens (8 pigs/pen). Diets were formulated to provide a constant AA:ME ratio and were fed for 10 d. Pigs were killed at 10, 15, and 20 d of age, at which time blood and LM were collected, and carcasses were prepared for body composition analysis. Blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and NEFA. Longissimus dorsi was analyzed via western immunoblot for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Pigs gained 347 +/- 11 g/d, which resulted in an ending BW of 6,858 +/- 135 g, regardless of dietary treatment (P > 0.49). Pigs fed the LF diet consumed 25% more milk than pigs fed the HF diet (2,853 +/- 86 vs. 2,269 +/- 79 g dry feed.pen(-1).d(-1); P 0.5). Feed conversion (G:F) was 24% greater in HF-fed compared with LF-fed pigs (P liquid diet to pigs weaned from the sow at 10 d of age increases feed intake to regulate energy intake while maintaining growth performance. In addition, 10-d-old pigs consuming a liquid LF diet have increased protein deposition by a mechanism mediated through AMPK and mTOR.

  17. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  18. High-fiber diet promotes weight loss and affects maternal behavior in vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Lynn A; Blau, Karin; Jorgensen, Matthew J

    2010-03-01

    The dramatic increase in obesity in western societies has shifted the emphasis in nutrition research from the problems of undernutrition to the adverse consequences of being overweight. As with humans, Old World monkeys are at increased risk for type II diabetes and other chronic diseases when they gain excessive weight. To prevent overweight and obesity, promote animal health, and provide a more natural level of fiber in the diet, the standard commercial monkey chow diet at a vervet monkey breeding colony was changed to a higher fiber formulation in 2004. The new diet was also higher in protein and lower in carbohydrate and energy density than the standard diet. Because maternal behavior is known to be sensitive to differences in resource availability, data on weight and mother-infant interactions for 147 mothers with 279 infants born from 2000 through 2006 were assessed for effects of the diet change. The results showed that, even though food was provided ad libitum, the mean body weight of breeding females was 10% lower after the transition to the high-fiber diet. Behaviorally, mothers on the high-fiber diet were significantly more rejecting to their infants, and their infants had to play a greater role in maintaining ventral contact in the first few months of their lives. The effects of the diet change on maternal rejection were significantly related to the mother's body weight, with lower-weight mothers scoring higher in maternal rejection. These results demonstrate that maternal behavior is responsive to changes in maternal condition, and that beneficial changes in the diet may have unintended consequences on behavior. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Nutrient composition, digestible and metabolizable energy content, and prediction of energy for animal protein byproducts in finishing pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, B J; Jha, R; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2017-06-01

    An industry survey and animal experiment were conducted to evaluate compositional variability and DE and ME content of animal protein byproducts and to generate equations to predict DE and ME content based on chemical analysis. For the 220 samples collected, the greatest concentration of CP was observed in blood meal (BM) and the least in meat and bone meal (MBM) and the greatest concentration of ether extract was in meat meal and the least in BM, with ash content greatest in MBM and least in BM, with Ca and P levels being 36.1 and 16.3% of the ash content, respectively. For the balance experiment, a corn-soybean meal basal diet was used with test diets formulated by mixing 80% of the basal diet with 20% of the animal protein byproduct, except for BM, which was included at 10 and 20% of the test diets. Ten groups of 24 gilts (92.5 ± 7.4 kg final BW) were randomly assigned to the test or basal diet within each group, resulting in 16 replications per animal protein byproduct or basal diet, except for BM determinations (20 replications). Gilts were placed in metabolism crates and offered 2.4 kg daily of their assigned diet for 13 d, with total collection of feces and urine during the last 4 d. Gross energy in the diets, feces, and urine was used to calculate the DE and ME content of each ingredient by the difference procedure, using DE and ME of the basal diet as a covariate among groups of pigs. The DE content of the animal protein byproducts ranged from 5,367 to 2,567 kcal DE/kg DM, and ME ranged from 4,783 to 2,340 kcal ME/kg DM. Using all animal protein byproducts, the best-fit equations were as follows: DE (kcal/kg DM) = -2,468 + (1.26 × GE, kcal/kg DM), with of 0.84, SE = 390, and animal protein byproducts, excluding BM and feather meal, being 27.1 and 39.1%, respectively. These data indicate that DE and ME substantially varied among the animal protein byproducts and sources and that a variety of nutritional components can be used to accurately predict DE and

