WorldWideScience

Sample records for high productivity zone

  1. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  2. Cosmic ray production curves below reworking zones

    Blanford, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating cosmic ray production profiles below reworking zones. The method uses an input reworking depth determined from data such as signatures in the depth profile of ferromagnetic resonance intensity and input cosmic ray production profiles for an undisturbed surface. Reworking histories are simulated using Monte Carlo techniques, and depth profiles are used to determine cosmic ray exposure age limits with a specified probability. It is shown that the track density profiles predict cosmic ray exposure ages in lunar cores that are consistent with values determined by other methods. Results applied to neutron fluence and spallation rare gases eliminate the use of reworking depth as an adjustable parameter and give cosmic ray exposure ages that are compatible with each other

  3. A note on the seasonally shifting zone of high primary production in the Bay of Marajó, Pará, Brazil, 1983-1984

    H.O Schwassmann

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the hydrological and limnological conditions during the annual regime of high and low river flow, as well as the action of the tides, a series of 18 collecting trips were conducted in monthly and bimonthly intervals across the Bay of Marajó during the years 1983-1985. The Tocantins River provides more than 80% of the inflow into this bay and shows a much greater difference in water volume flow between high and low water season than the Amazon. The annual displacement of brackish water influence is thus more extensive Marajó Bay than in the Amazon estuary. During the dry season of low river discharge (September-December, traces of seawater are found to penetrate up to 90 km upriver in the Guamá River. The high degree of turbidity of inner estuarine waters impedes light penetration and results in the near absence of primary production in spite of ample nutrients. Where these turbid river waters mix with brackish estuarine waters of 2 to 4‰ salinity, flocculation and subsequent sedimentation causes visibility to increase from a few to sometimes 200 cm. The water in this zone assumes a bright green color due to phytoplankton. About 90% of the biomass consists of a polyhalobic diatom species, Coscinodiscus. Concomitant great reductions in silica and other nutrient concentrations are noted. During low river flow (September to December, this high production zone is located in the central part of Marajó Bay, whereas it lies outside of the bay over the continental shelf during high river discharge (February to April.Uma série de 18 travessias, em intervalos mensais ou bimensais, na baía do Marajó nos anos 1983-1985, a fim de medir os parâmetros físico-químicos e coletar plancton, contribuiu para nosso conhecimento das condições hidrocinéticas e limnológicas durante o ciclo anual de vazão alta e baixa dos rios e das marés. Devido à diferença de vazão entre a cheia e a seca no rio Tocantins ser maior que no rio Amazonas

  4. Production and aging of paramagnetic point defects in P-doped floating zone silicon irradiated with high fluence 27 MeV electrons

    Joita, A. C.; Nistor, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    Enhancing the long term stable performance of silicon detectors used for monitoring the position and flux of the particle beams in high energy physics experiments requires a better knowledge of the nature, stability, and transformation properties of the radiation defects created over the operation time. We report the results of an electron spin resonance investigation in the nature, transformation, and long term stability of the irradiation paramagnetic point defects (IPPDs) produced by high fluence (2 × 1016 cm-2), high energy (27 MeV) electrons in n-type, P-doped standard floating zone silicon. We found out that both freshly irradiated and aged (i.e., stored after irradiation for 3.5 years at 250 K) samples mainly contain negatively charged tetravacancy and pentavacancy defects in the first case and tetravacancy defects in the second one. The fact that such small cluster vacancy defects have not been observed by irradiation with low energy (below 5 MeV) electrons, but were abundantly produced by irradiation with neutrons, strongly suggests the presence of the same mechanism of direct formation of small vacancy clusters by irradiation with neutrons and high energy, high fluence electrons, in agreement with theoretical predictions. Differences in the nature and annealing properties of the IPPDs observed between the 27 MeV electrons freshly irradiated, and irradiated and aged samples were attributed to the presence of a high concentration of divacancies in the freshly irradiated samples, defects which transform during storage at 250 K through diffusion and recombination processes.

  5. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  6. Zone refining high-purity germanium

    Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Hansen, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    The effects of various parameters on germanium purification by zone refining have been examined. These parameters include the germanium container and container coatings, ambient gas and other operating conditions. Four methods of refining are presented which reproducibly yield 3.5 kg germanium ingots from which high purity (vertical barN/sub A/ - N/sub D/vertical bar less than or equal to2 x 10 10 cm -3 ) single crystals can be grown. A qualitative model involving binary and ternary complexes of Si, O, B, and Al is shown to account for the behavior of impurities at these low concentrations

  7. Mechanical Properties of Heat Affected Zone of High Strength Steels

    Sefcikova, K.; Brtnik, T.; Dolejs, J.; Keltamaki, K.; Topilla, R.

    2015-11-01

    High Strength Steels became more popular as a construction material during last decade because of their increased availability and affordability. On the other hand, even though general use of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) is expanding, the wide utilization is limited because of insufficient information about their behaviour in structures. The most widely used technique for joining steels is fusion welding. The welding process has an influence not only on the welded connection but on the area near this connection, the so-called heat affected zone, as well. For that reason it is very important to be able to determine the properties in the heat affected zone (HAZ). This area of investigation is being continuously developed in dependence on significant progress in material production, especially regarding new types of steels available. There are currently several types of AHSS on the world market. Two most widely used processes for AHSS production are Thermo-Mechanically Controlled Processing (TMCP) and Quenching in connection with Tempering. In the presented study, TMCP and QC steels grade S960 were investigated. The study is focused on the changes of strength, ductility, hardness and impact strength in heat affected zone based on the used amount of heat input.

  8. Field vegetable production in the Lake Zone of Tanzania

    Everaarts, A.P.; Putter, de H.; Maerere, A.P.; Amon, W.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2012 and in August 2014 surveys were carried out in field vegetable producing areas in the Lake Zone of Tanzania. The aim of the surveys was to learn the conditions for field vegetable production and marketing in these areas. Recommendations for the development of vegetable production

  9. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.

    2017-07-15

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  10. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.; Bugica, Kalman; Wooster, Michael K.; Dickens, Amanda Kahn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  11. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.; Bugica, Kalman; Wooster, Michael K.; Dickens, Amanda Kahn

    2017-09-01

    The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  12. Modeling Degradation Product Partitioning in Chlorinated-DNAPL Source Zones

    Boroumand, A.; Ramsburg, A.; Christ, J.; Abriola, L.

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic reductive dechlorination degrades aqueous phase contaminant concentrations, increasing the driving force for DNAPL dissolution. Results from laboratory and field investigations suggest that accumulation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) may occur within DNAPL source zones. The lack of (or slow) degradation of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones may result in these dechlorination products becoming distributed among the solid, aqueous, and organic phases. Partitioning of cis-DCE and VC into the organic phase may reduce aqueous phase concentrations of these contaminants and result in the enrichment of these dechlorination products within the non-aqueous phase. Enrichment of degradation products within DNAPL may reduce some of the advantages associated with the application of bioremediation in DNAPL source zones. Thus, it is important to quantify how partitioning (between the aqueous and organic phases) influences the transport of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones. In this work, abiotic two-phase (PCE-water) one-dimensional column experiments are modeled using analytical and numerical methods to examine the rate of partitioning and the capacity of PCE-DNAPL to reversibly sequester cis-DCE. These models consider aqueous-phase, nonaqueous phase, and aqueous plus nonaqueous phase mass transfer resistance using linear driving force and spherical diffusion expressions. Model parameters are examined and compared for different experimental conditions to evaluate the mechanisms controlling partitioning. Biot number, a dimensionless number which is an index of the ratio of the aqueous phase mass transfer rate in boundary layer to the mass transfer rate within the NAPL, is used to characterize conditions in which either or both processes are controlling. Results show that application of a single aqueous resistance is capable to capture breakthrough curves when DNAPL is distributed in porous media as low

  13. 78 FR 58273 - Approval for Manufacturing (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc...

    2013-09-23

    ... (Production) Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 284, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, New... (production) authority on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., within FTZ 284 in Bergen, New York (FTZ Docket 5-2012... manufacturing (production) authority under zone procedures within FTZ 284 on behalf of Liberty Pumps, Inc., as...

  14. Production zones and systems, markets, benefits and constraints of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn butter processing

    Bup Divine Nde

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The shea tree is a multipurpose tree crop indigenous to Sub Saharan African. The tree is highly cherished for the oil that is extracted from its kernels and used nationally and internationally in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and in chocolate formulations. The processing and sales represent significant income earning opportunities for rural women who are the main stakeholders in the production chain. Shea nuts and its products are listed among the top ten Non-Traditional Exports of Ghana. In Burkina Faso it is the fourth most important export crop after gold, cotton and livestock and makes a contribution of about 6 million USD to the national economy. Today the shea tree is the second most important oil crop in Africa after the palm nut tree. About 500 million shea trees grow in Africa which has the potential of producing shea nuts worth about 150 million USD yearly. This represents substantial earnings for the Sub-Saharan African economies when fully exploited. Shea trees grow in 21 Sub-Saharan African countries that can be grouped into 3 zones following their potentials for shea nut production per year: high production zone comprising of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D’Ivoire Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda that have potentials of producing 70 000–300 000 tons per year; average production zone comprising of Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Guinea Conakry, Senegal and Togo with potentials of 10 000–70 000 tons per year and low production zones made up of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Niger and Sierra Leone with yearly production potentials less than 10 000 metric tons. Though semi mechanized and some few fully mechanized productions methods are employed in the major shea producing countries of West Africa, most of the rural women still used traditional processing procedures. Major importers of shea are European Union, Japan and the USA. The sector is still constrained by lack of

  15. 78 FR 36523 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International...

    2013-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-17-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation; (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors and Generators Production); Houston, Texas On February 11, 2013, the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84...

  16. 77 FR 51912 - Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0618] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long Island Sound, Sands Point, NY AGENCY.... 165.T01-0618 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T01-0618 Safety Zone; Tom Lyons Productions Fireworks, Long...

  17. 78 FR 23220 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott...

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-91-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, Illinois, Authorization of Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, Illinois, Area On December 14, 2012, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., and AbbVie, Inc...

  18. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    2012-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (CEI) submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the...

  19. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (Fragrance Bottling); Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (CEI) has submitted a notification of proposed production...

  20. 78 FR 57570 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Production; Chicago, Illinois

    2013-09-19

    ... all waters of Lake Michigan, Calumet Harbor west of an imaginary line connecting 41[deg]44'29.4'' N... representative to enter, move within, or exit the safety zone. Vessels and persons granted permission to enter...

  1. 77 FR 59890 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-36-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 92--Gulfport, MS; Authorization of Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC (Shipbuilding); Gulfport, MS On May 10, 2012, the Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  2. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  3. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 deg. C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 deg. C. Also, the DZs above 15 μm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits

  4. Denuded zone in Czochralski silicon wafer with high carbon content

    Chen, Jiahe; Yang, Deren; Ma, Xiangyang; Que, Duanlin

    2006-12-01

    The thermal stability of the denuded zone (DZ) created by high-low-high-temperature annealing in high carbon content (H[C]) and low carbon content (L[C]) Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) has been investigated in a subsequent ramping and isothermal 1050 °C annealing. The tiny oxygen precipitates which might occur in the DZ were checked. It was found in the L[C] Cz-Si that the DZ shrank and the density of bulk micro-defects (BMDs) reduced with the increase of time spent at 1050 °C. Also, the DZs above 15 µm of thickness present in the H[C] Cz-Si wafers continuously and the density and total volume of BMDs first decreased then increased and finally decreased again during the treatments. Moreover, tiny oxygen precipitates were hardly generated inside the DZs, indicating that H[C] Cz-Si wafers could support the fabrication of integrated circuits.

  5. 78 FR 68814 - Foreign-Trade Zone 32-Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar...

    2013-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-68-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 32--Miami, Florida, Authorization of Production Activity, Brightstar Corporation (Cell Phone Kitting), Miami, Florida On June 26, 2013, The Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, grantee of FTZ 32, submitted a notification of proposed...

  6. 78 FR 15682 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, Texas, Authorization of Production Activit, Mitsubishi Caterpillar...

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-88-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 84--Houston, Texas, Authorization of Production Activit, Mitsubishi Caterpillar Forklift America Inc. (Forklift Trucks), Houston, TX On November 2, 2012, the Port of Houston Authority, grantee of FTZ 84, submitted a notification of...

  7. 78 FR 57838 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21-Dorchester County, South Carolina, Authorization of Production...

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-57-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 21--Dorchester County, South Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, AGFA Materials Corporation, (Photographic Film Cutting), Goose Creek, South Carolina On May 17, 2013, the South Carolina State Ports...

  8. 78 FR 16247 - Foreign-Trade Zone 38-Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Authorization of Production Activity...

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-86-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 38--Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Authorization of Production Activity; ZF Transmissions Gray Court, LLC (Automatic Transmissions); Gray Court, South Carolina On November 8, 2012, the South Carolina State Ports Authority...

  9. Shallow methylmercury production in the marginal sea ice zone of the central Arctic Ocean.

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Sonke, Jeroen E; Cossa, Daniel; Point, David; Lagane, Christelle; Laffont, Laure; Galfond, Benjamin T; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers

    2015-05-20

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic compound that threatens wildlife and human health across the Arctic region. Though much is known about the source and dynamics of its inorganic mercury (Hg) precursor, the exact origin of the high MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota remains uncertain. Arctic coastal sediments, coastal marine waters and surface snow are known sites for MeHg production. Observations on marine Hg dynamics, however, have been restricted to the Canadian Archipelago and the Beaufort Sea (Ocean (79-90 °N) profiles for total mercury (tHg) and MeHg. We find elevated tHg and MeHg concentrations in the marginal sea ice zone (81-85 °N). Similar to other open ocean basins, Arctic MeHg concentration maxima also occur in the pycnocline waters, but at much shallower depths (150-200 m). The shallow MeHg maxima just below the productive surface layer possibly result in enhanced biological uptake at the base of the Arctic marine food web and may explain the elevated MeHg concentrations in Arctic biota. We suggest that Arctic warming, through thinning sea ice, extension of the seasonal sea ice zone, intensified surface ocean stratification and shifts in plankton ecodynamics, will likely lead to higher marine MeHg production.

  10. Highly oxidising fluids generated during serpentinite breakdown in subduction zones.

    Debret, B; Sverjensky, D A

    2017-09-04

    Subduction zones facilitate chemical exchanges between Earth's deep interior and volcanism that affects habitability of the surface environment. Lavas erupted at subduction zones are oxidized and release volatile species. These features may reflect a modification of the oxidation state of the sub-arc mantle by hydrous, oxidizing sulfate and/or carbonate-bearing fluids derived from subducting slabs. But the reason that the fluids are oxidizing has been unclear. Here we use theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations to predict the redox state of fluids generated during serpentinite dehydration. Specifically, the breakdown of antigorite to olivine, enstatite, and chlorite generates fluids with high oxygen fugacities, close to the hematite-magnetite buffer, that can contain significant amounts of sulfate. The migration of these fluids from the slab to the mantle wedge could therefore provide the oxidized source for the genesis of primary arc magmas that release gases to the atmosphere during volcanism. Our results also show that the evolution of oxygen fugacity in serpentinite during subduction is sensitive to the amount of sulfides and potentially metal alloys in bulk rock, possibly producing redox heterogeneities in subducting slabs.

  11. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Han, D. J.; Batignani, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-10-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ˜7.77×10 4/s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device.

  12. High-gain bipolar detector on float-zone silicon

    Han, D.J.; Batignani, G.; Guerra, A.D.A. Del; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.

    2003-01-01

    Since the float-zone (FZ) silicon has lower contaminations and longer minority-carrier lifetime than those in Czochralski silicon and other semiconductor materials, it has potential advantages to fabricate bipolar detectors on the high-purity FZ silicon substrate to achieve a high gain at ultra-low-signal levels. The authors present preliminary experimental results on a bipolar detector fabricated on an unusual high-purity FZ silicon substrate. A backside gettering layer of phosphorus-doped polysilicon was employed to preserve the long carrier lifetime of the high-purity FZ silicon. The device has been investigated in the detection of a continuous flux of X-ray and infrared light. The bipolar detector with a circular emitter of 2 mm diameter has demonstrated high gains up to 3820 for 22 keV X-ray from a 1 mCi Cd radioactive source (the X-ray photon flux, received by the detector is estimated to be ∼7.77x10 4 /s). High gain up to 4400 for 0.17 nW light with a wavelength of 0.83 μm has been observed for the same device

  13. Effect of rain drop washes on soil fertility in cotton production zone of ...

    Crop production in the Sahel is limited by nutrients availability. The study aimed to estimate the contribution of avifauna, crop rotation and trees to soil fertility and crop production improvement. Pot experiment was carried out with soils sampled in Faidherbia albida parklands in cotton production zone of West Burkina Faso.

  14. Product Characterization and Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis in a Three-Zone Free-Fall Reactor

    Natthaya Punsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of biomass including palm shell, palm kernel, and cassava pulp residue was studied in a laboratory free-fall reactor with three separated hot zones. The effects of pyrolysis temperature (250–1050°C and particle size (0.18–1.55 mm on the distribution and properties of pyrolysis products were investigated. A higher pyrolysis temperature and smaller particle size increased the gas yield but decreased the char yield. Cassava pulp residue gave more volatiles and less char than those of palm kernel and palm shell. The derived solid product (char gave a high calorific value of 29.87 MJ/kg and a reasonably high BET surface area of 200 m2/g. The biooil from palm shell is less attractive to use as a direct fuel, due to its high water contents, low calorific value, and high acidity. On gas composition, carbon monoxide was the dominant component in the gas product. A pyrolysis model for biomass pyrolysis in the free-fall reactor was developed, based on solving the proposed two-parallel reactions kinetic model and equations of particle motion, which gave excellent prediction of char yields for all biomass precursors under all pyrolysis conditions studied.

  15. Rural poultry production in two agro-ecological zones of Uganda

    Illango, J.; Etoori, A.; Olupot, H.; Mabonga, J.

    2002-01-01

    A baseline study on rural poultry production, management and health was conducted in six selected villages in an agro-pastoral and montane zone of Uganda during the wet and dry season. In the 114 rural households visited, the farmers were interviewed by using a questionnaire. Poultry flocks were examined and samples were collected for laboratory investigations. A free-range management system with mixed poultry species was practiced by farmers in both zones. The major poultry flock parameters in the agro-pastoral and montane zone were, respectively, mean flock size of 22 (with a range of 3-65) and 17.5 (with a range of 6-60); mean hen:cock ratio of 2.6 to 1 and 4.8 to 1; mean egg production per hen per year of 8.8 and 11.5; mean hatchability of 70.8% and 85.7%; mean chick mortality of 39.6% and 28.6%. The flock ownership was single, mixed or shared among family households. Women were more involved in most of the activities regarding poultry management, although in both zones a division of labour existed within the household. Men predominantly made the decisions on sale, consumption and treatment of poultry. The most important health problems in the flocks in both zones in the two seasons were coughing, diarrhoea, fowl pox and internal parasites. It was concluded that the major constraints affecting rural poultry production in the two zones were diseases especially Newcastle disease and parasites, inadequate housing and poor feed supplementation especially in the dry season. Women had important responsibilities in rural poultry production in the two zones. The findings form the basis for an assessment of the effects of interventions on rural poultry production in the two zones. (author)

  16. 77 FR 28569 - Foreign-Trade Zone 92-Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC...

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-36-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 92--Gulfport, MS Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Gulf Ship, LLC, (Shipbuilding), Gulfport, MS The Mississippi Coast Foreign-Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 92, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Gulf Ship, LLC (Gulf...

  17. 78 FR 30269 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, Washington; Authorization of Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    2013-05-22

    ... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of T.C. Trading Company, Inc... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-8-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham, Washington; Authorization of Production Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting...

  18. 78 FR 56859 - Foreign-Trade Zone 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America...

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-51-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 267--Fargo, North Dakota; Authorization of Production Activity; CNH America, LLC, (Construction and Agricultural Equipment..., submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of...

  19. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  20. The SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product

    Reichle, Rolf; Crow, Wade; Koster, Randal; Kimball, John

    2010-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is being developed by NASA for launch in 2013 as one of four first-tier missions recommended by the U.S. National Research Council Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space in 2007. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. In this paper we describe the assimilation of SMAP observations for the generation of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product. The SMAP mission makes simultaneous active (radar) and passive (radiometer) measurements in the 1.26-1.43 GHz range (L-band) from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. Measurements will be obtained across a 1000 km wide swath using conical scanning at a constant incidence angle (40 deg). The radar resolution varies from 1-3 km over the outer 70% of the swath to about 30 km near the center of the swath. The radiometer resolution is 40 km across the entire swath. The radiometer measurements will allow high-accuracy but coarse resolution (40 km) measurements. The radar measurements will add significantly higher resolution information. The radar is however very sensitive to surface roughness and vegetation structure. The combination of the two measurements allows optimal blending of the advantages of each instrument. SMAP directly observes only surface soil moisture (in the top 5 cm of the soil column). Several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, require knowledge of root zone soil moisture (approximately top 1 m of the soil column), which is not directly measured by SMAP. The foremost objective of the SMAP L4_SM product is to fill this gap and provide estimates of root zone soil moisture

  1. Profitability of sweet potato production in derived savannah zone of ...

    This study examined profitability of sweet potato production in Odeda Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study was based on primary data collected from 82 sweet potato farmers through multistage sampling technique; analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The result revealed that ...

  2. Yield gap determinants for wheat production in major irrigated cropping zones of punjab, pakistan

    Hussain, A.; Aujla, K.M.; Badar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Yield gap is useful measurement for crop productivity and the extent to which crop productivity falls below some potential level. The study was carried out to analyze the yield gap and determinants of wheat production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is based on cross sectional data from 210 farmers for the crop year 2009-10. Results suggest that farm level wheat yields are less than the potential yield level by 33.0%, 43.0% and 50.6% in the mixed-cropping, cotton-wheat and rice-wheat zones of the province, respectively. Ordinary least square regression analysis of wheat production by assuming Cobb-Douglas specification reveals that the number of irrigations, usage of farm yard manure and fertilizers contribute positively and significantly to wheat crop production. Coefficients of dummy variables for cropping zones indicate that farmers in the mixed cropping zone are obtaining better yield of the wheat crop as compared to their counterparts in other selected cropping zones. These results suggested that farmers can increase wheat productivity by increasing the use of factor inputs; however, poverty may be a constraint on realizing these gains. Thus, wheat production can be increased in the country by helping resource poor farmers through suitable support mechanisms. (author)

  3. Experimental demonstration of producing high resolution zone plates by spatial-frequency multiplication

    Yun, W.B.; Howells, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier publication, the possibility of producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray applications by spatial-frequency multiplication was analyzed theoretically. The theory predicted that for a daughter zone plate generated from the interference of mth and nth diffraction orders of a parent zone plate, its primary focal spot size and focal length are one (m + n)th of their counterparts of the parent zone plate, respectively. It was also shown that a zone plate with the outermost zone width of as small as 13.8 nm might be produced by this technique. In this paper, we report an experiment which we carried out with laser light (λ = 4166A) for demonstrating this technique. In addition, an outlook for producing high resolution zone plates for x-ray application is briefly discussed

  4. HIGH RISK ZONES ON FLOODS AND LANDSLIDES DISASTERS IN RWANDA

    Nsengiyumva J.ean Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk management as an issue at stake worldwide shifts its emphases from post disaster to pre-disaster phases. Management activities required in pre-disaster phases, such as risk assessment, hazard identification, preparedness or preventive and mitigation measures needs detailed information about hazard characteristics, social, economic, structural vulnerability and capacity. That information is not usually available in many different countries, as it is the case in Rwanda. Based on the international experiences and practices, knowledge of disaster prone areas can be assumed as an alternative for detailed information acquisition, thus contributing to effective disaster risk management. Identification of disaster higher risk zones on floods and landslides, can lead to better understanding of disaster risk and putting in place measures for risk reduction. Consequently, as Rwanda is prone to natural hazards with lack of adequate information that is essential for effective disaster risk management, due to limited scientific researches; this study aims to address that gap. The results revealed that some areas of the North-Western parts of Rwanda are highly prone to floods and landslides, namely Burera, Musanze, Rulindo, Nyabihu, Ngororero and Rubavu Districts. This is aggravated by some triggering factors such as steep slopes, soil types, heavy rains, landuse Practices and others. Intensity and frequency of disaster events vary from district to district and this geographical dispersal confirms the non-spatial clustering (as confirmed by Moran’s I analysis of risks due to uneven level of Disaster vulnerabilities, coping capacities and available hazards whereby lack of normal distribution of hazards all over all Districts.

  5. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  6. 78 FR 16465 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola...

    2013-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-84-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Authorization of Production Activity, Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC (Soft Drink...-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, in Toa Baja, Puerto Rico...

  7. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    2013-05-09

    ... Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that might... the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. The safety zone has been effective and enforced since April 18...

  8. High resolution Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system

    Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.E.; Ruland, R.E.; Wang, T.

    1992-03-01

    The existing Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system is currently being extended and upgraded for the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). Previously, the resolution of this system has been several tens of micrometers. After the upgrade, the resolution will be a few micrometers. Details of the upgrade as well as simulation and experimental results will be presented

  9. High throughput protein production screening

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  10. Economics of milk production of major dairy buffalo breeds by agro-ecological zones in pakistan

    Aujla, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to compare costs of rearing and returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainous-AJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breed farmers, respectively. The study revealed that among the structure of cost components, feed cost occupied the major share in total cost of milk production. Milk production of buffaloes of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds were 2889 and 2375 liter per annum, respectively. Total costs of milk production of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi buffalo breeds were Rs.96155 and Rs.90604 per annum, respectively. Net income per liter from milk of Nili-Ravi and Kundhi breeds was Rs.12 and Rs.11, and benefit-cost ratios were 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. Hence, Nili-Ravi buffalo breed is more productive and yields better returns over Kundhi breed. Moreover, buffalo milk production is a profitable business in the country except in coastal areas of Sindh, where investment in milk production just covers the cost of production due to comparatively higher feed prices and low milk prices. Econometric analysis of milk production in the country revealed that use of green fodder and concentrates contribute positively and significantly to milk production. (author)

  11. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  12. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  13. High efficiency x-ray nanofocusing by the blazed stacking of binary zone plates

    Mohacsi, I.; Karvinen, P.; Vartiainen, I.; Diaz, A.; Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Mercere, P.; David, C.

    2013-09-01

    The focusing efficiency of binary Fresnel zone plate lenses is fundamentally limited and higher efficiency requires a multi step lens profile. To overcome the manufacturing problems of high resolution and high efficiency multistep zone plates, we investigate the concept of stacking two different binary zone plates in each other's optical near-field. We use a coarse zone plate with π phase shift and a double density fine zone plate with π/2 phase shift to produce an effective 4- step profile. Using a compact experimental setup with piezo actuators for alignment, we demonstrated 47.1% focusing efficiency at 6.5 keV using a pair of 500 μm diameter and 200 nm smallest zone width. Furthermore, we present a spatially resolved characterization method using multiple diffraction orders to identify manufacturing errors, alignment errors and pattern distortions and their effect on diffraction efficiency.

  14. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 2 data product users' guide

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed for the remote sensing of ocean color parameters from an earth orbiting space platform. A Technical Manual was designed for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 2 data products. It contains information which describes how the Level 1 data was process to obtain the Level 2 (derived) product. It contains information needed to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  15. The identification of zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products

    M. Kramarz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the number of participants in a supply chain and network relations results in an increase in the complexity of the entire logistic and production system. Consequently, there appear additional potential sources of disruptions in material flows. The aim of the research presented in the article is to identify the zones of amplification of disruptions in network supply chains of metallurgic products.

  16. Characterization of 60 Co y-radiation induced radical products of antipyrine by means of high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    Coolen, S.A.J.; Everaerts, F.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the amount of oxidative damage, caused by free radicals, is a major problem in free radical and aging research. Antipyrine is proposed as an exogenous marker for the biomolecular monitoring of oxidative stress. In this paper the characterization of the 60Co γ-radiation products of

  17. Characterization of 60Co gamma-radiation induced radical products of antipyrine by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    Coolen, S.A.J.; Everaerts, F.M.; Huf, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the amount of oxidative damage, caused by free radicals, is a major problem in free radical and aging research. Antipyrine is proposed as an exogenous marker for the biomolecular monitoring of oxidative stress. In this paper the characterization of the 60Co ¿-radiation products of

  18. Ecological risk caused by land use change in the coastal zone: a case study in the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone

    Di, X H; Wang, Y D; Hou, X Y

    2014-01-01

    China's coastal zone plays an important role in ecological services production and social-economic development; however, extensive and intensive land resource utilization and land use change have lead to high ecological risk in this area during last decade. Regional ecological risk assessment can provide fundamental knowledge and scientific basis for better understanding of the relationship between regional landscape ecosystem and human activities or climate changes, facilitating the optimization strategy of land use structure and improving the ecological risk prevention capability. In this paper, the Yellow River Delta High-Efficiency Ecological Economic Zone is selected as the study site, which is undergoing a new round of coastal zone exploitation and has endured substantial land use change in the past decade. Land use maps of 2000, 2005 and 2010 were generated based on Landsat images by visual interpretation method, and the ecological risk index was then calculated. The index was 0.3314, 0.3461 and 0.3176 in 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively, which showed a positive transition of regional ecological risk in 2005

  19. Two-zone model of coronal hole structure in the high corona

    Wang, Z.; Kundu, M.R.; Yoshimura, H.

    1988-01-01

    The two-zone coronal hole structure model presently proposed for the high corona at 1.5-1.7 solar radii emerges from a comparison of computation results for the potential magnetic fields of the corona and meter-decameter radio observations. The two zones of a coronal hole are defined by the configuration of magnetic field lines around a coronal hole: (1) the central hole of an open diverging magnetic field line system; and (2) the boundary zone between the central zone of the open field line system and the closed field line system or systems surrounding the open field line system. 19 references

  20. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  1. 77 FR 70417 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pepsi...

    2012-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-84-2012] Foreign-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, Puerto Rico; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, submitted a notification of proposed production activity on behalf of Pepsi...

  2. Impact of aerosols on solar energy production - Scenarios from the Sahel Zone

    Neher, Ina; Meilinger, Stefanie; Crewell, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Solar energy is one option to serve the rising global energy demand with low environmental impact. Building an energy system with a considerable share of solar power requires long-term investment and a careful investigation of potential sites. Therefore, understanding the impacts from varying regionally and locally determined meteorological conditions on solar energy production will influence energy yield projections. Aerosols reduce global solar radiation due to absorption and scattering and therewith solar energy yields. Depending on aerosol size distribution they reduce the direct component of the solar radiation and modify the direction of the diffuse component compared to standard atmospheric conditions without aerosols. The aerosol size distribution and composition in the atmosphere is highly variable due to meteorological and land surface conditions. A quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on solar power yields and its relation to land use change is of particular interest for developing countries countries when analyzing the potential of local power production. This study aims to identify the effect of atmospheric aerosols in three different land use regimes, namely desert, urban/polluted and maritime on the tilted plane of photovoltaic energy modules. Here we focus on the Sahel zone, i.e. Niamey, Niger (13.5 N;2.1 E), located at the edge of the Sahara where also detailed measurements of the atmospheric state are available over the year 2006. Guided by observations a model chain is used to determine power yields. The atmospheric aerosol composition will be defined by using the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) library. Direct and diffuse radiation (up- and downward component) are then calculated by the radiative transfer model libRadtran which allows to calculate the diffuse component of the radiance from different azimuth and zenith angles. Then the diffuse radiance will be analytically transformed to an east, south and west facing

  3. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles,

  4. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Hall, B.D. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: britt.hall@uregina.ca; Aiken, G.R. [United States Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Marvin-DiPasquale, M. [United States Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Swarzenski, C.M. [United States Geological Survey, Suite 120, 3535 S. Sherwood Forest Blvd., Baton Rouge, LA 70816 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  5. Wetlands as principal zones of methylmercury production in southern Louisiana and the Gulf of Mexico region

    Hall, B.D.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Swarzenski, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that wetlands, especially those rich in organic matter and receiving appreciable atmospheric mercury (Hg) inputs, are important sites of methylmercury (MeHg) production. Extensive wetlands in the southeastern United States have many ecosystem attributes ideal for promoting high MeHg production rates; however, relatively few mercury cycling studies have been conducted in these environments. We conducted a landscape scale study examining Hg cycling in coastal Louisiana (USA) including four field trips conducted between August 2003 and May 2005. Sites were chosen to represent different ecosystem types, including: a large shallow eutrophic estuarine lake (Lake Pontchartrain), three rivers draining into the lake, a cypress-tupelo dominated freshwater swamp, and six emergent marshes ranging from a freshwater marsh dominated by Panicum hemitomon to a Spartina alterniflora dominated salt marsh close to the Gulf of Mexico. We measured MeHg and total Hg (THg) concentrations, and ancillary chemical characteristics, in whole and filtered surface water, and filtered porewater. Overall, MeHg concentrations were greatest in surface water of freshwater wetlands and lowest in the profundal (non-vegetated) regions of the lake and river mainstems. Concentrations of THg and MeHg in filtered surface water were positively correlated with the highly reactive, aromatic (hydrophobic organic acid) fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These results suggest that DOC plays an important role in promoting the mobility, transport and bioavailability of inorganic Hg in these environments. Further, elevated porewater concentrations in marine and brackish wetlands suggest coastal wetlands along the Gulf Coast are key sites for MeHg production and may be a principal source of MeHg to foodwebs in the Gulf of Mexico. Examining the relationships among MeHg, THg, and DOC across these multiple landscape types is a first step in evaluating possible links between key zones for

  6. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

  7. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  8. Assessing the joint impact of DNAPL source-zone behavior and degradation products on the probabilistic characterization of human health risk

    Henri, Christopher V.; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The release of industrial contaminants into the subsurface has led to a rapid degradation of groundwater resources. Contamination caused by Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) is particularly severe owing to their limited solubility, slow dissolution and in many cases high toxicity. A greater insight into how the DNAPL source zone behavior and the contaminant release towards the aquifer impact human health risk is crucial for an appropriate risk management. Risk analysis is further complicated by the uncertainty in aquifer properties and contaminant conditions. This study focuses on the impact of the DNAPL release mode on the human health risk propagation along the aquifer under uncertain conditions. Contaminant concentrations released from the source zone are described using a screening approach with a set of parameters representing several scenarios of DNAPL architecture. The uncertainty in the hydraulic properties is systematically accounted for by high-resolution Monte Carlo simulations. We simulate the release and the transport of the chlorinated solvent perchloroethylene and its carcinogenic degradation products in randomly heterogeneous porous media. The human health risk posed by the chemical mixture of these contaminants is characterized by the low-order statistics and the probability density function of common risk metrics. We show that the zone of high risk (hot spot) is independent of the DNAPL mass release mode, and that the risk amplitude is mostly controlled by heterogeneities and by the source zone architecture. The risk is lower and less uncertain when the source zone is formed mostly by ganglia than by pools. We also illustrate how the source zone efficiency (intensity of the water flux crossing the source zone) affects the risk posed by an exposure to the chemical mixture. Results display that high source zone efficiencies are counter-intuitively beneficial, decreasing the risk because of a reduction in the time available for the production

  9. Geochemical Processes Controlling Migration of High Level Wastes in Hanford's Vadose Zone

    Zachara, John M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Freshley, Mark D.; Mann, Frederick M.; Anderson, Frank J.; Wood, Marcus I.; Jones, Thomas E.; Myers, David A.

    2007-01-01

    High level nuclear wastes (HLW) from Hanford's plutonium reprocessing are stored in massive, buried, single-shell tanks in eighteen tank farms. The wastes were initially hot because of radioactive decay, and many exhibited extreme chemical character in terms of pH, salinity, and radionuclide concentration. At present, 67 of the 149 single shell tanks are suspected to have released over 1.9 million L of tank waste to the vadose zone, with most leak events occurring between 1950 and 1975. Boreholes have been placed through the largest vadose zone plumes to define the extent of contaminant migration, and to develop conceptual models of processes governing the transformation, retardation, and overall transport of tank waste residuals. Laboratory studies with sediments so collected have shown that ion exchange, precipitation and dissolution, and surface complexation reactions have occurred between the HLW and subsurface sediments moderating their chemical character, and retarding the migration of select contaminants. Processes suspected to facilitate the far-field migration of immobile radionuclides including stable aqueous complex formation and mobile colloids were found to be potentially operative, but unlikely to occur in the field, with the exception of cyanide-facilitated migration of 60Co. Fission product oxyanions are the most mobile of tank waste constituents because their adsorption is suppressed by large concentrations of waste anions; the vadose zone clay fraction is negative in surface charge; and, unlike Cr, their reduced forms are unstable in oxidizing environments. Reaction/process-based transport modeling is beginning to be used for predictions of future contaminant mobility and plume evolution

  10. Visualization of the heat release zone of highly turbulent premixed jet flames

    Lv, Liang; Tan, Jianguo; Zhu, Jiajian

    2017-10-01

    Visualization of the heat release zone (HRZ) of highly turbulent flames is significantly important to understand the interaction between turbulence and chemical reactions, which is the foundation to design and optimize engines. Simultaneous measurements of OH and CH2O using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) were performed to characterize the HRZ. A well-designed piloted premixed jet burner was employed to generate four turbulent premixed CH4/air jet flames, with different jet Reynolds numbers (Rejet) ranging from 4900 to 39200. The HRZ was visualized by both the gradient of OH and the pixel-by-pixel product of OH and CH2O. It is shown that turbulence has an increasing effect on the spatial structure of the flame front with an increasing height above the jet exit for the premixed jet flames, which results in the broadening of the HRZ and the increase of the wrinkling. The HRZ remains thin as the Rejet increases, whereas the preheat zone is significantly broadened and thickened. This indicates that the smallest turbulent eddies can only be able to enter the flame front rather than the HRZ in the present flame conditions. The flame quenching is observed with Rejet = 39200, which may be due to the strong entrainment of the cold air from outside of the burned gas region.

  11. Sugarcane productivity correlated with physical-chemical attributes to create soil management zone

    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of sugar cane in Brazil is unquestionable because it is the raw material for the production of ethanol and sugar. The accurate spatial intervention in the management of the crop, resulting zones of soil management, increases productivity as well as its agricultural yields. The spatial and Person's correlations between sugarcane attributes and physico-chemical attributes of a Typic Tropustalf were studied in the growing season of 2009, in Suzanápolis, State of São Paulo, Brazil (20°28'10'' S lat.; 50°49'20'' W long., in order to obtain the one that best correlates with agricultural productivity. Thus, the geostatistical grid with 120 sampling points was installed to soil and data collection in a plot of 14.6 ha with second crop sugarcane. Due to their substantial and excellent linear and spatial correlations with the productivity of the sugarcane, the population of plants and the organic matter content of the soil, by evidencing substantial correlations, linear and spatial, with the productivity of sugarcane, were indicators of management zones strongly attached to such productivity.

  12. Texture classification of vegetation cover in high altitude wetlands zone

    Wentao, Zou; Bingfang, Wu; Hongbo, Ju; Hua, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of datasets composed of texture measures and other features for the classification of vegetation cover, specifically wetlands. QUEST decision tree classifier was applied to a SPOT-5 image sub-scene covering the typical wetlands area in Three River Sources region in Qinghai province, China. The dataset used for the classification comprised of: (1) spectral data and the components of principal component analysis; (2) texture measures derived from pixel basis; (3) DEM and other ancillary data covering the research area. Image textures is an important characteristic of remote sensing images; it can represent spatial variations with spectral brightness in digital numbers. When the spectral information is not enough to separate the different land covers, the texture information can be used to increase the classification accuracy. The texture measures used in this study were calculated from GLCM (Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix); eight frequently used measures were chosen to conduct the classification procedure. The results showed that variance, mean and entropy calculated by GLCM with a 9*9 size window were effective in distinguishing different vegetation types in wetlands zone. The overall accuracy of this method was 84.19% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.8261. The result indicated that the introduction of texture measures can improve the overall accuracy by 12.05% and the overall kappa coefficient by 0.1407 compared with the result using spectral and ancillary data

  13. High-Power Laser Cutting of Steel Plates: Heat Affected Zone Analysis

    Imed Miraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal effect of CO2 high-power laser cutting on cut surface of steel plates is investigated. The effect of the input laser cutting parameters on the melted zone depth (MZ, the heat affected zone depth (HAZ, and the microhardness beneath the cut surface is analyzed. A mathematical model is developed to relate the output process parameters to the input laser cutting parameters. Three input process parameters such as laser beam diameter, cutting speed, and laser power are investigated. Mathematical models for the melted zone and the heat affected zone depth are developed by using design of experiment approach (DOE. The results indicate that the input laser cutting parameters have major effect on melted zone, heat affected zone, and microhardness beneath cut surface. The MZ depth, the HAZ depth, and the microhardness beneath cut surface increase as laser power increases, but they decrease with increasing cutting speed. Laser beam diameter has a negligible effect on HAZ depth but it has a remarkable effect on MZ depth and HAZ microhardness. The melted zone depth and the heat affected zone depth can be reduced by increasing laser cutting speed and decreasing laser power and laser beam diameter.

  14. Nitrous oxide production by nitrification and denitrification in the Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    Ji, Qixing; Babbin, Andrew R.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Tropical South Pacific oxygen minimum zone (ETSP-OMZ) is a site of intense nitrous oxide (N2O) flux to the atmosphere. This flux results from production of N2O by nitrification and denitrification, but the contribution of the two processes is unknown. The rates of these pathways and their distributions were measured directly using 15N tracers. The highest N2O production rates occurred at the depth of peak N2O concentrations at the oxic-anoxic interface above the oxygen deficient zone (ODZ) because slightly oxygenated waters allowed (1) N2O production from both nitrification and denitrification and (2) higher nitrous oxide production yields from nitrification. Within the ODZ proper (i.e., anoxia), the only source of N2O was denitrification (i.e., nitrite and nitrate reduction), the rates of which were reflected in the abundance of nirS genes (encoding nitrite reductase). Overall, denitrification was the dominant pathway contributing the N2O production in the ETSP-OMZ.