  20. Effects of higher- versus lower-protein diets on health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, N; Akl, E A; Bianchi, M; Mente, A; Mustafa, R; Heels-Ansdell, D; Schünemann, H J

    2012-07-01

    Numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in first tier medical journals have evaluated the health effects of diets high in protein. We conducted a rigorous systematic review of RCTs comparing higher- and lower-protein diets. We searched several electronic databases up to July 2011 for studies focusing on patient-important outcomes (for example, cardiovascular disease) and secondary outcomes such as risk factors for chronic disease (for example, adiposity). We identified 111 articles reporting on 74 trials. Pooled effect sizes using standardised mean differences (SMDs) were small to moderate and favoured higher-protein diets for weight loss (SMD -0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.17), body mass index (-0.37, CI -0.56 to 0.19), waist circumference (-0.43, CI -0.69 to -0.16), blood pressure (systolic: -0.21, CI -0.32 to -0.09 and diastolic: -0.18, CI -0.29 to -0.06), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 0.25, CI 0.07 to 0.44), fasting insulin (-0.20, CI -0.39 to -0.01) and triglycerides (-0.51, CI -0.78 to -0.24). Sensitivity analysis of studies with lower risk of bias abolished the effect on HDL and fasting insulin, and reduced the effect on triglycerides. We observed nonsignificant effects on total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and surrogates for bone and kidney health. Adverse gastrointestinal events were more common with high-protein diets. Multivariable meta-regression analysis showed no significant dose response with higher protein intake. Higher-protein diets probably improve adiposity, blood pressure and triglyceride levels, but these effects are small and need to be weighed against the potential for harms.

  1. Effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on some blood parameters and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Attar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prebiotic (Fermacto in low protein diet on serum cholesterol and intestinal microbiota of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty six 1-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used for 42 days. The chicks were randomly allocated to 12 pens containing 13 chicks each with 3 replicates and assigned to receive one of the 4 dietary treatments of 2 levels of protein (low and high and 2 levels of prebiotic (0 and 0.2% in a completely randomised design with factorial arrangement. There were no significant differences in serum HDL and LDL levels among treatments. Significant differences were observed in serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora between the high protein diet without prebiotic and the low protein diet containing prebiotic (P<0.05. The results of the present experiment showed that the addition of prebiotic to broiler diets containing 90% of the NRC protein recommendation significantly affects serum cholesterol and intestinal microflora of broiler chicks (P<0.05.

  2. PTPRT regulates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujing; Scott, Anthony; Wang, Yong; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Yiqing; Doerner, Stephanie; Satake, Masanobu; Croniger, Colleen M; Wang, Zhenghe

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many human diseases. However, the underlying molecular causes of obesity are not well understood. Here, we report that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T (PTPRT) knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Those mice avoid many deleterious side effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity, displaying improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, lower blood glucose and insulin levels. Compared to wild type littermates, PTPRT knockout mice show reduced food intake. Consistently, STAT3 phosphorylation is up-regulated in the hypothalamus of PTPRT knockout mice. These studies implicate PTPRT-modulated STAT3 signaling in the regulation of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

  3. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  4. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

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    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  5. Comparing the environmental impacts of alternative protein crops in poultry diets: The consequences of uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Adrian G Williams; Waller, Anthony H.; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2013-01-01

    The statistical significance of the effects of including different protein sources in poultry diets on the environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Acidification Potential (AP) of typical UK broiler meat and egg production systems was quantified using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method combined with an uncertainty analysis. The broiler and layer diets compared in the study were either standard soya-based, or alternative diets based on Europea...