  15. Stress triggering of earthquakes and subsidence in the Louisiana coastal zone due to hydrocarbon production

    Mallman, Ellen P.

    This thesis presents contributions towards better understanding of the interaction between earthquakes through elastic stress triggering and the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in southern Louisiana. The first issue addressed in this thesis is that of the role of static stress changes on earthquake triggering. The first study investigated whether observed changes in seismicity rate following the 1992 Landers, California and 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquakes are accurately predicted by elastic Coulomb stress transfer models. The analyses found that for all the tested DeltaCFS models wherever seismicity rate changes could be resolved the rate increased regardless of whether the DeltaCFS theoretically promoted or inhibited failure. The second study the common definition of a stress shadow was extended to independently test the stress shadow hypothesis using a global catalog of seismicity. The analyses indicated that while stress shadows are subtle, they are present in the global catalog. It also explains why "classical" stress shadows, similar to what was observed following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake are rarely observed for individual main shocks. The second issue addressed in this thesis is the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence and land loss in the Louisiana Coastal Zone. The two studies in this thesis extend previous work by modeling the effect of oil and gas production in the region in two ways. First, multiple producing oil and gas fields and multiple epochs of leveling data are considered to provide constraints on predicted subsidence. Second, the role of compaction of the reservoir bounding shales on the regional subsidence signal is included. The results of the two studies on the role of hydrocarbon production on subsidence in the Louisiana Coastal Zone indicate that regional models of subsidence must include the effects of production-induced subsidence due to both sands and shales, but that this can not account for the

  16. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  17. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  18. Heat affected zone and fatigue crack propagation behavior of high performance steel

    Choi, Sung Won; Kang, Dong Hwan; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Jong Kwan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of heat affected zone in high performance steel on fatigue crack propagation behavior, which is related to the subsequent microstructure, was investigated. A modified Paris-Erdogan equation was presented for the analysis of fatigue crack propagation behavior corresponding to the heat affected zone conditions. Fatigue crack propagation tests under 0.3 stress ratio and 0.1 load frequency were conducted for both finegrained and coarse-grained heat affected zones, respectively. As shown in the results, much higher crack growth rate occurred in a relatively larger mean grain size material under the same stress intensity range of fatigue crack propagation process for the material.

  19. 78 FR 7395 - Foreign-Trade Zone 129-Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading...

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-8-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 129--Bellingham, WA; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (Eyeglass Assembly and Kitting... activity on behalf of T.C. Trading Company, Inc. (T.C. Trading), located in Blaine, Washington. The...

  20. 77 FR 77016 - Authorization of Production Activity: Foreign-Trade Zone 230: Sonoco Corrflex (Kitting-Gift Sets...

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-69-2012] Authorization of Production Activity: Foreign-Trade Zone 230: Sonoco Corrflex (Kitting-Gift Sets); Rural Hall and Winston-Salem, North Carolina On August 20, 2012, the Piedmont Triad Partnership, grantee of FTZ 230, submitted a notification of...

  1. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-31-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 230--Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard), Winston-Salem, North Carolina On March 25, 2013, the Piedmont Triad Partnership...

  2. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-23-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The Triangle J Council of Governments grantee of FTZ 93...

  3. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-23-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina On March 18, 2013, the Triangle J Council of Governments, grantee of...

  4. Assessing the optimality of ASHRAE climate zones using high resolution meteorological data sets

    Fils, P. D.; Kumar, J.; Collier, N.; Hoffman, F. M.; Xu, M.; Forbes, W.

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumed by built infrastructure constitutes a significant fraction of the nation's energy budget. According to 2015 US Energy Information Agency report, 41% of the energy used in the US was going to residential and commercial buildings. Additional research has shown that 32% of commercial building energy goes into heating and cooling the building. The American National Standards Institute and the American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 90.1 provides climate zones for current state-of-practice since heating and cooling demands are strongly influenced by spatio-temporal weather variations. For this reason, we have been assessing the optimality of the climate zones using high resolution daily climate data from NASA's DAYMET database. We analyzed time series of meteorological data sets for all ASHRAE climate zones between 1980-2016 inclusively. We computed the mean, standard deviation, and other statistics for a set of meteorological variables (solar radiation, maximum and minimum temperature)within each zone. By plotting all the zonal statistics, we analyzed patterns and trends in those data over the past 36 years. We compared the means of each zone to its standard deviation to determine the range of spatial variability that exist within each zone. If the band around the mean is too large, it indicates that regions in the zone experience a wide range of weather conditions and perhaps a common set of building design guidelines would lead to a non-optimal energy consumption scenario. In this study we have observed a strong variation in the different climate zones. Some have shown consistent patterns in the past 36 years, indicating that the zone was well constructed, while others have greatly deviated from their mean indicating that the zone needs to be reconstructed. We also looked at redesigning the climate zones based on high resolution climate data. We are using building simulations models like EnergyPlus to develop

  5. The Influence Of Highway Transportation Infrastructure Condition Toward Commodity Production Generation for The Resilience Needs at Regional Internal Zone

    Akbardin, Juang; Parikesit, Danang; Riyanto, Bambang; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2018-02-01

    The poultry commodity consumption and requirement is one of the main commodities that must be fulfilled in a region to maintain the availability of meat from poultry. Poultry commodity production is one of the production sectors that have a clean environment resistance. An increasing of poultry commodity generation production requires a smooth distribution to arrive at the processing. The livestock location as a commodity production is placed at a considerable far distance from residential and market locations. Zones that have poultry commodity production have an excess potential to supply other zones that are lacking in production to the consumption of these commodities. The condition of highway transportation infrastructure that is very diverse with the damage level availability in a zone has an influence in the supply and demand of poultry commodity requirement in the regional internal of Central Java province. In order to know the effect of highway transportation infrastructure condition toward the poultry commodity movement, demography factor and availability of freight vehicles will be reviewed to estimate the amount of poultry commodity movement generation production. Thus the poultry commodity consumption requirement that located in the internal - regional zone of central java province can be adequated from the zone. So it can be minimized the negative impacts that affect the environment at the zone in terms of comparison of the movement attraction and generation production at poultry commodity in Central Java.

  6. Contrasts in Sea Ice Formation and Production in the Arctic Seasonal and Perennial Ice Zones

    Kwok, R.

    2006-01-01

    Four years (1997-2000) of RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) data are used to contrast the sea ice deformation and production regionally, and in the seasonal (SIZ) and perennial (PIZ) ice zones. Ice production is of seasonal ice in openings during the winter. 3-day estimates of these quantities are provided within Lagrangian elements initially 10 km on a side. A distinct seasonal cycle is seen in both zones with these estimates highest in the late fall and with seasonal minimums in the mid-winter. Regional divergence over the winter could be up to 30%. Spatially, the highest deformation is in the SIZ north of coastal Alaska. Both ice deformation and production are higher in the SIZ: deformation-related ice production in the SIZ (approx.0.5 m) is 1.5-2.3 times that of the PIZ (approx.0.3 m) - this is connected to ice strength and thickness. Atmospheric forcing and boundary layer structure contribute to only the seasonal and interannual variability. Seasonal ice growth in ice fractures accounts for approx.25-40% of the total ice production of the Arctic Ocean. By itself, this deformation-ice production relationship could be considered a negative feedback when thickness is perturbed. However, the overall effect on ice production in the face of increasing seasonal and thinner/weaker ice coverage could be modified by: local destabilization of the water column promoting overturning of warmer water due to increased brine rejection; and, the upwelling of the pynocline associated with increased occurrence of large shear motion in sea ice.

  7. X-ray microscopy with high resolution zone plates -- Recent developments

    Schneider, G.; Wilhein, T.; Niemann, B.; Guttmann, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to expand the applications of X-ray microscopy, developments in the fields of zone plate technology, specimen preparation and imaging techniques have been made. A new cross-linked polymer chain electron beam resist allows to record zone plate pattern down to 19 nm outermost zone width. High resolution zone plates in germanium with outermost zone widths down to 19 nm have been developed. In addition, phase zone plates in nickel down to 30 nm zone width have been made by electroplating. In order to enhance the image contrast for weak absorbing objects, the phase contrast method for X-ray microscopy was developed and implemented on the Goettingen X-ray microscope at BESSY. The effects of X-ray absorption on the structure of biological specimen limits the maximum applicable radiation dose and therefore the achievable signal to noise ratio for an artifact-free X-ray image. To improve the stability especially of biological specimen, a cryogenic object chamber has been developed and tested. It turns out that at the operating temperature T ≤ 130 K unfixed biological specimen can be exposed to a radiation dose of 10 9 --10 10 Gy without any observable structural changes. A multiple-angle viewing stage allows to take stereoscopic images with the X-ray microscope, giving a 3D-impression of the object

  8. On some peculiarities of production of ionospheric equatorial bubbles in zones with increased recombination

    Vepreva, M.N.; Sazonov, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical study of dynamics of electromagnetic disturbances of equatorial ionosphere F region which are longitudinal ones relative to B geomagnetic field and occur due to Rayleigh-Taylor and gradient-drift instability activity in zones with increased recombination, is conducted. Arbitrary initial disturbance is determined to be delivered mainly into the first space mode of resonator formed by B force line plunge in high-conducting E layer. Oscillation condition is studied

  9. Structure and properties of melt-spun high acrylonitrile copolymer fibers via continuous zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes

    Wu Zongquan; Zhang Anqiu; Percec, Simona; Jin Shi; Jing, Alexander J.; Ge, Jason J.; Cheng, Stephen Z.D.

    2003-01-01

    Continuous zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes have been utilized to probe improvements in mechanical performance of melt-spun high acrylonitrile copolymer fibers (AMLON TM ). The as-spun fibers were zone-drawn at different ratios in a narrow temperature range of 100-105 deg. C and then zone-annealed. As a result of these processes, the fibers show substantial increases in tensile strength and tensile modulus (about three times) and significant improvements in elongation-at-break (about two times) after zone annealing. The thermal transition behavior, dimensional stability and dynamic relaxation properties of the as-spun, zone-drawn and zone-annealed fibers have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical and dynamic mechanical experiments. Their mechanical and thermal property changes after the zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes can be associated with the microscopic structural evolution including crystallinity, crystal orientation and apparent crystallite size detected by wide angle X-ray diffraction experiments

  10. The three-zone composite productivity model for a multi-fractured horizontal shale gas well

    Qi, Qian; Zhu, Weiyao

    2018-02-01

    Due to the nano-micro pore structures and the massive multi-stage multi-cluster hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the multi-scale seepage flows are much more complicated than in most other conventional reservoirs, and are crucial for the economic development of shale gas. In this study, a new multi-scale non-linear flow model was established and simplified, based on different diffusion and slip correction coefficients. Due to the fact that different flow laws existed between the fracture network and matrix zone, a three-zone composite model was proposed. Then, according to the conformal transformation combined with the law of equivalent percolation resistance, the productivity equation of a horizontal fractured well, with consideration given to diffusion, slip, desorption, and absorption, was built. Also, an analytic solution was derived, and the interference of the multi-cluster fractures was analyzed. The results indicated that the diffusion of the shale gas was mainly in the transition and Fick diffusion regions. The matrix permeability was found to be influenced by slippage and diffusion, which was determined by the pore pressure and diameter according to the Knudsen number. It was determined that, with the increased half-lengths of the fracture clusters, flow conductivity of the fractures, and permeability of the fracture network, the productivity of the fractured well also increased. Meanwhile, with the increased number of fractures, the distance between the fractures decreased, and the productivity slowly increased due to the mutual interfere of the fractures.

  11. Sheep and goat production practice in agroforestry systems of Gedio Zone, Ethiopia

    Selamawit Debele

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practice in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone, southern Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and were 5.63, 6.97 and 3.4 in Wenago, Dilla and Kochera sites, respectively. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%. The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3% kids, young flock (9.64% lambs; 13.24% kids and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1% in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; where the major ones are availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Sheep and goats are very important smallholder producers due to their biological factors such as short generation interval, twinning, have short growth periods and do not require much space. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12658 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 296-307

  12. A positive relationship between spring temperature and productivity in 20 songbird species in the boreal zone.

    Meller, Kalle; Piha, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions. The result also suggests a lack of mismatch between the timing of breeding and peak availability of invertebrate food of the study species. Productivity was positively related to annual growth rates in long-distance migrants, but not in short-distance migrants. Across the 27-year study period, temporal trends in productivity were mostly absent. The population sizes of species with colder thermal niches had decreasing trends, which were not related to temperature responses or temporal trends in productivity. The positive connection between spring temperature and productivity suggests that climate warming has potential to increase the productivity in bird species in the boreal zone, at least in the short term.

  13. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  14. Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones

    Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina

    Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high

  15. The Use of Newer High Translucency Zirconia in Aesthetic Zone

    Zishan Dangra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of anterior tooth causes aesthetic and functional disharmony. Although no restorative material can approach the appearance of intact tooth enamel, glass ceramic, at the increased risk of brittle fracture, can mimic original tooth color better than the other restorative options. The newest zirconia material comes with unparalleled individualization in aesthetics and optimal physical properties. One of the basic principles of tooth preparation is conservation of tooth structure. This clinical report describes the replacement of maxillary and mandibular incisor with latest generation zirconia adhesive fixed partial denture. The authors have achieved unmatched aesthetics with newer high translucency zirconia.

  16. High resolution, topobathymetric LiDAR coastal zone characterization in Denmark

    Steinbacher, Frank; Baran, Ramona; Andersen, Mikkel S.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and tidal environments are valuable ecosystems, which, however, are under pressure in many areas around the world due to globalization and/or climate change. Detailed mapping of these environments is required in order to manage the coastal zone in a sustainable way. However, historically...... locations with different environmental settings. We demonstrate the potential of using airborne topobathymetric LiDAR for seamless mapping of land-water transition zones in challenging coastal environments, e.g. in an environment with high water column turbidity and continuously varying water levels due...... these transition zones between land and water are difficult or even impossible to map and investigate in high spatial resolution due to the challenging environmental conditions. The new generation of airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) potentially enables full-coverage and high...

  17. The clinical study on high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging using Scolopendrid Aquacupuncture.

    Jeong-a Lim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to find out the effect of scolopendrid aquacupuncture on low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging. Methods : The 30 patients who had a diagnosis of high intensity zone by lumbar-MRI and admitted to Gwangju oriental medical hospital in wonkwang university from January 2005 to August 2004 were observed. The symptom of inpatients is low back pain with or without sciatica. We treated 30 patients by scolopendrid aquacupuncture besides the general conservative treatment of oriental medicine. Results and Conclusion : The scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment led to improvement in the pain and symptom of disability as determined by all efficacy measures. After scolopendrid aquacupuncture treatment, there was improvement in VAS, ROM and SLRT. This results suggest that scolopendrid aquacupuncture is good method for treatment of low back pain with or without sciatica showing high intensity zone of magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. Reinforced concrete containment structures in high seismic zones

    Aziz, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new structural concept for reinforced concrete containment structures at sites where earthquake ground motions in terms of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE) exceeds 0.3 g is presented. The structural concept is based on: (1) an inner steel-lined concrete shell which houses the reactor and provides shielding and containment in the event of loss of coolant accident; (2) an outer annular concrete shell structure which houses auxilary reactor equipment and safeguards systems. These shell structures are supported on a common foundation mat which is embeded in the subgrade. Under stipulated earthquake conditions the two shell structures interact to resist lateral inertia forces. Thus the annular structure which is not a pressure boundary acts as a lateral support for the inner containment shell. The concept is practical, economically feasible and new to practice. An integrated configuration which includes the interior shell, the annular structure and the subgrade is analyzed for several static and dynamic loading conditions. The analysis is done using a finite difference solution scheme for the static loading conditions. A semi-analytical three-dimensional finite element scheme combined with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is used for the dynamic loading conditions. The effects of cracking of the containment structure due to pressurization in conjunction with earthquake loading are discussed. Analytical results for both the finite difference and the finite element schemes are presented and the sensitivity of the results to changes in the input parameters is studied. General recommendations are given for plant configurations where high seismic loading is a major design consideration

  19. Particulate sulfur-containing lipids: Production and cycling from the epipelagic to the abyssopelagic zone

    Gašparović, Blaženka; Penezić, Abra; Frka, Sanja; Kazazić, Saša; Lampitt, Richard S.; Holguin, F. Omar; Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Schaub, Tanner

    2018-04-01

    There are major gaps in our understanding of the distribution and role of lipids in the open ocean especially with regard to sulfur-containing lipids (S-lipids). Here, we employ a powerful analytical approach based on high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to elucidate depth-related S-lipid production and molecular transformations in suspended particulate matter from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean in this depth range. We show that within the open-ocean environment S-lipids contribute up to 4.2% of the particulate organic carbon, and that up to 95% of these compounds have elemental compositions that do not match those found in the Nature Lipidomics Gateway database (termed "novel"). Among the remaining 5% of lipids that match the database, we find that sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) are efficiently removed while sinking through the mesopelagic zone. The relative abundance of other assigned lipids (sulphoquinovosylmonoacylglycerol (SQMG), sulfite and sulfate lipids, Vitamin D2 and D3 derivatives, and sphingolipids) did not change substantially with depth. The novel S-lipids, represented by hundreds of distinct elemental compositions (160-300 molecules at any one depth), contribute increasingly to the lipid and particulate organic matter pools with increased depth. Depth-related transformations cause (i) incomplete degradation/transformation of unsaturated S-lipids which leads to the depth-related accumulation of the refractory saturated compounds with reduced molecular weight (average 455 Da) and (ii) formation of highly unsaturated S-lipids (average abyssopelagic molecular double bond equivalents, DBE=7.8) with lower molecular weight (average 567 Da) than surface S-lipids (average 592 Da). A depth-related increase in molecular oxygen content is observed for all novel S-lipids and indicates that oxidation has a significant role in their transformation while (bio)hydrogenation possibly impacts the formation of

  20. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1).

  1. Characterizing the structural maturity of fault zones using high-resolution earthquake locations.

    Perrin, C.; Waldhauser, F.; Scholz, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    We use high-resolution earthquake locations to characterize the three-dimensional structure of active faults in California and how it evolves with fault structural maturity. We investigate the distribution of aftershocks of several recent large earthquakes that occurred on immature faults (i.e., slow moving and small cumulative displacement), such as the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers and 1999 (Mw7.1) Hector Mine events, and earthquakes that occurred on mature faults, such as the 1984 (Mw6.2) Morgan Hill and 2004 (Mw6.0) Parkfield events. Unlike previous studies which typically estimated the width of fault zones from the distribution of earthquakes perpendicular to the surface fault trace, we resolve fault zone widths with respect to the 3D fault surface estimated from principal component analysis of local seismicity. We find that the zone of brittle deformation around the fault core is narrower along mature faults compared to immature faults. We observe a rapid fall off of the number of events at a distance range of 70 - 100 m from the main fault surface of mature faults (140-200 m fault zone width), and 200-300 m from the fault surface of immature faults (400-600 m fault zone width). These observations are in good agreement with fault zone widths estimated from guided waves trapped in low velocity damage zones. The total width of the active zone of deformation surrounding the main fault plane reach 1.2 km and 2-4 km for mature and immature faults, respectively. The wider zone of deformation presumably reflects the increased heterogeneity in the stress field along complex and discontinuous faults strands that make up immature faults. In contrast, narrower deformation zones tend to align with well-defined fault planes of mature faults where most of the deformation is concentrated. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that surface fault traces become smoother, and thus fault zones simpler, as cumulative fault slip increases.

  2. 78 FR 39707 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Notification of Proposed Production...

    2013-07-02

    ... (Fragrance and Flavor Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey Givaudan Fragrances Corporation (Givaudan) submitted a... materials and components and specific finished products described in the submitted notification (as... production equipment. The components and materials sourced from abroad include: cocoa beans extract (duty...

  3. Suitability Analysis and Projected Climate Change Impact on Banana and Coffee Production Zones in Nepal

    Sujakhu, Nani M.; Merz, Juerg; Kindt, Roeland; Xu, Jianchu; Matin, Mir A.; Ali, Mostafa; Zomer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Government of Nepal has identified opportunities in agricultural commercialization, responding to a growing internal demand and expansion of export markets to reduce the immense trade deficit. Several cash crops, including coffee and bananas, have been identified in the recently approved Agriculture Development Strategy. Both of these crops have encouraged smallholder farmers to convert their subsistence farming practices to more commercial cultivation. Identification of suitable agro-ecological zones and understanding climate-related issues are important for improved production and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. Here, the suitability of coffee and banana crops is analyzed for different agro-ecological zones represented by Global Environmental Stratification (GEnS). Future shifts in these suitability zones are also predicted. Plantation sites in Nepal were geo-referenced and used as input in species distribution modelling. The multi-model ensemble model suggests that climate change will reduce the suitable growing area for coffee by about 72% across the selected emission scenarios from now to 2050. Impacts are low for banana growing, with a reduction in suitability by about 16% by 2050. Bananas show a lot of potential for playing an important role in Nepal as a sustainable crop in the context of climate change, as this study indicates that the amount of area suited to banana growing will grow by 40% by 2050. Based on our analysis we recommend possible new locations for coffee plantations and one method for mitigating climate change-related problems on existing plantations. These findings are expected to support planning and policy dialogue for mitigation and support better informed and scientifically based decision-making relating to these two crops. PMID:27689354

  4. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  5. Stereotyped high-frequency oscillations discriminate seizure onset zones and critical functional cortex in focal epilepsy.

    Liu, Su; Gurses, Candan; Sha, Zhiyi; Quach, Michael M; Sencer, Altay; Bebek, Nerses; Curry, Daniel J; Prabhu, Sujit; Tummala, Sudhakar; Henry, Thomas R; Ince, Nuri F

    2018-01-30

    High-frequency oscillations in local field potentials recorded with intracranial EEG are putative biomarkers of seizure onset zones in epileptic brain. However, localized 80-500 Hz oscillations can also be recorded from normal and non-epileptic cerebral structures. When defined only by rate or frequency, physiological high-frequency oscillations are indistinguishable from pathological ones, which limit their application in epilepsy presurgical planning. We hypothesized that pathological high-frequency oscillations occur in a repetitive fashion with a similar waveform morphology that specifically indicates seizure onset zones. We investigated the waveform patterns of automatically detected high-frequency oscillations in 13 epilepsy patients and five control subjects, with an average of 73 subdural and intracerebral electrodes recorded per patient. The repetitive oscillatory waveforms were identified by using a pipeline of unsupervised machine learning techniques and were then correlated with independently clinician-defined seizure onset zones. Consistently in all patients, the stereotypical high-frequency oscillations with the highest degree of waveform similarity were localized within the seizure onset zones only, whereas the channels generating high-frequency oscillations embedded in random waveforms were found in the functional regions independent from the epileptogenic locations. The repetitive waveform pattern was more evident in fast ripples compared to ripples, suggesting a potential association between waveform repetition and the underlying pathological network. Our findings provided a new tool for the interpretation of pathological high-frequency oscillations that can be efficiently applied to distinguish seizure onset zones from functionally important sites, which is a critical step towards the translation of these signature events into valid clinical biomarkers.awx374media15721572971001. © The Author(s) (2018). Published by Oxford University Press on

  6. Determination of nanoscale particles in the air of working zone at the metallurgical production

    Т.S. Ulanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the air of working zone at the metallurgical production on the example of Avisma OJSC (Berezniki, the Perm Territory for the content of nanoscale particles are specified. The maximum nanoparticles concentration in the range of 13523–28609 mln./m3 is determined at the working place of the titanium production smelter with the maximum size of particles of 10–15 nm. At the working place in the administrative building (reference working place the maximum concentration is determined within the range of 524–1000 mln./m3; the maximum size of nanoparticles is 20 nm. It was established that the number concentration of nanoparticles at the reference working places (administration of Avisma OJSC is significantly lower than at the working places of main production processes. The presented studies can be used as the additional factors in the assessment of labor conditions and occupational risk during the manufacture and use of materials containing nanoparticles as well as the production processes with the nanoparticles formation.

  7. High temperature blankets for the production of synthetic fuels

    Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of very high temperature blankets to improved efficiency of electric power generation and production of H 2 and H 2 based synthetic fuels is described. The blanket modules have a low temperature (300 to 400 0 C) structure (SS, V, Al, etc.) which serves as the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, and a hot (>1000 0 C) thermally insulated interior. Approximately 50 to 70% of the fusion energy is deposited in the hot interior because of deep penetration by high energy neutrons. Separate coolant circuits are used for the two temperature zones: water for the low temperature structure, and steam or He for the hot interior. Electric generation efficiencies of approximately 60% and H 2 production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70%, depending on design, are projected for fusion reactors using these high temperature blankets

  8. Graduated Sovereignty and Global Governance Gaps: Special Economic Zones and the Illicit Trade In Tobacco Products.

    Holden, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products has been a significant problem globally for many years. It allows cigarettes to be sold far below their legal price and thus contributes to higher consumption, morbidity and mortality, and deprives state treasuries of a substantial amount of revenue. This article identifies special economic zones (SEZs), particularly free trade zones, as a key conduit for this illicit trade. The development of SEZs as weak points in the global governance architecture is explained with reference to the concept of 'graduated sovereignty', whereby the uniform management of territory by modern states has given way to a more spatially selective form of territorial governance, in which some slices of territory are more fully integrated into the world economy than others via various forms of differential regulation. Attempts to comprehensively (re)regulate SEZs, in the face of growing evidence of the dysfunctionalities that they can engender, have so far been unsuccessful. It is concluded that the neo-liberal global economy has facilitated a regulatory 'race to the bottom', a problem that can only ultimately be overcome by international negotiation and agreement.

  9. Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product Using In Situ Measurements

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Liu, Qing; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Colliander, Andreas; Conaty, Austin; Crow, Wade; Jackson, Thomas J.; Jones, Lucas A.; Kimball, John S.; Koster, Randal D.; Mahanama, Sarith P.; Smith, Edmond B.; Berg, Aaron; Bircher, Simone; Bosch, David; Caldwell, Todd G.; Cosh, Michael; Holifield Collins, Chandra D.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Livingston, Stan; Lopez-baeza, Ernesto; Martínez-fernández, José; Mcnairn, Heather; Moghaddam, Mahta; Pacheco, Anna; Pellarin, Thierry; Prueger, John; Rowlandson, Tracy; Seyfried, Mark; Starks, Patrick; Su, Bob; Thibeault, Marc; Van Der Velde, Rogier; Walker, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yijian

    2017-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data product is generated by assimilating SMAP L-band brightness temperature observations into the NASA Catchment land surface model. The L4_SM product is available from 31 March 2015 to present

  10. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  11. Compositional Approach to Designing Fcc High-Entropy Alloys that Have an Enlarged Equiaxed Zone

    Minju Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A compositional approach to designing alloys that have an enlarged equiaxed zone is suggested in this study. The partitioning of elements during the solidification of CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA was confirmed through a directional solidification quenching experiment. Several HEAs were designed to maximize the effects of constitutional and thermal undercooling by considering factors including solute enrichment at the columnar front and the melting temperatures and thermal conductivities of the individual elements. The newly designed HEAs were shown to have successfully enlarged equiaxed zones, and improved anisotropic properties.

  12. Production of high purity radiothallium

    Lebowitz, E.; Greene, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    The method of producing high-purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprises the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction 203 Tl(p,3n) 201 Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used

  13. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  14. Facile Route to Vertically Aligned High-Aspect Ratio Block Copolymer Films via Dynamic Zone Annealing

    Singh, Gurpreet; Kulkarni, Manish; Yager, Kevin; Smilgies, Detlef; Bucknall, David; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Directed assembly of block copolymers (BCP) can be used to fabricate a diversity of nanostructures useful for nanotech applications. The ability to vertically orient etchable high aspect ratio (˜30) ordered BCP domains on flexible substrates via continuous processing methods are particularly attractive for nanomanufacturing. We apply sharp dynamic cold zone annealing (CZA-S) to create etchable, and predominantly vertically oriented 30nm cylindrical domains in 1 μm thick poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) films on low thermal conductivity rigid (quartz) and flexible (PDMS & Kapton) substrates. Under similar static conditions, temporally stable vertical cylinders form within a narrow zone above a critical temperature gradient. Primary ordering mechanism of CZA-S involves sweeping this vertically orienting zone created at maximum thermal gradient. An optimal speed is needed since the process competes with preferential surface wetting dynamics that favors parallel orientation. GISAXS of etched BCP films confirms internal morphology.

  15. Determination of heat production zones at open-cast mine dump

    Schreck, M.; Nishigaki, M.; Glaser, H.R.; Christoph, G.; Grosswig, S.; Hurtig, E.; Kasch, M.; Kuhn, K.

    1998-01-01

    The chemical processes and their thermal effects taking place inside a dump of an open-cast mine (Cospuden) during a reclamation process were investigated. Fiber-optic-distributed-temperature sensing (DTS) was applied together with a soil ground water monitoring system (SGM-System). An optical fiber was mounted at the entire length of a double-pipe SGM-System. The temperature was measured monthly, along the depth of 50 m, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. The system was utilized for the localization of heat production zones in the subsurface, for the determination of the temperature variation's penetration depth from the surface into the soil of the dump and for the determination of the influence of the SGM-System on the subsurface temperature balance. The results were compared with a heat transport model and then interpreted

  16. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    1984-01-01

    J/ FTA c« ;« MO G SO KM s s P WS W-U Hi ; T 14 434 CASK G S3 K 11 ma WM MM MM ACTS 1 TC*4 U S7« ill GC 135 V M NTA «M FT...relative feed range 2nd digit -relative force range FMd 1 Very Low Fore* t 2 Low 2 3 Medium Low 3 4 Medium 4 5 Medium 5 6 Medium High 6 7 Medium

  17. Benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Fjord

    Attard, Karl M.; Hancke, Kasper; Sejr, Mikael K.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal and shelf systems likely exert major influence on Arctic Ocean functioning, yet key ecosystem processes remain poorly quantified. We employed the aquatic eddy covariance (AEC) oxygen (O2) flux method to estimate benthic primary production and mineralization in a High Arctic Greenland fjord....... Seabed gross primary production (GPP) within the 40 m deep photic zone was highest at 10 m (29 mmol O2 m−2 d−1) and decreased to 5 mmol O2 m−2 d−1 at 40 m, while nighttime community respiration (CR) ranged from 11 to 25 mmol O2m−2 d−1. CR decreased to ~2.5 mmol O2m−2 d−1 at 80 m and remained constant...... with further depth. Fauna activity accounted for ~50% of the CR at depths ≤60 m but was primary production...

  18. 78 FR 24158 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix, Arizona; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-33-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 75-Phoenix... benefits on such items. Public comment is invited from interested parties. Submissions shall be addressed... Executive Secretary, Foreign-Trade Zones Board, Room 21013, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1401 Constitution...

  19. Latitudinal variations in intermediate depth ventilation and biological production over northeastern Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zones during the last 60 ka

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Tachikawa, Kazuyo; Bard, Edouard

    2012-10-01

    Mechanisms affecting past variability in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) are poorly known. We analyzed core MD02-2524, obtained from the Nicaragua Margin in the present ETNP OMZ for major and minor elements (titanium (Ti), brome (Br), silicon (Si), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca)) using an X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanner, and redox-sensitive trace elements (uranium (U), molybdenum (Mo), and nickel (Ni)) determined by ICP-MS. The U and Mo content was higher during the deglaciation than during the Holocene and the last glacial maximum, whereas enrichment was not observed for Ni, an element closely associated with organic matter. High-resolution XRF scanning indicated that the Ca-based carbonate content had millennial-scale variability inversely correlated with Br-based organic matter and Si/K-based opal content during the last glacial period. The available data suggest no clear regional trend in biological productivity during the last deglaciation, but significant local variability in the coastal eastern equatorial Pacific. The trace element enrichment and the lack of a concomitant increase in biogenic phases indicated that an enhanced ETNP OMZ, at least between 15°N and 12°N at a water depth of 500-900 m, was principally caused by a reduced oxygen supply driven by oceanic circulation to the Nicaragua Basin during the deglaciation. The observed patterns can be interpreted as the distinct changes in the oxygenation state of northern and southern water masses at intermediate depths. We also found evidence for a decoupling between local productivity and pore water oxygenation for several millennial-scale events during Marine Isotopic Stage 3, indicating that remote oxygen consumption and/or oceanic ventilation impacted OMZ intensity. Multi-millennial scale variations of the productivity at Papagayo upwelling cell displayed an opposite trend from productivity at the Costa Rica Dome, in relation with the latitudinal shift

  20. Progress in the fabrication of high aspect ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography

    Divan, R.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N. A.; Lai, B.; Assoufid, L.; Leondard, Q.; Cerrina, F.

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (∼100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 (micro)m). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated. Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were systematically analyzed and largely eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 (micro)m diameter, and 1.3 (micro)m gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  1. Soil Functional Zone Management: A Vehicle for Enhancing Production and Soil Ecosystem Services in Row-Crop Agroecosystems.

    Williams, Alwyn; Kane, Daniel A; Ewing, Patrick M; Atwood, Lesley W; Jilling, Andrea; Li, Meng; Lou, Yi; Davis, Adam S; Grandy, A Stuart; Huerd, Sheri C; Hunter, Mitchell C; Koide, Roger T; Mortensen, David A; Smith, Richard G; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Spokas, Kurt A; Yannarell, Anthony C; Jordan, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM) is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture, and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimeter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of 'active turnover', optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services); and adjacent zones of 'soil building', that promote soil structure development, carbon storage, and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services). These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown). We present a conceptual model of 'virtuous cycles', illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple goods and services in

  2. Soil functional zone management: a vehicle for enhancing production and soil ecosystem services in row-crop agroecosystems

    Alwyn eWilliams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global demand for food, bioenergy feedstocks and a wide variety of bio-based products. In response, agriculture has advanced production, but is increasingly depleting soil regulating and supporting ecosystem services. New production systems have emerged, such as no-tillage, that can enhance soil services but may limit yields. Moving forward, agricultural systems must reduce trade-offs between production and soil services. Soil functional zone management (SFZM is a novel strategy for developing sustainable production systems that attempts to integrate the benefits of conventional, intensive agriculture and no-tillage. SFZM creates distinct functional zones within crop row and inter-row spaces. By incorporating decimetre-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, SFZM attempts to foster greater soil biodiversity and integrate complementary soil processes at the sub-field level. Such integration maximizes soil services by creating zones of ‘active turnover’, optimized for crop growth and yield (provisioning services; and adjacent zones of ‘soil building’, that promote soil structure development, carbon storage and moisture regulation (regulating and supporting services. These zones allow SFZM to secure existing agricultural productivity while avoiding or minimizing trade-offs with soil ecosystem services. Moreover, the specific properties of SFZM may enable sustainable increases in provisioning services via temporal intensification (expanding the portion of the year during which harvestable crops are grown. We present a conceptual model of ‘virtuous cycles’, illustrating how increases in crop yields within SFZM systems could create self-reinforcing feedback processes with desirable effects, including mitigation of trade-offs between yield maximization and soil ecosystem services. Through the creation of functionally distinct but interacting zones, SFZM may provide a vehicle for optimizing the delivery of multiple

  3. Numerical studies of gas production from several CH4 hydrate zones at the Mallik site, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Dallimore, S.R.; Satoh, T.; Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mallik site represents an onshore permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulation in the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada. A gas hydrate research well was drilled at the site in 1998. The objective of this study is the analysis of various gas production scenarios from five methane hydrate-bearing zones at the Mallik site. In Zone #1, numerical simulations using the EOSHYDR2 model indicated that gas production from hydrates at the Mallik site was possible by depressurizing a thin free gas zone at the base of the hydrate stability field. Horizontal wells appeared to have a slight advantage over vertical wells, while multiwell systems involving a combination of depressurization and thermal stimulation offered superior performance, especially when a hot noncondensible gas was injected. Zone #2, which involved a gas hydrate layer with an underlying aquifer, could yield significant amounts of gas originating entirely from gas hydrates, the volumes of which increased with the production rate. However, large amounts of water were also produced. Zones #3, #4 and #5 were lithologically isolated gas hydrate-bearing deposits with no underlying zones of mobile gas or water. In these zones, thermal stimulation by circulating hot water in the well was used to induce dissociation. Sensitivity studies indicated that the methane release from the hydrate accumulations increased with the gas hydrate saturation, the initial formation temperature, the temperature of the circulating water in the well, and the formation thermal conductivity. Methane production appears to be less sensitive to the specific heat of the rock and of the hydrate, and to the permeability of the formation. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Small scale denitrification variability in riparian zones: Results from a high-resolution dataset

    Gassen, Niklas; Knöller, Kay; Musolff, Andreas; Popp, Felix; Lüders, Tillmann; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian zones are important compartments at the interface between groundwater and surface water where biogeochemical processes like denitrification are often enhanced. Nitrate loads of either groundwater entering a stream through the riparian zone or streamwater infiltrating into the riparian zone can be substantially reduced. These processes are spatially and temporally highly variable, making it difficult to capture solute variabilities, estimate realistic turnover rates and thus to quantify integral mass removal. A crucial step towards a more detailed characterization is to monitor solutes on a scale which adequately resemble the highly heterogeneous distribution and on a scale where processes occur. We measured biogeochemical parameters in a spatial high resolution within a riparian corridor of a German lowland river system over the course of one year. Samples were taken from three newly developed high-resolution multi-level wells with a maximum vertical resolution of 5 cm and analyzed for major ions, DOC and N-O isotopes. Sediment derived during installation of the wells was analyzed for specific denitrifying enzymes. Results showed a distinct depth zonation of hydrochemistry within the shallow alluvial aquifer, with a 1 m thick zone just below the water table with lower nitrate concentrations and EC values similar to the nearby river. Conservative parameters were consistent inbetween the three wells, but nitrate was highly variable. In addition, spots with low nitrate concentrations showed isotopic and microbial evidence for higher denitrification activities. The depth zonation was observed throughout the year, with stronger temporal variations of nitrate concentrations just below the water table compared to deeper layers. Nitrate isotopes showed a clear seasonal trend of denitrification activities (high in summer, low in winter). Our dataset gives new insight into river-groundwater exchange processes and shows the highly heterogeneous distribution of

  5. High-Resolution P'P' Precursor Imaging of Nazca-South America Plate Boundary Zones and Inferences for Transition Zone Temperature and Composition

    Gu, Y. J.; Schultz, R.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of upper mantle transition zone stratification and composition is highly dependent on our ability to efficiently extract and properly interpret small seismic arrivals. A promising high-frequency seismic phase group particularly suitable for a global analysis is P'P' precursors, which are capable of resolving mantle structures at vertical and lateral resolution of approximately 5 and 200 km, respectively, owing to their shallow incidence angle and small, quasi-symmetric Fresnel zones. This study presents a simultaneous analysis of SS and P'P' precursors based on deconvolution, Radon transform and depth migration. Our multi-resolution survey of the mantle near Nazca-South America subduction zone reveals both olivine and garnet related transitions at depth below 400 km. We attribute a depressed 660 to thermal variations, whereas compositional variations atop the upper-mantle transition zone are needed to explain the diminished or highly complex reflected/scattered signals from the 410 km discontinuity. We also observe prominent P'P' reflections within the transition zone, especially near the plate boundary zone where anomalously high reflection amplitudes result from a sharp (~10 km thick) mineral phase change resonant with the dominant frequency of the P'P' precursors. Near the base of the upper mantle, the migration of SS precursors shows no evidence of split reflections near the 660-km discontinuity, but potential majorite-ilmenite (590-640 km) and ilmenite-perovskite transitions (740-750 km) are identified based on similarly processed high-frequency P'P' precursors. At nominal mantle temperatures these two phase changes may be seismically indistinguishable, but colder mantle conditions from the descending Nazca plate, the presence of water and variable Fe contents may cause sufficient separation for a reliable analysis. In addition, our preliminary results provide compelling evidence for multiple shallow lower-mantle reflections (at ~800 km) along the

  6. Characterization of the variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone using satellite and reanalysis wind products

    Kidwell, Autumn; Lee, Tong; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-hai

    2016-04-01

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the largest rain band worldwide during austral summer, is important to atmospheric circulation (including cyclone genesis) and ocean circulation. Previous studies of the SPCZ have focused on parameters such as outgoing longwave radiation or precipitation. However, wind convergence is fundamental causing the variations of these parameters. In this study, the SPCZ variability is examined using ocean surface wind products derived from NASA's QuickSCAT (1999-2009) and ESA's ASCAT (2007 onward) satellite scatterometers and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis (1981 onward). From these products, indices were developed to characterize the SPCZ strength, area, and centroid location. Excellent agreement is found in terms of the temporal variations of the indices derived from the satellites and reanalysis wind products, despite some small differences in the time-mean SPCZ strength. The SPCZ strength, area, and centroid latitude have a dominant seasonal cycle. In contrast, the SPCZ centroid longitude is dominated by intraseasonal variability due to the influence by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The SPCZ indices are all correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. Interannual and intraseasonal variations of SPCZ strength during strong El Niño are approximately twice as large as the respective seasonal variations. SPCZ strength depends more on the intensity of El Niño rather than the central- vs. eastern-Pacific type. The longer ERA-Interim product is also used to examine decadal variations of the SPCZ indices. The change from positive to negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation phase around 1999 resulted in a westward shift of the SPCZ centroid longitude, much smaller interannual swing in centroid latitude, and a decrease in SPCZ area. This study improves the understanding of the variations of the SPCZ on multiple time scales and reveals the variations of SPCZ strength not reported previously. The diagnostics analyses can be

  7. Characterization of the variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone using satellite and reanalysis wind product

    Lee, T.; Kidwell, A. N.; Jo, Y. H.; Yan, X. H.