  6. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda and dietary

  7. High throughput protein production screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  8. Moderate ethanol administration accentuates cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and mitochondrial injury in high fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Lei, Yonghong; Wang, Qiurong; Esberg, Lucy B; Huang, Zaixing; Scott, Glenda I; Li, Xue; Ren, Jun

    2015-03-18

    Light to moderate drinking confers cardioprotection although it remains unclear with regards to the role of moderate drinking on cardiac function in obesity. This study was designed to examine the impact of moderate ethanol intake on myocardial function in high fat diet intake-induced obesity and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial integrity. C57BL/6 mice were fed low or high fat diet for 16 weeks prior to ethanol challenge (1g/kg/d for 3 days). Cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, myocardial histology, and mitochondrial integrity [aconitase activity and the mitochondrial proteins SOD1, UCP-2 and PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α)] were assessed 24h after the final ethanol challenge. Fat diet intake compromised cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties (depressed peak shortening and maximal velocities of shortening/relengthening, prolonged duration of relengthening, dampened intracellular Ca(2+) rise and clearance without affecting duration of shortening). Although moderate ethanol challenge failed to alter cardiomyocyte mechanical property under low fat diet intake, it accentuated high fat diet intake-induced changes in cardiomyocyte contractile function and intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Moderate ethanol challenge failed to affect fat diet intake-induced cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by H&E staining. High fat diet intake reduced myocardial aconitase activity, downregulated levels of mitochondrial protein UCP-2, PGC-1α, SOD1 and interrupted intracellular Ca(2+) regulatory proteins, the effect of which was augmented by moderate ethanol challenge. Neither high fat diet intake nor moderate ethanol challenge affected protein or mRNA levels as well as phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in mouse hearts. Taken together, our data revealed that moderate ethanol challenge accentuated high fat diet-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies as well as mitochondrial injury. Copyright

  9. Growth, feed utilization, survival and body composition of fingerlings of Slender walking catfish, Clarias nieuhofii, fed diets containing different protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anut Kiriratnikom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of test diets, containing different dietary protein levels (32, 36, 40, and 44%, on growth, feed conversionrate and survival of slender walking catfish (Clarias nieuhofii fingerlings were studied. Fish with an average weight of8.35-8.46 g were fed with isocaloric test diets containing 32, 36, 40 and 44% protein, for 12 weeks. The average body weightof the fish fed 40% - 44% protein was significantly higher than that of the others within 4 weeks of feeding (P<0.05. Attermination of the experiment, average body weight and weight gain of the fish fed the diet containing 40% and 44% proteinwere highest and were significantly different from those of the fish fed 32% to 36% protein (P<0.05. The lowest feed conversionrate (FCR was observed in the fish fed 40% and 44% protein. Condition factors (CF were lowest in the fish thatreceived 32% and 36% protein test diets, and hepatosomatic indices (HSI were increased by the dietary protein levels butwere not significantly different in the fish fed protein in the range of 36% to 44%. Carcass composition analysis indicated apositive correlation between dietary protein level and fish body protein content, but moisture, lipid level and ash content inthe fish body were not significantly different among treatments. In conclusion, the 40% protein diet gave the maximumgrowth performance, lowest feed conversion ratio and high body protein content in slender walking catfish fingerling duringthe 12 weeks of the feeding trial.

  10. Yeast (different sources and levels) as protein source in diets of reared piglets: effects on protein digestibility and N-metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M; Paschertz, H; Kamphues, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feeding value of different yeasts as a substitute for soya bean meal, the main protein source in diets of weaned piglets. Tested two yeasts were already available on the market, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis (beer and milk yeast), which replaced 40% of the soya bean meal in the diets. Furthermore, a yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) grown on whey, a side-product of cheese production, was used in increasing concentrations in the diets, so that increasing amounts of the soya bean meal (20%, 40% and 60%) could be replaced. As proved in these experiments, a replacement of 60% of the soya protein with whey yeast protein had positive effects on the performances (daily weight gain) and on the N-metabolism and did not have negative effects on the health or the faeces consistency. The whey yeast stands out because of its high protein quality (N-digestibility and N-retention). Furthermore, the replacement of soya bean meal with highly digestible yeasts is welcomed under the aspect of animal health, because of the reduction of anti-nutritive soya components (stachyose, glycinin) in diets of weaned piglets. The controlled production conditions of the yeasts result in a high feed safety; in addition, the yeast as an end-of-pipe-product is a resource conserving and valuable feed. A main stimulus for the use of yeasts, however, in a food production controlled by economic standpoints, is their price and the costs of other competing feeds.