    2016-02-01

    The variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) is evaluated using ocean surface wind products derived from the QuickSCAT satellite scatterometer for the period of 1999-2009and ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis for the period of 1981-2014. From these products, indices were developed to represent the SPCZ strength, area, and centroid location. Excellent agreement is found between the indices derived from the two wind products during the QuikSCAT period in terms of the spatio-temporal structures of the SPCZ. The longer ERA-Interim product is then used to study the variations of SPCZ properties on intraseasonal, seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales. The SPCZ strength, area, and centroid latitude have a dominant seasonal cycle. In contrast, the SPCZ centroid longitude is dominated by intraseasonal variability due to the influence by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. The SPCZ indices are all correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. Interannual and intraseasonal variations of SPCZ strength during strong El Niño are approximately twice as large as the respective seasonal variations. SPCZ strength depends more on the intensity of El Niño rather than the central- vs. eastern-Pacific type. The change from positive to negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation phase around 1999 results in a westward shift of the SPCZ centroid longitude, much smaller interannual swing in centroid latitude, and a decrease in SPCZ area. This study improves the understanding of the variations of the SPCZ on multiple time scales and reveals the variations of SPCZ strength not reported previously. The diagnostics analyses can be used to evaluate climate models.

  8. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  9. Milk Production in the Sylvopastoral Zone of Senegal: Variation Factors and Local Populations’ Management System

    A. T. Diop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sahelian region of Senegal, milk production in pastoral systems is subjected to inter- and intra-annual variations because the animal feed is almost exclusively based on natural resources. Studies conducted from a monitoring set-up in pastoralist settlements and in station, and data from Nestle Company have shown that milk production was highly related to the milk collection date, but with a low correlation with the total amount of rainfall. The relationship between total milk production and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was polynomial. The production peak was reached when the water content in forage was 70%. Surveys on pastoralists (men and women belonging to different ethnic groups and living in different production subsystems (Walo, Djoloff and Ferlo showed that the duration of lactation, number of cows and animal species were the main factors of variation of milk production. The actors in charge of milk production management differed depending on the ethnic group. Milk curdling and butter making were the two preserving methods used, and five types of gourds were used in the process. Dairy products still held a major place in farmers’ incomes and skim milk curd was the most marketed product.

  10. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products' importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone.

    Straede, Steffen; Treue, Thorsten

    2006-02-01

    Even after 30 years of strict de jure protection, today's de facto extraction of products from Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) and their great economic importance to local households suggests that this reality should be explicitly internalised in managing this world heritage park. Several studies have quantified local people's use of protected areas and estimated the value of such areas to them. However, few studies incorporate economic analyses to investigate the effect of management interventions on local communities' resource use and collection behaviour. In Nepal, buffer zones and especially buffer zone community forestry are seen as means to define and demarcate places, where local people may legally extract goods that are either identical to or relevant substitutes for products that are collected in protected areas. The intention is to resolve park-people conflicts over resource use. This article presents the findings of an in-depth study of the importance of natural resources to the livelihoods of 18 households. One village was located inside RCNP with no realistic alternatives to Park resources, while the other is located in the buffer zone with equal distance to the Park, a national forest and their community forest. For each household, the collection of products, allocation of time, and purchase and sale of goods were recorded daily through 12 consecutive months and economic values were calculated on the basis of local market prices and recorded quantities. The study shows that products from RCNP are of great importance to the livelihoods of local people. Furthermore, we find that products collected in the national forest substitute products from the Park, while the substitution effect of the community forest is small. Accordingly, the study illustrates that, irrespective of buffer zone community forestry, there is still a gap between local people's need for supplementing natural resources and their rights to satisfy them on a legal basis

  11. EAP high-level product architecture

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  12. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High External Input Technology Farms in a ... of aggregate agricultural productivity in an environment where policy on ... to increase the farm sizes through re-examination of the existing land laws.

  13. Characteristics of Rural Poultry Production in Different Agroecological Zones in Kenya

    Ndegwa, J.M.; Kimani, C.W.; Siamba, D.A.; Mukisira, E.A.; Jong, R.

    1999-01-01

    A cross-sectional was conducted to establish the characteristics of rural poultry production in Nyandarua, Nakuru and Laikipia districts of Kenya. Sites of diverse agroecological zones (AEZ) in the 3 district were selected, thus Ol Kalou in Nyandarua, Njoro in Nakuru and Ng'arua in Laikipia. Each site was divided into 4 clusters according to AEZ and land size. Systematic sampling techniques were applied to select farmers. A checklist was then used to collect the baseline information for every household. The study revealed that the average flock size was 17.3 chicken with Ng'arua region demonstrating the largest flock size of 21 chickens. The purpose of rearing indigenous chicken were stated as home consumption and sale of eggs and meat, hatching eggs, and as gifts.Farmers in Ng'arua region reported the highest sale of eggs and chicken meat. the average number of broodings per year, number of eggs laid before a chicken becomes broody, eggs set for hatching and hatchability was 2.5, 16.5, 11.1 and 84.2%, respectively. The average chick mortality reported by farmers in te first eight weeks was 47.9%. Disease especially Newcastle, were cited as the main cause of mortality. Farmers did not commonly practice selection for genetic improvement, but occasionally they purchased a cock or hen to control inbreeding. In all the 3 regions, 78.4% of the respondents indicated that women took greater responsibility and decision making in the production of indigenous chicken; 54.8% of farmers used different herbs to treat and control diseases. Conventional vaccination,disinfection and deworming rarely practiced. On most farms, chickens were left to scavenge around the homestead, often they were supplemented with kitchen leftovers and a handful of grains. The survey results demonstrated that there was potential for improving rural poultry production through interventions using appropriate technologies that are currently on-shelf

  14. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  15. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. II. Protozooplankton and copepods

    Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the potential reasons why Atlantic eels Anguilla spp. use this area for spawning, we investigated the distribution and productivity of the zooplankton community across the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the Sargasso Sea in March and April 2007. The vertical and horizontal distributions of protozoans...

  16. The potential of agroforestry to increase primary production in the Sahelian and Sundanian zone of West Africa.

    Kessler, J.J.; Breman, H.

    1991-01-01

    Primary production is limited by water availability in the N Sahelian zone only; elsewhere in the region nutrient availablility is critical. Woody species influence the water balance via rainfall interception, the influence on evapotranspiration and the influence on water infiltration. The ultimate

  17. Geochemical evolution of highly alkaline and saline tank waste plumes during seepage through vadose zone sediments

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Larsen, Joern T.; Serne, R. JEFFREY

    2004-01-01

    Leakage of highly saline and alkaline radioactive waste from storage tanks into underlying sediments is a serious environmental problem at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This study focuses on geochemical evolution of tank waste plumes resulting from interactions between the waste solution and sediment. A synthetic tank waste solution was infused into unsaturated Hanford sediment columns (0.2, 0.6, and 2 m) maintained at 70C to simulate the field contamination process. Spatially and temporally resolved geochemical profiles of the waste plume were obtained. Thorough OH neutralization (from an initial pH 14 down to 6.3) was observed. Three broad zones of pore solutions were identified to categorize the dominant geochemical reactions: the silicate dissolution zone (pH > 10), pH-neutralized zone (pH 10 to 6.5), and displaced native sediment pore water (pH 6.5 to 8). Elevated concentrations of Si, Fe, and K in plume fluids and their depleted concentrations in plume sediments reflected dissolution of primary minerals within the silicate dissolution zone. The very high Na concentrations in the waste solution resulted in rapid and complete cation exchange, reflected in high concentrations of Ca and Mg at the plume front. The plume-sediment profiles also showed deposition of hydrated solids and carbonates. Fair correspondence was obtained between these results and analyses of field borehole samples from a waste plume at the Hanford Site. Results of this study provide a well-defined framework for understanding waste plumes in the more complex field setting and for understanding geochemical factors controlling transport of contaminant species carried in waste solutions that leaked from single-shell storage tanks in the past

  18. The assessment of waters ecological state of the Crimea coastal near high-rise construction zones

    Vetrova, Natalya; Ivanenko, Tatyana; Mannanov, Emran

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of our study is determined by the significant level of coastal sea waters pollution by sewage near high-rise construction zones, which determines the violation of the sanitary and hygienic of sea waters `characteristics and limits the possibilities for organizing recreational activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the ecological state of the marine aquatic area by the example of the Western Crimea near high-rise construction zones. The studies confirmed that the recreational and coastal area wastewater is intensely mixed with seawater, as a result, the pollution in the coastal strip of the sea in the area of deep water discharges sharply decrease. This happens because of water rapid rise to the surface and under the influence of the continuous movement of sea water huge masses with deep-water discharge, fresh wastewater is actively mixed with sea water. However, with no doubt, it is inadmissible to discharge sewage into the sea directly from the shore, but only at the estimated distance from the coast. The materials of the article can be useful for the management bodies and organizations involved in monitoring the quality of the coastal zone of the sea, teachers and students of higher educational institutions when assessing the ecological situation of the territories.

  19. A time series of prokaryote secondary production in the oxygen minimum zone of the Humboldt current system, off central Chile

    Levipan, H. A.; Quiñones, R. A.; Urrutia, H.

    2007-11-01

    Because the marine picoplanktonic communities are made up of phylogenetically different microbial groups, the re-evaluation of key processes such as bacterial secondary production (BSP) has become an important contemporary issue. The difficulty of differentiating the metabolic processes of Bacteria from the rest of the microorganisms in the water column (i.e., Archaea and Eukarya) has made it difficult to estimate in situ BSP. This work presents the seasonal variability of the prokaryote secondary production (PSP) measured by the incorporation of 14C-leucine in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off central-southern Chile. The BSP and potential archaeal secondary production (PASP) were determined through the combined use of 14C-leucine and N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC 7), an efficient inhibitor of archaeal and eukaryote cell growth. BSP accounted for the majority of the PSP (total average, 59 ± 7.5%); maximum values were ∼600 μg C m -3 h -1 and, on several dates, BSP represented 100% of the PSP. Similarly, PASP was also an important fraction of the PSP (total average, 42.4 ± 8.5%), although with levels that ranged from not detectable (on given dates) to levels that represented up to ∼97% of PSP (winter 2003). Our results showed that both Bacteria and Archaea accounted for almost equal portions of the prokaryote heterotrophic metabolism in the OMZ, and that PASP is notoriously enhanced through temporal pulses of heterotrophy. This indicates that, at least in marine systems with high abundance of Archaea (e.g., mesopelagic realm), the secondary production obtained through methods measuring the uptake of radiolabeled substrates should be considered as PSP and not as BSP. If the latter is the target measurement, then the use of an inhibitor of both archaeal and eukaryote cell growth such as GC 7 is recommended.

  20. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    Bristow, L.A; Callbeck, C.M.; Larsen, M.; Altabet, M.A; Dekaezemacker, J.; Forth, M.; Gauns, M.; Glud, R.N.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Lavik, G.; Milucka, J.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Pratihary, A; Revsbech, N.P.; Thamdrup, B.; Treusch, A; Canfield, D.E.

    A third or more of the fixed nitrogen lost from the oceans as N2 is removed by anaerobic microbial processes in open ocean oxygen minimum zones. These zones have expanded over the past decades, and further anthropogenically induced...

  1. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  2. Nonrandom community assembly and high temporal turnover promote regional coexistence in tropics but not temperate zone.

    Freestone, Amy L; Inouye, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    A persistent challenge for ecologists is understanding the ecological mechanisms that maintain global patterns of biodiversity, particularly the latitudinal diversity gradient of peak species richness in the tropics. Spatial and temporal variation in community composition contribute to these patterns of biodiversity, but how this variation and its underlying processes change across latitude remains unresolved. Using a model system of sessile marine invertebrates across 25 degrees of latitude, from the temperate zone to the tropics, we tested the prediction that spatial and temporal patterns of taxonomic richness and composition, and the community assembly processes underlying these patterns, will differ across latitude. Specifically, we predicted that high beta diversity (spatial variation in composition) and high temporal turnover contribute to the high species richness of the tropics. Using a standardized experimental approach that controls for several confounding factors that hinder interpretation of prior studies, we present results that support our predictions. In the temperate zone, communities were more similar across spatial scales from centimeters to tens of kilometers and temporal scales up to one year than at lower latitudes. Since the patterns at northern latitudes were congruent with a null model, stochastic assembly processes are implicated. In contrast, the communities in the tropics were a dynamic spatial and temporal mosaic, with low similarity even across small spatial scales and high temporal turnover at both local and regional scales. Unlike the temperate zone, deterministic community assembly processes such as predation likely contributed to the high beta diversity in the tropics. Our results suggest that community assembly processes and temporal dynamics vary across latitude and help structure and maintain latitudinal patterns of diversity.

  3. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  4. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  5. Did the Establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone Increase Agricultural Labor Productivity in Jiangxi Province, China?

    Tao Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the establishment of Poyang Lake Eco-Economic Zone in 2009 as a quasi-natural experiment, to evaluate its influence on the agricultural labor productivity in Jiangxi Province, China. The estimation results of the DID method show that the establishment of the zone reduced agricultural labor productivity by 3.1%, lowering farmers’ net income by 2.5% and reducing the agricultural GDP by 3.6%. Furthermore, this negative effect has increased year after year since 2009. However, the heterogeneity analysis implies that the agricultural labor productivities of all cities in Jiangxi Province will ultimately converge. We find that the lack of agricultural R&D activities and the abuse of chemical fertilizers may be the main reasons behind the negative influence of the policy, by examining two possible transmission channels—the R&D investment and technological substitution. Corresponding policy implications are also provided.

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  7. Cigar Product Modification Among High School Youth.

    Trapl, Erika S; Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J; Cofie, Leslie; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2018-02-07

    Prevalence of cigar use has been increasing among youth. Research indicates that youth are modifying cigar products either by "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) or "blunting" (removing the tobacco and supplementing or replacing with marijuana), yet little is known about youth who engage in this behavior. Thus, this study examines demographic and concurrent substance use behaviors of youth who modify cigars. Data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior survey were examined (n = 16 855). The survey collected data on demographics, cigar product use, cigar modification behaviors, and current cigarette, hookah and marijuana use. Responses to cigar product use items were used to create a composite to classify youth in one of eight unique user categories. Univariate and bivariate statistics were calculated using SPSS complex samples procedures. Overall, 15.2% reported current cigar product use, 11.0% reported current freaking, and 18.5% reported current blunt use; taken together, 25.3% of respondents reported any current use of a cigar product. When examined by user category, of those who endorsed any cigar product use, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars use only was most endorsed (26.3%), followed by Blunt only (25.2%) and all three (ie, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars, freaking, and blunting; 17.4%). A substantial proportion of high school youth who report using cigar products are modifying them in some way, with nearly half freaking and nearly two-thirds blunting. Given the FDA Center for Tobacco products recent extension of its regulatory authority to include cigar products, it is imperative to understand more about the prevalence of and reasons for cigar modification behaviors. Although the FDA has recently enacted regulatory authority over cigar products, little is known about cigar product modification. This is the first study to concurrently examine two unique cigar modification behaviors, "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) and

  8. Multi-zone coupling productivity of horizontal well fracturing with complex fracture networks in shale gas reservoirs

    Weiyao Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of specific studies were carried out to investigate the complex form of fracture networks and figure out the multi-scale flowing laws of nano/micro pores–complex fracture networks–wellbore during the development of shale reservoirs by means of horizontal well fracturing. First, hydraulic fractures were induced by means of Brazilian splitting tests. Second, the forms of the hydraulic fractures inside the rock samples were observed by means of X-ray CT scanning to measure the opening of hydraulic fractures. Third, based on the multi-scale unified flowing model, morphological description of fractures and gas flowing mechanism in the matrix–complex fracture network–wellbore, the productivity equation of single-stage horizontal well fracturing which includes diffusion, slipping and desorption was established. And fourthly, a productivity prediction model of horizontal well multi-stage fracturing in the shale reservoir was established considering the interference between the multi-stage fracturing zones and the pressure drop in the horizontal wellbore. The following results were obtained. First, hydraulic fractures are in the form of a complex network. Second, the measured opening of hydraulic fractures is in the range of 4.25–453 μm, averaging 112 μm. Third, shale gas flowing in different shapes of fracture networks follows different nonlinear flowing laws. Forth, as the fracture density in the strongly stimulated zones rises and the distribution range of the hydraulic fractures in strongly/weakly stimulated zones enlarges, gas production increases gradually. As the interference occurs in the flowing zones of fracture networks between fractured sections, the increasing amplitude of gas production rates decreases. Fifth, when the length of a simulated horizontal well is 1500 m and the half length of a fracture network in the strongly stimulated zone is 100 m, the productivity effect of stage 10 fracturing is the

  9. Wave Breaking, Bubble Production and Acoustic Characteristics of the Surf Zone, SIO Component

    Deane, Grant

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of these measurements was to: (1) statistically characterize the surf zone acoustic channel Doppler and time spreads, and acoustic drop-outs, in terms of the incident wave field and (2...

  10. Productivity variations, oxygen minimum zone and their impact on organic enrichment in the sediments

    Paropkari, A.L.

    of Somalia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Pakistan and Eastern and Western shelves of India (except a part of inner shelf), irrespective of primary productivity variation (Fig. 3), is mainly ascribed to decomposition of organic matter in contact.... Nevertheless, moderate to very high concentrations of organic carbon (Fig. 1) are invariably associated with the entire slope sediments, forming a long and wide band in contact with oxygen minima from Saurashtra to the southern tip of India. It may...

  11. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  12. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  13. Rare earth magnets with high energy products

    Hirosawa, S.; Kaneko, Y.

    1998-01-01

    High energy-products exceeding 430 kj/m 3 (54 MGOe) have been realized on anisotropic permanent magnets based on the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, recently. To produce extremely high-energy-product permanent magnets, special processes have been designed in order to realize the minimum oxygen content, the maximum volume fraction of the hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, the highest orientation of the easy axis of magnetization, and small and homogeneous crystalline grain sizes in the finished magnets. For the powder metallurgical process, special techniques such as low-oxygen fine powder processing and magnetic alignment using pulsed magnetic fields have been developed. It has been shown that a good control of both homogeneity of distribution of constituent phases and the narrowness of the size distribution in the starting powder have great influences on the magnetic energy products. It is emphasized that the recently developed techniques are applicable in a large-scale production, meaning that extremely high-energy-product magnets are available on commercial basis. (orig.)

  14. Soil monitoring in agro-ecosystems of high mountain zone in Quindio

    Sadeghian, Siavosh; Orozco, O l; Murgueitio, E

    2001-01-01

    Were evaluated soil characteristics in 4 common agro-ecosystems of high mountain zone of Quindio department, soil forest exhibit better indicators that others systems. Low macro porosity and hydraulic conductivity were consequences more important of cattle ranching systems. In pinus plantations were registered lower value of organic matter, pH, interchanging bases, gravimetric moisture and microbial activity CO 2 . As a result of pinus establishment on pasture ground increase drainable porosity and hydraulic conductivity. In granadilla cultivation were lower organism diversity and structural stability

  15. Distribution of nonionic organic compounds (highly volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons) in the unsaturated zone

    Grathwohl, P.

    1988-01-01

    Nonpolar pollutants, e.g. highly volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (HVCH) are more or less equally distributed among all three soil phases (solids, water, air) in the unsaturated zone. The sorption of HVCH on soil solids depends on the amount and type of organic matter in the soil. For wet material an additional sorption on mineral surfaces can be neglected, since all possible sites for sorption are occupied by water. Provided the partition-coefficients or sorption-constants are known the contamination of the whole system can be evaluated from the pollutant concentration in the soil air; in addition it is possible to estimate a groundwater risk.

  16. Biomass Production of Some Salt Tolerant Tree Species Grown in Different Ecological Zones of Pakistan

    Mahmood, K.; Chughtai, M. I.; Awan, A. R.; Waheed, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the biomass production potential of salt tolerant tree species grown in saline environments. For this purpose, 5 sites near Badin, Gawadar, Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar in different ecological zones of Pakistan were selected. Plantations of 7 tree species common to all sites including Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Acacia nilotica, Acacia ampliceps, Prosopis juliflora, Casurinaobesa and Tamarix aphylla were selected for non-destructive biomass measurements. Five trees from each species at each site were assessed for plant height, girth at breast height, canopy area, canopy shape and number of branches. For destructive biomass estimation, six trees of four species (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, Prosopis juliflora and Tamarix aphylla) were harvested at two sites near Lahore and Faisalabad. Biomass of whole tree and its components like stem, branches, twigs, leaves and fruits were determined. Soil and water resources of these sites were also characterized. Results indicated that E. camaldulensis produced maximum average biomass 329 kg in 81/2 years at soil salinity (EC 1:1) 8.5 to 9.4 dS m/sup -1/ and T. aphylla produced 188 kg at soil salinity 12.8 dS m/sup -1/ in 91/2 years. A. nilotica produced biomass 187 kg at 16.9 dS m/sup -1/ in 10 years at Faisalabad; while at Lahore, 369 kg in 18 years under soil salinity level 7.3 dS m/sup -1/. P. juliflora produced minimum biomass 123 kg at soil salinity 7.1 dS m/sup -1/ in 8 years at Lahore and 278 kg at soil salinity 17.2 dS m/sup -1/ in 16 years at Faisalabad. Both soil and water quality was comparatively better at Gawadar and Faisalabad than other sites. Overall, it is concluded that studied tree species are good performer on salt-affected soils and can make saline areas productive. (author)

  17. OPERATION OF NEW AND HIGH-TECH DEVELOPMENT ZONE – “CHINA-SINGAPORE SUZHOU INDUSTRIAL PARK”

    Qi Ji.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic work of the higher authorities of China on achievement and implementation of generally valid aims in the field of science and technology allowed the People’s Republic of China to reach intense innovative advancement of its conomy. New and High-Tech Development Zones form the basis of the national innovative infrastructure in China, the most successful of which is China-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park (hereinafter – the Park. The Park can be characterized as a flagship project of cooperation between the governments of China and Singapore, pilot zone of reforms and innovations, successful model of international cooperation. The aim of the foundation and development of the Park is creation of innovative world class productions and setting up new international district with modern information and technology infrastructure and environmentally-friendly neighborhood. The article presents the process of formation of the Park’s management system and its interaction with the public authorities as well as the main principles of its organizational structure. Current social-economic development results and advancement of favorable conditions for investors are analyzed. Special emphasis is given to the concept of development of the industrial ecology observed by the Park’s management. The examples of intensive growth of infrastructure are given: creation of demonstration zones and experimental areas, building of social facilities. The emphasis is given to the constant development of the Park’s human resources. The project represents a new model of international economic and technical cooperation of China with other nations. 

  18. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  19. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  20. Physical properties of fault zone rocks from SAFOD: Tying logging data to high-pressure measurements on drill core

    Jeppson, T.; Tobin, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2005, Phase 2 of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole was completed and logged with wireline tools including a dipole sonic tool to measure P- and S-wave velocities. A zone of anomalously low velocity was detected from 3150 to 3414 m measured depth (MD), corresponding with the subsurface location of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). This low velocity zone is 5-30% slower than the surrounding host rock. Within this broad low-velocity zone, several slip surfaces were identified as well as two actively deforming shear zones: the southwest deformation zone (SDZ) and the central deformation zone (CDZ), located at 3192 and 3302 m MD, respectively. The SAFZ had also previously been identified as a low velocity zone in seismic velocity inversion models. The anomalously low velocity was hypothesized to result from either (a) brittle deformation in the damage zone of the fault, (b) high fluid pressures with in the fault zone, or (c) lithological variation, or a combination of the above. We measured P- and S-wave velocities at ultrasonic frequencies on saturated 2.5 cm diameter core plug samples taken from SAFOD core obtained in 2007 from within the low velocity zone. The resulting values fall into two distinct groups: foliated fault gouge and non-gouge. Samples of the foliated fault gouge have P-wave velocities between 2.3-3.5 km/s while non-gouge samples lie between 4.1-5.4 km/s over a range of effective pressures from 5-70 MPa. There is a good correlation between the log measurements and laboratory values of P-and S wave velocity at in situ pressure conditions especially for the foliated fault gouge. For non-gouge samples the laboratory values are approximately 0.08-0.73 km/s faster than the log values. This difference places the non-gouge velocities within the Great Valley siltstone velocity range, as measured by logs and ultrasonic measurements performed on outcrop samples. As a high fluid pressure zone was not encountered during

  1. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Singh, H.; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr ≤ annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to cluster bean

  2. Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone - Part III

    Singh, H. E-mail: hsingh11@rediffmail.com; Mishra, D.; Nahar, N.M

    2004-09-01

    India has 31.71 Mha of hot arid areas, of which 61.8% is in Western Rajasthan, commonly known as the 'Thar Desert'. A detailed study of the energy use pattern in production agriculture for a representative village, Pemasar, district Bikaner of zone II (200 mm/yr {<=} annual rainfall < 300 mm/yr) has been conducted. Out of the total geographical area (945.7 ha) of the village, 693.6 ha is cultivable land. The main crops grown in the village are cluster bean, moth bean, groundnut, green gram (Kharif), wheat, mustard, gram, barley and rocket salad (Rabi). In general, Kharif crops are grown as rain fed crops, but due to low rainfall in the zone and the presence of the Indira Gandhi Canal, even Kharif crops are raised under irrigated conditions. However, the area covered under irrigation is meagre as the availability of canal water is very much limited and uncertain. Operation wise, the total energy consumed for rain fed Kharif crops is minimum (1187.6 MJ/ha) for moth bean and maximum (1261.9 MJ/ha) for cluster bean, while for irrigated crops, it is minimum (2847.3 MJ/ha) for moth bean, and maximum (12,809.6 MJ/ha) for groundnut. The average specific energy for cultivation of cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 11.7, 7.5, 7.7, 7.4 and 11.2 MJ/ha, respectively. Operation wise, the energy consumed for Rabi crops is minimum (3855.6 MJ/ha) for rocket salad followed by 4779.4 MJ/ha for mustard, 4845.2 MJ/ha for gram and maximum (7953.2 MJ/ha) for wheat. The average specific energy for cultivation of wheat, gram, mustard and rocket salad were 11.4, 16.5, 13.2 and 13.7 MJ/ha, respectively. The average values of estimated energy ratio for cluster bean (rain fed), cluster bean (irrigated), moth bean (rain fed), moth bean (irrigated) and groundnut were 2.1, 0.5, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. This suggests that the moth bean crop is more remunerating to the farmers in Kharif as compared to

  3. The Rhizosphere Zone: A Hot Spot of Microbial Activity and Methylmercury Production in Saltmarsh Sediments of San Francisco Bay, California

    Windham-Myers, L.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Voytek, M.; Kirshtein, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M.; Kakouros, E.; Collins, J. N.; Yee, D.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal marshes of varying hydrology and salinity have been shown to have high rates of microbial methylmercury (MeHg) production, especially the periodically flooded, higher elevations which are densely vegetated with shallowly rooted plants. The specific influence of emergent wetland plants and their active rhizosphere (root zone) on mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry, however, is poorly understood. Seasonal and spatial patterns of Hg biogeochemistry were examined in 2005 and 2006 at three marshes along a salinity gradient of the Petaluma River, in Northern San Francisco Bay, California. In addition, to directly examine the influence of rhizosphere activity on MeHg production, a suite of devegetation experiments was conducted in 2006 within each marsh using paired vegetated and devegetated plots in two marsh subhabitats: poorly- drained interior sites and well-drained "edge" sites near slough channels. Surface sediment (0-2cm) was sampled in both April and August from these plots, as well as from 1st and 3rd order slough channels that were naturally free of vegetation. Vegetated marsh sites produced 3- to19-fold more MeHg than did slough sites, and MeHg production rates were greater in marsh interior sites compared to more oxic marsh "edge" sites. Microbial biomass (ng DNA gdrysed) was greater in vegetated marsh settings, compared to slough channels, and increased significantly between April and August at all marsh sites. Despite this seasonal increase in microbial biomass, MeHg concentrations and production rates decreased from April to August in vegetated surface sediments. Microbial indicators of methylation also decreased from April to August, including rates of microbial sulfate reduction and the abundance of iron- and sulfate- reducing bacterial DNA. Results from the devegetated plots suggest that root exudation of fermentative labile carbon to surface soils is responsible for the higher microbial biomass, and the higher relative abundance of iron- and sulfate

  4. Wood Volume Production and Use of 10 Woody Species in Semiarid Zones of Northeastern Mexico

    Rahim Foroughbakhch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A research strategy was established to analyze the structure of timber trees in terms of forest productivity (volume and wood density of 10 species. The native species Acacia farnesiana, Acacia schaffneri, Bumelia celastrina, Cercidium macrun, Condalia hookeri, Ebenopsis ebano, Helietta parvifolia, and Prosopis laevigata and the exotic species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Leucaena leucocephala were chosen due to their ecological and economic importance to the rural villages of northeastern Mexico. Measurements of different growth parameters and volume of trees were evaluated. The introduced species E. camaldulensis and L. leucocephala showed the best performance in wood volume production per tree and per hectare when compared to the native species. Likewise, among the native species, E. ebano, P. laevigata, C. hookeri, and A. farnesiana tended to show better characteristics in terms of wood volume production in comparison to H. parvifolia, A. schaffneri, C. macrum, and B. celastrina. Results showed a high diversity on the properties studied. The high biomass produced by most of the species considered in this study revealed their great energetic potential when used as wood and firewood or vegetal charcoal.

  5. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  6. Quasi-kinoform type multilayer zone plate with high diffraction efficiency for high-energy X-rays

    Tamura, S; Yasumoto, M; Kamijo, N; Uesugi, K; Takeuchi, A; Terada, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plate (FZP) with high diffraction efficiency leads to high performance X-ray microscopy with the reduction of the radiation damage to biological specimens. In order to attain high diffraction efficiency in high energy X-ray region, we have developed multilevel-type (6-step) multilayer FZPs with the diameter of 70 micron. The efficiencies of two FZPs were evaluated at the BL20XU beamline of SPring-8. For one FZP, the peak efficiency for the 1st-order diffraction of 51% has been obtained at 70 keV. The efficiencies higher than 40% have been achieved in the wide energy range of 70-90 keV. That for the 2nd-order diffraction of 46% has been obtained at 37.5 keV.

  7. Mechanical versus kinematical shortening reconstructions of the Zagros High Folded Zone (Kurdistan region of Iraq)

    Frehner, Marcel; Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares kinematical and mechanical techniques for the palinspastic reconstruction of folded cross sections in collision orogens. The studied area and the reconstructed NE-SW trending, 55.5 km long cross section is located in the High Folded Zone of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The present-day geometry of the cross section has been constructed from field as well as remote sensing data. In a first step, the structures and the stratigraphy are simplified and summarized in eight units trying to identify the main geometric and mechanical parameters. In a second step, the shortening is kinematically estimated using the dip domain method to 11%-15%. Then the same cross section is used in a numerical finite element model to perform dynamical unfolding simulations taking various rheological parameters into account. The main factor allowing for an efficient dynamic unfolding is the presence of interfacial slip conditions between the mechanically strong units. Other factors, such as Newtonian versus power law viscous rheology or the presence of a basement, affect the numerical simulations much less strongly. If interfacial slip is accounted for, fold amplitudes are reduced efficiently during the dynamical unfolding simulations, while welded layer interfaces lead to unrealistic shortening estimates. It is suggested that interfacial slip and decoupling of the deformation along detachment horizons is an important mechanical parameter that controlled the folding processes in the Zagros High Folded Zone.

  8. Detailed seismotectonic analysis of Sumatra subduction zone revealed by high precision earthquake location

    Sagala, Ricardo Alfencius; Harjadi, P. J. Prih; Heryandoko, Nova; Sianipar, Dimas

    2017-07-01

    Sumatra was one of the most high seismicity regions in Indonesia. The subduction of Indo-Australian plate beneath Eurasian plate in western Sumatra contributes for many significant earthquakes that occur in this area. These earthquake events can be used to analyze the seismotectonic of Sumatra subduction zone and its system. In this study we use teleseismic double-difference method to obtain more high precision earthquake distribution in Sumatra subduction zone. We use a 3D nested regional-global velocity model. We use a combination of data from both of ISC (International Seismological Center) and BMKG (Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics, Indonesia). We successfully relocate about 6886 earthquakes that occur on period of 1981-2015. We consider that this new location is more precise than the regular bulletin. The relocation results show greatly reduced of RMS residual of travel time. Using this data, we can construct a new seismotectonic map of Sumatra. A well-built geometry of subduction slab, faults and volcano arc can be obtained from the new bulletin. It is also showed that at a depth of 140-170 km, there is many events occur as moderate-to-deep earthquakes, and we consider about the relation of the slab's events with volcanic arc and inland fault system. A reliable slab model is also built from regression equation using new relocated data. We also analyze the spatial-temporal of seismotectonic using b-value mapping that inspected in detail horizontally and vertically cross-section.

  9. Frequencies of micronuclei in bank voles from zones of high radiation at Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Rodgers, B.E.; Baker, R.J.

    2000-06-01

    A population of Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) from a highly radioactive area within the Chernobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone was sampled in June 1997 and in June and October 1998. Internal radiation doses from radiocesium were estimated to be as high as 8 rads/d. Total dose, which takes into account the internal dose form radiostrontium and the surrounding environment, was estimated to be 15 to 20 rads/d. In contrast, individuals from a reference population lying outside of the exclusion zone registered negligible levels of contamination. The authors used the micronucleus test in a double-blind study to analyze blood samples from 58 individuals. They scored more than 600,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) but could not reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of micronucleated PCEs in voles exposed to radiation was equal to the frequency in unexposed voles. Results of their study stand in sharp contrast to earlier reports of increased frequencies of micronuclei in rodents exposed to fallout of the Chernobyl accident, but with radiation doses that were orders of magnitude lower than those reported here. Radio resistance and experimental methods are possible explanations for these differences in the results.

  10. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  11. Saline soil properties, quality and productivity of wheat grown with bagasse ash and thiourea in different climatic zones.

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Kheir, Ahmed M S

    2018-02-01

    Soil salinity and atmosphere temperature change have negative impacts on crop productivity and its quality and can pose a significant risk to soil properties in semi-arid regions. We conducted two field experiments in North (first zone) and South (second zone) of Egypt to investigate the effects of soil bagasse ash (10 ton ha -1 ), foliar thiourea (240 g ha -1 ) and their combination in comparison to the control treatment on saline soil properties and productivity and quality traits of wheat. All studied treatments were received the recommended rate of N, P and K fertilizations. Combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application resulted in a significant improvement of most studied soil properties (i.e. EC, compaction, hydraulic conductivity, OM and available P, K, N contents) after harvest in comparison to other treatments in both of zones. Also, it enhanced growth and grain yield of wheat in terms of photosynthesis related attributes and yield components. Moreover, combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application resulted in superior grain quality traits in terms of carbohydrate, fibre, protein and ash contents than separated application of soil bagasse ash, foliar thiourea or even control treatment. In conclusion, combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application can be used as suitable option to enhance plant nutrition, wheat productivity and improve wheat grain quality and soil traits in saline soil as well as can alleviate heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring of high temperature zone by resistivity tomography during in-situ heater test in sedimentary soft rocks

    Kubota, Kenji; Suzuki, Koichi; Ikenoya, Takafumi; Takakura, Nozomu; Tani, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    In-situ heater test has been conducted to evaluate the influence of high temperature in an underground facility at a depth of 50 m. Resistivity monitoring is thought to be effective to map the extent of the high temperature zone. So we have conducted resistivity tomography during the heater test. As a result, low resistivity zone was appeared near the heated area as starting the heating, and the zone was expanded. Resistivity of rock is proportional to resistivity of pore water. It is known that pore water resistivity decreases as the temperature rise. This suggests that high temperature zone is detected and spatial distribution of temperature can be mapped by resistivity tomography. (author)

  13. Production processes at extremely high energies

    Gastmans, R; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2013-01-01

    The production processes are identified that contribute to the rise of the total cross section in proton-proton scattering at extremely high energies, s->~. At such energies, the scattering can be described by a black disk (completely absorptive) with a radius expanding logarithmically with energy surrounded by a gray fringe (partially absorptive). For the leading term of (lns)^2 in the increasing total cross section, the gray fringe is neglected, and geometrical optics is generalized to production processes. It is known that half of the rise in the total cross section is due to elastic scattering. The other half is found to originate from the production of jets with relatively small momenta in the center-of-mass system.

  14. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  15. Climatic and anthropogenic factors changing spawning pattern and production zone of Hilsa fishery in the Bay of Bengal

    M. Shohidullah Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha Hamilton as a single species accounts 12% for more than half of the total marine catches. About 2% of the entire population of the country is directly or indirectly engaged with Hilsa fishing. Hilsa has a wide geographical distribution in Asia from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea. Particularly large stocks are found in Upper Bay of Bengal (BoB region sustained by the large river systems. The global Hilsa catch is reported 75% from Bangladesh water, 15% from Myanmar, 5% from India and 5% from other countries such as Thailand and Iran. Hilsa is a highly migratory and anadromous fish with the same migratory and same breeding behavior as that of Atlantic Salmon fish (Salmo sp.. Due to various anthropogenic activities, climate change effect, increased siltation and rising of the river basins, the migratory routes as well as spawning grounds of Hilsa are disturbed, displaced or even destroyed. During last two decades hilsa production from inland water declined about 20%, whereas marine water yield increased about 3 times. Major Hilsa to catch has been gradually shifted from inland to marine water. Hilsa fish ascend for spawning migration from sea into estuaries. It has been found that the major spawning areas have been shifted to the lower estuarine regions of Hatia, Sandwip and Bhola. At the spawning ground of Hilsa, the fishing level F=1.36 yr−1, where in the river Meghna the Fmsy=0.6 yr−1 and exploitation rate E=0.70 is (Emsy>0.5. Oceanographic changes viz. high turbidity increased flooding, more tidal action and changes of salinity etc. have accelerated the change of migration patterns of spawning, growth and its production. Hilsa fecundity ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 million eggs for fish ranging in length from 35 to 50 cm. Hilsa fecundity is declining in different areas due to climate change and the declining fecundity impacting greatly on Hilsa production. Due to shifting of the spawning ground at the lower

  16. Mechanisms for production of highly charged ions

    McGuire, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Various experimental data at high collision velocity are interpreted in terms of direct (D) and rearrangement (R) mechanisms for production of multiply charged ions. We consider double ionization in helium by protons, electrons, heavy ions, antiprotons, positrons and photons. Qualitative differences are discussed in the context of the R and D mechanisms. Multiple ionization in many electron atoms is considered as is simultaneous capture and ionization and fragmentation of methane molecules. Some other theoretical methods are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. Numerical Simulation of a Non-volcanic Hydrothermal System Caused by Formation of a High Permeability Fracture Zone

    Oka, Daisuke; Ehara, Sachio; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Because in the Japanese islands the earth crust activity is very active, a disposal stratum for high-level radioactive waste produced by reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants will be selected in the tectonically stable areas in which the waste can be disposed underground safely for a long term and there is no influence of earthquakes, seismic activities, volcanic activities, upheaval, sedimentation, erosion, climate and global sea level change and so on, which causes the risk of the inflow of the groundwater to destroy the disposal site or the outflow to the ground surface. However, even if the disposal stratum in such condition will be chosen, in case that a new high permeability fracture zone is formed by the earthquake, and a new hydrothermal system may be formed for a long term (thousands or millions years) and the system may affect the disposal site. Therefore, we have to understand the feature of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. We estimated such influence by using HYDROTHERM Ver2.2 (Hayba & Ingebritsen, 1994), which is a three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulator. The model field is the northwestern part of Kego Fault, which was formed by a series of earthquakes called "the 2005 Fukuoka Prefecture Western Offshore Earthquakes" (the main shock of Mjma 7.0 on 20 March 2005) in Kyushu, Japan. The results of the numerical simulations show the development of a low temperature hydrothermal system as a new fracture zone is formed, in case that there is no volcanic heat source. The results of the simulations up to 100,000 years after formation of the fracture zone show that the higher heat flow and the wider and more permeable fracture zone accelerate the development of the hydrothermal system in the fracture zone. As a result of calculation of up to10 million years, we clarified the evolutional process of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. At

  18. Pinhole diffraction holography for fabrication of high-resolution Fresnel zone plates.

    Sarkar, Sankha S; Solak, Harun H; David, Christian; van der Veen, J Friso

    2014-01-27

    Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) play an essential role in high spatial resolution x-ray imaging and analysis of materials in many fields. These diffractive lenses are commonly made by serial writing techniques such as electron beam or focused ion beam lithography. Here we show that pinhole diffraction holography has potential to generate FZP patterns that are free from aberrations and imperfections that may be present in alternative fabrication techniques. In this presented method, FZPs are fabricated by recording interference pattern of a spherical wave generated by diffraction through a pinhole, illuminated with coherent plane wave at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. Fundamental and practical issues involved in formation and recording of the interference pattern are considered. It is found that resolution of the produced FZP is directly related to the diameter of the pinhole used and the pinhole size cannot be made arbitrarily small as the transmission of EUV or x-ray light through small pinholes diminishes due to poor refractive index contrast found between materials in these spectral ranges. We also find that the practical restrictions on exposure time due to the light intensity available from current sources directly imposes a limit on the number of zones that can be printed with this method. Therefore a trade-off between the resolution and the FZP diameter exists. Overall, we find that this method can be used to fabricate aberration free FZPs down to a resolution of about 10 nm.

  19. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    Bristow, Laura A.; Callbeck, C. M.; Larsen, M

    2017-01-01

    with isotopically labelled nitrogen compounds and analyse geochemical signatures of these processes in the water column. We find that the Bay of Bengal supports denitrifier and anammox microbial populations, mediating low, but significant N loss. Yet, unlike other oxygen minimum zones, our measurements using...

  20. Dynamics of nitrate production and removal as a function of residence time in the hyporheic zone

    Jay P. Zarnetske; Roy Haggerty; Steven M. Wondzell; Michelle A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Biogeochemical reactions associated with stream nitrogen cycling, such as nitrification and denitrification, can be strongly controlled by water and solute residence times in the hyporheic zone (HZ). We used a whole-stream steady state 15N-Iabeled nitrate and conservative tracer addition to investigate the spatial and temporal physiochemical...

  1. Bioenergy in Australia: An improved approach for estimating spatial availability of biomass resources in the agricultural production zones

    Herr, Alexander; Dunlop, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from crops and agricultural residues has a greenhouse gas mitigation potential. However, there is considerable debate about the size of this potential. This is partly due to difficulties in estimating the feedstock resource base accurately and with good spatial resolution. Here we provide two techniques for spatially estimating crop-based bioenergy feedstocks in Australia using regional agricultural statistics and national land use maps. The approach accommodates temporal variability by estimating ranges of feedstock availability and the shifting nature of zones of the highest spatial concentration of feedstocks. The techniques are applicable to biomass production from forestry, agricultural residues or oilseeds, all of which have been proposed as biofuel feedstocks. -- Highlights: → Dasymetric mapping appoach for producing spatial and temporal variation maps in feedstock production.→ Combines land use and crop statistics to produce regionally precise feedstock maps. → Feedstock concentrations and feedstock density maps enable identification of feedstock concentration spatially and comparison of yearly variation in production.

  2. The effect of rural road transport infrastructure on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia

    Sileshi Tamene

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine access to rural road infrastructure and its effects on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. A three stage random sampling technique was employed to select 500 farming households in the study area and data was collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The result of multiple regression model used revealed that distance to major market is important in predicting agricultural productivity of smallholder farmers at 5% levels of probability in Abe Dongoro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts. Ownership of intermediate means of transport was also found to influence agricultural productivity in Horro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts (p = 0.05. Further analysis of the regression model showed a significant negative correlation between distance to nearest all weather roads and distance to zonal head quarter on one hand and agricultural productivity on the other hand in Abe Dongoro, Hababo Guduru and Amuru districts. Rural kebeles of Abe Dongoro and Amuru districts which has vast agricultural potential were found to be the most inaccessible in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone. It is therefore suggested that interventions in the transport sector should include provision of rural roads as well as measures that will help improve vehicle supply in rural areas. An attempt has to be done also to increase the use of intermediate means of transport to ease agricultural inputs and outputs mobility and farm access.

  3. Cost reduction for large turbine generator Pedestal in high seismic zone

    Sawhney, P.S.; Irani, P.; Pusheck, B.N.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine Generator Pedestals have generally been designed using reinforced concrete. For present day large turbine generators (1100 MWe class and above) with tall (about 80 feet) pedestals, the amount of reinforcing steel becomes quite large, especially for plants in high seismic zones. With the prime objective of cost reduction, an approach using steel/concrete composite design has been studied for a large BWR Turbine Generator pedestal with 0.3g peak ground acceleration. Large prefabricated steel modules were adopted for composite design and simplified construction. Design was based on the ACI and AISC codes. Costs and schedules were developed and compared with those for a conventionally designed reinforced concrete pedestal. Composite design was found to give considerable cost and schedule advantage over the conventional reinforced concrete design

  4. Seismic qualification of a commercial grade emergency diesel generator system in high seismic zones

    Khan, Mohsin R.; Chen, Wayne W.H.; Chu, Winnie S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic qualification of a commercially procured emergency diesel generator (EDG) system for use in a nuclear power plant. Response spectrum analyses of finite element models, validated using in situ vibration test data, were performed to qualify the skid and floor mounted mechanical components whose functional capacity and structural integrity can be analyzed. Time history analyses of these models were also performed to obtain the amplified response spectra for seismic testing of small valves, electrical and electro-mechanical components whose functional capacity can not be analyzed to establish the seismic qualification. The operational loads were obtained by in-plant vibration monitoring. Full scale shake table testing was performed for auxiliary electrical cabinets. It is concluded that with some minor structural modifications, a commercial grade EDG system can be qualified for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants located in high seismic zones. (author)

  5. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities

  6. Discoscopic Findings of High Signal Intensity Zones on Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Lumbar Intervertebral Discs

    Kosuke Sugiura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man underwent radiofrequency thermal annuloplasty (TA with percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED under local anesthesia for chronic low back pain. His diagnosis was discogenic pain with a high signal intensity zone (HIZ in the posterior corner of the L4-5 disc. Flexion pain was sporadic, and steroid injection was given twice for severe pain. After the third episode of strong pain, PED and TA were conducted. The discoscope was inserted into the posterior annulus and revealed a migrated white nucleus pulposus which was stained blue. Then, after moving the discoscope to the site of the HIZ, a migrated slightly red nucleus pulposus was found, suggesting inflammation and/or new vessels penetrating the mass. After removing the fragment, the HIZ site was ablated by TA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the discoscopic findings of HIZ of the lumbar intervertebral disc.

  7. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  8. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  9. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    Yapp, David; Liratzis, Theocharis

    2010-01-01

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  10. Remote sensing for assessing the zone of benefit where deep drains improve productivity of land affected by shallow saline groundwater.

    Kobryn, H T; Lantzke, R; Bell, R; Admiraal, R

    2015-03-01

    The installation of deep drains is an engineering approach to remediate land salinised by the influence of shallow groundwater. It is a costly treatment and its economic viability is, in part, dependent on the lateral extent to which the drain increases biological productivity by lowering water tables and soil salinity (referred to as the drains' zone of benefit). Such zones may be determined by assessing the biological productivity response of adjacent vegetation over time. We tested a multi-temporal satellite remote sensing method to analyse temporal and spatial changes in vegetation condition surrounding deep drainage sites at five locations in the Western Australian wheatbelt affected by dryland salinity-Morawa, Pithara, Beacon, Narembeen and Dumbleyung. Vegetation condition as a surrogate for biological productivity was assessed by Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during the peak growing season. Analysis was at the site scale within a 1000 m buffer zone from the drains. There was clear evidence of NDVI increasing with elevation, slope and distance from the drain. After accounting for elevation, slope and distance from the drain, there was a significant increase in NDVI across the five locations after installation of deep drains. Changes in NDVI after drainage were broadly consistent with measured changes at each site in groundwater levels after installation of the deep drains. However, this study assessed the lateral extent of benefit for biological productivity and gave a measure of the area of benefit along the entire length of the drain. The method demonstrated the utility of spring NDVI images for rapid and relatively simple assessment of the change in site condition after implementation of drainage, but approaches for further improvement of the procedure were identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of ∼10 39 cm -2 s -1 , which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10 11 s -1 . 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    Gammino, S.

    2013-12-16

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  13. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  14. Technology Adoption and Productivity Difference among Growers of New Rice for Africa in Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    Rahji, MAY.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of New Rice for Africa (NERICA and complementary rice production technology is being promoted by Nigeria government in order to increase productivity of upland rice farming. This study examines the levels, determinants and effects of complementary technology adoption on productivity of NERICA rice farming. Data for the study were obtained from sample survey of 227 NERICA rice farmers in the guinea savanna zone using multistage sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using Tobit regression model and Cobb-Douglas production function. Results showed that the average technology score was 52.1 percent (+ 0.242. Fifty-five percent of the farmers who scored above the mean were categorized as low technology users. Tobit regression estimation shows that farmers' technology score was affected significantly (P< 0.05 by farmer's level of education (0.0127, extension visit (0.0145, farming experience (0.0085, land ownership status (0.0687, credit use (0.0698 and level of rice commercialization (0.3783. Cobb-Douglas production estimation shows a neutrally outward shift in production function as the level of complementary technology increases, indicating increasing productivity. Thus, promotion of complementary technology in NERICA rice production is a worthwhile effort and should continue to be funded. Improvement of those factors that significantly affect adoption of complementary technology is recommended.

  15. Catalyzed deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium fusion blankets for high temperature process heat production

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Salimi, B.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiumless blanket designs, associated with a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cycle and using a single high temperature solid pebble or falling bed zone, for process heat production, are proposed. Neutronics and photonics calculations, using the Monte Carlo method, show that an about 90% heat deposition fraction is possible in the high temperature zone, compared to a 30 to 40% fraction if a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion cycle is used with separate breeding and heat deposition zones. Such a design is intended primarily for synthetic fuels manufacture through hydrogen production using high temperature water electrolysis. A system analysis involving plant energy balances and accounting for the different fusion energy partitions into neutrons and charged particles showed that plasma amplification factors in the range of 2 are needed. In terms of maximization of process heat and electricity production, and the maximization of the ratio of high temperature process heat to electricity, the catalyzed D-D system outperforms the D-T one by about 20%. The concept is thought competitive to the lithium boiler concept for such applications, with the added potential advantages of lower tritium inventories in the plasma, reduced lithium pumping (in the case of magnetic confinement) and safety problems, less radiation damage at the first wall, and minimized risks of radioactive product contamination by tritium

  16. High-radiation zone design of the FMIT high-density beam transport

    Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.; King, J.D.; Cole, T.R.; Cimabue, A.G.; Robeson, L.P.; Harvey, A.

    1981-03-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) deuteron linac, operating at 35 MeV and 100 mA continuous duty, is expected to spill 3 μA/m and to lose 10 μA at specific bending-magnet positions. The major impact of this spill will be felt in the High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), where many beam-line components must be maintained. A modular design concept, that uses segmented termination panels remotely located from the modules, is being employed. Radiation-hardened quadrupoles can be opened, clam-shell fashion, to release the water-cooled beam tube r replacement if there is beam damage or lithium contamination from the target. Termination panels contain electrical, water, and instrumentation fittings to service the module, and are positioned to allow room for neutron-absorbing shielding between the beamline and the panel. The modular construction allows laboratory prealignment and check-out of all components on a structural carriage and is adaptable to supporting gamma shields. Proper choice of beam tube materials is essential for controlling activation caused by beam spill

  17. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide 32 Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of 32 Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of 32 Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms

  18. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  19. 77 FR 50462 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, NE, Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Novartis...

    2012-08-21

    ...; preparations for skincare; pharmaceutical reference standards; and medicines for veterinary use. Production... duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced on foreign status production equipment. Components and... antihistamine chemicals; other vegetable alkaloids and derivatives; articles of plastic, including bands, bags...

  20. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. I. Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton

    Riemann, Lasse; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Kragh, Theis

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of biomass and productivity are often associated with ocean frontal systems. The Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the southern Sargasso Sea shows pronounced and stable thermal fronts, but little is known about the ecological consequences of these hydrographic features....... With the aim of improving the understanding of physical and lower trophic level processes in the area, we carried out field studies of physical, chemical and biological characteristics along 3 transects crossing thermal fronts associated with the STCZ in March to April 2007. Thermal and chemical stratification...

  1. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 84-Houston, TX; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba...

    2013-03-01

    ... used for the production of electric motors and generators for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Pursuant...; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Toshiba International Corporation (Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors... duty payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On its domestic sales...

  2. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan

    A.-M. Boullier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7–11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to

  3. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robach, Odile; Ildefonse, Benoît; Barou, Fabrice; Mainprice, David; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Fujimoto, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan) that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7-11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to the peak strength of a

  4. Determination of pumper truck intervention ratios in zones with high fire potential by using geographical information system

    Aricak, Burak; Kucuk, Omer; Enez, Korhan

    2014-01-01

    Fighting forest fires not only depends on the forest type, topography, and weather conditions, but is also closely related to the technical properties of fire-fighting equipment. Firefighting is an important part of fire management planning. However, because of the complex nature of forests, creating thematic layers to generate potential fire risk maps is difficult. The use of remote sensing data has become an efficient method for the discrete classification of potential fire risks. The study was located in the Central District of the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate, covering an area of 24,320 ha, 15,685 ha of which is forested. On the basis of stand age, crown closure, and tree species, the sizes and distributions of potential fire risk zones within the study area were determined using high-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery and geographical information system data. The status of pumper truck intervention in zones with high fire risk and the sufficiency of existing forest roads within an existing forest network were discussed based on combustible matter characteristics. Pumper truck intervention was 83% for high-risk zones, 79% for medium-risk zones, and 78% for low-risk zones. A pumper truck intervention area map along existing roads was also created.

  5. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2018-06-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  6. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2017-07-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  7. Design for high productivity remote handling

    Sykes, N., E-mail: nick.sykes@ccfe.ac.uk [Culham Centre For Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Collins, S.; Loving, A.B.; Ricardo, V. [Culham Centre For Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Villedieu, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, DSM/IRFM, Saint Paul Les Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    As the central part of a programme of enhancements in support of ITER, the Joint European Torus (JET) is being equipped with an all-metal wall. This enhancement programme requires the removal and installation of 6927 tile carriers and tiles, as well as the removal and installation of embedded diagnostics and antennas. The scale of this operation and the necessity to maximise operational availability of the facility added a requirement for high productivity in the remote activities to the existing exigencies of precision, reliability, cleanliness and operational security. This high productivity requirement has been incorporated into the design of the components and associated installation tooling, the design of the installation equipment, the development of installation procedures including the use of a mock-up for optimisation and training. Consideration of the remote handling installation process is vital during the design of the in vessel components. A number of features to meet the need of the high productivity while maintaining the function requirements have been incorporated into the metal wall components and associated tooling including kinematic design with guidance appropriate for remote operation. The component and tools are designed to guide the attachment of the installation tool, the installation path, and the interlocking with adjacent components without contact between the fragile castellated beryllium of the adjacent tiles. Other incorporated ergonomic features are discussed. At JET, the remote maintenance is conducted using end effectors, normally bi-lateral force feed back manipulator, mounted on driven, articulated booms. Prior to the current shutdown one long boom was used to conduct the installation and collect and deliver components to the 'short' boom which was linked to the tile carrier transfer facility. This led to loss of efficiency during these movements. The adoption of a new remote handling philosophy using 'point of

  8. Design for high productivity remote handling

    Sykes, N.; Collins, S.; Loving, A.B.; Ricardo, V.; Villedieu, E.

    2011-01-01

    As the central part of a programme of enhancements in support of ITER, the Joint European Torus (JET) is being equipped with an all-metal wall. This enhancement programme requires the removal and installation of 6927 tile carriers and tiles, as well as the removal and installation of embedded diagnostics and antennas. The scale of this operation and the necessity to maximise operational availability of the facility added a requirement for high productivity in the remote activities to the existing exigencies of precision, reliability, cleanliness and operational security. This high productivity requirement has been incorporated into the design of the components and associated installation tooling, the design of the installation equipment, the development of installation procedures including the use of a mock-up for optimisation and training. Consideration of the remote handling installation process is vital during the design of the in vessel components. A number of features to meet the need of the high productivity while maintaining the function requirements have been incorporated into the metal wall components and associated tooling including kinematic design with guidance appropriate for remote operation. The component and tools are designed to guide the attachment of the installation tool, the installation path, and the interlocking with adjacent components without contact between the fragile castellated beryllium of the adjacent tiles. Other incorporated ergonomic features are discussed. At JET, the remote maintenance is conducted using end effectors, normally bi-lateral force feed back manipulator, mounted on driven, articulated booms. Prior to the current shutdown one long boom was used to conduct the installation and collect and deliver components to the 'short' boom which was linked to the tile carrier transfer facility. This led to loss of efficiency during these movements. The adoption of a new remote handling philosophy using 'point of installation

  9. Analysis on the contributions of and constraints to camel production in Shinile and Jijiga zones, eastern Ethiopia

    Eyassu Seifu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributions of the dromedary camel and constraints to camel production in Jijiga and Shinile zones of eastern Ethiopia were assessed. A total of 73 households were interviewed on the significance of the dromedary camel and constraints associated to camel production in the area using a single-visit-multiple-subject diagnostic survey. All the households interviewed owned camels and milk production was the primary reason for keeping camels in the area. The major contributions rendered by dromedary camels in the study area were milk production and transportation, while the major constraints associated with camel production in the area were feed shortage and prevalence of disease. Camels in these areas feed mainly on poor-quality natural vegetation. Cactus and acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by camels in the area. Camels were not given supplementary feed except salt and/or mineral soil. Dromedary camels play an important role to the livelihood and survival of nomadic pastoralists in the study areas. Thus, development interventions aimed at improving the productivity of camels in the study areas should take into account the major socio-economic contributions of camels and the prevailing problems in the area.

  10. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  11. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering was determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the frame-work of the quark-proton model

  12. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references

  13. Towards High Productivity in Precision Grinding

    W. Brian Rowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of scientific principles and engineering ingenuity has led to the development of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems. Topics feature a selection of areas where relationships between scientific principles and new techniques are yielding improved productivity and better quality. These examples point towards further advances that can fruitfully be pursued. Applications in modern grinding technology range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors through to medium size grinding machine processes and further down to grinding very small components used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS devices. The importance of material issues is emphasized for the range of conventional engineering steels, through to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. It is suggested that future advances in productivity will include the wider application of artificial intelligence and robotics to improve precision, process efficiency, and features required to integrate grinding processes into wider manufacturing systems.

  14. Large scale hydrogen production from wind energy in the Magallanes area for consumption in the central zone of Chile

    Zolezzi, J.M.; Garay, A.; Reveco, M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy proposal of this research suggests the use of places with abundant wind resources for the production of H 2 on a large scale to be transported and used in the central zone of Chile with the purpose of diversifying the country's energy matrix in order to decrease its dependence on fossil fuels, increase its autonomy, and cover the future increases in energy demand. This research showed that the load factor of the proposed wind park reaches a value of 54.5%, putting in evidence the excellent wind conditions of the zone. This implies that the cost of the electricity produced by the wind park located in the Chilean Patagonia would have a cost of 0.0213 US$ kWh -1 in the year 2030. The low prices of the electricity obtained from the park, thanks to the economy of scale and the huge wind potential, represent a very attractive scenario for the production of H 2 in the future. The study concludes that by the year 2030 the cost of the H 2 generated in Magallanes and transported to the port of Quinteros would be 18.36 US$ MBTU -1 , while by that time the cost of oil would be about 17.241 US$ MBTU -1 , a situation that places H 2 in a very competitive position as a fuel. (author)

  15. Current floristic composition, life form and productivity of the grasslands in the Hunting Zone of Djona (Benin)

    Ahoudji, Myrese C.; Teka, Oscar; Axelsen, Jørgen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addressed temporal changes in floristic composition, plant communities’ structures and productivity of grasslands. The study was conducted in the Hunting zone of Djona in the Transboundary Biosphere Reserve of W (TBRW) Benin. Methodology and Results: For these purpose 30...... plots of 900m² were used and “phytosociological relevés” were done following ecological uniformity, floristic homogeneity and samples representativeness to established plants communities. Biomass was estimated in 30 plots of 100 m². Results showed that the greatest productivity value (8320 ± 0.21 kg DM...... with broad distribution. Conclusions and application of findings: The identified life forms and chorological types showed an evolution of the post farming pastures to woodlands and savannas vegetation, which explains the current floristic composition of the area. Moreover, it will be possible to model...

  16. 77 FR 75610 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott...

    2012-12-21

    ..., Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Abbott Laboratories, Inc., AbbVie, Inc. (Pharmaceutical Production), North Chicago, IL, Area Abbott Laboratories, Inc. (Abbott) and AbbVie, Inc. (AbbVie) submitted a... Abbott facilities to AbbVie, now designated as Subzone 22S (S-66-2012). Abbott and Abbvie are now...

  17. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  19. Ecologically Safe Geothermal Energy Resources in Western Siberia near high-rise construction zones

    Shevchenko, Alexandr; Shiganova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The development of geothermal energy in combination with other renewable energy sources (the sun, the wind) will help to solve the problem of heat supply and electrification in near high-rise construction zones of the country, especially in sparsely populated parts, where centralized energy and heat supply is economically unacceptable, and will improve the ecological situation. The aim of the research is to analyze the geothermal resources of the main aquifers in Western Siberia and to develop recommendations for further study and use of heat and power resources of this territory. The article gives retrospective of state research programs and potential use of hydrothermal resources of administrative units geographically entering the territory under consideration. It is noted that by now such programs have been curtailed for various reasons, although there are examples of their successful and effective use in various fields of industry and agriculture. According to the decision of the Supreme Ecological Council of the State Duma Committee of the Russian Federation adopted in 2014 on the beginning of the development of federal targeted programs for the use of heat power water as a source of electricity and heat supply, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation made proposals for further research and use of hydrothermal waters in Western Siberia. Implementation of the programs proposed by the authors, alongside with other positive aspects, will solve the problems of heat supply in remote territories and improve the environmental situation in the region.

  20. Does the high-intensity zone (HIZ) of lumbar Intervertebral discs always represent an annular fissure?

    Shan, Zhi; Chen, Huanhuan; Liu, Junhui; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Xuyang; Zhao, Fengdong [Zhejiang University, Department of Orthopaedics, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to examine high-intensity zone (HIZ) characteristics on both T1- and T2-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images, and to reveal their exact nature. Seventy-three patients with low back pain and HIZs (identified on T2-weighted images) were included. Patients, aged 25-80 years (mean 51), were divided into two groups: the 'single-HIZ' group exhibited HIZs only on T2-weighted images, while the 'dual-HIZ' group exhibited HIZs on both T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. Tissue corresponding to the HIZ was harvested from surgery for analysis. Eighty-two discs were studied, from 39 patients with single HIZs, 30 with dual HIZs, and four with both in the posterior annulus. HIZ volume, volume ratio, and signal intensity on T2-weighted images from the dual-HIZ group were significantly greater. Surgery was able to successfully restore patients' ability in both groups, while conservative treatments were less effective for patients with dual HIZs. Histology revealed outer annular fissures invaded by granulation tissue in the single-HIZ group. In dual-HIZ discs, Von Kossa staining and CT scans showed more calcified or ossified lesions (94.1 vs. 0 %, P<0.001), and chemical analysis showed significantly higher calcium content. HIZs on both T2- and T1-weighted images represent calcified tissue, possibly from a vertebral endplate. A new concept of dual HIZ should be defined. (orig.)

  1. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    Cámara M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC. This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch

  2. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  3. Mash evaluation of TxDOT high-mounting-height temporary work zone sign support system.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a nonproprietary, lightweight, crashworthy, temporary work-zone single sign support for use with an aluminum sign substrate. The device is intended to meet the evaluation criteria in American Association ...

  4. 75 FR 74001 - Foreign-Trade Zone 72-Indianapolis, IN, Application for Subzone, GEA Bloomington Production...

    2010-11-30

    ... the use of weekly customs entry procedures. Customs duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced... from abroad (representing 50% of the value of the finished product) include: ABS resin, plastic...

  5. Fighting over forest: interactive governance of conflicts over forest and tree resources in Ghana’s high forest zone

    Derkyi, M.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on eight case studies, this book analyses conflicts over forests and trees in Ghana’s high forest zone and ways of dealing with them. It thereby addresses the full range of forest and tree-based livelihoods. Combining interactive governance theory with political ecology and conflict theories,

  6. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping

    2017-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation

  7. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping [School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation.

  8. Near-source attenuation of high-frequency body waves beneath the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Pezeshk, Shahram; Sedaghati, Farhad; Nazemi, Nima

    2018-03-01

    Attenuation characteristics in the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) are estimated from 157 local seismograph recordings out of 46 earthquakes of 2.6 ≤ M ≤ 4.1 with hypocentral distances up to 60 km and focal depths down to 25 km. Digital waveform seismograms were obtained from local earthquakes in the NMSZ recorded by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis. Using the coda normalization method, we tried to determine Q values and geometrical spreading exponents at 13 center frequencies. The scatter of the data and trade-off between the geometrical spreading and the quality factor did not allow us to simultaneously derive both these parameters from inversion. Assuming 1/ R 1.0 as the geometrical spreading function in the NMSZ, the Q P and Q S estimates increase with increasing frequency from 354 and 426 at 4 Hz to 729 and 1091 at 24 Hz, respectively. Fitting a power law equation to the Q estimates, we found the attenuation models for the P waves and S waves in the frequency range of 4 to 24 Hz as Q P = (115.80 ± 1.36) f (0.495 ± 0.129) and Q S = (161.34 ± 1.73) f (0.613 ± 0.067), respectively. We did not consider Q estimates from the coda normalization method for frequencies less than 4 Hz in the regression analysis since the decay of coda amplitude was not observed at most bandpass filtered seismograms for these frequencies. Q S/ Q P > 1, for 4 ≤ f ≤ 24 Hz as well as strong intrinsic attenuation, suggest that the crust beneath the NMSZ is partially fluid-saturated. Further, high scattering attenuation indicates the presence of a high level of small-scale heterogeneities inside the crust in this region.

  9. SCC growth behavior of stainless steel weld heat-affected zone in hydrogenated high temperature water

    Yamada, Takuyo; Terachi, Takumi; Miyamoto, Tomoki; Arioka, Koji

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the SCC growth rate of stainless steels in high-temperature water is accelerated by cold-work (CW). The weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of stainless steels is also deformed by weld shrinkage. However, only little have been reported on the SCC growth of weld HAZ of SUS316 and SUS304 in hydrogenated high-temperature water. Thus, in this present study, SCC growth experiments were performed using weld HAZ of stainless steels, especially to obtain data on the dependence of SCC growth on (1) temperature and (2) hardness in hydrogenated water at temperatures from 250degC to 340degC. And then, the SCC growth behaviors were compared between weld HAZ and CW stainless steels. The following results have been obtained. Significant SCC growth were observed in weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) in hydrogenated water at 320degC. The SCC growth rates of the HAZ are similar to that of 10% CW non-sensitized SUS316, in accordance with that the hardness of weld HAZ is also similar to that of 10% CW SUS316. Temperature dependency of SCC growth of weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) is also similar to that of 10% CW non-sensitized SUS316. That is, no significant SCC were observed in the weld HAZ (SUS316 and SUS304) in hydrogenated water at 340degC. This suggests that SCC growth behaviors of weld HAZ and CW stainless steels are similar and correlated with the hardness or yield strength of the materials, at least in non-sensitized regions. And the similar temperature dependence between the HAZ and CW stainless steels suggests that the SCC growth behaviors are also attributed to the common mechanism. (author)

  10. A cohesive zone model to simulate the hydrogen embrittlement effect on a high-strength steel

    G. Gobbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to model the fracture mechanical behavior of a high-strength low carbon steel, AISI 4130 operating in hydrogen contaminated environment. The study deals with the development of 2D finite element cohesive zone model (CZM reproducing a toughness test. Along the symmetry plane over the crack path of a C(T specimen a zero thickness layer of cohesive elements are implemented in order to simulate the crack propagation. The main feature of this kind of model is the definition of a traction-separation law (TSL that reproduces the constitutive response of the material inside to the cohesive elements. Starting from a TSL calibrated on hydrogen non-contaminated material, the embrittlement effect is simulated by reducing the cohesive energy according to the total hydrogen content including the lattice sites (NILS and the trapped amount. In this perspective, the proposed model consists of three steps of simulations. First step evaluates the hydrostatic pressure. It drives the initial hydrogen concentration assigned in the second step, a mass diffusion analysis, defining in this way the contribution of hydrogen moving across the interstitial lattice sites. The final stress analysis, allows getting the total hydrogen content, including the trapped amount, and evaluating the new crack initiation and propagation due to the hydrogen presence. The model is implemented in both plane strain and plane stress configurations; results are compared in the discussion. From the analyses, it resulted that hydrogen is located only into lattice sites and not in traps, and that the considered steel experiences a high hydrogen susceptibility. By the proposed procedure, the developed numerical model seems a reliable and quick tool able to estimate the mechanical behavior of steels in presence of hydrogen.

  11. Monitoring the Deformation of High-Rise Buildings in Shanghai Luijiazui Zone by Tomo-Psinsar

    Zhou, L. F.; Ma, P. F.; Xia, Y.; Xie, C. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR) approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude) are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS) in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not influenced by creep

  12. MONITORING THE DEFORMATION OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS IN SHANGHAI LUIJIAZUI ZONE BY TOMO-PSINSAR

    L. F. Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize a Tomography-based Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (Tomo-PSInSAR approach for monitoring the deformation performances of high-rise buildings, i.e. SWFC and Jin Mao Tower, in Shanghai Lujiazui Zone. For the purpose of this study, we use 31 Stripmap acquisitions from TerraSAR-X missions, spanning from December 2009 to February 2013. Considering thermal expansion, creep and shrinkage are two long-term movements that occur in high-rise buildings with concrete structures, we use an extended 4-D SAR phase model, and three parameters (height, deformation velocity, and thermal amplitude are estimated simultaneously. Moreover, we apply a two-tier network strategy to detect single and double PSs with no need for preliminary removal of the atmospheric phase screen (APS in the study area, avoiding possible error caused by the uncertainty in spatiotemporal filtering. Thermal expansion is illustrated in the thermal amplitude map, and deformation due to creep and shrinkage is revealed in the linear deformation velocity map. The thermal amplitude map demonstrates that the derived thermal amplitude of the two high-rise buildings both dilate and contract periodically, which is highly related to the building height due to the upward accumulative effect of thermal expansion. The linear deformation velocity map reveals that SWFC is subject to deformation during the new built period due to creep and shrinkage, which is height-dependent movements in the linear velocity map. It is worth mention that creep and shrinkage induces movements that increase with the increasing height in the downward direction. In addition, the deformation rates caused by creep and shrinkage are largest at the beginning and gradually decrease, and at last achieve a steady state as time goes infinity. On the contrary, the linear deformation velocity map shows that Jin Mao Tower is almost stable, and the reason is that it is an old built building, which is not

  13. [Effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats].

    Dai, L; Guo, X; Huang, H J; Liao, X M; Luo, X Q; Li, D; Zhou, H; Gao, X C; Tan, M Y

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To observe effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats. Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into HMGB1 group and simple scald (SS) group according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. Comb-like copper mould was placed on the back of rats for 20 s after being immersed in 100 ℃ hot water for 3 to 5 min to make three ischemic zones of wound. Immediately after scald, rats in HMGB1 group were subcutaneously injected with 0.4 μg HMGB1 and 0.1 mL phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and rats in SS group were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mL PBS from boarders of ischemic zone of scald wound. At post scald hour (PSH) 24, 48, and 72, 6 rats in each group were collected. Protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 24, 48, and 72 and protein expressions of CD31 in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The number of microvessel in CD31 immunohistochemical sections of ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 was calculated after observing by the microscope. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and CD31 in ischemic zone of wound were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at PSH 24, 48, and 72. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At PSH 24, 48, and 72, protein expressions of VEGF in ischemic zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were significantly higher than those of rats in SS group ( t =7.496, 4.437, 5.402, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were 0.038 8±0.007 9 and 0.057 7±0.001 2 respectively, significantly higher than 0.013 4±0.004 9 and 0.030 3±0.004 0 of rats in SS group ( t =10.257, 15.055, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group was obviously more than that of rats in SS group ( t =3.536, 4.000, P zone of wound of

  14. Very High Cycle Fatigue Crack Initiation Mechanism in Nugget Zone of AA 7075 Friction Stir Welded Joint

    Chao He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high cycle fatigue behavior of nugget zone in AA 7075 friction stir welded joint was experimentally investigated using ultrasonic fatigue testing system (20 kHz to clarify the crack initiation mechanism. It was found that the fatigue strength of nugget zone decreased continuously even beyond 107 cycles with no traditional fatigue limits. Fatigue cracks initiated from the welding defects located at the bottom side of the friction stir weld. Moreover, a special semicircular zone could be characterized around the crack initiation site, of which the stress intensity factor approximately equaled the threshold of fatigue crack propagation rate. Finally, a simplified model was proposed to estimate the fatigue life by correlating the welding defect size and applied stress. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Potentiel de production fourragère d'une zone pâturée menacée de ...

    SARAH

    axe Port-Bouët - Grand-Bassam (Abidjan,. Côte d'Ivoire), afin de montrer le potentiel de production fourragère de la zone pâturée. Méthodologie et Résultats : L'étude a consisté à la détermination de la biomasse de la zone de ...

  16. Aerosol production in the surf zone and effects on IR extinction

    Neele, F.P.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Vignati, E.; Hill, M.K.; Smith, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The aerosol production in the surfzone, as determined from measurements, at two sites along the Califomia coast is presented. The data used were collected during three EOPACE (Electro-Optical Propagation Assessment in Coastal Environments) measurement campaigns in 1996 and 7997. Particle counters

  17. 77 FR 77016 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Notification of Proposed Export Production...

    2012-12-31

    ... Confectionery Bars) Pittsburgh, PA Tsudis Chocolate Company (Tsudis), an operator of FTZ 33, submitted a... the facility would involve the production of chocolate confectionery bars for export (no shipments for... markets, FTZ procedures could exempt Tsudis from customs duty payments on the foreign status material used...

  18. 78 FR 72861 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-12-04

    ... Light Towers and Generator Sets), Suffolk, Virginia The Virginia Port Authority, grantee of FTZ 20...-powered generator sets for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14... status components used in export production. On its domestic sales, GEC would be able to choose the duty...

  19. 78 FR 73824 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 20-Suffolk, Virginia; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-12-09

    ... authority. Customs duties also could possibly be deferred or reduced on foreign-status production equipment... 400.22) was received on November 27, 2013. CVI already has authority to produce a range of printers... request would add foreign-status components to the scope of authority. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b...

  20. 77 FR 70992 - Foreign-Trade Zone 38-Spartanburg County, South Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...

    2012-11-28

    ... that would be shipped to auto assembly plants operating under FTZ authority. Customs duties also could..., (Automatic Transmissions), Gray Court, SC The South Carolina State Ports Authority, grantee of FTZ 38... transmissions for motor vehicles. Production under FTZ procedures could exempt ZFTGC from customs duty payments...

  1. High rates of organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams.

    Burrows, Ryan M; Rutlidge, Helen; Bond, Nick R; Eberhard, Stefan M; Auhl, Alexandra; Andersen, Martin S; Valdez, Dominic G; Kennard, Mark J

    2017-10-16

    Organic carbon cycling is a fundamental process that underpins energy transfer through the biosphere. However, little is known about the rates of particulate organic carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams, which is often the only wetted environment remaining when surface flows cease. We used leaf litter and cotton decomposition assays, as well as rates of microbial respiration, to quantify rates of organic carbon processing in surface and hyporheic environments of intermittent and perennial streams under a range of substrate saturation conditions. Leaf litter processing was 48% greater, and cotton processing 124% greater, in the hyporheic zone compared to surface environments when calculated over multiple substrate saturation conditions. Processing was also greater in more saturated surface environments (i.e. pools). Further, rates of microbial respiration on incubated substrates in the hyporheic zone were similar to, or greater than, rates in surface environments. Our results highlight that intermittent streams are important locations for particulate organic carbon processing and that the hyporheic zone sustains this fundamental process even without surface flow. Not accounting for carbon processing in the hyporheic zone of intermittent streams may lead to an underestimation of its local ecological significance and collective contribution to landscape carbon processes.

  2. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  3. Seismic qualification of multiple interconnected safety-related cabinets in a high seismic zone

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.H.W.; Wang, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Certain safety-related multiple, interconnected electrical cabinets and the devices contained therein are required to perform their intended safety functions during and after a design basis seismic event. In general, seismic testing is performed to ensure the structural integrity of the cabinets and the functionality of their associated devices. Constrained by the shake table capacity, seismic testing is usually performed only for a limited number of interconnected cabinets. Also, original shake table tests performed usually did not provide detailed response information at various locations inside the cabinets. For operational and maintenance purposes, doors and panels of some cabinets may need to be opened while the adjacent cabinets are required to remain functional. In addition, in-cabinet response spectra need to be generated for the seismic qualification of new devices and the replacement parts. Consequently, seismic analysis of safety-related multiple, interconnected cabinets is frequently required for configurations which are different from the original tested conditions. This paper presents results of seismic tests of three interconnected safety-related cabinets and finite element analyses performed to compare the analytical results with those obtained from the cabinet seismic tests. Parametric analyses are performed to determine how many panels and doors can be opened while the adjacent cabinets still remain functional. The study indicates that for cabinets located in a high seismic zone, the critical damping of the cabinet is significantly higher than 5% to 7% typically used in qualifying electrical equipment. For devices mounted on the cabinet doors to performed their intended safety function, it requires stiffening of doors and that these doors be properly bolted to the cabinet frame. It also shows that even though doors and panels bolted to the cabinet frame are the primary seismic resistant element of the cabinet, opening of a limited number of them

  4. High production of fructooligosaccharides by levansucrase from ...

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... production activity of Zymomonas mobilis extracellular levansucrase. Process. Biochem. 38:701-706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-. 9592(02)00189-9. Belghith KM, Dahech I, Belghith H, Mejoud H (2012). Microbial production of levansucrase for synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharide. Int. J. Biol. Macromol.

  5. Evaluation of exposures to petroleum products of the Erika in the depollution zone

    Blanchard, O.

    2000-03-01

    The petroleum product of the Erika is a fuel oil type number 2, with many toxic compounds. Thus the risk of the people employed for the depollution must be seriously evaluate. This document presents a study realized at the Croisic. The objective was to identify risk situations, provide an advice on the preventive measures implemented and define, if necessary, a control strategy for the most exposed work station. (A.L.B.)

  6. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Imaging for Vadose Zone and Groundwater Characterization

    Newman, Greory A.; Alumbaugh, David L.; Hoversten, Michael; Nichols, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A geophysical experiment is described for characterizing the clastic dike systems, which are ubiquitous within the vadose zone at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. because the dikes possess a significant electrical contrast from the insulating host medium, we have applied controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) measurements to map their geometric extent and to further clarify if the dike complex acts as a conduit for contaminant transport within the vadose zone. Because of cost and weak natural field signal levels, we employed controlled field sourcing using the STRATGEM acquisition system. Use of artificial fields often goes with the assumption that the data required in the far-field of the transmitter

  7. Ship Analysis and Detection in High-resolution Pol-SAR Imagery Based on Peak Zone

    Xu Cheng-bin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of false alarm in the ship detection, a method base on proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone is proposed. By comparing the proportion of spiral scattering in the peak zone, which is available from Krogager decomposition, the ships and interfering targets are identified and analyzed. The effectiveness of this method is justified with C-band full-polarization data from RADARSAT-2. The result show that this method can discriminate ships from interfering targets such as island, water-break, nautical platforms and bridges, thus reducing the false alarm rate of ship targets detection in SAR images.

  8. Electromagnetic exploration in high-salinity groundwater zones: case studies from volcanic and soft sedimentary sites in coastal Japan

    Suzuki, Koichi; Kusano, Yukiko; Ochi, Ryota; Nishiyama, Nariaki; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the spatial distribution of groundwater salinity in coastal plain regions is becoming increasingly important for site characterisation and the prediction of hydrogeological environmental conditions resulting from radioactive waste disposal and underground CO2 storage. In previous studies of the freshwater-saltwater interface, electromagnetic methods were used for sites characterised by unconsolidated deposits or Neocene soft sedimentary rocks. However, investigating the freshwater-saltwater interface in hard rock sites (e.g. igneous areas) is more complex, with the permeability of the rocks greatly influenced by fractures. In this study, we investigated the distribution of high-salinity groundwater at two volcanic rock sites and one sedimentary rock site, each characterised by different hydrogeological features. Our investigations included (1) applying the controlled source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method and (2) conducting laboratory tests to measure the electrical properties of rock core samples. We interpreted the 2D resistivity sections by referring to previous data on geology and geochemistry of groundwater. At the Tokusa site, an area of inland volcanic rocks, low resistivity zones were detected along a fault running through volcanic rocks and shallow sediments. The results suggest that fluids rise through the Tokusa-Jifuku Fault to penetrate shallow sediments in a direction parallel to the river, and some fluids are diluted by rainwater. At the Oki site, a volcanic island on a continental shelf, four resistivity zones (in upward succession: low, high, low and high) were detected. The results suggest that these four zones were formed during a transgression-regression cycle caused by the last glacial period. At the Saijo site, located on a coastal plain composed of thick sediments, we observed a deep low resistivity zone, indicative of fossil seawater remnant from a transgression after the last glacial period. The current coastal

  9. Production of highly unsaturated fatty acids using agro-processing by-products

    Jacobs, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African agro-processing industry generates millions of tons of cereal derived by-products annually. The by-products from biofuel production are expected to increase these volumes dramatically. Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA...

  10. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  11. Quantifying the missing link between forest albedo and productivity in the boreal zone

    Hovi, Aarne; Liang, Jingjing; Korhonen, Lauri; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina

    2016-11-01

    Albedo and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) determine the shortwave radiation balance and productivity of forests. Currently, the physical link between forest albedo and productivity is poorly understood, yet it is crucial for designing optimal forest management strategies for mitigating climate change. We investigated the relationships between boreal forest structure, albedo and FAPAR using a radiative transfer model called Forest Reflectance and Transmittance model FRT and extensive forest inventory data sets ranging from southern boreal forests to the northern tree line in Finland and Alaska (N = 1086 plots). The forests in the study areas vary widely in structure, species composition, and human interference, from intensively managed in Finland to natural growth in Alaska. We show that FAPAR of tree canopies (FAPARCAN) and albedo are tightly linked in boreal coniferous forests, but the relationship is weaker if the forest has broadleaved admixture, or if canopies have low leaf area and the composition of forest floor varies. Furthermore, the functional shape of the relationship between albedo and FAPARCAN depends on the angular distribution of incoming solar irradiance. We also show that forest floor can contribute to over 50 % of albedo or total ecosystem FAPAR. Based on our simulations, forest albedos can vary notably across the biome. Because of larger proportions of broadleaved trees, the studied plots in Alaska had higher albedo (0.141-0.184) than those in Finland (0.136-0.171) even though the albedo of pure coniferous forests was lower in Alaska. Our results reveal that variation in solar angle will need to be accounted for when evaluating climate effects of forest management in different latitudes. Furthermore, increasing the proportion of broadleaved trees in coniferous forests is the most important means of maximizing albedo without compromising productivity: based on our findings the potential of controlling forest

  12. Observations of a narrow zone of high suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations along the Dutch coast

    van der Hout, C.M.; Gerkema, T.; Nauw, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this paper is to localize the transport path of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Dutch coastal zone in the southern North Sea. It is known that a large mass of SPM is transported northward from the Strait of Dover, which is however mostly hidden from

  13. 76 FR 26183 - Safety Zone; Repair of High Voltage Transmission Lines to Logan International Airport, Saugus...