  11. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  12. Influence of the time of intake of a high fat diet on gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dibák, O

    1985-01-01

    Male Wistar rats aged 75 and 150 days were given high fat diet (36.5 weight % and 30 weight % fat) over a period of 14 days. The growth (PER, NPR) and utilization (NPU, LPU) parameters of protein biological value and liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity were determined. In another experiment, the time dependence of liver gluconeogenesis enzyme (PEPCK and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase /FDP-ase/) and transaminase (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase /ALT, AST/) activities during 24 days' administration of the diet were determined. A 14 days' high fat intake had a negative effect on protein utilization in the organism of 75- and 150-day-old animals, which was more pronounced in the younger age group (a bigger drop in net protein utilization /NPU/ and greater stimulation of PEPCK activity). In 150-day-old animals the negative effect of a high fat intake was already manifested on the 6th to 10th day of the diet to the same degree as in the younger animals on the 14th day, as seen from the increase in all the enzyme activities. The paper presents findings on differences in the degree of the negative effect of a high fat intake on protein utilization with reference to age.

  13. Effect of one month duration ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets on mouse brain bioenergetic infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J Eva; Wilkins, Heather M; E, Lezi; Carl, Steven M; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2015-04-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain's aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated.

  14. Effect of One Month Duration Ketogenic and non-Ketogenic High Fat Diets on Mouse Brain Bioenergetic Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfridge, J. Eva; Wilkins, Heather M.; Lezi, E; Carl, Steven M.; Koppel, Scott; Funk, Eric; Fields, Timothy; Lu, Jianghua; Tang, Ee Phie; Slawson, Chad; Wang, WenFang; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. Using C57Bl/6J mice, we tested the effect of ketosis-inducing and non-inducing high fat diets on genes relevant to brain bioenergetic infrastructures, and on proteins that constitute and regulate that infrastructure. At the end of a one-month study period the two high fat diets appeared to differentially affect peripheral insulin signaling, but brain insulin signaling was not obviously altered. Some bioenergetic infrastructure parameters were similarly impacted by both high fat diets, while other parameters were only impacted by the ketogenic diet. For both diets, mRNA levels for CREB, PGC1α, and NRF2 increased while NRF1, TFAM, and COX4I1 mRNA levels decreased. PGC1β mRNA increased and TNFα mRNA decreased only with the ketogenic diet. Brain mtDNA levels fell in both the ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diet groups, although TOMM20 and COX4I1 protein levels were maintained, and mRNA and protein levels of the mtDNA-encoded COX2 subunit were also preserved. Overall, the pattern of changes observed in mice fed ketogenic and non-ketogenic high fat diets over a one month time period suggests these interventions enhance some aspects of the brain’s aerobic infrastructure, and may enhance mtDNA transcription efficiency. Further studies to determine which diet effects are due to changes in brain ketone body levels, fatty acid levels, glucose levels, altered brain insulin signaling, or other factors such as adipose tissue-associated hormones are indicated. PMID:25104046

  15. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD, only fed a high-fat diet (HFD, or fed low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  16. A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Palanker Musselman

    2011-11-01

    Insulin-resistant, ‘type 2’ diabetes (T2D results from a complex interplay between genes and environment. In particular, both caloric excess and obesity are strongly associated with T2D across many genetic backgrounds. To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae reared on a high-sugar diet were hyperglycemic, insulin resistant and accumulated fat – hallmarks of T2D – compared with those reared on control diets. Excess dietary sugars, but not fats or proteins, elicited insulin-resistant phenotypes. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and β-oxidation was upregulated in high-sugar-fed larvae, as were FOXO targets, consistent with known mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans. These data establish a novel Drosophila model of diet-induced insulin resistance that bears strong similarity to the pathophysiology of T2D in humans.