    2011-05-06

    ... the repairs. Because of the vital importance of the repairs to Logan Airport, and the safety zone... designated on scene representative may be contacted via VHF Channel 16 or by telephone at (617) 223-5750... relationship between the Federal Government and Indian tribes, or on the distribution of power and...

  14. High-Mobility Aligned Pentacene Films Grown by Zone-Casting

    Duffy, Claudia M.; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Breiby, Dag W.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the growth and field-effect transistor performance of aligned pentacene thin films deposited by zone-casting from a solution of unsubstituted pentacene molecules in a chlorinated solvent. Polarized optical microscopy shows that solution processed pentacene films grow as large...

  15. The use of solar energy - photovoltaic - in hydrogen production and arid zones like Saudi Arabia

    Sayigh, A. A. M.

    This paper deals with the use of photovoltaic technology for the production of hydrogen from water by electrolysis. First of all the amount of electricity needed for this process was assessed, then various types of solar cell systems to generate the electricity needed were discussed and the best system was established. Some of the investigations involved testing of solar cells with concentrators and with fixed tilt or tracking devices. Several small panels of solar cells were used in testing the effect of local dust and sand as well as the fixed tilt in the area of Riyadh. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from a conventional grid was calculated. This cost was compared with the cost of production of hydrogen if a solar cell array was used. The paper outlines the continuous price increase of oil to produce electricity and the rapid decrease in price of solar cells. Both these advances will lead to a cheaper way of producing hydrogen by solar energy. In addition it is shown that technology is almost trouble free and requires very little know-how as far as operation is concerned.

  16. The seawater greenhouse: desalination and crop-production in arid zones based on renewable energy

    Davies, P. A.; Paton, C.; Sablani, S. S.; Perret, J.; Goosen, M. F. A.; Walterbeek, Reinier R.

    2006-01-01

    population growth is threatening the avaliability of fresh water in many regions of the world. With agriculture accounting for approximately 70% of all water used, the water crisis is closely linked to food production and economic development. Conventional agriculture is very inefficient in its use of water with several hundred liters needed to produce just one kilogram of produce. Although seawater is abundant, conventional desalination consumes substantial energy, usually derived from fossil fuels. There is an urgent ned for affordable and sustainable means of p[roducing crops, without heavy reliance on water and energy resource. The seawater Greenhouse is a novel approach to solving this problem. It combines energy-efficient desalination with water-efficient cultivation. Pilot projects have been constructed in Tenerife, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. This paper describes the results from these projects and outlines the potential for opening the seawater Greenhouse from renewable energy sources. Different types of source are evaluated and compared with respect to cost and load matching. Conclusions are drawn about the viability of a stand-alone system for the production of water and crops.(Author)

  17. The problems of high-nitrogen steels production

    Svyazhin, A.G.; Kaputkina, L.M.; Efimenko, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of existing technologies of high-nitrogen steel production shows that rational nitrogen content in mass production corresponds to moderate high values. Such steels can be smelted under normal or slightly elevated pressure in steelmaking units, using processes of mass- and special metallurgy. High-nitrogen steels with ''overequilibrium'' nitrogen content are promising, but technology and equipment for production of them are complicated, and production of such steels is therefore limited. (orig.)

  18. Optimal high b-value for diffusion weighted MRI in diagnosing high risk prostate cancers in the peripheral zone.

    Agarwal, Harsh K; Mertan, Francesca V; Sankineni, Sandeep; Bernardo, Marcelino; Senegas, Julien; Keupp, Jochen; Daar, Dagane; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the optimal b-value(s) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) associated with intermediate-high risk cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Forty-two consecutive patients underwent multi b-value (16 evenly spaced b-values between 0 and 2000 s/mm 2 ) DWI along with multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) of the prostate at 3 Tesla followed by trans-rectal ultrasound/MRI fusion guided targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions detected at MP-MRI. Computed DWI images up to a simulated b-value of 4000 s/mm 2 were also obtained using a pair of b-values (b = 133 and 400 or 667 or 933 s/mm 2 ) from the multi b-value DWI. The contrast ratio of average intensity of the targeted lesions and the background PZ was determined. Receiver operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUCs) were obtained for separating patients eligible for active surveillance with low risk prostate cancers from intermediate-high risk prostate cancers as per the cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA) scoring system. The AUC first increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching maximum at b = 1600 s/mm 2 (0.74) with no statistically significant different AUC of DWI with b-values 1067-2000 s/mm 2 . The AUC of computed DWI increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching a maximum of 0.75 around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . There was no statistically significant difference between the AUC of optimal acquired DWI and either of optimal computed DWI. The optimal b-value for acquired DWI in differentiating intermediate-high from low risk prostate cancers in the PZ is b = 1600 s/mm 2 . The computed DWI has similar performance as that of acquired DWI with the optimal performance around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:125-131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Aggregate-cement paste transition zone properties affecting the salt-frost damage of high-performance concretes

    Cwirzen, Andrzej; Penttala, Vesa

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the cement paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on the frost durability of high-performance silica fume concrete (HPSFC) has been studied. Investigation was carried out on eight non-air-entrained concretes having water-to-binder (W/B) ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.42 and different additions of condensed silica fume. Studies on the microstructure and composition of the cement paste have been made by means of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)-BSE, ESEM-EDX and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) analysis. The results showed that the transition zone initiates and accelerates damaging mechanisms by enhancing movement of the pore solution within the concrete during freezing and thawing cycles. Cracks filled with ettringite were primarily formed in the ITZ. The test concretes having good frost-deicing salt durability featured a narrow transition zone and a decreased Ca/Si atomic ratio in the transition zone compared to the bulk cement paste. Moderate additions of silica fume seemed to densify the microstructure of the ITZ

  20. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  1. Characterizing the intra-urban spatiotemporal dynamics of High Heat Stress Zones (Hotspots)

    Shreevastava, A.; Rao, P. S.; McGrath, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present an innovative framework to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of High Heat Stress Zones (Hot spots) created within an Urban area in the event of a Heat Wave. Heat waves are one of the leading causes of weather-related human mortality in many countries, and cities receive its worst brunt. The extreme heat stress within urban areas is often a synergistic combination of large-scale meteorological events, and the locally exacerbated impacts due to Urban Heat Islands (UHI). UHI is typically characterized as the difference between mean temperature of the urban and rural area. As a result, it fails to capture the significant variability that exists within the city itself. This variability arises from the diverse and complex spatial geometries of cities. Previous studies that have attempted to quantify the heat stress at an intra-urban scale are labor intensive, expensive, and difficult to emulate globally as they rely on availability of extensive data and their assimilation. The proposed study takes advantage of the well-established notion of fractal properties of cities to make the methods scalable to other cities where in-situ observational data might not be available. As an input, land surface temperatures are estimated using Landsat data. Using clustering analysis, we probe the emergence of thermal hotspots. The probability distributions (PD) of these hotspots are found to follow a power-law distribution in agreement with fractal characteristics of the city. PDs of several archetypical cities are then investigated to compare the effect of different spatial structures (e.g. monocentric v/s polycentric, sprawl v/s compact). Further, the temporal variability of the distributions on a diurnal as well as a seasonal scale is discussed. Finally, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the urban hotspots under a heat-wave (E.g. Delhi Heat wave, 2015) are compared against the non-heat wave scenarios. In summary, a technique that is globally adaptive and

  2. Technology development and production of elongated shell for reactor vessel active zone of WWER-TOI project from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN class 1

    Shklyaev, S.Eh.; Titova, T.I.; Ratushev, D.V.; Shul'gan, N.A.; Eroshkin, S.B.; Durynin, V.A.; Efimov, S.V.; Dub, V.S.; Kulikov, A.P.; Romashkin, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Production process for the elongated shell blank of the active zone of the reactor pressure vessel made from steel 15Cr2NiMoVN Class 1 with finished sizes Dext=4.655 mm, Dint=4.240 mm, H=4.910 mm (height for heat treatment – 5.750 mm) is presented. For the first time in Russia in production site of OMZ-Special steel LLC a unique elongated shell blank of the reactor vessel active zone was made from ingot 420.0 t for WWER-TOI project fully meeting the specified requirements in terms of metallurgical quality and set of service properties [ru

  3. Development of an irrigation control device based on solar radiation and its adaptability for cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture

    Nitta, M.; Shibuya, K.; Kubai, K.; Komatsu, H.; Hosokawa, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2009-01-01

    An irrigation control device based on solar radiation was developed to allow automatic irrigation management for high soluble solid tomato fruit production in root zone restriction culture. Its adaptability for long-term cultivation (planting carried out in early September and harvesting ending in late June) of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture was examined. The following results were obtained: 1. The control device was composed of generally available electronic parts. A change of setting was possible for the irrigation starting point, the irrigation time period, and the once amount of irrigation. For the first irrigation of the day, one of two irrigation control modes can be chosen; the first determines irrigation dependent on the solar radiation after the irrigated time of the previous day. The second mode irrigates at a set time. 2. The correlation between the total integrated solar radiation and the evapotranspiration rate of tomato plants were investigated. Positive correlations were observed for each month from October to June. Moreover, total integrated solar radiation per unit evapotranspiration was different for each month. 3. In long-term cultivation of tomato fruit using this device, the marketable yield of high soluble solid tomato fruit (more than Brix 8%) was 9.7t/10a. 4. This device exhibited the necessary adaptability for use in long-term cultivation of high soluble solid tomato fruit in root zone restriction culture, by changing the set value of the irrigation starting point and the irrigation time period in accordance with the growth period

  4. High-end encroachment patterns of new products

    Rhee, van der B.; Schmidt, G.; Orden, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research describes two key ways in which a new product may encroach on an existing market. In high-end encroachment, the new product first sells to high-end customers and then diffuses down-market; in low-end encroachment, the new product enters at the low end and encroaches up-market. This

  5. High-resolution MR imaging of the proximal zone of the lunotriquetral ligament with a microscopy coil

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Carrino, John A.; Lang, Philipp; Winalski, Carl S.; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Ueno, Teruko; Shindo, Masashi

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate high-resolution MRI of the proximal zone of the lunotriquetral ligament (LTL) using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T scanner. The proximal zone of the LTL was reviewed in 90 subjects (23 asymptomatic normal volunteers and 67 patients with suspicion of triangular fibrocartilage complex injury) with high-resolution MRI using a 47-mm microscopy surface coil. High-resolution MR images were obtained with gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted sequence and short tau inversion recovery imaging, with a 1- to 1.5-mm slice thickness, a 50-mm field of view, an imaging matrix of 140-224 x 512 using zero fill interpolation, and 3-4 excitations. As a qualitative analysis, the LTL was classified in shape and signal intensity. The triangle-shaped low-signal-intensity LTL was identified in 77 of 90 subjects (85.6%) on GRE images. The triangle was classified as regular (41.1%), broad-based (20.0%), narrow-based (6.7%), or asymmetrical (17.8%). The bar-shaped ligament was seen in one patient, and unclassified ligaments were seen in 12 patients. All volunteers showed triangle-shaped LTL. The MR signal intensity of the proximal zone in the LTL was characterized as homogeneously low intensity (type 1; 33.8%). (orig.)

  6. High-resolution MR imaging of the proximal zone of the lunotriquetral ligament with a microscopy coil

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Carrino, John A.; Lang, Philipp; Winalski, Carl S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Tanaka, Toshikazu [Tsukuba Memorial Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueno, Teruko [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology, Tsukuba (Japan); Shindo, Masashi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    To evaluate high-resolution MRI of the proximal zone of the lunotriquetral ligament (LTL) using a microscopy surface coil with a 1.5 T scanner. The proximal zone of the LTL was reviewed in 90 subjects (23 asymptomatic normal volunteers and 67 patients with suspicion of triangular fibrocartilage complex injury) with high-resolution MRI using a 47-mm microscopy surface coil. High-resolution MR images were obtained with gradient recalled echo (GRE) T2*-weighted sequence and short tau inversion recovery imaging, with a 1- to 1.5-mm slice thickness, a 50-mm field of view, an imaging matrix of 140-224 x 512 using zero fill interpolation, and 3-4 excitations. As a qualitative analysis, the LTL was classified in shape and signal intensity. The triangle-shaped low-signal-intensity LTL was identified in 77 of 90 subjects (85.6%) on GRE images. The triangle was classified as regular (41.1%), broad-based (20.0%), narrow-based (6.7%), or asymmetrical (17.8%). The bar-shaped ligament was seen in one patient, and unclassified ligaments were seen in 12 patients. All volunteers showed triangle-shaped LTL. The MR signal intensity of the proximal zone in the LTL was characterized as homogeneously low intensity (type 1; 33.8%). (orig.)

  7. High new production in the Bay of Bengal: Possible causes and implications

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of new production (sup(15) N tracer technique), the component of primary production that sustains on extraneous nutrient inputs to the euphotic zone, in the Bay of Bengal is reported. Experiments done in two different seasons...

  8. Systematic deficiency of aftershocks in areas of high coseismic slip for large subduction zone earthquakes

    Wetzler, Nadav; Lay, Thorne; Brodsky, Emily E.; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Fault slip during plate boundary earthquakes releases a portion of the shear stress accumulated due to frictional resistance to relative plate motions. Investigation of 101 large [moment magnitude (Mw) ≥ 7] subduction zone plate boundary mainshocks with consistently determined coseismic slip distributions establishes that 15 to 55% of all master event–relocated aftershocks with Mw ≥ 5.2 are located within the slip regions of the mainshock ruptures and few are located in peak slip regions, allowing for uncertainty in the slip models. For the preferred models, cumulative deficiency of aftershocks within the central three-quarters of the scaled slip regions ranges from 15 to 45%, increasing with the total number of observed aftershocks. The spatial gradients of the mainshock coseismic slip concentrate residual shear stress near the slip zone margins and increase stress outside the slip zone, driving both interplate and intraplate aftershock occurrence near the periphery of the mainshock slip. The shear stress reduction in large-slip regions during the mainshock is generally sufficient to preclude further significant rupture during the aftershock sequence, consistent with large-slip areas relocking and not rupturing again for a substantial time. PMID:29487902

  9. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... Milk products are good sources of such vitamins which are produced by probiotics. In order to ... Therefore, two new strains with an ability of high folate production were isolated and identified.

  10. Surface elevation change and susceptibility of different mangrove zones to sea-level rise on Pacific high islands of Micronesia

    Krauss, K.W.; Cahoon, D.R.; Allen, J.A.; Ewel, K.C.; Lynch, J.C.; Cormier, N.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves on Pacific high islands offer a number of important ecosystem services to both natural ecological communities and human societies. High islands are subjected to constant erosion over geologic time, which establishes an important source of terrigeneous sediment for nearby marine communities. Many of these sediments are deposited in mangrove forests and offer mangroves a potentially important means for adjusting surface elevation with rising sea level. In this study, we investigated sedimentation and elevation dynamics of mangrove forests in three hydrogeomorphic settings on the islands of Kosrae and Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Surface accretion rates ranged from 2.9 to 20.8 mm y-1, and are high for naturally occurring mangroves. Although mangrove forests in Micronesian high islands appear to have a strong capacity to offset elevation losses by way of sedimentation, elevation change over 61/2 years ranged from -3.2 to 4.1 mm y-1, depending on the location. Mangrove surface elevation change also varied by hydrogeomorphic setting and river, and suggested differential, and not uniformly bleak, susceptibilities among Pacific high island mangroves to sea-level rise. Fringe, riverine, and interior settings registered elevation changes of -1.30, 0.46, and 1.56 mm y-1, respectively, with the greatest elevation deficit (-3.2 mm y-1) from a fringe zone on Pohnpei and the highest rate of elevation gain (4.1 mm y-1) from an interior zone on Kosrae. Relative to sea-level rise estimates for FSM (0.8-1.8 mm y-1) and assuming a consistent linear trend in these estimates, soil elevations in mangroves on Kosrae and Pohnpei are experiencing between an annual deficit of 4.95 mm and an annual surplus of 3.28 mm. Although natural disturbances are important in mediating elevation gain in some situations, constant allochthonous sediment deposition probably matters most on these Pacific high islands, and is especially helpful in certain hydrogeomorphic zones

  11. Investigation on the crystallography of the transformation products of reverted austenite in intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone

    You, Yang; Shang, Chengjia; Chen, Liang; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Area of reverted austenite is traced out by crystallographic information. ► Bainite and martensite regions were confirmed within it. ► The martensite region is considered as the blocky MA particles. ► Martensite region has high deformation to initiate fracture. ► More uniform transformation of the reverted austenite is good for toughness. -- Abstract: In present study the intercritically reheated coarse grained heat affected zone (ICCGHAZ) showing the worst impact toughness in the heat affected zone of multi-pass welding was simulated by Gleeble-1500, and its microstructure was investigated in detail by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD). With the crystallographic information from EBSD scanning the area of a single reverted austenite grain which formed during the thermal cycles of second pass simulation was traced out. Within it two regions with different characteristic both in morphology and crystallography were found out, showing an un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite. The region I is a bainitic region containing larger bainitic ferrite grains, while the region II is made up of several clusters containing tiny grains. Based on the crystallographic information each cluster was determined as martensite island thereby should be considered as blocky Martensite/Austenite constituent (M/A), which is hard phase and harmful for toughness. Analysis on the level of deformation shows that the region II is much higher deformed than the region I, indicating there is high stress concentration within the region II. The possible influence of the region I and the region II on fracture is discussed under the early proposed M/A’s fracture-initiating mechanisms. It suggests that the main cause of the toughness reduction is the un-uniform transformation of the reverted austenite, and the toughness performance of the ICCGHAZ could be improved if the transformation of the reverted

  12. High Resolution Seismic Images of Transition Zone Discontinuities beneath the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain

    Cao, Q.; Wang, P.; van der Hilst, R. D.; Shim, S.

    2009-12-01

    Taking advantage of the abundance of natural sources (earthquakes) in western Pacific subduction zones and the many seismograph stations in the Americas, we use inverse scattering - a generalized Radon transform - of SS precursors to image the transition zone discontinuities underneath Hawaii and the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. The GRT makes use of scattering theory and extracts structural information from broad band data windows that include precursors to SS (which are the specular reflections at the discontinuities that form the main arrivals) as well as non-specular scattered energy (which is often discarded as noise). More than 150,000 seismograms (from the IRIS Data Management Center) are used to form a 3-D image of the transition zone discontinuities beneath the central Pacific. In addition to clear signals near 410, 520, and 660 km depth, the data also reveal scatter interfaces near 370 km dept and between 800-1000 km depth, which may be regional, laterally intermittent scatter horizons. Our images reveal a conspicuous uplift of the 660 discontinuity in a region of 800km in diameter to the west of the active volcanoes of Hawaii. No correspondent localized depression of the 410 discontinuity is found. Instead, we find a smaller scale anomaly suggesting that the 410 discontinuity is locally elevated in the same region. This may indicate the presence of melt or minor chemical constitutes. The lack of correlation between and differences in lateral length scale of the topographies of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are also consistent with a deep-mantle plume impinging on the transition zone, creating a pond of hot material underneath 660 discontinuity, and with secondary plumes connecting to the present-day hotspot at Earth’s surface. Our observations suggest that more complicated plume morphology and plume dynamics within the Earth's mantle should be taken into account to describe the plumes and, in particular, mass transport across the transition zone

  13. Production of high purity aluminas: II - Characterization

    Franceschini Filho, D.F.; Morschbacker, A.L.R.C.; Fonseca, M.C.; Mello, R.T. de; Ferreira Filho, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a characterization study on various samples of aluminum hidroxyde (pseudoboemite). Results of X-ray diffraction (identification, mean crystal size, degree of crystallinity); BET surface area and loss of ignition of the samples are displayed. The degree of crystallinity is found to be of great usefullness in the characterization of this kind of material. We point out the variety of products that can be obtained with the method of preparation used. (Author) [pt

  14. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  15. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  16. The influence of the Al stabilizer layer thickness on the normal zone propagation velocity in high current superconductors

    Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2015-06-19

    The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...

  17. Environmental Risks of Landscape Botanical Complexes and Minimization of Technogenic Influence Exerted by Objects of Oil&Gas Production in Steppe Zone of the Southern Urals

    Ryabukhina, M. V.; Maiski, R. A.; Salikhova, R. H.

    2017-11-01

    The modern rates of oil and gas production, developed industry, high technologies in the field of the construction and operation of wells, pipelines and other facilities of the oil and gas industry, as well as growing environmental control do not fully solve the problem of the negative impacts on natural objects, in particular, landscape botanical complexes. Taking into account the increasing oil and gas production rates, the existing objects-Orenburg NGKM and constructed ones, for example, by 2015 in the Orenburg region was organized a “new thread” oil company, LLC, the activities of which include exploration, design and preparation of the Mogutovskoye deposits, a part of the Vorontsov and a part of Gremjacheskoye deposits, as well as their exploitation, should explore and develop some effective mechanisms to minimize and eliminate the environmental risks of industrial impact. In our view the multi-component continuous monitoring of environmental risks will help to formulate an effective strategy and develop an effective preventive mechanism of technological activities, identify landscape botanical complexes which are more exposed to environmental risks as well as the regional forecast component changes in terms of a landscape botanical complex in the zone of technogenic influence exerted by the objects of the oil and gas industry.

  18. Low-cost high purity production

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  19. Historical Land Use Dynamics in the Highly Degraded Landscape of the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    Michael R. Coughlan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Processes of land degradation and regeneration display fine scale heterogeneity often intimately linked with land use. Yet, examinations of the relationships between land use and land degradation often lack the resolution necessary to understand how local institutions differentially modulate feedback between individual farmers and the spatially heterogeneous effects of land use on soils. In this paper, we examine an historical example of a transition from agriculture to forest dominated land use (c. 1933–1941 in a highly degraded landscape on the Piedmont of South Carolina. Our landscape-scale approach examines land use and tenure at the level that individuals enact management decisions. We used logistic regression techniques to examine associations between land use, land tenure, topography, and market cost-distance. Our findings suggest that farmer responses to changing market and policy conditions were influenced by topographic characteristics associated with productivity and long-term viability of agricultural land use. Further, although local environmental feedbacks help to explain spatial patterning of land use, property regime and land tenure arrangements also significantly constrained the ability of farmers to adapt to changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions.

  20. 3-Dimentional Mapping Coastal Zone using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imageries

    Hong, Zhonghua; Liu, Fengling; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The metropolitan coastal zone mapping is critical for coastal resource management, coastal environmental protection, and coastal sustainable development and planning. The results of geometric processing of a Shanghai coastal zone from 0.7-m-resolution QuickBird Geo stereo images are presented firstly. The geo-positioning accuracy of ground point determination with vendor-provided rigorous physical model (RPM) parameters is evaluated and systematic errors are found when compared with ground control points surveyed by GPS real-time kinematic (GPS-RTK) with 5cm accuracy. A bias-compensation process in image space that applies a RPM bundle adjustment to the RPM-calculated 3D ground points to correct the systematic errors is used to improve the geo-positioning accuracy. And then, a area-based matching (ABM) method is used to generated the densely corresponding points of left and right QuickBird images. With the densely matching points, the 3-dimentinal coordinates of ground points can be calculated by using the refined geometric relationship between image and ground points. At last step, digital surface model (DSM) can be achieved automatically using interpolation method. Accuracies of the DSM as assessed from independent checkpoints (ICPs) are approximately 1.2 m in height

  1. Climatic drivers for multidecadal shifts in solute transport and methane production zones within a large peat basin

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases, but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43 year time series of the pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multidecadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 to 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Δ14C with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  2. Climatic Drivers for Multi-Decadal Shifts in Solute Transport and Methane Production Zones within a Large Peat Basin

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43-year time series of pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multi-decadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 through 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Delta C-14 with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  3. Biological production in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones - Part 1: refined estimation via the use of a variable compensation depth in ocean carbon models

    Geethalekshmi Sreeush, Mohanan; Valsala, Vinu; Pentakota, Sreenivas; Venkata Siva Rama Prasad, Koneru; Murtugudde, Raghu

    2018-04-01

    Biological modelling approach adopted by the Ocean Carbon-Cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-II) provided amazingly simple but surprisingly accurate rendition of the annual mean carbon cycle for the global ocean. Nonetheless, OCMIP models are known to have seasonal biases which are typically attributed to their bulk parameterisation of compensation depth. Utilising the criteria of surface Chl a-based attenuation of solar radiation and the minimum solar radiation required for production, we have proposed a new parameterisation for a spatially and temporally varying compensation depth which captures the seasonality in the production zone reasonably well. This new parameterisation is shown to improve the seasonality of CO2 fluxes, surface ocean pCO2, biological export and new production in the major upwelling zones of the Indian Ocean. The seasonally varying compensation depth enriches the nutrient concentration in the upper ocean yielding more faithful biological exports which in turn leads to accurate seasonality in the carbon cycle. The export production strengthens by ˜ 70 % over the western Arabian Sea during the monsoon period and achieves a good balance between export and new production in the model. This underscores the importance of having a seasonal balance in the model export and new productions for a better representation of the seasonality of the carbon cycle over upwelling regions. The study also implies that both the biological and solubility pumps play an important role in the Indian Ocean upwelling zones.

  4. Soil salinity and acidity : spatial variabil[it]y and effects on rice production in West Africa's mangrove zone

    Sylla, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the mangrove environment of West Africa, high spatial and temporal variability of soil constraints (salinity and acidity) to rice production is a problem for the transfer and adoption of new agronomic techniques, for land use planning, and for soil and water management. Recently, several

  5. Production of high anti-knock gasoline

    1935-09-20

    A process is described for producing gasoline of high antiknock value by separating from the gasoline of low antiknock value by treating the gasoline in the vapor phase under pressure equal to or slightly above atmospheric and at a temperature at which it does not form essentially hydrocarbons gaseous at the operating temperature and in contact with catalysts, the process being characterized by the utilization of catalysts of silicates or phosphates except pumice stone and fullers earth.

  6. The future of textile production in high wage countries

    Kemper, M.; Gloy, Y.-S.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    It is undisputed that smart production in the context of industry 4.0 offers significant potential for industrial production in Germany. Exploiting this potential provides an opportunity to meet the growing competitive pressure for textile production in high-wage Germany. The complete cross-linking of textile mills towards Textile Production 4.0 means substantial savings. However, currently there are still some challenges that have to be overcome on the long way to Textile Production 4.0. This paper initially reflects the particular challenges of textile production in high-wage Germany. Later, the vision of the future of smart textile production will be outlined. In addition, first pilot solutions and current research approaches which pave the way for Textile Production 4.0 are described.

  7. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  8. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  9. Identification of chlorinated solvents degradation zones in clay till by high resolution chemical, microbial and compound specific isotope analysis

    Damgaard, Ida; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Bælum, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    subsampling of the clay till cores. The study demonstrates that an integrated approach combining chemical analysis, molecular microbial tools and compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was required in order to document biotic and abiotic degradations in the clay till system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The degradation of chlorinated ethenes and ethanes in clay till was investigated at a contaminated site (Vadsby, Denmark) by high resolution sampling of intact cores combined with groundwater sampling. Over decades of contamination, bioactive zones with degradation of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1...

  10. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  11. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    Roth, F.; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ 13 C org and δ 15 N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. - Highlights: •Pollution by untreated sewage discharge is evident at the outfall and in Salvador's coastal zone. •Seasonal wind- and tide-driven surface currents control advective transport of discharged sewage. •Water quality at Salvador's recreational beaches is impacted by a plume of untreated sewage.

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of Serpentine and Reaction Products at High Pressure Using a Diamond Anvil Cell

    Burgess, K.; Zinin, P.; Odake, S.; Fryer, P.; Hellebrand, E.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentine is one of the most abundant hydrous phases in the altered subducting plate, and contributes a large portion of the water flux in subduction zones. Measuring and understanding the structural changes in serpentine with pressure aids our understanding of the processes ongoing in oceanic crust and subduction zones. We have conducted high-pressure/high-temperature experiments on serpentine and its dehydration reaction products using a diamond anvil cell. We used the multifunctional in-situ measurement system equipped with a Raman device and laser heating system at the University of Hawaii. Well-characterized natural serpentinite was used in the study. Pressure was determined using the shift of the fluorescence line of a ruby placed next to the sample. Raman spectra of serpentine were obtained at higher pressures than previously published, up to 15 GPa; the peak shift with pressure fits the model determined by Auzende et al. [2004] at lower pressures. Heating was done at several different pressures up to 20 GPa, and reaction products were identified using Raman. Micro-Raman techniques allow us to determine reaction progress and heterogeneity within natural samples containing olivine and serpentine. Auzende, A-L., I. Daniel, B. Reynard, C. Lemaire, F. Guyot (2004). High-pressure behavior of serpentine minerals: a Raman spectroscopic study. Phys. Chem. Minerals 31 269-277.

  13. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Jourde, J.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J.L. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1996-12-31

    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  14. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Jourde, J; Patisson, F; Ablitzer, D [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J L [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1997-12-31

    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  15. Combining high productivity with high performance on commodity hardware

    Skovhede, Kenneth

    -like compiler for translating CIL bytecode on the CELL-BE. I then introduce a bytecode converter that transforms simple loops in Java bytecode to GPGPU capable code. I then introduce the numeric library for the Common Intermediate Language, NumCIL. I can then utilizing the vector programming model from Num......CIL and map this to the Bohrium framework. The result is a complete system that gives the user a choice of high-level languages with no explicit parallelism, yet seamlessly performs efficient execution on a number of hardware setups....

  16. Oxygen pathway modeling estimates high reactive oxygen species production above the highest permanent human habitation.

    Isaac Cano

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (PmO2. Because PmO2 depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the "death zone" in mountaineering.

  17. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    Lori J. P. Altmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD, defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

  18. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content...

  19. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  20. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    Roth, Florian; Lessa, G.C.; Wild, C.; Kikuchi, R.K.P.; Naumann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  1. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  2. Linking carbon and hydrologic fluxes in the critical zone: Observations from high-frequency monitoring of a weathered bedrock vadose zone

    Tune, A. K.; Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Rempe, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A principle challenge in quantifying feedbacks between continental weathering and atmospheric CO2 is to improve understanding of how biogeochemical processes in the critical zone influence the distribution and mobility of organic and inorganic carbon. In particular, in landscapes characterized by thin soils and heterogeneous weathered and fractured bedrock, little data exist to inform and constrain predictive models for carbon dynamics. Here, we present the results of an intensive water and gas sampling campaign across an 18 m thick, variably saturated argillite weathering profile in the Eel River CZO. We monitor water content in situ and regularly collect samples of freely-draining water, tightly-held water, and gas through wet and dry seasons using a novel Vadose-zone Monitoring System (VMS) consisting of sensors and samplers distributed across a 20 m long inclined borehole. This novel approach facilitates the interception of gas and water during transport across the entire variably saturated weathering profile. The data demonstrate that seasonal changes in saturation control the vertical distribution and mobility of carbon in the fractured critical zone. Concentrations of gaseous CO2, O2, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluctuate significantly and repeatably with seasonal additions of water infiltrating the weathered bedrock. A persistent vertical structure in the concentrations of dissolved phases and gas concentrations broadly corresponds to depths associated with unsaturated, seasonally saturated, and chronically saturated zones. Associated variations in the vertical structure of mineralogy and elemental composition, including solid phase organic carbon content, are observed in core obtained during drilling. Together, our observations indicate significant respiration of organic carbon at depths greater than the base of the soil, and thus motivate further investigation of the role of heterogeneous weathered, bedrock environments, which are needed to

  3. Rationalité économique et objectifs de gestion de la production de cobayes (Cavia porcellus L. en zones tropicales

    Ndébi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Rationality and Production Management Goals of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L. in Tropical Zones. The economic productivity of guinea pig in tropical environment was assessed from one hundred and ninety-seven pairs of measures related to reproductive female and weaning weights per litter reared in-door at the Research and Experimental Farm of the University of Dschang between February 2012 and March 2013. An econometric model of linear regression was developed to take into account the main factors affecting the relative weight productivity index at the weaning age of each gestating female. The main results reveal that the economic productivity of guinea pigs in tropical zone, already of a substantial level, could be even more improved by taking into account the main factors of variability. The analysis thus put into evidence that the relative importance of female reproductive weight; the litter size, and the total weight of the kids at weaning are factors having significant effects on the relative weight productivity index of the guinea pig. However, in linking the female weight to economic productivity, the study led to an irrational management of the reproductive herd and put in evidence that the decrease in productivity observed in guinea pig is mostly attributable to the fattening of the female.

  4. Validation of Product Properties Considering a High Variety of Complex Products

    Kortler, S.;Kohn, A.;Lindemann, U.

    2017-01-01

    Validation processes are becoming more and more complex. Due to rising technical capabilities and a wide variety of customer requirements, OEMs are increasing their product variety in order to increase profits. According to the various characteristics of subcontracted components involved in complex products, the product variety can be very high. The impacts of the involved subcontracted components on the composed product variety during the product’s application are difficult to predict. This ...

  5. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  6. Corrosion behavior in high heat input welded heat-affected zone of Ni-free high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel

    Moon, Joonoh; Ha, Heon-Young; Lee, Tae-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion behaviors in high heat input welded heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a metastable high-nitrogen Fe–18Cr–10Mn–N austenitic stainless steel were explored through electrochemical tests. The HAZs were simulated using Gleeble simulator with high heat input welding condition of 300 kJ/cm and the peak temperature of the HAZs was changed from 1200 °C to 1350 °C, aiming to examine the effect of δ-ferrite formation on corrosion behavior. The electrochemical test results show that both pitting corrosion resistance and interphase corrosion resistance were seriously deteriorated by δ-ferrite formation in the HAZ and their aspects were different with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The pitting corrosion resistance was decreased by the formation of Cr-depleted zone along δ-ferrite/austenite (γ) interphase resulting from δ-ferrite formation; however it didn't depend on δ-ferrite fraction. The interphase corrosion resistance depends on the total amount of Cr-depleted zone as well as ferrite area and thus continuously decreased with increasing δ-ferrite fraction. The different effects of δ-ferrite fraction on pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion were carefully discussed in terms of alloying elements partitioning in the HAZ based on thermodynamic consideration. - Highlights: • Corrosion behavior in the weld HAZ of high-nitrogen austenitic alloy was studied. • Cr 2 N particle was not precipitated in high heat input welded HAZ of tested alloy. • Pitting corrosion and interphase corrosion show a different behavior. • Pitting corrosion resistance was affected by whether or not δ-ferrite forms. • Interphase corrosion resistance was affected by the total amount of δ-ferrite

  7. Solute transport processes in a highly permeable fault zone of Lindau fractured rock test site (Germany)

    Himmelsbach, T. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany). Dept. of Applied Geology; Hoetzl, H. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Dept. of Applied Geology; Maloszewski, P. [GSF-Inst. for Hydrology, Munich-Neuherberg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The results of field tracer experiments performed in the Lindau fractured rock test site (southern Black Forest, Germany) and subsequent modeling are presented. A vertical, hydrothermally mineralized fault zone, with a permeability much greater than the surrounding granite mass, lies beneath a planned dam site. A dense network of boreholes and tunnels were used to investigate scaling effects of solute transport processes in fractured rock. A series of tracer experiments using deuterium and dye tracers were performed over varying distances and under different testing procedures, resulting in different flow field conditions. Large-scale tracer experiments were performed under natural flow field conditions, while small-scale tracer experiments were performed under artificially induced radial-convergent and injection-withdrawal flow fields. The tracer concentration curves observed in all experiments were strongly influenced by the matrix diffusion. The curves were evaluated with the one-dimensional single fissure dispersion model (SFDM) adjusted for the different flow field conditions. The fitting model parameters found determined the fracture aperture, and matrix and fissure porosities. The determined fracture aperture varied between the sections having different hydraulic conductivity. The determined values of matrix porosity seemed to be independent of the scale of the experiment. The modeled matrix porosities agreed well with values determined in independent laboratory investigations of drill cores using mercury porosimetry. In situ fissure porosity, determined only in small-scale experiments, was independent of the applied geometry of the artificially induced flow fields. The dispersivities were found to be independent of the scale of experiment but dependent on the flow conditions. The values found in forced gradient tests lie between 0.2 and 0.3 m, while values in experiments performed under natural flow conditions were one order of magnitude higher.

  8. Solar fuel production at high temperatures using ceria as a dense membrane

    Zhu, Liya; Lu, Youjun; Shen, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, ceria was proposed as a candidate material of membrane reactor for solar fuel production. A thermodynamic model of the membrane reactor system based on ceria with heat recovery was established and solar-to-fuel efficiency of both inert gas-assisted and pump-assisted CO_2 splitting was calculated under a broad range of conditions. For system using inert gas, gas heat recovery is the determining factor for energy conversion efficiency. The energy efficiency is calculated to be >10% at 1800 K when the oxygen pressure at the inlet of reduction zone is lower than 10"−"6MPa. Increase of total pressure of the oxidation zone could improve the energy efficiency due to decrease of gas heat loss. Significant promotion in efficiency could be expected when a pump is applied to avoid using inert gas. Solar-to-fuel efficiency could be above 40% assuming good heat recovery. For the membrane reactor with a pump applied to maintain a vacuum atmosphere of the reduction zone, a simplified steady state model was put forward to predict the converting process and estimate the productivity. The diffusion rate of oxygen ions in the membrane is fast enough for conversion of considerable amount of CO_2 in the reactor with a limited geometry. - Highlights: • Ceria membrane reactor was proposed for solar fuel production. • A thermodynamic model of the ceria membrane reactor system was established. • Inert gas-assisted and pump-assisted systems were evaluated. • High efficiency >40% could be expected when using a pump instead of inert gas. • A steady state model concerning oxygen diffusion rate was established.

  9. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  11. Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone

    Liu, Shengqiang; Wu, Ruofan; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2013-09-01

    A voltage-controlled color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode (OLED) by inserting 16-nm N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) interlayer between two complementary emitting layers (EMLs) was fabricated. The OLED emitted multicolor ranging from blue (77.4 cd/A @ 6 V), white (70.4 cd/A @ 7 V), to yellow (33.7 cd/A @ 9 V) with voltage variation. An equivalent model was proposed to reveal the color-tunable and high-efficiency emission of OLEDs, resulting from the swing of exciton bilateral migration zone near mCP/blue-EML interface. Also, the model was verified with a theoretical arithmetic using single-EML OLEDs to disclose the crucial role of mCP exciton adjusting layer.

  12. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  13. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... high folate production, isolation and identification of Lactobacilli in traditional fermented milk ... mended for pregnant women (Van Der Put et al., 2001; ...... utilization of folic acid and vitamin B12 by lactic cultures in skim milk.

  14. Changes in the world rivers' discharge projected from an updated high resolution dataset of current and future climate zones

    Santini, Monia; di Paola, Arianna

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an updated global map of the current climate zoning and of its projections, according to the Köppen-Geiger classification, is first provided. The map at high horizontal resolution (0.5° × 0.5°), representative of the current (i.e. 1961-2005) conditions, is based on the Climate Research Unit dataset holding gridded series of historical observed temperature and precipitation, while projected conditions rely on the simulated series, for the same variables, by the General Circulation Model CMCC-CM. Modeled variables were corrected for their bias and then projections of climate zoning were generated for the medium term (2006-2050) and long term (2056-2100) future periods, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Results show that Equatorial and Arid climates will spread at the expenses of Snow and Polar climates, with the Warm Temperate experiencing more moderate increase. Maps of climate zones are valuable for a wide range of studies on climate change and its impacts, especially those regarding the water cycle that is strongly regulated by the combined conditions of precipitation and temperature. As example of large scale hydrological applications, in this work we tested and implemented a spatial statistical procedure, the geographically weighted regression among climate zones' surface and mean annual discharge (MAD) at hydrographic basin level, to quantify likely changes in MAD for the main world rivers monitored through the Global Runoff Data Center database. The selected river basins are representative of more than half of both global superficial freshwater resources and world's land area. Globally, a decrease in MAD is projected both in the medium term and long term, while spatial differences highlight how some areas require efforts to avoid consequences of amplified water scarcity, while other areas call for strategies to take the opportunity from the expected increase in water availability. Also the fluctuations of trends between the

  15. High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils

    Perner, A; Nielsen, S E; Rask-Madsen, J

    2003-01-01

    Superoxide (O(2)(-)), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O(2)(-) through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study...... measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O(2)(-) from isolated human neutrophils....

  16. Transition to University Life: Insights from High School and University Female Students in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia

    Thuo, Mary; Edda, Medhanit

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to get an insight about how high school female students perceive the transition to university life, and to understand the transition experience of university female students in the first semester. An exploratory study design was used where 166 high school female students and 88 first year university female students…

  17. "Legal highs" on the net-Evaluation of UK-based Websites, products and product information.