  17. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan; Junnila, Riia; Sustarsic, Elahu; Herbach, Nadja; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Milz, Stefan; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Bielohuby, Maximilian

    2016-10-01

    Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay. Trabecular bone volume, serum IGF-I and the bone formation marker P1NP were lower in male rats fed both LC-HF diets versus CD. LC-HF diets did not impair bone health in female rats, with no change in trabecular or cortical bone volume nor in serum markers of bone turnover between CD versus both LC-HF diet groups. Pituitary GH secretion was lower in female rats fed LC-HF diet, with no difference in circulating IGF-I. Circulating sex hormone concentrations remained unchanged in male and female rats fed LC-HF diets. A 4-week consumption of LC-HF diets has sex-specific effects on bone health-with no effects in adult female rats yet negative effects in adult male rats. This response seems to be driven by a sex-specific effect of LC-HF diets on the GH/IGF system.

  18. Effect of two different protein/fat ratios of the diet on meagre (Argyrosomus regius traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Moniello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two diets with different protein/fat ratios (P/F (diet A: P/F 2.26; diet B: P/F 3.36 on the chemical composition, fatty acid profile and some somatic indexes of meagre (Argyrosomus regius. The trial was carried out on two groups of meagre raised in two different sea cages during 15 months. At the end of the production cycle biometric measures as well as chemical-nutritional analysis of the fillets were conducted on 25 fishes per group. Diet A, with a lower P/F, furnished animals with higher percentages of mesenteric fat (0.48 vs 0.41%; P<0.01 and of fillet yield (51.21 vs 48.12; P<0.01. Moreover, the fillets obtained with the diet A showed higher percentage of fat (3.60 vs 2.41%; P< 0.01, lower moisture (74.10 vs 75.42%; P<0.01, lower losses of water under pressure (16.73 vs 20.20%; P<0.01 and after 48 h of refrigeration (3.08 vs 4.23%; P<0.01. The fatty acids profile of fillets was affected by the diet. Diet A resulted in a higher level of saturated fatty acids (26.44 vs 23.17% of total lipid; P<0.01 and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (31.56 vs 36.08%; P<0.01 in the fillet, mainly due to the lower content of linoleic acid (13.63 vs 19.77%; P<0.01. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes, which resulted very low in the fish of Group B (AI=0.48 vs 0.60, P<0.01; TI=0.33 vs 0.37, P<0.01, together with the low lipid content of meat in both groups, confirmed the very high nutritional quality of meagre fillets.

  19. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  20. Combined high-fat diet and sustained high sucrose consumption promotes NAFLD in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Hamdan-Pérez, Nashla; Tovar, Armando R; Ordaz-Nava, Guillermo; Martínez-Benítez, Braulio; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Noriega, Lilia G; Hiriart, Marcia; Medina-Santillán, Roberto; Castillo-Hernandez, María del Carmen; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum; Uribe, Misael; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-01-01

    The study of NAFLD in humans has several limitations. Using murine models helps to understand disease pathogenesis. Evaluate the impact of 4 different diets in the production of NAFLD with emphasis on a combined high-fat plus sustained high sucrose consumption. Eight week-old male Wistar rats were divided in four groups and fed for 90 days with the following diets: 1) Control chow diet (C); 2) High-fat cholesterol diet (HFC) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 3) High-fat cornstarch diet (HFCO) + 5% sucrose in drinking water. 4) Chow diet + 20% sucrose in drinking water (HSD). Metabolic changes, leptin levels, liver histology, hepatic and plasma lipid composition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin and liver gene expression of FAS, SREBP-1 and PPAR-α were evaluated. The HFC diet had the highest grade of steatosis (grade 2 of 3) and HSD showed also steatosis (grade 1). Liver weight TG and colesterol concentrations in liver were greater in the HFC diet. There were no increased levels of iron in the liver. Rats in HFC gained significantly more weight (P < 0.001). All experimental groups showed fasting hyperglycemia. HFC had the highest glucose level (158.5 ± 7 mg/dL) (P < 0.005). The HSD and the HFCO diets developed also hyperglycemia. HSD had significantly higher fasting hyperinsulinemia. Serum leptin was higher in the HFC diet (p = 0.001). In conclusion, the HFC diet with combination of high fat and high sucrose is more effective in producing NAFLD compared with a high sucrose diet only.

  1. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. THE RATS WERE RANDOMLY SEPARATED INTO THREE GROUPS: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.

  2. High-carbohydrate/low-protein-induced hyperinsulinemia does not improve protein balance in children after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G.; Li, Zhihao; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Bos, Albert P.; Jinfeng, Liu; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In pediatric cardiac surgery, fluid-restricted low-protein (LoProt) diets account for cumulative protein deficits with increased morbidity. In this setting, we aimed to inhibit proteolysis by a high-carbohydrate (HiCarb)-intake-induced hyperinsulinemia and improve protein balance.

  3. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-11-01

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  4. Changes in cardiac energy metabolic pathways in overweighed rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrego, Javier; de las Heras, Natalia; Zamorano-León, Jose J; Mateos-Cáceres, Petra J; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Valero-Muñoz, Maria; Lahera, Vicente; López-Farré, Antonio J

    2013-03-01

    Heart produces ATP through long-chain fatty acids beta oxidation. To analyze whether in ventricular myocardium, high-fat diet may modify the expression of proteins associated with energy metabolism before myocardial function was affected. Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into two groups: (a) rats fed standard diet (control; n = 6) and (b) rats fed high-fat diet (HFD; n = 6). Proteins from left ventricles were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and Western blotting. Rats fed with HFD showed higher body weight, insulin, glucose, leptin and total cholesterol plasma levels as compared with those fed with standard diet. However, myocardial functional parameters were not different between them. The protein expression of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acyl-CoA hydrolase mitochondrial precursor and enoyl-CoA hydratase, three long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation-related enzymes, and carnitine-O-palmitoyltransferase I was significantly higher in left ventricles from HFD rats. Protein expression of triosephosphate isomerase was higher in left ventricles from HFD rats than in those from control. Two α/β-enolase isotypes and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate isomerase were significantly increased in HFD rats as compared with control. Pyruvate and lactate contents were similar in HFD and control groups. Expression of proteins associated with Krebs cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was higher in HFD rats. Expression of proteins involved in left ventricle metabolic energy was enhanced before myocardial functionality was affected in rats fed with HFD. These findings may probably indicate higher cardiac energy requirement due to weight increase by HFD.

  5. Protein-losing enteropathy as a rare complication of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Kengo; Watanabe, Mio; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Shiihara, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The ketogenic diet is a valuable therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy, but it can result in a variety of complications that sometimes limits its usefulness. Hypoproteinemia is one of the common adverse effects of this diet, although the underling mechanism is largely unknown except for the diet's reduced protein intake. Only one case of protein-losing enteropathy during the ketogenic diet has been reported. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl experienced fever for 5 days then suddenly developed convulsive seizures that subsequently evolved to severe refractory status epilepticus. After multiple antiepileptic drugs failed to improve the patient's condition, we introduced the ketogenic diet. Although her seizures diminished, her course was complicated by hypoproteinemia. An abdominal dynamic scintigraphy and colonoscopy findings indicated protein-losing enteropathy with nonspecific mucosal inflammation. Her nutritional status deteriorated; thus, we discontinued the ketogenic diet. Her nutritional status gradually improved, whereas her seizures increased. Hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet is common, but the underlying etiologies are not well understood. Abdominal dynamic scintigraphy could be valuable for clarifying the etiology of hypoproteinemia during the ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  7. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...

  8. Nitrogen excretion in rats on a protein-free diet and during starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    excretion in urine (UN), corresponding to endogenous UN, during feeding and subsequent starvation periods. The rats fed the protein free-diet had almost the same excretion of urinary N during feeding and starvation (165 and 157 mg/kg W(0.75)), while it was 444 mg/kg W(0.75) in rats previously fed...... with protein, demonstrating a major influence of protein content in a diet on N excretion during starvation. Consequently, the impact of former protein supply on N losses during starvation ought to be considered when evaluating minimum N requirement necessary to sustain life....

  9. Prolonged high fat diet reduces dopamine reuptake without altering DAT gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Cone

    Full Text Available The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD or low (LFD fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development o