    Schmidt, Martin M; Sharma, Akhilesh; Schifano, Fabrizio; Feinmann, Charlotte

    2011-03-20

    A vast array of substances are marketed as "legal highs" in the UK. These products are mainly marketed online and are packaged and produced to mimic illicit drugs. Little is known about the full range of products available at present and no studies have evaluated the product information provided to consumers. AIMS & HYPOTHESIS: To describe the available legal high products marketed by UK-based Internet retailers and evaluate the product information provided to consumers. Websites were identified using the terms "buy legal highs+UK" and two search engines. The first 100 hits and a random sample of 5% of the remaining results were screened. Websites based in the UK were included and all products were entered on a database. Information on product name, list price, claimed effects, side effects, contraindications and interactions was extracted. A descriptive analysis was conducted using SPSS v14. 115 Websites met the inclusion criteria but due to duplicate listings this was reduced to 39 unique Websites. 1308 products were found and evaluated. The average product price was 9.69 British pounds. Products took the form of pills (46.6%), smoking material (29.7%) and single plant material/extract (18.1%). Most products claimed to be stimulants (41.7%), sedatives (32.3%), or hallucinogens (12.9%). 40.1% of products failed to list ingredients, 91.9% failed to list side effects, 81.9% failed to list contraindications and 86.3% failed to list drug interactions. Top 5 products (with active ingredients in brackets) by frequency were Salvia divinorum (Salivinorin A), Kratom (Mitragynine), Hawaiian Baby Woodrose Seeds (Lysergic Acid Amide), Fly Agaric (Ibotenic Acid, Muscimol) and Genie (JWH018, CP47497). Products marketed as "legal highs" are easily available from UK-based Internet retailers and are reasonably affordable. Safety information provided to consumers is poor. Uninformed users risk serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone: technical considerations and response to comments. Final report

    Hackbarth, C.J.; Nicholson, T.J.; Evans, D.D.

    1985-10-01

    On July 22, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR Part 60 concerning disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in geologic repositories in the unsaturated zone (50 FR 29641). This report contains a discussion of the principal technical issues considered by the NRC staff during the development of these amendments. It expands or revises certain technical discussions originally presented in draft NUREG-1046 (February 1984) based on public comment letters and an increasing understanding of the physical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic processes operative in unsaturated geologic media. The following issues related to disposal of HLW within the unsaturated zone are discussed: hydrogeologic properties and conditions, heat dissipation and temperature, geochemisty, retrievability, potential for exhumation of the radioactive waste by natural causes and by human intrusion, the effects of future climatic changes on the level of the regional water table, and transport of radionuclides in the gaseous state. The changes to 10 CFR Part 60 in definitions, siting criteria, and design criteria for the geologic repository operations area are discussed. Other criteria examined by the NRC staff but which were not changed in rule are the minimum 300-meter depth for waste emplacement, limitations on exploratory boreholes, backfill requirements, waste package design criteria, and provisions for ventilation

  19. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  20. High-resolution imaging of the low velocity layer in Alaskan subduction zone with scattered waves and interferometry

    Kim, D.; Keranen, K. M.; Abers, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Li, J.; Shillington, D. J.; Brown, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    The physical factors that control the rupture process of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries remain incompletely understood. While recent developments in imaging using the teleseismic wavefield have led to marked advances at wavelengths of a couple kilometers to tens of kilometers, higher resolution imaging of the rupture zone would improve the resolution of imaging and thus provide improved parameter estimation, as the teleseismic wavefield is fundamentally limited by its low frequency content. This study compares and evaluates two seismic imaging techniques using the high-frequency signals from teleseismic coda versus earthquake scattered waves to image the subducting Yakutat oceanic plateau in the Alaska subduction zone. We use earthquakes recorded by the MOOS PASSCAL broadband deployment in southern Alaska. In our first method, we select local earthquakes that lie directly beneath and laterally near the recording array for imaging, and extract body wave information via a simple autocorrelation and stacking. Profiles analogous to seismic reflection profile are constructed using the near-vertically travelling waves. In our second method, we compute teleseismic receiver functions within the 0.02-1.0 Hz frequency band. Both results image interfaces that we associate with the subducting oceanic plate in Alaska-Aleutian system, with greater resolution than commonly used methods with teleseismic sources. Structural details from our results can further our understanding of the conditions and materials that characterize the subduction megathrusts, and the techniques can be employed in other regions along the Alaska-Aleutian system and at other convergent margins with suitable seismic arrays.

  1. Fine Tuning the CJ Detonation Speed of a High Explosive products Equation of State

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-12

    For high explosive (HE) simulations, inaccuracies of a per cent or two in the detonation wave speed can result from not suficiently resolving the reaction zone width or from small inaccuracies in calibrating the products equation of state (EOS) or from variation of HE lots. More accurate detonation speeds can be obtained by ne tuning the equation of state to compensate. Here we show that two simple EOS transformations can be used to adjust the CJ detonation speed by a couple of per cent with minimal effect on the CJ release isentrope. The two transformations are (1) a shift in the energy origin and (2) a linear scaling of the speci c volume. The effectiveness of the transformations is demonstrated with simulations of the cylinder test for PBX 9502 starting with a products EOS for which the CJ detonation speed is 1 per cent too low.

  2. Monazite upgradation and production of high pure rare earths

    Asnani, C.K.; Mohanty, D.; Kumar, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth extraction from monazite and further processing of mixed rare earth chlorides for producing individual high pure rare earths involves a complex flowsheet based on solvent extraction process. Apart from involving multiple extractions, scrubbing and stripping operations, the flowsheet requires optimization of critical parameters such as solvent molarity, solvent saponification level and recycling of product solutions as reflux to ensure preferential upload of required rare earths to generate high purity product. This paper tracks monazite flow from the raw sand feed through to the monazite product and its processing to generate rare earths of internationally acceptable quality

  3. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  4. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  5. Behaviour of Nano Silica in Tension Zone of High Performance Concrete Beams

    Jaishankar, P.; Vivek, D.

    2017-07-01

    High performance concrete (HPC) is similar to High strength concrete (HSC).It is because of lowering of water to cement ratio, which is needed to attain high strength and generally improves other properties. This concrete contains one or more cementitious materials such as fly ash, Silica fume or ground granulated blast furnace slag and usually a super plasticizer. The term ‘high performance’ is somewhat different because the essential feature of this concrete is that it’s ingredients and proportions are specifically chosen so as to have particularly appropriate properties for the expected use of the structure such as high strength and low permeability. Usage of nano scale properties such as Nano SiO2 can result in dramatically improved properties from conventional grain size materials of same chemical composition. This project is more interested in evaluate the behaviour of nano silica in concrete for 5%, 10%, and 15% volume fraction of cement. Flexural test for beams were conducted with two point loads, at different percentage as mentioned above. From results interpolated, Nano silica with higher order replacement gives optimized results compared to control specimens.

  6. Determining the high variability of pCO2 and pO2 in the littoral zone of a subtropical coastal lake

    Denise Tonetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic metabolism comprises production and mineralization of organic matter through biological processes, such as primary production and respiration that can be estimated by gases concentration in the water column. AIM: The study aimed to assess the temporal variability of pCO2 and pO2 in the littoral zone of a subtropical coastal lake. Our hypotheses are i high variability in meteorological conditions, such as temperature and light, drive the high variability in pCO2 and pO2, and ii the lake is permanently heterotrophic due to the low phosphorus concentration. METHODS: We estimated pCO2 from pH-alkalinity method, and pO2 from dissolved oxygen concentration and water temperature measured in free-water during 24 hours in the autumn, winter, spring and summer. RESULTS: Our findings showed that limnological variables had low temporal variability, while the meteorological variables and pCO2 presented a high coefficient of variation, which is representative of each climatic season. In autumn and winter, it was recorded that the lake was supersaturated in CO2 relative to the atmosphere, while in spring and summer CO2 concentration was below the concentration found in the atmosphere. Over 24 hours, pCO2 also showed high variability, with autumn presenting higher concentration during the night when compared to daytime. Water temperature and chlorophyll a were negatively correlated with pCO2, while pO2 was positively correlated with wind and light. CONCLUSION: Agreeing with our first hypothesis, pCO2 showed an expressive temporal variation in a subtropical lake associated to the high variability in meteorological conditions. On the other hand, our second hypothesis was not confirmed, since Peri Lake exported CO2 to the atmosphere in some periods and in others, CO2 was removed from the atmosphere.

  7. Strain-dependent evolution of garnets in a high pressure ductile shear zone using Synchroton x-ray microtomography

    Macente, Alice; Fusseis, Florian; Menegon, Luca; John, Timm

    2016-04-01

    unobstructed by reaction products. - Neighbouring garnet coronas are interconnected, i.e. in direct contact to each other. From a mechanical point of view, we interpret touching garnet coronas that form a rigid, potentially load-supporting framework to affect the rheology of the rock. - In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of elongated garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. The clusters define a foliation, whose orientation and intensity we quantified using a star volume distribution algorithm. We interpret the aligned garnet clusters to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. - EBSD on garnets shows that, there is no evidence for crystal plastic deformation and all the garnets are internally strain free and show a near-random crystal preferred orientation. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing. We interpret these observations as pointing to a mechanical disintegration of the garnet coronas during strain localisation, and their rearrangement into individual clusters. This process will have been supported by pressure solution/reprecipitation processes. Our study clearly demonstrates what 3- or even 4-dimensional data from reaction microfabrics can add to the understanding of metamorphic processes.

  8. PRODUCTIVE AND QUALITATIVE PERFORMANCE OF NATURALIZED AND NATIVE FORAGE LEGUMES IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE OF PUEBLA STATE, MEXICO

    Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate seven species of native and naturalized legumes in terms of forage production and nutritive quality. The control species, Vicia sativa was represented by two varieties, which maintained a high dry matter production at two locations, in one of them, matched by Melilotus albus. The latter species also had high yields of dry matter in two locations, but in one of them the varieties of V. sativa were not successful. Less yielding species were those that had lower fiber concentration, a situation that was in part due to a higher leaf:stem ratio. Medicago polymorpha had the lowest digestibility, which coincided with higher concentrations of neutral and acid detergent fiber. The crude protein concentration was different among species (P<0.0001, where M. polymorpha consistently had low (P<0.05 concentration (16.8% as well as M. albus (17%. Among the species tested in this study, several of them have potential yield and quality to improve the diet of ruminants in the highland region of Puebla State and can replace the vetches. Additionally, even when the climate may be the same, the soil conditions also determine which species can thrive in a region.

  9. Time and position resolution of high granularity, high counting rate MRPC for the inner zone of the CBM-TOF wall

    Petriş, M.

    2016-09-13

    Multi-gap RPC prototypes with readout on a multi-strip electrode were developed for the small polar angle region of the CBM-TOF subdetector, the most demanding zone in terms of granularity and counting rate. The prototypes are based on low resistivity ($\\sim$10$^{10}$ $\\Omega$cm) glass electrodes for performing in high counting rate environment. The strip width/pitch size was chosen such to fulfill the impedance matching with the front-end electronics and the granularity requirements of the innermost zone of the CBM-TOF wall. The in-beam tests using secondary particles produced in heavy ion collisions on a Pb target at SIS18 - GSI Darmstadt and SPS - CERN were focused on the performance of the prototype in conditions similar to the ones expected at SIS100/FAIR. An efficiency larger than 98\\% and a system time resolution in the order of 70~-~80~ps were obtained in high counting rate and high multiplicity environment.

  10. Capillary zone electrophoresis method for a highly glycosylated and sialylated recombinant protein: development, characterization and application for process development.

    Zhang, Le; Lawson, Ken; Yeung, Bernice; Wypych, Jette

    2015-01-06

    A purity method based on capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been developed for the separation of isoforms of a highly glycosylated protein. The separation was found to be driven by the number of sialic acids attached to each isoform. The method has been characterized using orthogonal assays and shown to have excellent specificity, precision and accuracy. We have demonstrated the CZE method is a useful in-process assay to support cell culture and purification development of this glycoprotein. Compared to isoelectric focusing (IEF), the CZE method provides more quantitative results and higher sample throughput with excellent accuracy, qualities that are required for process development. In addition, the CZE method has been applied in the stability testing of purified glycoprotein samples.

  11. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  12. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  13. Exploring the time-frequency content of high frequency oscillations for automated identification of seizure onset zone in epilepsy.

    Liu, Su; Sha, Zhiyi; Sencer, Altay; Aydoseli, Aydin; Bebek, Nerse; Abosch, Aviva; Henry, Thomas; Gurses, Candan; Ince, Nuri Firat

    2016-04-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings are considered as promising clinical biomarkers of epileptogenic regions in the brain. The aim of this study is to improve and automatize the detection of HFOs by exploring the time-frequency content of iEEG and to investigate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) detection accuracy during the sleep, awake and pre-ictal states in patients with epilepsy, for the purpose of assisting the localization of SOZ in clinical practice. Ten-minute iEEG segments were defined during different states in eight patients with refractory epilepsy. A three-stage algorithm was implemented to detect HFOs in these segments. First, an amplitude based initial detection threshold was used to generate a large pool of HFO candidates. Then distinguishing features were extracted from the time and time-frequency domain of the raw iEEG and used with a Gaussian mixture model clustering to isolate HFO events from other activities. The spatial distribution of HFO clusters was correlated with the seizure onset channels identified by neurologists in seven patient with good surgical outcome. The overlapping rates of localized channels and seizure onset locations were high in all states. The best result was obtained using the iEEG data during sleep, achieving a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 96%. The channels with maximum number of HFOs identified epileptogenic areas where the seizures occurred more frequently. The current study was conducted using iEEG data collected in realistic clinical conditions without channel pre-exclusion. HFOs were investigated with novel features extracted from the entire frequency band, and were correlated with SOZ in different states. The results indicate that automatic HFO detection with unsupervised clustering methods exploring the time-frequency content of raw iEEG can be efficiently used to identify the epileptogenic zone with an accurate and efficient manner.

  14. Optimisation Of Volvariella volvacea Spawn Production For High Mycelia Growth

    Nie, H.J.; Azhar Mohamad; Joyce, Y.S.M.; Muhamad Najmi Moin

    2016-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea is a tropical mushroom cultivated throughout the world mostly in Asia and Europe for its taste, nutrition, fast growing nature and simple method of cultivation. It is also widely cultivated in Malaysia and known locally as Paddy Straw Mushroom. Growers strive to obtain high quality mushroom spawn to achieve high production. High quality spawn with fast mycelia growth are achieved through strain selection and optimisation of seedling production conditions. This study aims to optimise spawn production through 3 studies along the production main stages. Firstly, comparisons were made between agar media. Mycelia grown on Malt Extract Agar (MEA) covered the agar plates 2 days faster than Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) grown mycelia. The next stage is of mother grain spawn production by inoculating a bag of grains from mycelia agar plugs. Bags are then sealed with caps. The amount of aeration for grain spawn were studied by using two types of caps. Caps with hole allowed more aeration compared to caps without holes. Study determined bags with more aeration colonised grains 2 days faster than bags with lesser aeration. For the final stage of producing planting spawn, the growth on paddy straw substrate with and without kapok (10 %) were evaluated. Results revealed mycelia fully colonised the substrate bags without kapok 1-2 days faster than substrate bags with kapok. These findings contribute in achieving production of high quality Volvariella volvacea spawn. (author)

  15. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  16. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men’s health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of...

  17. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  18. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  19. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  20. Hydrogen production from fusion reactors coupled with high temperature electrolysis

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and complement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Processes which may be considered for this purpose include electrolysis, thermochemical decomposition or thermochemical-electrochemical hybrid cycles. Preliminary studies at Brookhaven indicate that high temperature electrolysis has the highest potential efficiency for production of hydrogen from fusion. Depending on design electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60 percent and hydrogen production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70 percent are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  1. LAUNCHING EFFORTS NEEDED FOR A HIGH-TECH PRODUCT

    Lavinia DOVLEAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in thearea of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries andimpressive development of technology, many companies compete for marketsupremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market,which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a newhierarchy of priorities in terms of expenditure and consumption. Therefore,companies that create new products must be very careful about 2 aspects,so the new product may not become a failure: the products positioning on themarket and the target group which they address to. This paper belongs to themarketing area by bringing into discussion theoretical concepts, by analyzingthe stages crossed by a company in the process of launching a new hightechproduct and crossing the abyss in the product adoption process byconsumers.

  2. Quaternary layer anomalies around the Carlsberg Fault zone mapped with high-resolution shear-wave seismics south of Copenhagen

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Nielsen, Lars

    Fault zone. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below....... In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the 30 m of the upward continuation of the Carlsberg Fault zone. In our area of investigation, the fault zone appears to comprise normal block faults and one reverse block fault showing the complexity of the fault zone. The observed faults appear to affect both the Danian...

  3. Highly zone-dependent synthesis of different carbon nanostructures using plasma-enhanced arc discharge technique

    Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshbhu1@gmail.com [Yonsei University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Rajesh Kumar, E-mail: rksbhu@gmail.com [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (India); Dubey, Pawan Kumar [University of Allahabad, Nanotechnology Application Centre (India); Yadav, Ram Manohar [Rice University, Department of Materials Science and Nano Engineering (United States); Singh, Dinesh Pratap [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Física (Chile); Tiwari, R. S.; Srivastava, O. N. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-01-15

    Three kinds of carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene nanoflakes (GNFs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and spherical carbon nanoparticles (SCNPs) were comparatively investigated in one run experiment. These carbon nanostructures are located at specific location inside the direct current plasma-assisted arc discharge chamber. These carbon nanomaterials have been successfully synthesized using graphite as arcing electrodes at 400 torr in helium (He) atmosphere. The SCNPs were found in the deposits formed on the cathode holder, in which highly curled graphitic structure are found in majority. The diameter varies from 20 to 60 nm and it also appears that these particles are self-assembled to each other. The MWCNTs with the diameter of 10–30 nm were obtained which were present inside the swelling portion of cathode deposited. These MWCNTs have 14–18 graphitic layers with 3.59 Å interlayer spacing. The GNFs have average lateral sizes of 1–5 μm and few of them are stacked layers and shows crumpled like structure. The GNFs are more stable at low temperature (low mass loss) but SCNPs have low mass loss at high temperature.

  4. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  5. Mesonic atom production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    Wakai, M.; Bando, H.; Sano, M.

    1987-08-01

    The production probability of π-mesonic atom in high-energy nuclear collisions is estimated by a coalescence model. The production cross section is calculated for p + Ne and Ne + Ne systems at 2.1 GeV/A and 5.0 GeV/A beam energy. It is shown that nuclear fragments with larger charge numbers have the advantage in the formation of π-mesonic atoms. The cross section is proportional to Z 3 and of the order of magnitude of 1 ∼ 10 μb in all the above cases. The production cross sections of K-mesonic atoms are also estimated. (author)

  6. High resolution imaging of vadose zone transport using crosswell radar and seismic methods; TOPICAL

    Majer, Ernest L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Peterson, John E.; Daley, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    The summary and conclusions are that overall the radar and seismic results were excellent. At the time of design of the experiments we did not know how well these two methods could penetrate or resolve the moisture content and structure. It appears that the radar could easily go up to 5, even 10 meters between boreholes at 200 Mhz and even father (up to 20 to 40 m) at 50 Mhz. The seismic results indicate that at several hundred hertz propagation of 20 to 30 meters giving high resolution is possible. One of the most important results, however is that together the seismic and radar are complementary in their properties estimation. The radar being primarily sensitive to changes in moisture content, and the seismic being primarily sensitive to porosity. Taken in a time lapse sense the radar can show the moisture content changes to a high resolution, with the seismic showing high resolution lithology. The significant results for each method are: Radar: (1) Delineated geological layers 0.25 to 3.5 meters thick with 0.25 m resolution; (2) Delineated moisture movement and content with 0.25 m resolution; (3) Compared favorably with neutron probe measurements; and (4) Penetration up to 30 m. Radar results indicate that the transport of the riverwater is different from that of the heavier and more viscous sodium thiosulfate. It appears that the heavier fluids are not mixing readily with the in-situ fluids and the transport may be influenced by them. Seismic: (1) Delineated lithology at .25 m resolution; (2) Penetration over 20 meters, with a possibility of up to 30 or more meters; and (3) Maps porosity and density differences of the sediments. Overall the seismic is mapping the porosity and density distribution. The results are consistent with the flow field mapped by the radar, there is a change in flow properties at the 10 to 11 meter depth in the flow cell. There also appears to be break through by looking at the radar data with the denser sodium thiosulfate finally

  7. An operational approach to high resolution agro-ecological zoning in West-Africa.

    Le Page, Y; Vasconcelos, Maria; Palminha, A; Melo, I Q; Pereira, J M C

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple methodology for high resolution crop suitability analysis under current and future climate, easily applicable and useful in Least Developed Countries. The approach addresses both regional planning in the context of climate change projections and pre-emptive short-term rural extension interventions based on same-year agricultural season forecasts, while implemented with off-the-shelf resources. The developed tools are applied operationally in a case-study developed in three regions of Guinea-Bissau and the obtained results, as well as the advantages and limitations of methods applied, are discussed. In this paper we show how a simple approach can easily generate information on climate vulnerability and how it can be operationally used in rural extension services.

  8. An operational approach to high resolution agro-ecological zoning in West-Africa.

    Y Le Page

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop a simple methodology for high resolution crop suitability analysis under current and future climate, easily applicable and useful in Least Developed Countries. The approach addresses both regional planning in the context of climate change projections and pre-emptive short-term rural extension interventions based on same-year agricultural season forecasts, while implemented with off-the-shelf resources. The developed tools are applied operationally in a case-study developed in three regions of Guinea-Bissau and the obtained results, as well as the advantages and limitations of methods applied, are discussed. In this paper we show how a simple approach can easily generate information on climate vulnerability and how it can be operationally used in rural extension services.

  9. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    Jeor, Jeffery D.; Reed, David W.; Daubaras, Dayna L.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  10. Development of a High Temperature Microbial Fermentation Processfor Butanol Production

    Jeor, Jeffery D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to US energy security. Butanol production by microbial fermentation and chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process can facilitate butanol recovery up to 40%, by using gas stripping. Other benefits of fermentation at high temperatures are optimal hydrolysis rates in the saccharification of biomass which leads to maximized butanol production, decrease in energy costs associated with reactor cooling and capital cost associated with reactor design, and a decrease in contamination and cost for maintaining a sterile environment. Butanol stripping at elevated temperatures gives higher butanol production through constant removal and continuous fermentation. We describe methods used in an attempt to genetically prepare Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus for insertion of a butanol pathway. Methods used were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli, and protoplast fusion.

  11. Increasing land sustainability and productivity through soil-fertility management in the West African Sudano-Sahelian zone

    Bationo, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Kimetu, J.; Kihara, J.; Abdoulaye, M.S.; Adamou, A.; Tabo, R.; Koala, S.

    2005-01-01

    Food production has lagged behind population growth in most parts of the West African semi-arid tropics (WASAT). One of the reasons for low food production is decline in soil fertility as a consequence of continuous cropping without fertilization. As a result, there is a negative nutrient balance in most land-use systems in WASAT. The amount of nutrients leaving the soil, through crop uptake, leaching and erosion exceeds that returned through natural processes such as atmospheric deposition and biological nitrogen fixation or through additions of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Use of mineral fertilizers by many smallholder farmers remains low because of socio-economic constraints. Lack of adequate foreign exchange to import fertilizers, poor infrastructure and poor distribution mechanisms have hampered the use of inorganic fertilizers. Organic inputs such as manure, compost and crop residues are often proposed as alternatives to mineral fertilizers, however, it is important to recognize that in most cases the use of organic inputs is part of an internal flow of nutrients within the farm and does not add nutrient from outside the farm; also, quantities available are inadequate to meet nutrient needs over large areas because of limited availability, low nutrient content of the material, and high labour demands for processing and application. The beneficial effects of combined manure and inorganic nutrients on soil fertility have been repeatedly shown, yet there is need for more research on the establishment of the fertilizer equivalency of manures, in determining the optimum combination of these two plant nutrients and in taking into account the high variability in their quality. Such information is useful in formulating decision-support systems and in establishing simple guidelines for management and utilization of the resources. This paper highlights current research results on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter and summarizes our

  12. Quantifying the Evolution of Melt Ponds in the Marginal Ice Zone Using High Resolution Optical Imagery and Neural Networks

    Ortiz, M.; Pinales, J. C.; Graber, H. C.; Wilkinson, J.; Lund, B.

    2016-02-01

    Melt ponds on sea ice play a significant and complex role on the thermodynamics in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). Ponding reduces the sea ice's ability to reflect sunlight, and in consequence, exacerbates the albedo positive feedback cycle. In order to understand how melt ponds work and their effect on the heat uptake of sea ice, we must quantify ponds through their seasonal evolution first. A semi-supervised neural network three-class learning scheme using a gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate backpropagation function is applied to classify melt ponds/melt areas in the Beaufort Sea region. The network uses high resolution panchromatic satellite images from the MEDEA program, which are collocated with autonomous platform arrays from the Marginal Ice Zone Program, including ice mass-balance buoys, arctic weather stations and wave buoys. The goal of the study is to capture the spatial variation of melt onset and freeze-up of the ponds within the MIZ, and gather ponding statistics such as size and concentration. The innovation of this work comes from training the neural network as the melt ponds evolve over time; making the machine learning algorithm time-dependent, which has not been previously done. We will achieve this by analyzing the image histograms through quantification of the minima and maxima intensity changes as well as linking textural variation information of the imagery. We will compare the evolution of the melt ponds against several different array sites on the sea ice to explore if there are spatial differences among the separated platforms in the MIZ.

  13. Nuclear importation, exportation and production within the framework of the law of the communities or zones of integration

    Bertone, L.

    1986-01-01

    The article starts from the hypothesis that a harmonisation of regulations concerning the international commerce of nuclear technology would be more useful, if in a first period it is managed on the level of communities (Euratom) or integration zones (ALADI). European and South-American regulations as well as certain aspects of the North-South-cooperation are presented. As yet, a universal cooperation in the field of nuclear material is refused. (CW) [de

  14. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The TESS-HERMES survey data release 1: high-resolution spectroscopy of the TESS southern continuous viewing zone

    Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Buder, Sven; Kos, Janez; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Duong, Ly; Lin, Jane; Lind, Karin; Ness, Melissa; Huber, Daniel; Zwitter, Tomaz; Traven, Gregor; Hon, Marc; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Khanna, Shourya; Saddon, Hafiz; Anguiano, Borja; Casey, Andrew R.; Freeman, Ken; Martell, Sarah; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Wittenmyer, Rob A.; Zucker, Daniel B.

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will provide high-precision time series photometry for millions of stars with at least a half-hour cadence. Of particular interest are the circular regions of 12° radius centred around the ecliptic poles that will be observed continuously for a full year. Spectroscopic stellar parameters are desirable to characterize and select suitable targets for TESS, whether they are focused on exploring exoplanets, stellar astrophysics or Galactic archaeology. Here, we present spectroscopic stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H], v sin i, vmicro) for about 16 000 dwarf and subgiant stars in TESS' southern continuous viewing zone. For almost all the stars, we also present Bayesian estimates of stellar properties including distance, extinction, mass, radius and age using theoretical isochrones. Stellar surface gravity and radius are made available for an additional set of roughly 8500 red giants. All our target stars are in the range 10 using the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES; R ∼ 28 000) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope as part of the TESS-HERMES survey. Comparing our results with the TESS Input Catalogue (TIC) shows that the TIC is generally efficient in separating dwarfs and giants, but it has flagged more than 100 cool dwarfs (Teff < 4800 K) as giants, which ought to be high-priority targets for the exoplanet search. The catalogue can be accessed via http://www.physics.usyd.edu.au/tess-hermes/, or at Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  16. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques.

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-15

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all. SVM model had the highest value, but it required the longest training time. All models had accuracy over 85% in all scenarios, and more stable performance was observed in RF model. Simplified SVM model developed by the top five most contributing traits had the largest accuracy reduction as 29.5%, while simplified RF and NN model still maintained approximately 80%. For real case application, factors such as operation cost, precision requirement, and system reaction time should be synthetically considered in model selection. Our work shows it is promising to discriminate plant root zone water status by implementing phenotyping and machine learning techniques for precision irrigation management.

  17. Exploring stop-go decision zones at rural high-speed intersections with flashing green signal and insufficient yellow time in China.

    Tang, Keshuang; Xu, Yanqing; Wang, Fen; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically analyze and model the stop-go decision behavior of drivers at rural high-speed intersections in China, where a flashing green signal of 3s followed by a yellow signal of 3s is commonly applied to end a green phase. 1, 186 high-resolution vehicle trajectories were collected at four typical high-speed intersection approaches in Shanghai and used for the identification of actual stop-go decision zones and the modeling of stop-go decision behavior. Results indicate that the presence of flashing green significantly changed the theoretical decision zones based on the conventional Dilemma Zone theory. The actual stop-go decision zones at the study intersections were thus formulated and identified based on the empirical data. Binary Logistic model and Fuzzy Logic model were then developed to further explore the impacts of flashing green on the stop-go behavior of drivers. It was found that the Fuzzy Logic model could produce comparably good estimation results as compared to the traditional Binary Logistic models. The findings of this study could contribute the development of effective dilemma zone protection strategies, the improvement of stop-go decision model embedded in the microscopic traffic simulation software and the proper design of signal change and clearance intervals at high-speed intersections in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser processes and system technology for the production of high-efficient crystalline solar cells

    Mayerhofer, R.; Hendel, R.; Zhu, Wenjie; Geiger, S.

    2012-10-01

    The laser as an industrial tool is an essential part of today's solar cell production. Due to the on-going efforts in the solar industry, to increase the cell efficiency, more and more laser-based processes, which have been discussed and tested at lab-scale for many years, are now being implemented in mass production lines. In order to cope with throughput requirements, standard laser concepts have to be improved continuously with respect to available average power levels, repetition rates or beam profile. Some of the laser concepts, that showed high potential in the past couple of years, will be substituted by other, more economic laser types. Furthermore, requirements for processing with less-heat affected zones fuel the development of industry-ready ultra short pulsed lasers with pulse widths even below the picosecond range. In 2011, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) had launched the program "PV-Innovation Alliance", with the aim to support the rapid transfer of high-efficiency processes out of development departments and research institutes into solar cell production lines. Here, lasers play an important role as production tools, allowing the fast implementation of high-performance solar cell concepts. We will report on the results achieved within the joint project FUTUREFAB, where efficiency optimization, throughput enhancement and cost reduction are the main goals. Here, the presentation will focus on laser processes like selective emitter doping and ablation of dielectric layers. An indispensable part of the efforts towards cost reduction in solar cell production is the improvement of wafer handling and throughput capabilities of the laser processing system. Therefore, the presentation will also elaborate on new developments in the design of complete production machines.

  19. Danger zone: Men, masculinity and occupational health and safety in high risk occupations.

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bezo, Randy; Colantonio, Angela; Garritano, Enzo; Lafrance, Marc; Lewko, John; Mantis, Steve; Moody, Joel; Power, Nicole; Theberge, Nancy; Westwood, Eleanor; Travers, Krista

    2015-12-01

    The workplace is a key setting where gender issues and organizational structures may influence occupational health and safety practices. The enactment of dominant norms of masculinity in high risk occupations can be particularly problematic, as it exposes men to significant risks for injuries and fatalities. To encourage multi-disciplinary collaborations and advance knowledge in the intersecting areas of gender studies, men's health, work and workplace health and safety, a national network of thirteen researchers and health and safety stakeholders completed a critical literature review examining the intersection between masculinities and men's workplace health and safety in order to: (i) account for research previously undertaken in this area; (ii) identify themes that may inform our understanding of masculinity and workplace health and safety and; (iii) identify research and practice gaps in relation to men's workplace health and safety. In this paper we present key themes from this review. Recommendations are made regarding: (i) how to define gender; (ii) how to attend to and identify how masculinities may influence workers' identities, perceptions of occupational risks and how institutionalized practices can reinforce norms of masculinity; (iii) the importance of considering how masculinities may intersect with other variables (e.g. historical context, age, class, race, geographical location) and; (iv) the added significance of present-day labour market forces on men's occupational health and safety.

  20. High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate

    Yoshizumi, M., E-mail: myoshizumi@istec.or.j [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Shinonome 1-10-13, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO{sub 2}/sputter-LMO (LaMnO{sub 3})/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7})/Hastelloy{sup TM} to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4 deg. of DELTAphiCeO{sub 2} in an XRD phi scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum I{sub c} value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of I{sub c} value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high J{sub c} and I{sub c} properties.

  1. Criteria to identify and define territories with productive development potential to establish Special Economic Zones of Development (SEZD in Costa Rica

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to identify, based on a series of variables and indicators, territories that have characteristics to propitiate an endogenous development, from the basis of the resource endowment they have, along with a productive policy, at the national and local level to promote it. A county´s index of productive potential is built around three components (productive, infrastructure and institutions; then a cluster analysis is applied. The outcomes of the study are not only new for the country, also they make a contribution with the elaboration of a matrix of variables and indicators, which provide criteria, empirically validated, to identify and define Special Economic Zones of Development (SEZD for Costa Rica.

  2. The Transfer of Core-Based Hazardous Production Processes to the Export Processing Zones of the Periphery: The Maquiladora Centers of Northern Mexico

    R. Scott Frey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational corporations appropriate 'carrying capacity" for the core by transferring the core's hazardous products, production processes, and wastes to the peripheral countries of the world-system. An increasingly important form of this reproduction process is the transfer of core-based hazardous industries to export processing zones (EPZs locatedin a number of peripheral countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. A specific case is examined in this paper: the transfer of hazardous industries to the maquiladora centers located on the Mexican side of the Mexico-U.S. border. Maquiladoras provide an excellent case for examining what is known about the causes, adverse consequences, and political responses associated with the transfer of core-based hazardous production processes to the EPZs of the periphery.

  3. FEATURES OF THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS IN TURBULENCE CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Oleg M. Tolmachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: The level of development of any country is currently determined by the proportion of high technologies in the GDP. Logistics – the basis for efficient management of modern knowledge-intensive production. Given the adverse conditions in the global economy, greatly enhanced the relevance of the study of logistical aspects in the management of high-tech products.Subject of research: The logistics management of production of high technology products in turbulence changing global economy. In this paper we apply scientific methods: the dialectic, comparisons and analogies, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, abstract , logical, historical and retrospective. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics and problems of logistics management of production of high technology products in the countries of the Customs Union and the Eastern Partnership. Also consider the role of clusters in the formation of innovation infrastructure in the countries of the Customs Union.Results: As part of the presentation was the author of the present article the urgency of application of CALS-technologies as a tool for organization and information support for the creation, production and operation of the product at the enterprises of the national economy.Conclusions / significance: Management of enterprises in the real sector of the economy in modern conditions should be based on synergies methodological principles of market and state regulation, with increased use of methods focused on the long term. By such methods, in particular, should include the methods of logistic management of production of high technology products. The importance of these technologies has increased steadily, and in modern conditions gets a new quality content that refl ects the phased development plan targeted action to ensure that the desired state of the enterprise as a socio-economic system. This in turn points to the need to ensure that new

  4. Towards stacked zone plates

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  5. Ankaramite: A New Type of High-Magnesium and High-Calcium Primitive Melt in the Magnitogorsk Island-Arc Zone (Southern Urals)

    Pushkarev, E. V.; Ryazancev, A. V.; Gottman, I. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kamenetsky, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    This work describes the geological position, mineral and chemical composition of high-Mg effusive ankaramites occurring as dykes and lava flows. They were found in the mélange zone of the western margin of the Magnitogorsk island arc zone in the Southern Urals. Data on the liquidus association of phenocrysts and on the composition of the matrix of effusives are given. According to the data obtained, the conclusion was drawn that the ankaramites studied can be attributed to the primary island arc melts, which were not subject to essential differentiation. This type of effusives has not been distinguished previously among island arc volcanogenic formations of the Urals. It is shown that ankaramites can be considered to be primary melts parental for dunite-clinopyroxenites-gabbro complexes of Ural-Alaskan type. The occurrence of ankaramites in the Paleozoic island arc formations of the Urals indicates the wehrlite composition of the mantle as the reason for the extremely wide development of wehrlites and clinopyroxenites in different mafic-ultramafic complexes of the Urals.

  6. Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the hyporheic zone through the use of a high density fiber optic measurement network

    Reeder, W. J.; Quick, A. M.; Farrell, T. B.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a potentially important source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O); stream processes may account for up to 10% of global anthropogenic N2O emissions. However, mechanistic understanding and predictive quantification of this gas flux is hampered by complex temporally and spatially variable interactions between flow dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Reactive inorganic nitrogen (Nr) is typically present at low concentrations in natural stream waters, but many rural and urban streams suffer from an excess of Nr, typically in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). These reactive species are either assimilated by living biomass or transformed by microbial processes. The two primary microbial transformations of Nr are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2). Denitrification, which occurs almost exclusively in the anoxic zone of the HZ, permanently removes between 30-70% of all Nr entering streams, other mechanisms may retain nitrogen. The mass transport of reactive species (i.e. O2, NO3- and N2O) by hyporheic flow strongly influences reaction rates, residence times, and subsequent N2O flux. By extension, stream flow and channel morphology presumably control, and may be effective predictors of, N2O generation rates. By recreating the stream processes in the University of Idaho flume, we are able to control the bed morphology, fluxes and residence times through the HZ and concentrations of Nr from exogenous (stream water) and endogenous (organic material in the streambed) sources. For the present experiment, the flume was divided into three streams, each with different morphologies (3, 6 and 9cm dunes) and all using the same source water. Stream water for this first experimental phase had no significant loading of Nr. As such, all reaction products were the result of endogenous sources of Nr. To measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations we deployed 120 channels of a novel, fiber-optic optode

  7. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-01-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM’s position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM’s ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency – SRF – cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world’s largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient

  8. Production of highly ionized recoil ions in heavy ion impact

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Be, S.H.; Shibata, H.; Kase, M.; Kambara, T.; Kumagai, H.; Kohno, I.

    1985-01-01

    The production mechanisms of highly ionized recoil ions in energetic, highly charged heavy ion impact are compared with those in photon and electron impact. In addition to the innershell ionization processes which are important in photon and electron impact, the electron transfer processes are found to play a key role in heavy ion impact. In molecular targets are also observed highly ionized monoatomic ions which are believed to be produced through production of highly ionized molecular ions followed by prompt dissociation. The observed N 6+ ions produced in 1.05MeV/amu Ar 12+ ions on N 2 molecules are produced through, for example, N 2 12+ *→N 6+ +N 6+ process. (author)

  9. Relationships Between Land Use and Stream Nutrient Concentrations in a Highly Urbanized Tropical Region of Brazil: Thresholds and Riparian Zones.

    Tromboni, F; Dodds, W K

    2017-07-01

    Nutrient enrichment in streams due to land use is increasing globally, reducing water quality and causing eutrophication of downstream fresh and coastal waters. In temperate developed countries, the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture is a main driver of increasing nutrient concentrations, but high levels and fast rates of urbanization can be a predominant issue in some areas of the developing world. We investigated land use in the highly urbanized tropical State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and inorganic nutrient data from 35 independent watersheds distributed across the State and characterized land use at a riparian and entire watershed scales upstream from each sample station, using ArcGIS. We used regression models to explain land use influences on nutrient concentrations and to assess riparian protection relationships to water quality. We found that urban land use was the primary driver of nutrient concentration increases, independent of the scale of analyses and that urban land use was more concentrated in the riparian buffer of streams than in the entire watersheds. We also found significant thresholds that indicated strong increases in nutrient concentrations with modest increases in urbanization reaching maximum nutrient concentrations between 10 and 46% urban cover. These thresholds influenced calculation of reference nutrient concentrations, and ignoring them led to higher estimates of these concentrations. Lack of sewage treatment in concert with urban development in riparian zones apparently leads to the observation that modest increases in urban land use can cause large increases in nutrient concentrations.

  10. Estimation of erosion-accumulative processes at the Inia River’s mouth near high-rise construction zones.

    Sineeva Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study relevance is due to the increasing man-made impact on water bodies and associated land resources within the urban areas, as a consequence, by a change in the morphology and dynamics of Rivers’ canals. This leads to the need to predict the development of erosion-accumulation processes, especially within the built-up urban areas. Purpose of the study is to develop programs on the assessment of erosion-accumulation processes at a water body, a mouth area of the Inia River, in the of perspective high-rise construction zone of a residential microdistrict, the place, where floodplain-channel complex is intensively expected to develop. Results of the study: Within the velocities of the water flow comparing, full-scale measured conditions, and calculated from the model, a slight discrepancy was recorded. This allows us to say that the numerical model reliably describes the physical processes developing in the River. The carried out calculations to assess the direction and intensity of the channel re-formations, made us possible to conclude, there was an insignificant predominance of erosion processes over the accumulative ones on the undeveloped part of the Inia River (the processes activity is noticeable only in certain areas (by the coasts and the island. Importance of the study: The study on the erosion-accumulation processes evaluation can be used in design decisions for the future high-rise construction of this territory, which will increase their economic efficiency.

  11. Estimation of erosion-accumulative processes at the Inia River's mouth near high-rise construction zones.

    Sineeva, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Our study relevance is due to the increasing man-made impact on water bodies and associated land resources within the urban areas, as a consequence, by a change in the morphology and dynamics of Rivers' canals. This leads to the need to predict the development of erosion-accumulation processes, especially within the built-up urban areas. Purpose of the study is to develop programs on the assessment of erosion-accumulation processes at a water body, a mouth area of the Inia River, in the of perspective high-rise construction zone of a residential microdistrict, the place, where floodplain-channel complex is intensively expected to develop. Results of the study: Within the velocities of the water flow comparing, full-scale measured conditions, and calculated from the model, a slight discrepancy was recorded. This allows us to say that the numerical model reliably describes the physical processes developing in the River. The carried out calculations to assess the direction and intensity of the channel re-formations, made us possible to conclude, there was an insignificant predominance of erosion processes over the accumulative ones on the undeveloped part of the Inia River (the processes activity is noticeable only in certain areas (by the coasts and the island)). Importance of the study: The study on the erosion-accumulation processes evaluation can be used in design decisions for the future high-rise construction of this territory, which will increase their economic efficiency.

  12. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  13. Possibility of some radionuclides production using high energy electron Bremsstrahlung

    Balzhinnyam, N.; Belov, A.G.; Gehrbish, Sh; Maslov, O.D.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Ganbold, G.

    2008-01-01

    The method of some radionuclides production using high energy Bremsstrahlung of electron accelerators and determination of photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides is described. Photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides are determined for 117m Sn, 111 In and 195m Pt. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (E e- e- = 75 MeV) of the IREN facility (FLNR, JINR) at irradiation of high purity platinum and tin metals

  14. One gluon, two gluon: multigluon production via high energy evolution

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach for calculating the inclusive multigluon production within the JIMWLK high energy evolution. We give a formal expression of multigluon cross section in terms of a generating functional for arbitrary number of gluons n. In the dipole limit the expression simplifies dramatically. We recover the previously known results for single and double gluon inclusive cross section and generalize those for arbitrary multigluon amplitude in terms of Feynman diagramms of Pomeron - like objects coupled to external rapidity dependent field s(η). We confirm the conclusion that the AGK cutting rules in general are violated in multigluon production. However we present an argument to the effect that for doubly inclusive cross section the AGK diagramms give the leading contribution at high energy, while genuine violation only occurs for triple and higher inclusive gluon production. We discuss some general properties of our expressions and suggest a line of argument to simplify the approach further

  15. 78 FR 18314 - Foreign-Trade Zone 169-Manatee County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC...

    2013-03-26

    ... located within Subzone 169A, in Sarasota, Florida. The facility is used for the production of plastic and... County, Florida; Application for Production Authority; ASO, LLC; Subzone 169A (Textile Fabric Adhesive Bandage Coating and Production); Sarasota, Florida An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...

  16. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  17. Ten Niche Strategies To Commercialize New High-Tech Products

    Ortt, J.R.; Langley, D.J.; Pals, N.

    2013-01-01

    There are serious gaps in the scientific literature relating to niche strategies as a means for commercializing new high-tech products. In particular, there is no clarity about what types of niche strategies can be distinguished, or how a niche strategy can be selected to suit a certain ituation. In

  18. Strangeness and charm production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    Xu, Nu

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the dynamical effects of strangeness and charm production in high energy nuclear collisions. In order to understand the early stage dynamical evolution, it is necessary to study the transverse momentum distributions of multi-strange hadrons like Ξ and Ω and charm mesons like J/Ψ as a function of collision centrality

  19. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  20. Methylmercury production in and export from agricultural wetlands in California, USA: the need to account for physical transport processes into and out of the root zone

    Bachand, Philip A.M.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Stephenson, Mark; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2014-01-01

    Concentration and mass balance analyses were used to quantify methylmercury (MeHg) loads from conventional (white) rice, wild rice, and fallowed fields in northern California's Yolo Bypass. These analyses were standardized against chloride to distinguish transport pathways and net ecosystem production (NEP). During summer, chloride loads were both exported with surface water and moved into the root zone at a 2:1 ratio. MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) behaved similarly with surface water and root zone exports at ~ 3:1 ratio. These trends reversed in winter with DOC, MeHg, and chloride moving from the root zone to surface waters at rates opposite and exceeding summertime root zone fluxes. These trends suggest that summer transpiration advectively moves constituents from surface water into the root zone, and winter diffusion, driven by concentration gradients, subsequently releases those constituents into surface waters. The results challenge a number of paradigms regarding MeHg. Specifically, biogeochemical conditions favoring microbial MeHg production do not necessarily translate to synchronous surface water exports; MeHg may be preserved in the soils allowing for release at a later time; and plants play a role in both biogeochemistry and transport. Our calculations show that NEP of MeHg occurred during both summer irrigation and winter flooding. Wild rice wet harvesting and winter flooding of white rice fields were specific practices that increased MeHg export, both presumably related to increased labile organic carbon and disturbance. Outflow management during these times could reduce MeHg exports. Standardizing MeHg outflow:inflow concentration ratios against natural tracers (e.g. chloride, EC) provides a simple tool to identify NEP periods. Summer MeHg exports averaged 0.2 to 1 μg m− 2 for the different agricultural wetland fields, depending upon flood duration. Average winter MeHg exports were estimated at 0.3 μg m− 2. These exports are

  1. Carbonation of subduction-zone serpentinite (high-pressure ophicarbonate; Ligurian Western Alps) and implications for the deep carbon cycling

    Scambelluri, Marco; Bebout, Gray E.; Belmonte, Donato; Gilio, Mattia; Campomenosi, Nicola; Collins, Nathan; Crispini, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Much of the long-term carbon cycle in solid earth occurs in subduction zones, where processes of devolatilization, partial melting of carbonated rocks, and dissolution of carbonate minerals lead to the return of CO2 to the atmosphere via volcanic degassing. Release of COH fluids from hydrous and carbonate minerals influences C recycling and magmatism at subduction zones. Contradictory interpretations exist regarding the retention/storage of C in subducting plates and in the forearc to subarc mantle. Several lines of evidence indicate mobility of C, of uncertain magnitude, in forearcs. A poorly constrained fraction of the 40-115 Mt/yr of C initially subducted is released into fluids (by decarbonation and/or carbonate dissolution) and 18-43 Mt/yr is returned at arc volcanoes. Current estimates suggest the amount of C released into subduction fluids is greater than that degassed at arc volcanoes: the imbalance could reflect C subduction into the deeper mantle, beyond subarc regions, or storage of C in forearc/subarc reservoirs. We examine the fate of C in plate-interface ultramafic rocks, and by analogy serpentinized mantle wedge, via study of fluid-rock evolution of marble and variably carbonated serpentinite in the Ligurian Alps. Based on petrography, major and trace element concentrations, and carbonate C and O isotope compositions, we demonstrate that serpentinite dehydration at 2-2.5 GPa, 550 °C released aqueous fluids triggering breakdown of dolomite in nearby marbles, thus releasing C into fluids. Carbonate + olivine veins document flow of COH fluids and that the interaction of these COH fluids with serpentinite led to the formation of high-P carbonated ultramafic-rock domains (high-P ophicarbonates). We estimate that this could result in the retention of ∼0.5-2.0 Mt C/yr in such rocks along subduction interfaces. As another means of C storage, 1 to 3 km-thick layers of serpentinized forearc mantle wedge containing 50 modal % dolomite could sequester 1.62 to

  2. Characterization of microstructure and local deformation in 316NG weld heat-affected zone and stress corrosion cracking in high temperature water

    Lu Zhanpeng; Shoji, Tetsuo; Meng Fanjiang; Xue He; Qiu Yubing; Takeda, Yoichi; Negishi, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Away from the fusion line, kernel average misorientation and hardness decrease. → Away from the fusion line, the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. → Crack growth in high temperature water correlates to kernel average misorientation and hardness. → SCC along random boundaries as well as extensive intergranular branching near the fusion line. - Abstract: Microstructure and local deformation in 316NG weld heat-affected zones were measured by electron-back scattering diffraction and hardness measurements. With increasing the distance from the fusion line, kernel average misorientation decreases and the fraction of Σ3 boundaries increases. Stress corrosion cracking growth rates in high temperature water were measured at different locations in the heat-affected zones that correspond to different levels of strain-hardening represented by kernel average misorientation and hardness distribution. Intergranular cracking along random boundaries as well as extensive intergranular crack branching is observed in the heat-affected zone near the weld fusion line.

  3. Multi-stage high cell continuous fermentation for high productivity and titer.

    Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Nag-Jong; Kang, Jongwon; Jeong, Chang Moon; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Fei, Qiang; Kim, Byoung Jin; Kwon, Sunhoon; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-05-01

    We carried out the first simulation on multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) to show that the MSC-HCDC can achieve batch/fed-batch product titer with much higher productivity to the fed-batch productivity using published fermentation kinetics of lactic acid, penicillin and ethanol. The system under consideration consists of n-serially connected continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) with either hollow fiber cell recycling or cell immobilization for high cell-density culture. In each CSTR substrate supply and product removal are possible. Penicillin production is severely limited by glucose metabolite repression that requires multi-CSTR glucose feeding. An 8-stage C-HCDC lactic acid fermentation resulted in 212.9 g/L of titer and 10.6 g/L/h of productivity, corresponding to 101 and 429% of the comparable lactic acid fed-batch, respectively. The penicillin production model predicted 149% (0.085 g/L/h) of productivity in 8-stage C-HCDC with 40 g/L of cell density and 289% of productivity (0.165 g/L/h) in 7-stage C-HCDC with 60 g/L of cell density compared with referring batch cultivations. A 2-stage C-HCDC ethanol experimental run showed 107% titer and 257% productivity of the batch system having 88.8 g/L of titer and 3.7 g/L/h of productivity. MSC-HCDC can give much higher productivity than batch/fed-batch system, and yield a several percentage higher titer as well. The productivity ratio of MSC-HCDC over batch/fed-batch system is given as a multiplication of system dilution rate of MSC-HCDC and cycle time of batch/fed-batch system. We suggest MSC-HCDC as a new production platform for various fermentation products including monoclonal antibody.

  4. High Lipid Induction in Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    Peer M. Schenk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil-accumulating microalgae have the potential to enable large-scale biodiesel production without competing for arable land or biodiverse natural landscapes. High lipid productivity of dominant, fast-growing algae is a major prerequisite for commercial production of microalgal oil-derived biodiesel. However, under optimal growth conditions, large amounts of algal biomass are produced, but with relatively low lipid contents, while species with high lipid contents are typically slow growing. Major advances in this area can be made through the induction of lipid biosynthesis, e.g., by environmental stresses. Lipids, in the form of triacylglycerides typically provide a storage function in the cell that enables microalgae to endure adverse environmental conditions. Essentially algal biomass and triacylglycerides compete for photosynthetic assimilate and a reprogramming of physiological pathways is required to stimulate lipid biosynthesis. There has been a wide range of studies carried out to identify and develop efficient lipid induction techniques in microalgae such as nutrients stress (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorus starvation, osmotic stress, radiation, pH, temperature, heavy metals and other chemicals. In addition, several genetic strategies for increased triacylglycerides production and inducibility are currently being developed. In this review, we discuss the potential of lipid induction techniques in microalgae and also their application at commercial scale for the production of biodiesel.

  5. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  6. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  7. Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Maize Production in the Southern and Western Highlands Sub-agro Ecological Zones of Tanzania

    Philbert M. Luhunga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fourth assessment report confirmed that climate change is unequivocal. It is coming to us faster with larger impacts and bigger risks than even most climate scientists expected as recently as a few years ago. One particular worry is the disastrous consequence to agriculture and food security sectors in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. Adaptation is the only option to reduce the impacts of climate change. However, before planning adaptation policies or strategies to climate change, it is important to assess the impacts of climate change at regional and local scale to have scientific evidence that would guide the formulation of such policies or strategies. In this study the impacts of climate change on rain-fed maize (Zea Mays production in the southern and western highlands sub-agro ecological zones of Tanzania are evaluated. High resolution climate simulations from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment_Regional Climate Models (CORDEX_RCMs were used as input into the Decision Support System for Agro-technological Transfer (DSSAT to simulate maize yield in the historical climate condition (1971–2000, present (2010–2039, mid (2040–2069, and end (2070–2099 centuries. Daily rainfall, solar radiations, minimum and maximum temperatures for the historical (1971–2000 climate condition and future climate projections (2010–2099 under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 were used to drive DSSAT. The impacts of climate change were assessed by comparing the average maize yields in historical climate condition against the average of simulated maize yields in the present, mid and end centuries under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results of future maize yields estimates from DSSAT driven by individual RCMs under both RCP scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 differs from one RCM to another and from one scenario to another. This highlight

  8. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe 37+ , 1 e μA of Xe 43+ , and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe 44+ . To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi 31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi 31+ , 22 e μA of Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of Bi 50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  9. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Lan Liangyun; Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. → Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. → MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. → High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  10. Microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone of high strength low carbon bainitic steel

    Lan Liangyun, E-mail: lly.liangyun@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qiu Chunlin; Zhao Dewen; Gao Xiuhua; Du Linxiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} Total toughness can be separated into crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy. {yields} Small effective grain size of lath martensite can improve the crack propagation energy. {yields} MA constituent is mainly responsible for the low toughness of coarse bainite specimens. {yields} High angle packet boundary in coarser bainite has few contributions to improving crack propagation energy. - Abstract: The correlation of microstructural characteristics and toughness of the simulated coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) of low carbon bainitic steel was investigated in this study. The toughness of simulated specimens was examined by using an instrumented Charpy impact tester after the simulation welding test was conducted with different cooling times. Microstructure observation and crystallographic feature analysis were conducted by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) system, respectively. The main microstructure of simulated specimen changes from lath martensite to coarse bainite with the increase in cooling time. The deterioration of its toughness occurs when the cooling time ranges from 10 to 50 s compared with base metal toughness, and the toughness becomes even worse when the cooling time increases to 90 s or more. The MA (martensite-austenite) constituent is primary responsible for the low toughness of simulated CGHAZ with high values of cooling time because the large MA constituent reduces the crack initiation energy significantly. For crack propagation energy, the small effective grain size of lath martensite plays an important role in improving the crack propagation energy. By contrast, high misorientation packet boundary in coarse bainite seems to have few contributions to the improvement of the toughness because cleavage fracture micromechanism of coarse bainite is mainly controlled by crack initiation.

  11. Sorption techniques for production of high purity refractory metals

    Shatalov, V.V.; Peganov, V.A.; Logvinenko, I.A.; Molchanova, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    A consideration is given to potentialities of sorption processes tot provide a high quality of refractory metal and their alloys when using hydrometallurgical methods for raw material processing. The efficiency of application of ion exchange technology is shown for complex solutions reprocessing for various types of polymetallic raw materials, among them uranium ores, enriched concentrates of refractory metal ores, intermediate products, waste solutions. Based on investigation results on the behaviour of elements in process solutions and the mechanism of their sorption and elution, the process of pure chemical compounds production are developed which provide thereafter manufacturing compact metals. The flowsheets developed are mastered on a commercial scale [ru

  12. Come and see our new high-tech products!

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Since 1977, GMP has been active in the fields of laser, spectroscopy, electro-optics and micropositioning. Its mission is to link between suppliers of high tech products with the end users. On Wednesday 26 May between 10 and 12 a.m. - Room A, Main Building, (Bldg. 61/1-017) - you will be able to touch and try out our new laser products. Our specialized engineers will also be on hand to answer all your questions. A drink will be offered at the end of the presentation. There will also be the opportunity to plan meetings in the afternoon to further discuss and complicated questions.

  13. The seismogenic zone in the Central Costa Rican Pacific margin: high-quality hypocentres from an amphibious network

    Arroyo, Ivonne G.; Husen, Stephan; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2014-10-01

    Transition from subduction of normal to thickened oceanic crust occurs in the central portion of the Costa Rican margin, where large interplate earthquakes ( M ~ 7) and abundant interseismic seismicity have been associated with subduction of bathymetric highs. We relocated ~1,300 earthquakes recorded for 6 months by a combined on- and offshore seismological network using probabilistic earthquake relocation in a 3D P-wave velocity model. Most of the seismicity originated at the seismogenic zone of the plate boundary, appearing as an 18° dipping, planar cluster from 15 to 25-30 km depth, beneath the continental shelf. Several reverse focal mechanisms were resolved within the cluster. The upper limit of this interseismic interplate seismicity seems to be controlled primarily by the overlying-plate thickness and coherency, which in turn is governed by the erosional processes and fluid release and escape at temperatures lower than ~100 to 120 °C along the plate boundary. The downdip limit of the stick-slip behaviour collocates with relative low temperatures of ~150 to 200 °C, suggesting that it is controlled by serpentinization of the mantle wedge. The distribution of the interseismic interplate seismicity is locally modified by the presence of subducted seamounts at different depths. Unlike in northern Costa Rica, rupture of large earthquakes in the last two decades seems to coincide with the area defined by the interseismic interplate seismicity.

  14. High efficiency and flexible working distance digital in-line holographic microscopy based on Fresnel zone plate

    Tian, Peng; Yang, Fan; Li, Fanxing; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hua, Yilei

    2017-01-01

    Traditional digital in-line holography suffers from twin-image noise problems and extremely short working distances between the object and light source. Here, we propose lensless Fourier transform digital in-line holographic microscopy based on a single optical element. A Fresnel zone plate is used to split the incident light into two parts: one is scattered along the original direction, the other is gathered at a focal point and the sample is put behind the focus. The interference fringe pattern, formed by the two beams, is recorded digitally by a CCD camera. A novel reconstruction algorithm is proposed to present the object image. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem, improving the image contrast with high efficiency, and increasing the flexibility of the working distance. Furthermore, a wide field of view and no contact make it a promising tool for the study of materials science, biology and microelectronics. (paper)

  15. Creep in the sparsely fractured rock between a disposal vault and a zone of highly fractured rock

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    AECL Research is responsible for investigating the feasibility and safety of the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste deep in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The excavation of the disposal vault, the installation of sealing systems and the heat generated by the fuel waste will all perturb the in situ stress state of the rock mass. This computer codes HOTROK, MCROC and MCDIRC are used to analyze the influence of these stress perturbations on the mechanical behaviour of the rock mass. Time-dependent microcracking of the rock mass will lead to creep around openings in the vault. The analysis specifically estimates the resulting creep strain in the sparsely fractured rock between the edge of the disposal vault and a postulated zone of highly fractured rock. The estimates are extremely conservative. The conclusion reached is that the rock mass more than 3 m beyond the edge of the vault will experience < 0.001 creep strain 100 000 years after the fuel waste is emplaced. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  16. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  17. PRODUCTION WELL WATER SHUT-OFF TREATMENT IN A HIGHLY FRACTURED SANDSTONE RESERVOIR; TOPICAL

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    As domestic oil and gas fields approach maturity or even abandonment, new methods are being tested to add life to the fields. One area being addressed is the reduction of water production to extend the economic life of a field. In many fields a very common problem is permeability heterogeneity from matrix variations, fractures, or both. Conventional procedures to remediate high water rates in fractured networks, including cement squeezing, openhole packers, and liners are generally unsuccessful. The objective of this project was to test the viability of using sequential treatment of a production well with a cross-linked polymer to restrict water production from highly permeable and fractured zones. The field used for testing was the Ashley Valley field in northeastern Utah. The process proposed for testing in this field was the sequential application of small batches of a cross-linked polymer, chromium (III) polyacrylamide polymer (Marcit(trademark)). First, the highest permeability fractures were to be blocked, followed progressively by smaller fractures, and finally the higher permeability matrix channels. The initial application of this polymer in September 1997 in the Ashley Valley (AV) well No.2 did increase oil production while decreasing both water production and the relative permeability to water. The successive application of the polymer was considered as a method to increase both daily and ultimate oil production and reduce produced water. The second polymer treatment was conducted in October 1999 in AV No.2. The treatment consisted of 4,994 barrels of 1,500-mg/l to 9,000-mg/l polymer at surface injection pressures no higher than 380 psig. During injection, four offset wells showed polymer breakthrough and were shut in during the remaining treatment. Present oil and water production rates for AV No.2 are 14 BOPD and 2,700 BWPD, which is a 44% decrease in the oil rate and a 40% reduction in water from the rates after the first treatment. The decrease in

  18. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  19. Application value of different transformation zone types and its genetic relationship with high-risk HPV type in diagnosis and therapy of cervical disease.

    Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jia-De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the influence of different types of transformation zone (TZ) on positive surgical margin of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the significance of infection of different genetic high-risk HPV for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The clinical data of patients who had CIN2+ and received LEEP during January to December 2013 was investigated. The conditions of positive surgical margin of patients of different transformation zone (type I, II, III) were analyzed. The clinical high-risk types of HPV were divided into three groups, including A5/6, A7 and A9, compared with the pathological conditions of pre-operation and post-operation of the patients in respective group. The results indicated that type III transformation zone is more likely to cause positive cutting margin. For CIN2+ patients, sensitivity and specificity are 0.89% and 79.56% in group A5/6, and negative and positive predicted value (NPV, PPV) are 40% and 5%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A7 is 12.5%, 44.08%, 29.49% and 21.21%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A9 is 88.99%, 87.09%, 85.26%, 81.51%, respectively. Transformation zone type was correlated positively with positive cutting margin percentage (r = 0.8732, P zone is more likely to cause pathological upgrades. In conclusion, different types of transformation zone and high-risk HPV have clinical significance in causing positive cutting margin of surgery and disease extent.

  20. Running coupling corrections to high energy inclusive gluon production

    Horowitz, W.A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. In the final answer for the cross section the three powers of fixed coupling are replaced by seven factors of running coupling, five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling k T -factorization formula for gluon production which includes nonlinear small-x evolution.

  1. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Know Your Enemy - Implementation of Bioremediation within a Suspected DNAPL Source Zone Following High-Resolution Site Characterization at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Chrest, Anne; Daprato, Rebecca; Burcham, Michael; Johnson, Jill

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), has adopted high-resolution site characterization (HRSC) sampling techniques during baseline sampling prior to implementation of remedies to confirm and refine the conceptual site model (CSM). HRSC sampling was performed at Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area (CRHE) prior to bioremediation implementation to verify the extent of the trichloroethene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source area (defined as the area with TCE concentrations above 1% solubility) and its daughter product dissolved plume that had been identified during previous HRSC events. The results of HRSC pre-bioremediation implementation sampling suggested that the TCE source area was larger than originally identified during initial site characterization activities, leading to a design refinement to improve electron donor distribution and increase the likelihood of achieving remedial objectives. Approach/Activities: HRSC was conducted from 2009 through 2014 to delineate the vertical and horizontal extent of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) in the groundwater. Approximately 2,340 samples were collected from 363 locations using direct push technology (DPT) groundwater sampling techniques. Samples were collected from up to 14 depth intervals at each location using a 4-foot sampling screen. This HRSC approach identified a narrow (approx. 5 to 30 feet wide), approximately 3,000 square foot TCE DNAPL source area (maximum detected TCE concentration of 160,000 micrograms per liter [micro-g/L] at DPT sampling location DPT0225). Prior to implementation of a bioremediation interim measure, HRSC baseline sampling was conducted using DPT groundwater sampling techniques. Concentrations of TCE were an order of magnitude lower than previous reported (12,000 micro-g/L maximum at DPT sampling location DPT0225) at locations sampled adjacent to previous sampling locations. To further evaluate the variability

  3. Complete genome sequence of the highly Mn(II) tolerant Staphylococcus sp. AntiMn-1 isolated from deep-sea sediment in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone.

    Wang, Xing; Lin, Danqiu; Jing, Xiaohuan; Zhu, Sidong; Yang, Jifang; Chen, Jigang

    2018-01-20

    Staphylococcus sp. AntiMn-1 is a deep-sea bacterium inhabiting seafloor sediment in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) that is highly tolerant to Mn(II) and displays efficient Mn(II) oxidation. Herein, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 58995 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 138-Columbus, Ohio; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Rolls...

    2013-09-25

    ... Gas Turbines, Power Generation Turbines, and Generator Sets); Mount Vernon, Ohio The Columbus Regional... production of industrial gas turbines, power generation turbines, and generator sets. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400... status components used in export production. On its domestic sales, RRES would be able to choose the duty...

  5. 78 FR 8493 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc...

    2013-02-06

    ...; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc. (Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Panels); Portland... of FTZ 45. The facility is used for the production of thin film photovoltaic solar panels. Pursuant... procedures that applies to the thin film solar panels (duty-free) for the foreign status inputs noted below...

  6. Primary production and microbial activity in the euphotic zone of Lake Baikal (Southern Basin) during late winter

    Straškrábová, Viera; Izmest’yeva, L. R.; Maksimova, E. A.; Fietz, S.; Nedoma, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kobanova, G. I.; Shchetinina, E. V.; Pislegina, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, 1-4 (2005), s. 57-73 ISSN 0921-8181 Grant - others:EU(XE) CONTINENT EVK2-2000-0057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : primary production * bacterial production * microbial loop Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2005

  7. High-voltage zones within the pulmonary vein antra: Major determinants of acute pulmonary vein reconnections after atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Nagashima, Koichi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Okumura, Yasuo; Iso, Kazuki; Takahashi, Keiko; Watanabe, Ryuta; Arai, Masaru; Kurokawa, Sayaka; Nakai, Toshiko; Ohkubo, Kimie; Yoda, Shunichi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is mainly due to PV reconnections. Patient-specific tissue characteristics that may contribute remain unidentified. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the bipolar electrogram voltage amplitudes recorded from the PV-left atrial (LA) junction and acute PV reconnection sites. Three-dimensional LA voltage maps created before an extensive encircling PVI in 47 AF patients (31 men; mean age 62 ± 11 years) were examined for an association between the EGM voltage amplitude recorded from the PV-LA junction and acute post-PVI PV reconnections (spontaneous PV reconnections and/or ATP-provoked dormant PV conduction). Acute PV reconnections were observed in 17 patients (36%) and in 24 (3%) of the 748 PV segments (16 segments per patient) and were associated with relatively high bipolar voltage amplitudes (3.26 ± 0.85 vs. 1.79 ± 1.15 mV, p voltage (137 [106, 166] vs. 295 [193, 498] gs/mV, p voltage and FTI/PV-LA bipolar voltage for acute PV reconnections (areas under the curve: 0.86 and 0.89, respectively); the best cutoff values were >2.12 mV and ≤183 gs/mV, respectively. The PV-LA voltage on the PV-encircling ablation line and FTI/PV-LA voltage were related to the acute post-PVI PV reconnections. A more durable ablation strategy is warranted for high-voltage zones.

  8. Utilizing High-Performance Computing to Investigate Parameter Sensitivity of an Inversion Model for Vadose Zone Flow and Transport

    Fang, Z.; Ward, A. L.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution geologic models have proven effective in improving the accuracy of subsurface flow and transport predictions. However, many of the parameters in subsurface flow and transport models cannot be determined directly at the scale of interest and must be estimated through inverse modeling. A major challenge, particularly in vadose zone flow and transport, is the inversion of the highly-nonlinear, high-dimensional problem as current methods are not readily scalable for large-scale, multi-process models. In this paper we describe the implementation of a fully automated approach for addressing complex parameter optimization and sensitivity issues on massively parallel multi- and many-core systems. The approach is based on the integration of PNNL's extreme scale Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (eSTOMP) simulator, which uses the Global Array toolkit, with the Beowulf-Cluster inspired parallel nonlinear parameter estimation software, BeoPEST in the MPI mode. In the eSTOMP/BeoPEST implementation, a pre-processor generates all of the PEST input files based on the eSTOMP input file. Simulation results for comparison with observations are extracted automatically at each time step eliminating the need for post-process data extractions. The inversion framework was tested with three different experimental data sets: one-dimensional water flow at Hanford Grass Site; irrigation and infiltration experiment at the Andelfingen Site; and a three-dimensional injection experiment at Hanford's Sisson and Lu Site. Good agreements are achieved in all three applications between observations and simulations in both parameter estimates and water dynamics reproduction. Results show that eSTOMP/BeoPEST approach is highly scalable and can be run efficiently with hundreds or thousands of processors. BeoPEST is fault tolerant and new nodes can be dynamically added and removed. A major advantage of this approach is the ability to use high-resolution geologic models to preserve

  9. Differential bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies

    Olsen, Haakon A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed differential cross sections for high energy bremsstrahlung and pair production are derived with specific attention to the differences between the two processes, which are considerable. For the integrated cross sections, which are the only cross sections specifically known until now, the final state integration theorem guarantees that the exact cross section formulas can be exchanged between bremsstrahlung and pair production by the same substitution rules as for the Born-approximation Bethe-Heitler cross sections, for any amount of atomic screening. In fact the theorem states that the Coulomb corrections to the integrated bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections are identical for any amount of screening. The analysis of the basic differential cross sections leads to fundamental physical differences between bremsstrahlung and pair production. Coulomb corrections occur for pair production in the strong electric field of the atom for 'large' momentum transfer of the order of mc. For bremsstrahlung, on the other hand, the Coulomb corrections take place at a 'large' distance from the atom of the order of ((ℎ/2π)/mc)ε, with a 'small' momentum transfer mc/ε, where ε is the initial electron energy in units of mc 2 . And the Coulomb corrections can be large, of the order of larger than (Z/137) 2 , which is considerably larger than the integrated cross section corrections

  10. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  11. The influence of the fault zone width on land surface vibrations after the high-energy tremor in the "Rydułtowy-Anna" hard coal mine

    Pilecka, Elżbieta; Szwarkowski, Dariusz

    2018-04-01

    In the article, a numerical analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone on land surface tremors on the area of the "Rydułtowy - Anna" hard coal mine was performed. The analysis covered the dynamic impact of the actual seismic wave after the high-energy tremor of 7 June 2013. Vibrations on the land surface are a measure of the mining damage risk. It is particularly the horizontal components of land vibrations that are dangerous to buildings which is reflected in the Mining Scales of Intensity (GSI) of vibrations. The run of a seismic wave in the rock mass from the hypocenter to the area's surface depends on the lithology of the area and the presence of fault zones. The rock mass network cut by faults of various widths influences the amplitude of tremor reaching the area's surface. The analysis of the impact of the width of the fault zone was done for three alternatives.

  12. Growth with Time Zone Differences

    Toru Kikuchi; Sugata Marjit

    2010-01-01

    We propose a two-country growth model of intermediate business-services trade that captures the role of time zone differences. It is shown that a time-saving improvement in intermediate business-services trade involving production in different time zones can have a permanent impact on productivity.

  13. Polarization in high Psub(trans) and cumulative hadron production

    Efremov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The final hadron polarization in the high Psub(trans) processes is analyzed in the parton hard scattering picture. Scaling assumption allows a correct qualitative description to be given for the Psub(trans)-behaviour of polarization or escape angle behaviour in cumulative production. The energy scaling and weak dependence on the beam and target type is predicted. A method is proposed for measuring the polarization of hadron jets

  14. Solubility of corrosion products in high temperature water

    Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    A short review of solubility of corrosion products at high temperature in either neutral or alkaline water as encountered in BWR, PHWR and PWR primary coolant reactor circuits is presented in this report. Based on the available literature, various experimental techniques involved in the study of the solubility, theory for fitting the solubility data to the thermodynamic model and discussion of the published results with a scope for future work have been brought out. (author). 17 refs., 7 figs

  15. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  16. Process for the production of high purity deuterium

    Arrathoon, R.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the electrolysis of heavy water which results in the production of high purity deuterium without periodic replenishment of the electrolyte with additional deuterated compounds is defined. Electrolysis is effected through the use of an inexpensive cation-action permselective membrane which is essentially a solid polymer electrolyte and which is capable of automatically separating the evolved deuterium and oxygen gas. This cation-active permselective membrane does not introduce any intrinsic impurities or tritium contamination in the generated deuterium gas, does not require periodic revitalization with deuterated compounds or other chemical compounds, and is characterized by an unusually high electrical efficiency

  17. High throughput production of mouse monoclonal antibodies using antigen microarrays

    De Masi, Federico; Chiarella, P.; Wilhelm, H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in proteomics research underscore the increasing need for high-affinity monoclonal antibodies, which are still generated with lengthy, low-throughput antibody production techniques. Here we present a semi-automated, high-throughput method of hybridoma generation and identification....... Monoclonal antibodies were raised to different targets in single batch runs of 6-10 wk using multiplexed immunisations, automated fusion and cell-culture, and a novel antigen-coated microarray-screening assay. In a large-scale experiment, where eight mice were immunized with ten antigens each, we generated...

  18. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  19. Concrete pedestals for high-performance semiconductor production equipment

    Vogen, Wayne; Franklin, Craig L.; Morneault, Joseph

    1999-09-01

    Concrete pedestals have many vibration and stiffness characteristics that make them a superior choice for sensitive semiconductor production equipment including scanners, scanning electron microscopes, focused ion beam millers and optical inspection equipment. Among the advantages of concrete pedestals are high inherent damping, monolithic construction that eliminates low stiffness joints common in steep pedestals, ability to reuse and ease of installation. Steel pedestals that have plates attached to the top of the frame are easily excited by acoustic excitation, especially in the range from 50 Hertz to 400 Hertz. Concrete pedestals do not suffer from this phenomenon because of the high mass and damping of the top surface.

  20. Production of synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil from highly waxy feedstocks

    Xue, Q; Ding, Z; Zheng, Sh; Wu, W

    1980-01-01

    A feasible way to utilize the low value soft wax is to convert it into synthetic hydrocarbon lube oil by thermal cracking/polymerization route. The first commercial plant for this purpose has been in normal operation since 1970. It has been proved to be economically sound. The antioxidant response of the product polymer oil can be distinctly improved by hydro-refining. It has been found that the vacuum gas oil from highly waxy crude with or without furfural refining can be used as cracking stock. If high viscosity index polymer oil is desired, it is better to use slack wax as the cracking stock.

  1. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  2. 77 FR 27417 - Foreign-Trade Zone 220-Sioux Falls, SD; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Rosenbauer...

    2012-05-10

    ... is used for the production of emergency vehicles and firefighting equipment (pumps, tankers, rescue... drives, DC motors, static converters, rechargeable flashlights, flashlight parts, electrical foam..., LLC, (Emergency Vehicles/Firefighting Equipment), Lyons, SD The Sioux Falls Development Foundation...

  3. 78 FR 40427 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 183-Austin, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung...

    2013-07-05

    ..., Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Semiconductors); Austin, Texas Samsung Austin Semiconductor, LLC (Samsung), operator of Subzone 183B, submitted a... June 26, 2013. Samsung currently has authority to produce semiconductor memory devices for export...

  4. Changes in primary productivity and chlorophyll a in response to iron fertilization in the Southern Polar Frontal Zone

    Gervais, F.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gorbunov, MY

    2002-01-01

    EisenEx�the second in situ iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean�was performed in the Atlantic sector over 3 weeks in November 2000 with the overarching goal to test the hypothesis that primary productivity in the Southern Ocean is limited by iron availability in the austral spring. Underwater irradiance, chlorophyll a (Chl a), photochemical efficiency, and primary productivity were measured inside and outside of an iron-enriched patch in order to quantify the response of phytoplan...

  5. The development of isomerization catalysts for production of high-octane products

    Pedrosa, A.M. Garrido; Melo, D.M.A.; Araujo, A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, M.J.B.; Silva, A.O.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    In current petroleum industry, paraffins larger than C5 are used for catalytic reform. The catalytic reform is one of the most important processes for petroleum refine in reason of all reactions they drive to production of high-octane products. Reformate has high-octane products, but they contain 60% aromatics. Isomerization of C5- C7 can improve the octane number. The octane number of n-heptane is zero and increases after isomerization. For tri branched C7, the octane number reaches 113, which is higher than that of benzene. So, isomerization of C5-C7 is suggested to be a reasonable way to replace or partly replace the catalytic reforming process. It can decrease aromatics content with enhancement of octane number. Liquid acid catalysts were widely used in chemical industry in past decades. However, they face strong environmental challenges. The heavy corrosion of the reactor system is one of the main problems. Thus, solid acid catalysts are investigated for the isomerization reactions. The aim of this work is to develop a catalysts for the production of reformate products. Isomerization is catalyzed by metal-acid bifunctional catalysts. The metal components aid in hydrogenation, while the support, such as, zirconium, clays or zeolites, is the acidic component. (author)

  6. Free radical production by high energy shock waves--comparison with ionizing irradiation.

    Morgan, T R; Laudone, V P; Heston, W D; Zeitz, L; Fair, W R

    1988-01-01

    Fricke chemical dosimetry is used as an indirect measure of the free radical production of ionizing irradiation. We adapted the Fricke ferrous sulfate radiation dosimeter to examine the chemical effects of high energy shock waves. Significant free radical production was documented. The reaction was dose dependent, predictably increased by acoustic impedance, but curvilinear. A thousand shocks at 18 kilovolts induced the same free radical oxidation as 1100 rad cobalt-60 gamma ionizing irradiation, increasing to 2900 rad in the presence of an air-fluid zone of acoustic impedance. The biological effect of these free radicals was compared to that of cobalt-60 ionizing irradiation by measuring the affect on Chinese hamster cells by clonogenic assay. While cobalt-60 irradiation produced a marked decrease in clonogenic survivors, little effect was noted with high energy shock waves. This suggested that the chemical effects produced by shock waves were either absent or attenuated in the cells, or were inherently less toxic than those of ionizing irradiation.

  7. Impact of ecological diversity on genetic and phytochemical variation injuniperus excelsa from high elevation zones of quetta valley, pakistan

    Seed, S.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Ahmed, A.; Tareen, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56+-9.15 and 150+-27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used

  8. Effects of low pH on decomposition, primary production and nutrient recycling in the littoral zone. Effekter ev lav ph pa produksjon, nedbrytning og stoffkretslop i littoralsonen

    Laake, M

    1976-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in Tovdal, Southern Norway, to investigate the effects of low pH on decomposition, primary production and nutrient recycling in the littoral zone of softwater lakes. Sediment cores were incubated in throughflow boxes at pH 4, variable pH (4.5 to 5.6) and pH 6 at natural temperature conditions. One dark experiment with cores enriched with allochtonous material, and one natural light experiment with natural cores were conducted, lasting for 6 and 3 months respectively. The results show an overall reduction in decomposition with increasing acidity as measured by oxygen uptake and glucose turnover, although successions and adaptions occurred in enriched cores. Primary production of the flowering plant Lobelia dortmanna l. was inhibited at pH 4, while the acid conditions favoured epiphytic growth of the filamentous algae Mougeotia sp. turnover of phosphate reflected the activity of decomposers, while no pH-effect of phosphate uptake in plants was evident. Enriched cores developed heavy growth of ilamentous fungi at the surface, indicating a shift from bacterial to fungal decomposition with increasing acidity. More reduced conditions in sediments with increasing acidity were observed in some cases, which may be due to reduced oxygen diffusion through surface layers of gelatinous masses of fungi and bacteria. The results correlate very well with field observations of increased accumulation of organics and a reduction in macrophyte vegetation reported from Swedish lakes. It is concluded that the effects observed may have serious implications for the productivity in the littoral zone and in oligotrophic soft water lakes as a whole.

  9. Mercury net methylation in five tropical flood plain regions of Brazil: high in the root zone of floating macrophyte mats but low in surface sediments and flooded soils.

    Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Hylander, L D; de Castro e Silva, E; Roulet, M; Mauro, J B; de Lemos, R

    2000-10-16

    1.8 to 35%. Methylation was lower in washed roots than in untreated roots of E. azurea and methylation in solids isolated from the roots, was higher than in sediments but lower than in untreated roots. This indicates that the methylation in roots zones occurs mainly in the root-associated solids. Floating meadows are sites of intense production of biomass and of highly bioavailable MeHg and appear to be an essential link of the MeHg cycle in tropical aquatic systems.

  10. Construction Guide to Next-Generation High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 - Part 1: 2x6 Walls

    Kochkin, V. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Part 1 of this Construction Guide to High-Performance Walls in Climate Zones 3-5 provides time-proven, practical, and cost-effective strategies for constructing durable, energy-efficient walls. It addresses walls constructed with 2x6 wood frame studs, wood structural panel (WSP) exterior sheathing, and a cladding system installed over WSP sheathing in low-rise residential buildings up to three stories high.

  11. High temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    Herring, J. Stephen; O'brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from water splitting, which can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) or thermochemical processes. In order to achieve competitive efficiencies, both processes require high-temperature operation (∼850degC). High-temperature electrolytic water splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce hydrogen with overall system efficiencies of 45 to 55%. At the Idaho National Laboratory, we are developing solid-oxide cells to operate in the steam electrolysis mode. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Experimental results were obtained from ten-cell and 22-cell planar electrolysis stacks, fabricated by Ceramatec, Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (∼200 μm thick, 64 cm 2 active area), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions, gas glow rates, and current densities. Hydrogen production rates greater than 100 normal liters per hour for 196 hours have been demonstrated. In order to evaluate the performance of large-scale HTE operations, we have developed single-cell models, based on FLUENT, and a process model, using the systems-analysis code HYSYS. (author)

  12. Subventricular zone predicts high velocity of tumor expansion and poor clinical outcome in patients with low grade astrocytoma.

    Wen, Bing; Fu, Feixian; Hu, Liangbo; Cai, Qiuyi; Xie, Junshi

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the association between subventricular zone (SVZ) involvement and velocity of diametric expansion(VDE) in patients with low-grade astrocytoma and also assessed the clinical outcome of those patients. A total of 168 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial low-grade astrocytoma were studied retrospectively. There were 73 patients had SVZ involvement. Patients with SVZ involvement(7.16 ± 6.53 mm/y) had a higher VDE than patients without SVZ involvement(4.38 ± 5.35 mm/y). VDE was modeled as a categorical variable(<4, ≥4 and, <8, ≥8 and, <12, ≥12 mm/y). Logistic regression showed that SVZ involvement was associated with high VDE after adjusting by confounding variables. On the univariate analysis, the results showed that tumor involved with SVZ, VDE ≥ 4 mm/y, VDE ≥ 8 mm/y, and VDE ≥ 8 mm/y were significant predictors of a shorter OS, progression-free survival (PFS) and malignant progression-free survival (MFS)(all p <0.05). The categorical variables of VDE (<4 mm/y, ≥4 mm/y and, <8 mm/y, ≥8 mm/y and, <12 mm/y, ≥12 mm/y) were adjusted by confounding variables in multivariate analysis, respectively. The results indicated that VDE ≥ 8 mm/y, VDE ≥ 12 mm/y were worse prognostic factors for OS, while VDE ≥ 4 mm/y, VDE ≥ 8 mm/y and VDE ≥ 12 mm/y were related to shorter PFS and MFS. In addition, SVZ involvement was prognostic factors in predicting OS and PFS except MFS. Our results demonstrated that SVZ involvement predicted high VDE and worse clinical outcome, and high VDE was associated with poor prognosis in patients with low-grade astrocytoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  14. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-01-01

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  15. Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.

    Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2010-06-01

    Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High productivity mould robotic milling in Al-5083

    Urresti, Iker; Arrazola, Pedro Jose; Ørskov, Klaus Bonde; Pelegay, Jose Angel

    2018-05-01

    Industrial serial robots were usually limited to welding, handling or spray painting operations until very recent years. However, some industries have already realized about their important capabilities in terms of flexibility, working space, adaptability and cost. Hence, currently they are seriously being considered to carry out certain metal machining tasks. Therefore, robot based machining is presented as a cost-saving and flexible manufacturing alternative compared to conventional CNC machines especially for roughing or even pre-roughing of large parts. Nevertheless, there are still some drawbacks usually referred as low rigidity, accuracy and repeatability. Thus, the process productivity is usually sacrificed getting low Material Removal Rates (MRR), and consequently not being competitive. Nevertheless, in this paper different techniques to obtain increased productivity are presented, though an appropriate selection of cutting strategies and parameters that are essential for it. During this research some rough milling tests in Al-5083 are presented where High Feed Milling (HFM) is implemented as productive cutting strategy and the experimental modal analysis named Tap-testing is used for the suitable choice of cutting conditions. Competitive productivity rates are experienced while process stability is checked through the cutting forces measurements in order to prove the effectiveness of the experimental modal analysis for robotic machining.

  17. 3D analysis of high ozone production rates observed during the ESCOMPTE campaign

    Coll, Isabelle; Pinceloup, Stéphanie; Perros, Pascal E.; Laverdet, Gérard; Le Bras, Georges

    2005-03-01

    The development of environmental policies to reduce the ozone levels around large agglomerations requires a good understanding of the development of ozone episodes. In particular, it is necessary to know the location and photochemical activity of the plume where ozone is formed. Measurement campaigns make it possible not only to characterize the concentration fields of ozone and its precursors but also to identify the zones of strong ozone production, by means of specific measurements and kinetic calculations. The combination of the observation-based data with numerical simulations allows to better characterize photochemical pollution. This paper presents a study carried out within the ESCOMPTE program and based on the determination of ozone production rates by experimental and numerical methods: ground measurements of peroxy radicals, NO x at a rural site, airborne measurements of NO X and O 3, Eulerian modeling. The reported case is of particular interest since it corresponds to an episode with very different photochemical situations. The diurnal variations of the peroxy radical concentration are analyzed in relation to those of ozone and its precursors. Ozone production rates— P(O 3)-are studied over one particular day. The results show particularly high concentrations of RO 2+HO 2 at ground level (up to 200 pptv) under the influence of the urban and industrial plume, but also highlight very high production rates of ozone (60 to 80 ppbv h -1) a few tens of kilometers from the sources. The results show satisfactory agreement between the various approaches. Modeling provides a four-dimensional (4D) description of the plumes, in particular the relation between the ozone precursor concentrations and P(O 3) on the ground.

  18. Industrial plants for production of highly enriched nitrogen-15

    Krell, E.; Jonas, C.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the present stage of development of large-scale enrichment of 15 N. The most important processes utilized to separate nitrogen isotopes, namely chemical exchange in the NO/NO 2 /HNO 3 system and low-temperature distillation of NO at -151 0 C, are compared, especially with respect to their economics and use of energy. As examples, chemical exchange plants in the GDR are discussed, and the research activities necessary to optimize the process, especially to solve aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, interface and processing problems, are reviewed. Good results were obtained by the choice of an optimum location and the design of a plant for pre-enrichment to 10 at.% 15 N and an automatically operating two-section cascade for the high enrichment of 15 N to more than 99 at.%. The chemical industry has taken over operation of the plant with the consequence that the raw materials are all available without additional transport. All by-products (nitrous gases and sulphuric acid) are returned for use elsewhere within the industry. The technology of the plant has been chosen so that the quantity of highly enriched product can be varied within a wide range. The final product is used to synthesize more than 250 different 15 N-labelled compounds which are also produced on an industrial scale. (author)

  19. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  20. Analysis of production factors in high performance concrete

    Gilberto Carbonari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of silica fume and superplasticizers in high strength and high performance concrete, along with a low water-cement ratio, leads to significant changes in the workability and the energy needed to homogenize and compact the concrete. Moreover, several aspects of concrete production that are not critical for conventional concrete are important for high strength concrete. This paper will discuss the need for controlling the humidity of the aggregates, optimizing the mixing sequence used in the fabrication, and the slump loss. The application of a silica fume concrete in typical building columns will be analyzed considering the required consolidation, the variability of the material strength within the structural element and the relation between core and molded specimen strength. Comparisons will also be made with conventional concrete.

  1. Mechanism of formation of a zone without vacancy pores along a surface under electron irradiation of a metal in the high-volt electron microscope

    Golubov, S.I.; Konobeev, Yu.V.; Ryabov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Formation mechanism of zones free of vacancy pores near the vacant surface of a metal preliminary irradiated at a high neutron dose when irradiating with electrons in a high-voltage electron microscope has been suggested. It was assumed to explain experimentally observed values of width and time of such zone formation that interstitial atoms are reflected from foil surface while boundary serves as an ideal sink for the vacancies. The carried out calculation of stationary equations of vacancy and interstitial diffusion with the mentioned boundary condition has shown that determination of a stable zone width is possible only in assumption on a variable in a depth of dislocation density. Theoretical evaluations of a zone width being in good agreement with an experiment and with the results of numerical calculations have been obtained in negligence of recombination of point defects as well as for the case of total reflection of interstitials. Discussed are different mechanisms of weak capture of proper interstitial atoms diffusing to it with the metal surface [ru

  2. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  3. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  4. Come and Try out our High-Tech Products

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Since 1977, GMP has been active in the fields of lasers, spectroscopy, electro-optics and micro-positioning. Its mission is to act as a link between suppliers and users of high-technology products. On Thursday 27 November 2008, between 10.00 a.m. and 12.00 a.m., come and discover our new positioning, spectroscopy and laser products in Room 60-2-016 – Main Building. Our specialist engineer will be on hand to answer all your questions. An aperitif will be served at the end of the presentation. Contact: GMP SA Raffael Favaretto Ing. microtech. dipl. EPF Av. des Baumettes 17 CH-1020 Renens / SWITZERLAND Phone : +41 21 633 21 21 Direct : +41 21 633 21 27 Fax : +41 21 633 21 29 raffael.favaretto@gmp.ch http://www.gmp.ch

  5. Come and Try out our High-Tech Products

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Since 1977, GMP has been active in the fields of lasers, spectroscopy, electro-optics and micro-positioning. Its mission is to act as a link between suppliers and users of high-technology products. On Thursday 27 November 2008, between 10.00 a.m. and 12.00 a.m. come and discover our new positioning, spectroscopy and laser products in Room 60-2-016 – Main Building. Our specialist engineer will be on hand to answer all your questions. An aperitif will be served at the end of the presentation. Contact: GMP SA Raffael Favaretto Ing. microtech. dipl. EPF Av. des Baumettes 17 CH-1020 Renens / SWITZERLAND Phone : +41 21 633 21 21 Direct : +41 21 633 21 27 Fax : +41 21 633 21 29 mailto:raffael.favaretto@gmp.ch http://www.gmp.ch

  6. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, Jon M.

    1999-01-01

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year

  7. Cascading trophic interactions in the littoral zone: an enclosure experiment in shallow Lake Stigsholm, Denmark

    Jeppesen, E.; Søndergaard, M.; Søndergaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of grazer versus resource control has been extensively studied in the pelagic zone of lakes. In contrast, comparatively little is known about trophic interactions within the littoral zone. We conducted an experiment in the littoral zone of a eutrophic shallow lake using six 20 m2......, zooplankton grazing was equivalent to production in M+, but amounted to littoral zones do not alone feed on particles produced in the water, but also exploit alternative sources such as periphyton...... hypothesize that the strong cascading effects of zooplankton on chlorophyll-a and microorganisms in the littoral zone at natural fish densities are restricted to eutrophic lakes with high plant densities....

  8. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  9. Bacterial and phytoplankton production in the maximum turbidity zone of three European estuaries: the Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde

    Goosen, N.K.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Peene, J.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and production of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in spring are presented for three turbid European estuaries, the Elbe (Germany), the Westerschelde (The Netherlands) and the Gironde (France), with emphasis on the effect of turbidity on microbial community densities and activities.

  10. 78 FR 79390 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 265-Conroe, Texas, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Bauer...

    2013-12-30

    ... produce pile drivers and leads, boring machinery, foundation construction equipment, foundation casings... payments on the foreign status components used in export production. On its domestic sales, Bauer would be... and leads, boring machinery, foundation construction equipment, foundation casings, and tools and...

  11. 78 FR 33052 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 267-Fargo, North Dakota; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-06-03

    ...%) for the foreign status inputs noted below and in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties also... Agricultural Equipment Production); Fargo, North Dakota The Fargo Municipal Airport Authority, grantee of FTZ... within Site 2 of FTZ 267. The facilities currently have FTZ authority to produce tractors, wheel loaders...

  12. 78 FR 58273 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 7-Mayaguez, Puerto Rico: Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-09-23

    ... polyvinylpirrolidone and for the inputs in the existing scope of authority. Customs duties could also be deferred or... (15 CFR 400.22) was received on August 28, 2013. Patheon already has authority to produce... authority (the associated final product is already in its scope). Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), additional...

  13. 78 FR 37785 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 196-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    2013-06-24

    ... Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile... facility is used for the assembly, kitting, programming, testing, packaging, warehousing and distribution of mobile phones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign...

  14. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  15. High flux transmutation of fission products and actinides

    Gerasimov, A.; Kiselev, G.; Myrtsymova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived fission products and minor actinides accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of power reactors comprise the major part of high level radwaste. Their incineration is important from the point of view of radwaste management. Transmutation of these nuclides by means of neutron irradiation can be performed either in conventional nuclear reactors, or in specialized transmutation reactors, or in ADS facilities with subcritical reactor and neutron source with application of proton accelerator. Different types of transmutation nuclear facilities can be used in order to insure optimal incineration conditions for radwaste. The choice of facility type for optimal transmutation should be based on the fundamental data in the physics of nuclide transformations. Transmutation of minor actinides leads to the increase of radiotoxicity during irradiation. It takes significant time compared to the lifetime of reactor facility to achieve equilibrium without effective transmutation. High flux nuclear facilities allow to minimize these draw-backs of conventional facilities with both thermal and fast neutron spectrum. They provide fast approach to equilibrium and low level of equilibrium mass and radiotoxicity of transmuted actinides. High flux facilities are advantageous also for transmutation of long-lived fission products as they provide short incineration time

  16. High temperature fast reactor for hydrogen production in Brazil

    Nascimento, Jamil A. do; Ono, Shizuca; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.

    2008-01-01

    The main nuclear reactors technology for the Generation IV, on development phase for utilization after 2030, is the fast reactor type with high temperature output to improve the efficiency of the thermo-electric conversion process and to enable applications of the generated heat in industrial process. Currently, water electrolysis and thermo chemical cycles using very high temperature are studied for large scale and long-term hydrogen production, in the future. With the possible oil scarcity and price rise, and the global warming, this application can play an important role in the changes of the world energy matrix. In this context, it is proposed a fast reactor with very high output temperature, ∼ 1000 deg C. This reactor will have a closed fuel cycle; it will be cooled by lead and loaded with nitride fuel. This reactor may be used for hydrogen, heat and electricity production in Brazil. It is discussed a development strategy of the necessary technologies and some important problems are commented. The proposed concept presents characteristics that meet the requirements of the Generation IV reactor class. (author)

  17. Enhanced Enzymatic Production of Cephalexin at High Substrate Concentration with in situ Product Removal by Complexation

    Dengchao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin (CEX was synthesized with 7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA and D(–-phenylglycine methyl ester (PGME using immobilized penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli. It was found that substrate concentration and in situ product could remarkably influence the ratio of synthesis to hydrolysis (S/H and the efficiency of CEX synthesis. The optimal ratio of enzyme to substrate was 65 IU/mM 7-ADCA. High substrate concentration improved the 7-ADCA conversion from 61 to 81 % in the process without in situ product removal (ISPR, while in the synthetic process with ISPR, high substrate concentration increased the 7-ADCA conversion from 88 to 98 %. CEX was easily separated from CEX/β-naphthol complex and its purity and overall yield were 99 and 70 %, respectively.

  18. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  19. Multiple vacancy production by high energy heavy ions

    Becker, R.L.; Ford, A.L.; Reading, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of atomic collisions has two ingredients: collision theory and atomic structure theory. The collision theories differ with respect to (A) the collision dynamics and (B) the treatment of the relative motion of the projectile and target nuclei. With regard to the dynamics multiple vacancy production is of fundamental interest because it is a signature for and probe of strong interactions between the projectile and the target electrons. For projectiles of large nuclear charge, Z/sub p/, especially for those which are highly stripped so as to have a large ionic charge, q, the interaction becomes strong enough to give a high probability of multiple vacancy production and a breakdown of perturbation theory. The familiar first and second Born approximations and their off-shoots cease to be adequate. Not even the recent strong-potential Born approximation (see Taulbjerg 1984) is sufficient, because the weaker of the potentials generated by the projectile and the target nuclei, respectively, is treated in first order. One needs a unitary, non-perturbative collision theory. At present this is generally available for multiple vacancy production only in the form of the highly numerical coupled channels theory (Becker et al. 1983, 1984b). For special problems analytically tractable models have been devised. For example, a simple, unitary, geometrical encounter probability model for the calculation of p/sub L/(0), the inclusive L-shell vacancy probability per electron in collisions with impact parameter B = 0, has been introduced by Sulik et al. (1984) and further developed by Sulik and Hock (1984). Along with earlier coupled-channels calculations (Becker et al. 1984ab) and first Magnus calculations (Becker et al. 1984b), this model is able to describe the saturation of p/sub L/(0) with Z/sub p/ at fixed impact speed, v, whereas all the first-order theories predict p/sub L/ proportional to Z/sub p/ 2 , which eventually exceeds unity

  20. Effect of sediment composition on methane concentration and production in the transition zone of a mangrove (Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    Marinho, C C; Campos, E A; Guimarães, J R D; Esteves, F A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sediment composition on methane (CH4) dynamics in sediments of different areas in the transition zone between a mangrove and the sea. This research was conducted in a mangrove at Coroa Grande, on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected at three stations: (1) region colonised by Rhizophora mangle L. on the edge of the mangrove, (2) region colonised by seagrasses and (3) infra-littoral region without vegetation. Samples were collected from the surface layer of the sediment to determine the concentrations of nutrients (C, N and P) and CH4 concentration and production. We observed that concentrations of CH4 and carbon (C) were significantly higher (p Mangrove Coroa Grande is a function of available OM suggesting a possible inhibition of methanotrophy by intense oxygen consumption in the soil surface covered by detritus of Rhizophora mangle vegetation.

  1. Multi-lepton production at high transverse momentum at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-06-01

    A search for events containing two or more high-transverse-momentum isolated leptons has been performed in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using the full collected data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 480 pb -1 . The number of observed events has been compared with the prediction from the Standard Model, searching for possible deviations, especially for multi- lepton events with invariant mass larger than 100 GeV. Good agreement with the Standard Model has been observed. Total and differential cross sections for di-lepton production have been measured in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions. (orig.)

  2. Leptoquark production at high energy e+e- colliders

    Bluemlein, J.; Boos, E.

    1994-08-01

    The prospects to search for scalar and vector leptoquarks at high energy e + e - colliders are reviewed. We compare production cross sections in the energy range between √s=O(200 GeV) and 1 TeV for e + e - annihilation. QED and QCD corrections and the effect of beamstrahlung in these processes are discussed. For the case of linear colliders the search potential in the different possible collider modes as e + e - annihilation, e ± γ scattering, and γγ fusion is compared. (orig.)

  3. High PT leptons and single W boson production at HERA

    Korcsak-Gorzo, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    A search for isolated electrons and muons with high transverse momentum in events with large missing transverse momentum has been conducted. The results have been found to be compatible with the Standard Model expectations. The cross section for single W production has been measured and the total cross section in electron-proton collisions at HERA has been found to be σ(ep → eWX) = 0.93 -0.23 +0.26 (stat.)±0.08(syst.) pb. The measurements are based on the complete available ZEUS data sets from the HERA I and II running periods taken between 1994-2007. (orig.)

  4. Multi-lepton production at high transverse momentum at HERA

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    A search for events containing two or more high-transverse-momentum isolated leptons has been performed in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using the full collected data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 480 pb{sup -1}. The number of observed events has been compared with the prediction from the Standard Model, searching for possible deviations, especially for multi- lepton events with invariant mass larger than 100 GeV. Good agreement with the Standard Model has been observed. Total and differential cross sections for di-lepton production have been measured in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions. (orig.)

  5. A high-level product representation for automatic design reasoning

    Kroll, E.; Qamar, Z.; Mohammad, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    A high-level product representation has been developed and implemented, using features for part description and mating conditions between features for the relationships among parts. The underlying ideas are that features are necessary for effective design representation; that spatial and functional relationships among parts of an assembly are best expressed through mating conditions; that assembly features of a part may, at times, be different from its manufacturing features; and that a good representation should be natural, intelligent, comprehensive, and integrated with a visual display. Some new mating conditions have been defined and classified. Several problems concerning the use of features with mating conditions are discussed.

  6. High availability based on production information systems research and practice

    Lu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Through the presentation of the production information system application deployment in Qinshan Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., combined with CEAS failure to deal with, respectively, in the server (operating system), database and application software on-going monitoring and tuning of the actual cases are discussed: For the system to maintain a high availability, performance and security, not only on the server (operating system) for rational allocation and deployment, but also the need for database and application software to optimize the well-designed and sustained. (authors)

  7. [Carbon balance of household production system in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China].

    Wu, Chao Chao; Gao, Xiao Ye; Hou, Fu Jiang

    2017-10-01

    The transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the regions with most dramatic changes in agricultural production mode and most sensitive response to the carbon balance effect. This paper analyzed the carbon balance of the agriculture system along the altitude gradient in Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe counties. The results showed that with the increase of altitude, the carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon sink capacity of crops per unit area decreased accordingly, while the average carbon emission, carbon fixation and carbon source capacity of each household in livestock system increased. The integrated crop-livestock production system changed from carbon sink to carbon source. The average carbon emission of each household rose with altitude, but the carbon fixation was the opposite. The change of percentage ofhousehold in the transition zone from the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with carbon balance could be fitted with Logistic equation. In the crop system of Tongwei, Weiyuan and Xiahe with the altitude increase, carbon emission at the inflection point where the household percentage accounted for 50.0% was 1491, 857 and 376 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6187, 3872 and 778 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the livestock system, carbon emission was 2218, 3725 and 49511 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 138, 230 and 2706 kg CE·household -1 , respectively. For the integrated crop-livestock system, carbon emission was 3615, 4583 and 49918 kg CE·household -1 , and carbon fixation was 6289, 4113 and 3819 kg CE·household -1 , respectively, which could be the key point for the regulation of regional carbon balance.

  8. Comparison of primary production and pelagic community respiration rates in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk

    Joanna K. York

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The organic matter production/respiration balance in the coastal water column was examined, both the primary production and community respiration being measured with the oxygen light-and-dark bottle method. Community respiration (CR was always lower than the gross primary production (GPP measured at a standard light intensity of 390 µE m-2 s-1, which amounted, on average, to 30% of GPP. During most of the in situ sampling period, the coastal system (6-7 m depth was found to be autotrophic, with depth-integrated GPP ranging from 6.7 mmoles O2 m-2 d-1 in December to 214.2 mmoles O2 m-2 d-1 in August, and CR ranging correspondingly from 6.0 to 177.7 mmoles O2 m-2 d-1. However, on some occasions heterotrophic conditions were recorded: depth-integrated GPP

  9. High Glucose Promotes Aβ Production by Inhibiting APP Degradation

    Zhang, Shuting; Song, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal deposition of neuriticplaques is the uniqueneuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).Amyloid β protein (Aβ), the major component of plaques, is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloidβ precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase complex. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by chronic hyperglycemia,have increased risk of AD development.However, the role of high blood glucose in APP processing and Aβ generation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of high glucose on APP metabolism and Aβ generation in cultured human cells. We found that high glucose treatment significantly increased APP protein level in both neuronal-like and non-neuronal cells, and promoted Aβ generation. Furthermore, we found that high glucose-induced increase of APP level was not due to enhancement of APP gene transcription but resulted from inhibition of APP protein degradation. Taken together, our data indicated that hyperglycemia could promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting APP degradation and enhancing Aβ production. More importantly, the elevation of APP level and Aβ generation by high glucose was caused by reduction of APP turnover rate.Thus,our study provides a molecular mechanism of increased risk of developing AD in patients withDMand suggests thatglycemic control might be potentially beneficial for reducing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying the AD progression. PMID:23894546

  10. Study on hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam

    Hino, Ryutaro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Tomo-o.

    1997-09-01

    In JAERI, design and R and D works on hydrogen production process have been conducted for connecting to the HTTR under construction at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI as a nuclear heat utilization system. As for a hydrogen production process by high-temperature electrolysis of steam, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out with a practical electrolysis tube with 12 cells connected in series. Hydrogen was produced at a maximum density of 44 Nml/cm 2 h at 950degC, and know-how of operational procedures and operational experience were also accumulated. Thereafter, a planar electrolysis cell supported by a metallic plate was fabricated in order to improve hydrogen production performance and durability against thermal cycles. In the preliminary test with the planar cell, hydrogen has been produced continuously at a maximum density of 33.6 Nml/cm 2 h at an electrolysis temperature of 950degC. This report presents typical test results mentioned above, a review of previous studies conducted in the world and R and D items required for connecting to the HTTR. (author)

  11. Intelligent technologies in process of highly-precise products manufacturing

    Vakhidova, K. L.; Khakimov, Z. L.; Isaeva, M. R.; Shukhin, V. V.; Labazanov, M. A.; Ignatiev, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main control methods of the surface layer of bearing parts is the eddy current testing method. Surface layer defects of bearing parts, like burns, cracks and some others, are reflected in the results of the rolling surfaces scan. The previously developed method for detecting defects from the image of the raceway was quite effective, but the processing algorithm is complicated and lasts for about 12 ... 16 s. The real non-stationary signals from an eddy current transducer (ECT) consist of short-time high-frequency and long-time low-frequency components, therefore a transformation is used for their analysis, which provides different windows for different frequencies. The wavelet transform meets these conditions. Based on aforesaid, a methodology for automatically detecting and recognizing local defects in bearing parts surface layer has been developed on the basis of wavelet analysis using integral estimates. Some of the defects are recognized by the amplitude component, otherwise an automatic transition to recognition by the phase component of information signals (IS) is carried out. The use of intelligent technologies in the manufacture of bearing parts will, firstly, significantly improve the quality of bearings, and secondly, significantly improve production efficiency by reducing (eliminating) rejections in the manufacture of products, increasing the period of normal operation of the technological equipment (inter-adjustment period), the implementation of the system of Flexible facilities maintenance, as well as reducing production costs.

  12. Higgs boson production by very high energy neutrinos

    Mikaelian, K.O.; Oakes, R.J.

    1978-11-01

    Higgs bosons may be produced by bremsstrahlung off a virtual W/sup +-/ or a Z 0 exchanged in a charged or neutral current neutrino interaction. The production cross sections are calculated, and it is pointed out that they cannot grow quadratically with E/sub nu/ as had been suggested earlier, and it is argued that at best they can increase like the square of ln s/M 2 /sub W,Z/ at very high energies. Using a simple approximation for the propagator effect, numerical results in the high energy regime 1 TeV less than or equal to E/sub nu/ less than or equal to 1000 TeV appropriate for DUMAND. 9 references

  13. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Arvai, Kevin J; Hsu, Ya-Hsuan; Lee, Lobin A; Jones, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC. We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC) markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5%) but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%). There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases. In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. This

  14. A Transition Zone Showing Highly Discontinuous or Alternating Levels of Stem Cell and Proliferation Markers Characterizes the Development of PTEN-Haploinsufficient Colorectal Cancer.

    Kevin J Arvai

    Full Text Available Stepwise acquisition of oncogene mutations and deletion/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes characterize the development of colorectal cancer (CRC. These genetic events interact with discrete morphologic transitions from hyperplastic mucosa to adenomatous areas, followed by in situ malignant transformation and finally invasive carcinoma. The goal of this study was to identify tissue markers of the adenoma-carcinoma morphogenetic transitions in CRC.We analyzed the patterns of expression of growth regulatory and stem cell markers across these distinct morphologic transition zones in 735 primary CRC tumors. In 202 cases with preserved adenoma-adenocarcinoma transition, we identified, in 37.1% of cases, a zone of adenomatous epithelium, located immediately adjacent to the invasive component, that showed rapidly alternating intraglandular stretches of PTEN+ and PTEN- epithelium. This zone exactly overlapped with similar alternating expression of Ki-67 and inversely with the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β growth regulator SMAD4. These zones also show parallel alternating levels and/or subcellular localization of multiple cancer stem/progenitor cell (CSC markers, including β-catenin/CTNNB1, ALDH1, and CD44. PTEN was always re-expressed in the invasive tumor in these cases, unlike those with complete loss of PTEN expression. Genomic microarray analysis of CRC with prominent CSC-like expansions demonstrated a high frequency of PTEN genomic deletion/haploinsufficiency in tumors with CSC-like transition zones (62.5% but not in tumors with downregulated but non-alternating PTEN expression (14.3%. There were no significant differences in the levels of KRAS mutation or CTNNB1 mutation in CSC-like tumors as compared to unselected CRC cases.In conclusion, we have identified a distinctive CSC-like pre-invasive transition zone in PTEN-haploinsufficient CRC that shows convergent on-off regulation of the PTEN/AKT, TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt

  15. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  16. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  17. The production of the heavy pig for high quality processed products

    Paolo Bosi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the topics presented below, with experimental data and more evidence for some aspects which areproblematic for the pig producer. To obtain high quality processed pig products, heavy pig production in Italy is subjectedto rules fixed by several Consortia, on the basis of the experience of producers and the results from scientific research.Slaughter animals of at least 9 months of age and 160 kg live weight are required to provide heavy cuts with excellentmeat. Breeds are limited to Italian Large White and Landrace, selected for specific parameters such as loss at 1st saltingof the ham, and their crosses. Crosses with Duroc and hybrids can be used if obtained from selection and crossingschemes that fit the objectives of Italian selection. Backfat thickness must be “sufficient” to obtain retailed fresh hamswith fat cover ranging from 20 to 30 mm, depending on ham weight, and the content of linoleic acid in ham fat covercannot exceed 15%. Fat quantity and quality in feeds should be carefully controlled to satisfy the quality of fat in theham. The feeding level is also relevant, due to the imposed minimum age at slaughter. Feed restriction is a necessarypractice to respect the rules for ham production. For castrate males of medium genetic value, the restriction shouldreduce fat deposition, but the diet composition can be adapted to maintain the maximum growth of protein. For strainswith high lean deposition potential and particularly for gilts, protein deposition should also be limited to maintain a sufficientfat cover of ham.

  18. Production of high-specific activity radionuclides using SM high-flux reactor

    Karelin, Ye.A.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Filimonov, V.T.; Vakhetov, F.Z.; Tarasov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Lebedev, V.M.; Andreev, O.I.; Melnik, M.I.; Gavrilov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of High Specific Activity (HSA) radionuclides production technologies is one of the directions of RIAR activity, and the high flux research reactor SM, having neutron flux density up to 2.10 15 cm -2 s 1 in a wide range of neutron spectra hardness, plays the principal role in this development. The use of a high-flux reactor for radionuclide production provides the following advantages: production of radionuclides with extremely high specific activity, decreasing of impurities content in irradiated targets (both radioactive and non-radioactive), cost-effective use of expensive isotopically enriched target materials. The production technologies of P-33, Gd-153, W-188, Ni-63, Fe-55,59, Sn-113,117m,119m, Sr- 89, applied in industry, nuclear medicine, research, etc, were developed by RIAR during the last 5-10 years. The research work included the development of calculation procedures for radionuclide reactor accumulation forecast, experimental determination of neutron cross-sections, the development of irradiated materials reprocessing procedures, isolation and purification of radionuclides. The principal results are reviewed in the paper. (authors)

  19. Production process for high density high performance binderless boards from whole coconut husk

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Coconuts are typically growing in coastal areas of tropical countries. The husk is abundantly available as cheap residue from coconut production in many areas, which is known to yield the coarse coir fibre. In this project a simple and efficient technology has been developed to produce high

  20. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  1. Detection and evaluation of corrosion zones at high temperature in steam generators; Deteccion y evaluacion de zonas de corrosion en alta temperatura de generadoras de vapor

    Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Chacon Nava, Jose G.; Huerta Espino, Mario; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio; Castillo Viveros, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the methodology for the detection and evaluation of high corrosion zones at high temperature. The results found up to now, show a critical zone in the Babcock Hitachi design, specifically in the high temperature reheater in the zone nearby the outlet header. In the normalized design CE (Mitsubishi) of 300 MW and CE (Canada) of 300 MW, the results found in recent years show small thickness reduction, therefore a good operation of these steam generators is recognized. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la metodologia para la deteccion y evaluacion de zonas de corrosion en alta temperatura. Los resultados encontrados hasta el momento muestran una zona critica en el diseno Babcock Hitachi, especificamente en el recalentador de alta temperatura en la zona cercana al cabezal de salida. En el diseno normalizado CE (Mitsubishi) de 300 MW y CE (Canada) de 300 MW, los resultados encontrados en anos recientes muestran poca disminucion de espesor, por lo que se considera una buena operacion de estos generadores de vapor.

  2. Detection and evaluation of corrosion zones at high temperature in steam generators; Deteccion y evaluacion de zonas de corrosion en alta temperatura de generadoras de vapor

    Martinez Villafane, Alberto; Chacon Nava, Jose G; Huerta Espino, Mario; Mojica Calderon, Cecilio; Castillo Viveros, Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents the methodology for the detection and evaluation of high corrosion zones at high temperature. The results found up to now, show a critical zone in the Babcock Hitachi design, specifically in the high temperature reheater in the zone nearby the outlet header. In the normalized design CE (Mitsubishi) of 300 MW and CE (Canada) of 300 MW, the results found in recent years show small thickness reduction, therefore a good operation of these steam generators is recognized. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta la metodologia para la deteccion y evaluacion de zonas de corrosion en alta temperatura. Los resultados encontrados hasta el momento muestran una zona critica en el diseno Babcock Hitachi, especificamente en el recalentador de alta temperatura en la zona cercana al cabezal de salida. En el diseno normalizado CE (Mitsubishi) de 300 MW y CE (Canada) de 300 MW, los resultados encontrados en anos recientes muestran poca disminucion de espesor, por lo que se considera una buena operacion de estos generadores de vapor.

  3. Sound Zones

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  4. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  5. Shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Heon Il

    2004-06-01

    In order to develop shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility, references and data for high energy neutron shielding are searched and collected, and calculations to obtain the characteristics of neutron shield materials are performed. For the evaluation of characteristics of neutron shield material, it is chosen not only general shield materials such as concrete, polyethylene, etc., but also KAERI developed neutron shields of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) mixed with boron compound (B 2 O 3 , H 2 BO 3 , Borax). Neutron attenuation coefficients for these materials are obtained for later use in shielding design. The effect of source shape and source angular distribution on the shielding characteristics for several shield materials is examined. This effect can contribute to create shielding concept in case of no detail source information. It is also evaluated the effect of the arrangement of shield materials using current shield materials. With these results, conceptual shielding design for PET cyclotron is performed. The shielding composite using HDPE and concrete is selected to meet the target dose rate outside the composite, and the dose evaluation is performed by configuring the facility room conceptually. From the result, the proper shield configuration for this PET cyclotron is proposed

  6. Gasification : converting low value feedstocks to high value products

    Koppel, P.; Lorden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation provided a historic overview of the gasification process and described the process chemistry of its two primary reactions, notably partial oxidation and steam reforming. The gasification process involves converting low value carbonaceous solid or liquid feeds to a synthetic gas by reacting the feed with oxygen and steam under high pressure and temperature conditions. Since the gasifier operates under a reducing environment instead of an oxidizing environment, mist sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphide instead of sulphur dioxide. The gasification process also involves cleaning up synthetic gas and acid gas removal; recovery of conventional sulphur; and combustion or further processing of clean synthetic gas. This presentation also outlined secondary reactions such as methanation, water shift, and carbon formation. The negative effects of gasification were also discussed, with particular reference to syngas; metal carbonyls; soot; and slag. Other topics that were presented included world syngas production capacity by primary feedstock; operating IGCC projects; natural gas demand by oil sands supply and demand considerations; reasons for using the gasification process; gasifier feedstocks; and gasification products. The presentation concluded with a discussion of gasification licensors; gasification technologies; gasification experience; and the regulatory situation for greenhouse gas. Gasification has demonstrated excellent environmental performance with sulphur recovery greater than 99 per cent, depending on the the recovery process chosen. The opportunity also exists for carbon dioxide recovery. tabs., figs.

  7. Design of highly selective ethanol dehydration nanocatalysts for ethylene production.

    Austin, Natalie; Kostetskyy, Pavlo; Mpourmpakis, Giannis

    2018-02-22

    Rational design of catalysts for selective conversion of alcohols to olefins is key since product selectivity remains an issue due to competing etherification reactions. Using first principles calculations and chemical rules, we designed novel metal-oxide-protected metal nanoclusters (M 13 X 4 O 12 , with M = Cu, Ag, and Au and X = Al, Ga, and In) exhibiting strong Lewis acid sites on their surface, active for the selective formation of olefins from alcohols. These symmetrical nanocatalysts, due to their curvature, show unfavorable etherification chemistries, while favoring the olefin production. Furthermore, we determined that water removal and regeneration of the nanocatalysts is more feasible compared to the equivalent strong acid sites on solid acids used for alcohol dehydration. Our results demonstrate an exceptional stability of these new nanostructures with the most energetically favorable being Cu-based. Thus, the high selectivity and stability of these in-silico-predicted novel nanoclusters (e.g. Cu 13 Al 4 O 12 ) make them attractive catalysts for the selective dehydration of alcohols to olefins.

  8. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  9. Bremsstrahlung and pair production in crystals at very high energies

    Nikishov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The probabilities for bremsstrahlung and pair production in crystals are discussed under stringent condition when the trajectory of the high-energy electron crosses very many atoms of a crystal row (or plane). It is shown that for sufficiently long path in such conditions the probabilities are described by the formulas for these processes in a strong constant magnetic field exerting on electron the same deflection as the atom row. It turns out that for lead at energy approximately 10 12 eV the radiation length is shortened many hundred times. For greater energies the decrease of probabilities per unit length with increase of energy goes as W varies as Esup(-1/3)

  10. Multiphoton production at high energies in the standard model. II

    Mahlon, G.

    1993-01-01

    We examine multiphoton production in the electroweak sector of the standard model in the high-energy limit using the equivalence theorem in combination with spinor helicity techniques. We utilize currents consisting of a charged scalar, spinor, or vector line that radiates n photons. Only one end of the charged line is off shell in these currents, which are known for the cases of like-helicity and one unlike-helicity photons. We obtain a wide variety of helicity amplitudes for processes involving two pairs of charged particles by considering combinations of four currents. We examine the situation with respect to currents which have both ends of the charged line off shell, and present solutions for the case of like-helicity photons. These new currents may be combined with two of the original currents to produce additional amplitudes involving Higgs bosons, longitudinal Z, or neutrino pairs

  11. Production for high thermal stability NdFeB magnets

    Yu, L.Q. [College of Physics Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Dongying 257061, Shandong Province (China)], E-mail: iyy2000@163.com; Zhang, J.; Hu, S.Q.; Han, Z.D. [College of Physics Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Dongying 257061, Shandong Province (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-04-15

    To improve sintered NdFeB magnets' thermal stability and magnetic properties, combined addition of elements Cu and Gd was investigated. It was found that with Gd addition increase to 1.0%, the temperature coefficient {alpha} improved from -0.15 to -0.05%/deg. C (maximum working temperature 120 deg. C), but the remanence and the maximum energy product linearly decreased. With addition of Cu in Gd-containing magnets the intrinsic coercivity increased greatly, and the remanence increased also because of their density improvement, and optimum Cu content was achieved at 0.2%. Microstructure analysis showed that most of the Cu distributed at grain boundaries and led to clear and smooth morphologies. Magnets with high thermal stability {alpha}=-0.05%/deg. C and magnetic properties were obtained with addition of Gd=0.8% and Cu=0.2%.

  12. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  13. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  14. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  15. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  16. High-Level Synthesis: Productivity, Performance, and Software Constraints

    Yun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGAs are an attractive platform for applications with high computation demand and low energy consumption requirements. However, design effort for FPGA implementations remains high—often an order of magnitude larger than design effort using high-level languages. Instead of this time-consuming process, high-level synthesis (HLS tools generate hardware implementations from algorithm descriptions in languages such as C/C++ and SystemC. Such tools reduce design effort: high-level descriptions are more compact and less error prone. HLS tools promise hardware development abstracted from software designer knowledge of the implementation platform. In this paper, we present an unbiased study of the performance, usability and productivity of HLS using AutoPilot (a state-of-the-art HLS tool. In particular, we first evaluate AutoPilot using the popular embedded benchmark kernels. Then, to evaluate the suitability of HLS on real-world applications, we perform a case study of stereo matching, an active area of computer vision research that uses techniques also common for image denoising, image retrieval, feature matching, and face recognition. Based on our study, we provide insights on current limitations of mapping general-purpose software to hardware using HLS and some future directions for HLS tool development. We also offer several guidelines for hardware-friendly software design. For popular embedded benchmark kernels, the designs produced by HLS achieve 4X to 126X speedup over the software version. The stereo matching algorithms achieve between 3.5X and 67.9X speedup over software (but still less than manual RTL design with a fivefold reduction in design effort versus manual RTL design.

  17. Distributed Adaptive Neural Network Output Tracking of Leader-Following High-Order Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Dead-Zone Input.

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed output tracking consensus control for a class of high-order stochastic nonlinear multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone under a directed graph topology. The adaptive neural networks are used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and a new inequality is used to deal with the completely unknown dead-zone input. Then, we design the controllers based on backstepping method and the dynamic surface control technique. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of semiglobally uniform ultimate boundedness and the tracking errors between the leader and the followers approach to a small residual set based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed techniques.

  18. Fungal pathogens and antagonists in root-soil zone in organic and integrated systems of potato production

    Lenc Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of culturable Fungi and Oomycota in root-soil habitat of potato cv. Owacja in organic and integrated production systems at Osiny (northern Poland was compared in 2008-2010. The densities of both pathogens were significantly greater in the organic system. The eudominant fungal taxa (with frequency > 10% in at least one habitat included species of Fusarium + Gibberella + Haematonectria, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichoderma. The dominant taxa (with frequency 5-10% included species from 13 genera. In the rhizoplane, rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, the total density of potential pathogens was greater in the integrated system, and of potential antagonists in the organic system. Among eudominant and dominant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Gibellulopsis nigrescens occurred at greater density in the integrated system and Haematonectria haematococca and Phoma spp. in the organic system. Among eudominant antagonists, Trichoderma species occurred at greater density in the organic system. The organic system provided more disease suppressive habitat than the integrated system. The occurrence of brown leaf spot and potato blight was however similar in both systems. The mean yield of organic potatoes (24.9 t · ha-1 was higher than the mean organic potato yield in Poland (21.0 t · ha-1 and similar to the mean in other European countries (Germany 25.1 t · ha-1, Great Britain 25.0 t · ha-1. The organic system, based on a 5-year rotation, with narrow-leafed lupin, white mustard and buckwheat as a cover crop, inorganic fertilization based on ground rock phosphate + potassium sulphate, and biological and chemical control of insects and diseases (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis + copper hydroxide + copper oxychloride, may be recommended for use in central Europe.

  19. Purity assessment of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in finished drug product by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Benković, Goran; Skrlin, Ana; Madić, Tomislav; Debeljak, Zeljko; Medić-Šarić, Marica

    2014-09-01

    Current methods for determination of impurities with different charge-to-volume ratio are limited especially in terms of sensitivity and precision. The main goal of this research was to establish a quantitative method for determination of impurities with charges differing from that of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, filgrastim) with superior precision and sensitivity compared to existing methods. A CZE method has been developed, optimized, and validated for a purity assessment of filgrastim in liquid pharmaceutical formulations. Optimal separation of filgrastim from the related impurities with different charges was achieved on a 50 μm id fused-silica capillary of a total length of 80.5 cm. A BGE that contains 100 mM phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 7.0 with triethanolamine was used. The applied voltage was 20 kV while the temperature was maintained at 25°C. UV detection was set to 200 nm. Method was validated in terms of selectivity/specificity, linearity, precision, LOD, LOQ, stability, and robustness. Linearity was observed in the concentration range of 6-600 μg/mL and the LOQ was determined to be 0.3% relative to the concentration of filgrastim of 0.6 mg/mL. Other validation parameters were also found to be acceptable; thus the method was successfully applied for a quantitative purity assessment of filgrastim in a finished drug product. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone