WorldWideScience

Sample records for high process efficiency

  1. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  2. High Efficiency Refrigeration Process, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It has been proposed by NASA JSC studies, that the most mass efficient (non-nuclear) method of Lunar habitat cooling is via photovoltaic (PV) direct vapor...

  3. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  4. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  5. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  6. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  7. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    may be possible. Recently, interest has increased in exploring the spatial dimension of light to increase capacity, both in fiber as well as free-space communication channels. The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, carried by Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams have the interesting property that, in theory, an infinite number of OAMs can be transmitted; which due to its inherent orthogonality will not affect each other. Thus, in theory, one can increase the channel capacity arbitrarily. However, in practice, the device dimensions will reduce the number of OAMs used. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical signal processing may play a role in the future development of more efficient optical transmission systems. The hope is that performing signal processing in the optical domain may reduce optical-to-electronic conversion inefficiencies, eliminate bottlenecks and take advantage of the ultrahigh bandwidth inherent in optics. While 40 to 50 Gbit/s electronic components are the peak of commercial technology and 100 Gbit/s capable RF components are still in their infancy, optical signal processing of these high-speed data signals may provide a potential solution. Furthermore, any optical processing system or sub-system must be capable of handling the wide array of data formats and data rates that networks may employ. The work presented in this Ph.D. dissertation attempts at addressing the issue of optical processing for advanced optical modulation formats, and particularly explores the state of the art in increasing the capacity of an optical link by a combination of wavelength/phase/polarization/OAM dimensions of light. Spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing of both coherently and directly detected signals at the 100 Gbit/s Ethernet standard is addressed. The application of a continuously tunable all-optical delay for all-optical functionality like time-slot interchange at high data-rates is presented. Moreover the interplay of chirp

  8. Eco-efficient and high performance hard chrome process

    Negre, P. [Protection des Metaux, Montreuil (France)

    2001-07-01

    Clean manufacturing processes that can minimize effects on the environment are discussed using electrolytic hard chromium-plating as an example. The goal of the research proposal described in this paper is to develop processes from a new and non-toxic electrolytic solution that would allow for harder, thick coatings of chromium that is more resistant to corrosion than traditional coatings and without the carcinogenic effects of hexavalent chromium. The process, as envisaged, will combine the advantages of chromium plating processes based on non-toxic compounds already available, the result primarily of the chemical formulation of the solutions for chromium plating on which the microstructure and the capacity of the structural hardening of the coatings depend. The paper provides an overview of the project, estimates person year and time requirements (225 person-years and 3.5 years) and provides a list of participating partners.

  9. High Efficiency Pneumatic Systems Compressors Hydrodynamics and Termodynamics Process Research

    Paulius Bogdevičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes pneumatic system, which consists of three piston compressors, pipes and reciever. Designed two cylinder piston compressor with an asynchronous electric motor mathematical model. In the mathematical model has been estimated rod mechanism geometry and kinematic parameters also hudrodynamics and thermodynamic processes going in the cylinders. Also there were made mathematical experiment and presented the results of it.

  10. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser....

  12. Study on highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing methods based on sparsity constraint

    Wang, H.; Chen, S.; Tao, C.; Qiu, L.

    2017-12-01

    High-density, high-fold and wide-azimuth seismic data acquisition methods are widely used to overcome the increasingly sophisticated exploration targets. The acquisition period is longer and longer and the acquisition cost is higher and higher. We carry out the study of highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing methods based on sparse representation theory (or compressed sensing theory), and achieve some innovative results. The theoretical principles of highly efficient acquisition and processing is studied. We firstly reveal sparse representation theory based on wave equation. Then we study the highly efficient seismic sampling methods and present an optimized piecewise-random sampling method based on sparsity prior information. At last, a reconstruction strategy with the sparsity constraint is developed; A two-step recovery approach by combining sparsity-promoting method and hyperbolic Radon transform is also put forward. The above three aspects constitute the enhanced theory of highly efficient seismic data acquisition. The specific implementation strategies of highly efficient acquisition and processing are studied according to the highly efficient acquisition theory expounded in paragraph 2. Firstly, we propose the highly efficient acquisition network designing method by the help of optimized piecewise-random sampling method. Secondly, we propose two types of highly efficient seismic data acquisition methods based on (1) single sources and (2) blended (or simultaneous) sources. Thirdly, the reconstruction procedures corresponding to the above two types of highly efficient seismic data acquisition methods are proposed to obtain the seismic data on the regular acquisition network. A discussion of the impact on the imaging result of blended shooting is discussed. In the end, we implement the numerical tests based on Marmousi model. The achieved results show: (1) the theoretical framework of highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing

  13. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Manufacturing polymer light emitting diode with high luminance efficiency by solution process

    Kim, Miyoung; Jo, SongJin; Yang, Ho Chang; Yoon, Dang Mo; Kwon, Jae-Taek; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Ju Hwan; Lee, Bum-Joo; Shin, Jin-Koog

    2012-06-01

    While investigating polymer light emitting diodes (polymer-LEDs) fabricated by solution process, surface roughness influences electro-optical (E-O) characteristics. We expect that E-O characteristics such as luminance and power efficiency related to surface roughness and layer thickness of emitting layer with poly-9-Vinylcarbazole. In this study, we fabricated polymer organic light emitting diodes by solution process which guarantees easy, eco-friendly and low cost manufacturing for flexible display applications. In order to obtain high luminescence efficiency, E-O characteristics of these devices by varying parameters for printing process have been investigated. Therefore, we optimized process condition for polymer-LEDs by adjusting annealing temperatures of emission, thickness of emission layer showing efficiency (10.8 cd/A) at 10 mA/cm2. We also checked wavelength dependent electroluminescence spectrum in order to find the correlation between the variation of efficiency and the thickness of the layer.

  15. Highly efficient electroluminescence from a solution-processable thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter

    Wada, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Shosei; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Shizu, Katsuyuki [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    We developed a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter, 2,4,6-tris(4-(9,9-dimethylacridan-10-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3ACR-TRZ), suitable for use in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). When doped into 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host at 16 wt. %, 3ACR-TRZ showed a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 98%. Transient photoluminescence decay measurements of the 16 wt. % 3ACR-TRZ:CBP film confirmed that 3ACR-TRZ exhibits efficient TADF with a triplet-to-light conversion efficiency of 96%. This high conversion efficiency makes 3ACR-TRZ attractive as an emitting dopant in OLEDs. Using 3ACR-TRZ as an emitter, we fabricated a solution-processed OLED exhibiting a maximum external quantum efficiency of 18.6%.

  16. Highly Efficient Reproducible Perovskite Solar Cells Prepared by Low-Temperature Processing

    Hao Hu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the role of the different layers in perovskite solar cells to achieve reproducible, ~16% efficient perovskite solar cells. We used a planar device architecture with PEDOT:PSS on the bottom, followed by the perovskite layer and an evaporated C60 layer before deposition of the top electrode. No high temperature annealing step is needed, which also allows processing on flexible plastic substrates. Only the optimization of all of these layers leads to highly efficient and reproducible results. In this work, we describe the effects of different processing conditions, especially the influence of the C60 top layer on the device performance.

  17. Ozone using outlook for efficiency increasing of transportation and processing of high viscous petroleum raw materials

    Nadirov, N.K.; Zajkina, R.F.; Mamonova, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    Main types of oxidation reactions preceding during petroleum feedstock ozonization are generalized. The slight ozone high paraffin-content petroleum processing sites in shown on the example will make possible to rise the pipe transport efficiency and to increase the light fraction contents in petroleums. The prospects are discussed to application of ozone forming as a by-product of radiation-chemical facilities action for petroleum feedstock processing. (author)

  18. High efficiency grating couplers based on shared process with CMOS MOSFETs

    Qiu Chao; Sheng Zhen; Wu Ai-Min; Wang Xi; Zou Shi-Chang; Gan Fu-Wan; Li Le; Albert Pang

    2013-01-01

    Grating couplers are widely investigated as coupling interfaces between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers. In this work, a high-efficiency and complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor (CMOS) process compatible grating coupler is proposed. The poly-Si layer used as a gate in the CMOS metal—oxide—semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is combined with a normal fully etched grating coupler, which greatly enhances its coupling efficiency. With optimal structure parameters, a coupling efficiency can reach as high as ∼ 70% at a wavelength of 1550 nm as indicated by simulation. From the angle of fabrication, all masks and etching steps are shared between MOSFETs and grating couplers, thereby making the high performance grating couplers easily integrated with CMOS circuits. Fabrication errors such as alignment shift are also simulated, showing that the device is quite tolerant in fabrication. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Progress in high-efficient solution process organic photovoltaic devices fundamentals, materials, devices and fabrication

    Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an important technique to process organic photovoltaic devices. The basics, materials aspects and manufacturing of photovoltaic devices with solution processing are explained. Solution processable organic solar cells - polymer or solution processable small molecules - have the potential to significantly reduce the costs for solar electricity and energy payback time due to the low material costs for the cells, low cost and fast fabrication processes (ambient, roll-to-roll), high material utilization etc. In addition, organic photovoltaics (OPV) also provides attractive properties like flexibility, colorful displays and transparency which could open new market opportunities. The material and device innovations lead to improved efficiency by 8% for organic photovoltaic solar cells, compared to 4% in 2005. Both academic and industry research have significant interest in the development of this technology. This book gives an overview of the booming technology, focusing on the solution process fo...

  20. Towards a utilisation of transient processing in the technology of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Eichhammer, W.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization of transient processing in the technology of high efficient silicon solar cells is investigated. An ultraviolet laser (an ArF pulsed excimer laser working at 193 nm) is applied. Laser processing induces only a short superficial melting of the material and does not modify the transport properties in the base of the material. This mode of processing associated to ion implantation to form the junction as well as an oxide layer in an atmosphere of oxygen. The volume was left entirely cold in this process. The results of the investigation show: that an entirely cold process of solar cell fabrication needs a thermal treatment at a temperature around 600 C; that the oxides obtained are not satisfying as passivating layers; and that the Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) induced recombination centers are not directly related to the quenching step but a consequence of the presence of metal impurities. The utilisation of transient processing in the adiabatic regime (laser) and in the rapid isothermal regime (RTP) are possible as two complementary techniques for the realization of high efficiency solar cells

  1. High efficiency processing for reduced amplitude zones detection in the HRECG signal

    Dugarte, N.; Álvarez, A.; Balacco, J.; Mercado, G.; Gonzalez, A.; Dugarte, E.; Olivares, A.

    2016-04-01

    Summary - This article presents part of a more detailed research proposed in the medium to long term, with the intention of establishing a new philosophy of electrocardiogram surface analysis. This research aims to find indicators of cardiovascular disease in its early stage that may go unnoticed with conventional electrocardiography. This paper reports the development of a software processing which collect some existing techniques and incorporates novel methods for detection of reduced amplitude zones (RAZ) in high resolution electrocardiographic signal (HRECG).The algorithm consists of three stages, an efficient processing for QRS detection, averaging filter using correlation techniques and a step for RAZ detecting. Preliminary results show the efficiency of system and point to incorporation of techniques new using signal analysis with involving 12 leads.

  2. Laser processes and system technology for the production of high-efficient crystalline solar cells

    Mayerhofer, R.; Hendel, R.; Zhu, Wenjie; Geiger, S.

    2012-10-01

    The laser as an industrial tool is an essential part of today's solar cell production. Due to the on-going efforts in the solar industry, to increase the cell efficiency, more and more laser-based processes, which have been discussed and tested at lab-scale for many years, are now being implemented in mass production lines. In order to cope with throughput requirements, standard laser concepts have to be improved continuously with respect to available average power levels, repetition rates or beam profile. Some of the laser concepts, that showed high potential in the past couple of years, will be substituted by other, more economic laser types. Furthermore, requirements for processing with less-heat affected zones fuel the development of industry-ready ultra short pulsed lasers with pulse widths even below the picosecond range. In 2011, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) had launched the program "PV-Innovation Alliance", with the aim to support the rapid transfer of high-efficiency processes out of development departments and research institutes into solar cell production lines. Here, lasers play an important role as production tools, allowing the fast implementation of high-performance solar cell concepts. We will report on the results achieved within the joint project FUTUREFAB, where efficiency optimization, throughput enhancement and cost reduction are the main goals. Here, the presentation will focus on laser processes like selective emitter doping and ablation of dielectric layers. An indispensable part of the efforts towards cost reduction in solar cell production is the improvement of wafer handling and throughput capabilities of the laser processing system. Therefore, the presentation will also elaborate on new developments in the design of complete production machines.

  3. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  4. Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes based on solution processed emissive layer

    Liu, Baiquan; Xu, Miao; Tao, Hong; Ying, Lei; Zou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongbin; Peng, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic polymer light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) were fabricated based on a solution-processed small-molecule host 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) by doping an iridium complex, tris(1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)phthalazine)iridium (III) (Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 ). A hole blocking layer 1,3,5-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBI) with a function of electron transport was thermally deposited onto the top of CBP layer. The diode with the structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/CBP:Ir(MPCPPZ) 3 (55 nm)/TPBI (30 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (120 nm) showed an external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 19.3% and luminous efficiency (LE) of 18.3 cd/A at a current density of 0.16 mA/cm 2 , and Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.607, 0.375). It was suggested that the diodes using TPBI layer exhibited nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency and one order magnitude enhanced LE or QE ext efficiencies. -- Highlights: • Efficient red PhOLEDs based on a solution-processed small-molecule host were fabricated. • By altering volume ratio of chloroform/chlorobenzene solvent, we got best film quality of CBP. • EQE of the diode was 19.3%, indicating nearly 100% internal quantum yield was achieved

  5. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  6. Toward High-Efficiency Solution-Processed Planar Heterojunction Sb2S3 Solar Cells.

    Zimmermann, Eugen; Pfadler, Thomas; Kalb, Julian; Dorman, James A; Sommer, Daniel; Hahn, Giso; Weickert, Jonas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    Low-cost hybrid solar cells have made tremendous steps forward during the past decade owing to the implementation of extremely thin inorganic coatings as absorber layers, typically in combination with organic hole transporters. Using only extremely thin films of these absorbers reduces the requirement of single crystalline high-quality materials and paves the way for low-cost solution processing compatible with roll-to-roll fabrication processes. To date, the most efficient absorber material, except for the recently introduced organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, has been Sb 2 S 3 , which can be implemented in hybrid photovoltaics using a simple chemical bath deposition. Current high-efficiency Sb 2 S 3 devices utilize absorber coatings on nanostructured TiO 2 electrodes in combination with polymeric hole transporters. This geometry has so far been the state of the art, even though flat junction devices would be conceptually simpler with the additional potential of higher open circuit voltages due to reduced charge carrier recombination. Besides, the role of the hole transporter is not completely clarified yet. In particular, additional photocurrent contribution from the polymers has not been directly shown, which points toward detrimental parasitic light absorption in the polymers. This study presents a fine-tuned chemical bath deposition method that allows fabricating solution-processed low-cost flat junction Sb 2 S 3 solar cells with the highest open circuit voltage reported so far for chemical bath devices and efficiencies exceeding 4%. Characterization of back-illuminated solar cells in combination with transfer matrix-based simulations further allows to address the issue of absorption losses in the hole transport material and outline a pathway toward more efficient future devices.

  7. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....

  8. Efficient Simulation Modeling of an Integrated High-Level-Waste Processing Complex

    Gregory, Michael V.; Paul, Pran K.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated computational tool named the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) has been developed to simulate the operation of the entire high-level-waste complex (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) over its full life cycle. ProdMod is used to guide SRS management in operating the waste complex in an economically efficient and environmentally sound manner. SRS HLW operations are modeled using coupled algebraic equations. The dynamic nature of plant processes is modeled in the form of a linear construct in which the time dependence is implicit. Batch processes are modeled in discrete event-space, while continuous processes are modeled in time-space. The ProdMod methodology maps between event-space and time-space such that the inherent mathematical discontinuities in batch process simulation are avoided without sacrificing any of the necessary detail in the batch recipe steps. Modeling the processes separately in event- and time-space using linear constructs, and then coupling the two spaces, has accelerated the speed of simulation compared to a typical dynamic simulation. The ProdMod simulator models have been validated against operating data and other computer codes. Case studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the ProdMod simulator in developing strategies that demonstrate significant cost savings in operating the SRS HLW complex and in verifying the feasibility of newly proposed processes

  9. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    Zhao, Kui

    2016-09-05

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported in the literature rely on spin-coating of the photoactive bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer, with the performance of printed solar cells lagging behind in most instances. Here, we investigate the performance gap between polymer solar cells prepared by spin-coating and blade-coating the BHJ layer for the important class of modern polymers exhibiting no long range crystalline order. We find that thickness parity does not always yield performance parity even when using identical formulations. Significant differences in the drying kinetics between the processes are found to be responsible for BHJ nanomorphology differences. We propose an approach which benchmarks the film drying kinetics and associated BHJ nanomorphology development against those of the champion laboratory devices prepared by spin-coating the BHJ layer by adjusting the process temperature. If the optimization requires the solution concentration to be changed, then it is crucial to maintain the additive-to-solute volume ratio. Emulating the drying kinetics of spin-coating is also shown to help achieve morphological and performance parities. We put this approach to the test and demonstrate printed PTB7:PC71BM polymer solar cells with efficiency of 9% and 6.5% PCEs on glass and flexible PET substrates, respectively. We further demonstrate performance parity for two other popular donor polymer systems exhibiting rigid backbones and absence of a long range crystalline order, achieving a PCE of 9.7%, the highest efficiency reported to date for a blade coated organic solar cell. The rational process transfer illustrated in this study should help the broader and successful adoption of scalable printing methods for these material systems.

  10. Hydrotalcites: a highly efficient ecomaterial for effluent treatment originated from carbon nanotubes chemical processing

    Alves, O L; Stefani, D; Parizotto, N V; Filho, A G Souza, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P. O. Box 6154, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    It has been reported that a mixture of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs), so called oxidation debris, are generated during carbon nanotubes chemical processing using oxidant agents such as HNO{sub 3}. The elimination of these fragments from carbon nanotubes surface has been point out to be a crucial step for an effective functionalization of the nanotubes as well as for improving the material. However, this process can introduce a potential environmental problem related water contamination because these CCFs can be viewed as a mixture of carbonaceous polyaromatic systems similar to humic substances and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The negative aspects of humic substances and DOM to water quality and wastewater treatment are well known. Since carbon nanotubes industry expands at high rates it is expected that effluent containing oxidation debris will increase since HNO{sub 3} chemical processing is the most applied method for purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we have demonstrated that Hydrotalcites (HT) are highly efficient to remove oxidation debris from effluent solution originated from HNO{sub 3}-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The strategy presented here is a contribution towards green chemistry practices and life cycle studies in carbon nanotubes field.

  11. A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton process for organic pollutants degradation

    Ma, Liang; Zhou, Minghua; Ren, Gengbo; Yang, Weilu; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A highly energy-efficient flow-through electro-Fenton reactor was designed. • It had high H 2 O 2 yield and low energy consumption for organic pollutants degradation. • The effect of operational parameters was optimized and possible process mechanism was studied. • The novel system performed wide practicability and potential for organic pollutants degradation. - Abstract: A highly energy-efficient flow-through Electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) reactor for oxidation of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was designed using a perforated DSA as anode and the graphite felt modified by carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as cathode for the in situ generation of H 2 O 2 . The modified cathode had a high H 2 O 2 production with low energy consumption, which was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption study and contact angle. The flow-through E-Fenton system was compared to the flow-by and regular one, and confirmed to be best on MB removal and TOC degradation. The operational parameters such as current density, pH, Fe 2+ concentration and flow rate were optimized. The MB and TOC removal efficiency of the effluents could keep above 90% and 50%, respectively, and the energy consumption was 23.0 kWh/kgTOC at the current density of 50 mA, pH 3, 0.3 mM Fe 2+ , and the flow rate of 7 mL/min. ·OH was proved to be the main oxidizing species in this system. After 5 times operation, the system, especially cathode, still showed good stability. Five more organic pollutants including orange II (OG), tartrazine, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), tetracycline (TC) and 2,4-dichlorophen (2,4-DCP) were investigated and the electric energy consumption (EEC) was compared with literatures. All results demonstrated that this flow-through E-Fenton system was energy-efficient and potential for degradation of organic pollutants.

  12. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  13. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan

    2016-09-09

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top of the organic bulk heterojunction layer in the inverted architecture is most commonly an ultrathin (<10 nm) metal oxide layer prepared by vacuum-deposition. Here, we show that an alcohol-based nanocrystalline MoOx suspension with carefully controlled nanocrystal (NC) size can yield state of the art reflective and semitransparent solar cells. Using NCs smaller than the target HTL thickness (∼10 nm) can yield compact, pinhole-free films which result in highly efficient polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with PCE=9.5%. The solution processed HTL is shown to achieve performance parity with vacuum-evaporated HTLs for several polymer:fullerene combinations and is even shown to work as hole injection layer in polymer light emitting diodes (PLED). We also demonstrate that larger MoOx NCs (30–50 nm) successfully composite MoOx with Ag nanowires (NW) to form a highly conducting, transparent top anode with exceptional contact properties. This yields state-of-the-art semitransparent polymer: fullerene solar cells with PCE of 6.5% and overall transmission >30%. The remarkable performance of reflective and semitransparent OPVs is due to the uncommonly high fill factors achieved using a carefully designed strategy for implementation of MoOx nanocrystals as HTL materials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Morphology changes upon scaling a high-efficiency, solution-processed solar cell

    Ro, Hyun Wook

    2016-08-02

    Solution processing via roll-to-roll (R2R) coating promises a low cost, low thermal budget, sustainable revolution for the production of solar cells. Poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3′′′-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2′;5′,2′′;5′′,2′′′-quaterthiophen-5,5-diyl)], PffBT4T-2OD, has recently been shown to achieve high power conversion efficiency (>10%) paired with multiple acceptors when thick films are spun-coat from hot solutions. We present detailed morphology studies of PffBT4T-2OD based bulk heterojunction films deposited by the volume manufacturing compatible techniques of blade-coating and slot-die coating. Significant aspects of the film morphology, the average crystal domain orientation and the distribution of the characteristic phase separation length scales, are remarkably different when deposited by the scalable techniques vs. spun-coat. Yet, we find that optimized blade-coated devices achieve PCE > 9.5%, nearly the same as spun-coat. These results challenge some widely accepted propositions regarding what is an optimal BHJ morphology and suggest the hypothesis that diversity in the morphology that supports high performance may be a characteristic of manufacturable systems, those that maintain performance when coated thicker than ≈200 nm. In situ measurements reveal the key differences in the solidification routes for spin- and blade-coating leading to the distinct film structures. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Morphology changes upon scaling a high-efficiency, solution-processed solar cell

    Ro, Hyun Wook; Downing, Jonathan M.; Engmann, Sebastian; Herzing, Andrew A.; DeLongchamp, Dean M.; Richter, Lee J.; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Abdelsamie, Maged; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Yuhang; Yan, He

    2016-01-01

    Solution processing via roll-to-roll (R2R) coating promises a low cost, low thermal budget, sustainable revolution for the production of solar cells. Poly[(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazol-4,7-diyl)-alt-(3,3′′′-di(2-octyldodecyl)-2,2′;5′,2′′;5′′,2′′′-quaterthiophen-5,5-diyl)], PffBT4T-2OD, has recently been shown to achieve high power conversion efficiency (>10%) paired with multiple acceptors when thick films are spun-coat from hot solutions. We present detailed morphology studies of PffBT4T-2OD based bulk heterojunction films deposited by the volume manufacturing compatible techniques of blade-coating and slot-die coating. Significant aspects of the film morphology, the average crystal domain orientation and the distribution of the characteristic phase separation length scales, are remarkably different when deposited by the scalable techniques vs. spun-coat. Yet, we find that optimized blade-coated devices achieve PCE > 9.5%, nearly the same as spun-coat. These results challenge some widely accepted propositions regarding what is an optimal BHJ morphology and suggest the hypothesis that diversity in the morphology that supports high performance may be a characteristic of manufacturable systems, those that maintain performance when coated thicker than ≈200 nm. In situ measurements reveal the key differences in the solidification routes for spin- and blade-coating leading to the distinct film structures. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  17. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  18. Highly efficient polymer solar cells with printed photoactive layer: rational process transfer from spin-coating

    Zhao, Kui; Hu, Hanlin; Spada, E.; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Yan, Buyi; Abdelsamie, Maged; Yang, Y.; Yu, L.; Munir, Rahim; Li, R.; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Scalable and continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing is at the heart of the promise of low-cost and high throughput manufacturing of solution-processed photovoltaics. Yet, to date the vast majority of champion organic solar cells reported

  19. Solution-Processed Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Ultralow Driving Voltage and Very High Power Efficiency

    Wang, Shumeng; Wang, Xingdong; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Baohua; Ding, Junqiao; Xie, Zhiyuan; Wang, Lixiang

    2015-01-01

    To realize power efficient solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (s-PhOLEDs), the corresponding high driving voltage issue should be well solved. To solve it, efforts have been devoted to the exploitation of novel host or interfacial materials. However, the issues of charge trapping of phosphor and/or charge injection barrier are still serious, largely restraining the power efficiency (PE) levels. Herein, with the utilization of an exciplex-forming couple 4, 4?, 4? -...

  20. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  1. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  2. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  3. Solution-processable MoOx nanocrystals enable highly efficient reflective and semitransparent polymer solar cells

    Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; Hu, Hanlin; Kim, Taesoo; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Mansour, Ahmed; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Faria, Jorge C.D.; Munir, Rahim; Anjum, Dalaver H.; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Amassian, Aram

    2016-01-01

    Solution-manufacturing of organic solar cells with best-in-class power conversion efficiency (PCE) will require all layers to be solution-coated without compromising solar cell performance. To date, the hole transporting layer (HTL) deposited on top

  4. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  5. Development of a Highly Efficient Hybrid White Organic-Light-Emitting Diode with a Single Emission Layer by Solution Processing.

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chen, Show-An

    2018-02-07

    We use a mixed host, 2,6-bis[3-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl]pyridine blended with 20 wt % tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine, to lower the hole-injection barrier, along with the bipolar and high-photoluminescence-quantum-yield (Φ p = 84%), blue thermally activated delay fluorescence (TADF) material of 9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine-2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine (DMAC-TRZ) as a blue dopant to compose the emission layer for the fabrication of a TADF blue organic-light-emitting diode (BOLED). The device is highly efficient with the following performance parameters: maximum brightness (B max ) = 57586 cd/m 2 , maximum current efficiency (CE max ) = 35.3 cd/A, maximum power efficiency (PE max ) = 21.4 lm/W, maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE max ) = 14.1%, and CIE coordinates (0.18, 0.42). This device has the best performance recorded among the reported solution-processed TADF BOLEDs and has a low efficiency roll-off: at brightness values of 1000 and 5000 cd/m 2 , its CEs are close, being 35.1 and 30.1 cd/A, respectively. Upon further doping of the red phosphor Ir(dpm)PQ 2 (emission peak λ max = 595 nm) into the blue emission layer, we obtained a TADF-phosphor hybrid white organic-light-emitting diode (T-P hybrid WOLED) with high performance: B max = 43594 cd/m 2 , CE max = 28.8 cd/A, PE max = 18.1 lm/W, and CIE coordinates (0.38, 0.44). This B max = 43594 cd/m 2 is better than that of the vacuum-deposited WOLED with a blue TADF emitter, 10000 cd/m 2 . This is also the first report on a T-P hybrid WOLED with a solution-processed emitting layer.

  6. Fiscal 1998 research achievement report. Development of key technology for high-efficiency semiconductor manufacturing process; 1998 nendo kokoritsu handotai seizo process kiban gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the development of large-aperture/high-density plasma technology, research and development was carried out for balanced electron drift plasma technologies for uniform control of plasma density and the like, such as an excited plasma source and plasma drift to enable wide-range plasma generation in a chamber. In the development of high-efficiency exposure technology, studies were made for stable generation and control of short wavelength excimer laser and for higher-speed large-aperture mask writing by use of an electron beam. In the development of higher-speed processing and energy-efficient technologies, research and development was conducted involving probe card technology for increasing the speed of semiconductor inspection, software-aided virtual tester technology, local energy-efficient cleaning technology in wafer processing and transportation, sheet-type flexible manufacturing system, and the like. (NEDO)

  7. Arx: a toolset for the efficient simulation and direct synthesis of high-performance signal processing algorithms

    Hofstra, K.L.; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the efficient implementation of highperformance signal-processing algorithms. In early stages of such designs many computation-intensive simulations may be necessary. This calls for hardware description formalisms targeted for efficient simulation (such as the programming

  8. High-efficiency solar cell with earth-abundant liquid-processed absorber

    Todorov, Teodor K; Reuter, Kathleen B; Mitzi, David B [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    2010-05-25

    A composite liquid deposition approach merging the concepts of solution and particle-based coating for multinary chalcogenide materials is demonstrated. Photovoltaic absorbers based on earth-abundant Cu-Zn-Sn-S-Se kesterites show exceptional phase purity and are incorporated into solar cells with power conversion efficiency above 9.6%, bringing the state of the art of kesterite photovoltaic materials to a level suitable for possible commercialization. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    2012-07-01

    enable energy saving necessary for obtaining Energy Star certification for the whole boiler system. Widespread boiler control updates could be possible...adaptability to different boiler and oil/gas burner configurations, and extensibility to operation with nonconventional fuels (e.g., biogas and syngas...typically operating below or slightly above 80%. Higher efficiency improvements can certainly be obtained via boiler replacement and adoption of

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond

  11. Solution-processed small molecules as mixed host for highly efficient blue and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    Fu, Qiang; Chen, Jiangshan; Shi, Changsheng; Ma, Dongge

    2012-12-01

    The widely used hole-transporting host 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) blended with either a hole-transporting or an electron-transporting small-molecule material as a mixed-host was investigated in the phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated by the low-cost solution-process. The performance of the solution-processed OLEDs was found to be very sensitive to the composition of the mixed-host systems. The incorporation of the hole-transporting 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) into TCTA as the mixed-host was demonstrated to greatly reduce the driving voltage and thus enhance the efficiency due to the improvement of hole injection and transport. On the basis of the mixed-host of TCTA:TAPC, we successfully fabricated low driving voltage and high efficiency blue and white phosphorescent OLEDs. A maximum forward viewing current efficiency of 32.0 cd/A and power efficiency of 25.9 lm/W were obtained in the optimized mixed-host blue OLED, which remained at 29.6 cd/A and 19.1 lm/W at the luminance of 1000 cd/m(2) with a driving voltage as low as 4.9 V. The maximum efficiencies of 37.1 cd/A and 32.1 lm/W were achieved in a single emissive layer white OLED based on the TCTA:TAPC mixed-host. Even at 1000 cd/m(2), the efficiencies still reach 34.2 cd/A and 23.3 lm/W and the driving voltage is only 4.6 V, which is comparable to those reported from the state-of-the-art vacuum-evaporation deposited white OLEDs.

  12. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, W.S.; Middelberg, A.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    of the product-loaded supports with the aid of high gradient magnetic fields. The manufacture and testing of two types of micron-sized nonporous superparamagnetic metal chelator particles derivatized with iminodiacetic acid is described. In small-scale adsorption studies conducted with a hexahistidine tagged...... at a 60-fold increased scale using the high gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) system to collect loaded Cu2+-chelator particles following batch adsorption of L1. Over 70% of the initial Ll present was recovered within the HGMF rig in a highly clarified form in two batch elution cycles with an overall......In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving W chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection...

  13. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  14. Highly efficient conversion of terpenoid biomass to jet-fuel range cycloalkanes in a biphasic tandem catalytic process

    Yang, Xiaokun [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Li, Teng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tang, Kan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhou, Xinpei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lu, Mi [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Ounkham, Whalmany L. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Spain, Stephen M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Frost, Brian J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Lin, Hongfei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    The demand for bio-jet fuels to reduce carbon emissions is increasing substantially in the aviation sector, while the scarcity of high-density jet fuel components limits the use of bio-jet fuels in high-performance aircrafts compared with conventional jet fuels. In this paper, we report a novel biphasic tandem catalytic process (biTCP) for synthesizing cycloalkanes from renewable terpenoid biomass, such as 1,8-cineole. Multistep tandem reactions, including C–O ring opening by hydrolysis, dehydration, and hydrogenation, were carried out in the “one-pot” biTCP. 1,8-Cineole was efficiently converted to p-menthane at high yields (>99%) in the biTCP under mild reaction conditions. Finally, the catalytic reaction mechanism is discussed.

  15. Tungsten-rhenium composite tube fabricated by CVD for application in 18000C high thermal efficiency fuel processing furnace

    Svedberg, R.C.; Bowen, W.W.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposit (CVD) rhenium was selected as the muffle material for an 1800 0 C high thermal efficiency fuel processing furnace. The muffle is exposed to high vacuum on the heater/insulation/instrumentation side and to a flowing argon-8 V/0 hydrogen gas mixture at one atmosphere pressure on the load volume side. During operation, the muffle cycles from room temperature to 1800 0 C and back to room temperature once every 24 hours. Operational life is dependent on resistance to thermal fatigue during the high temperature exposure. For a prototypical furnace, the muffle is approximately 13 cm I.D. and 40 cm in length. A small (about one-half size) rhenium closed end tube overcoated with tungsten was used to evaluate the concept. The fabrication and testing of the composite tungsten-rhenium tube and prototypic rhenium muffle is described

  16. Petroleum Processing Efficiency Improvement

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Jenny Loveridge

    2012-09-01

    A series of volatile crude oils was characterized using the Asphaltene Determinator oncolumn precipitation and re-dissolution method developed at Western Research Institute (WRI). Gravimetric asphaltenes and polars fractions from silica gel chromatography separation of the oils were characterized also. A study to define the differences in composition of asphaltenes in refinery desalter rag layer emulsions and the corresponding feed and desalter oils was conducted. Results indicate that the most polar and pericondensed aromatic material in the asphaltenes is enriched in the emulsions. The wax types and carbon number distributions in the two heptaneeluting fractions from the Waxphaltene Determinator separation were characterized by repetitive collection of the fractions followed by high temperature gas chromatography (GC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). High resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICRMS) was conducted by researchers at the Florida State University National High Magnetic Field laboratory in a no-cost collaboration with the study.

  17. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  18. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  19. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. FY 1998 annual summary report on photon measuring/processing techniques. Development of the techniques for high-efficiency production processes; 1998 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to develop the techniques for energy-efficient laser-aided processing; techniques for high-precision, real-time measurement to improve quality control for production processes and increase their efficiency; and the techniques for generating/controlling photon of high efficiency and quality as the laser beam sources therefor, in order to promote energy saving at and improve efficiency of production processes consuming large quantities of energy, e.g., welding, joining, surface treatment and production of fine particles. The R and D themes are microscopic processing technology: simulation technology for laser welding phenomena; microscopic processing technology: synthesis of technology for quantum dot functional structures; in-situ status measuring technology: fine particle elements and size measurement technology; high-power all-solid-state laser technology: efficient rod type LD-pumping laser modules and pumping chamber of a slab-type laser; tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology: improvement of E/O efficiency of laser diode, high-quality nonlinear crystal growth technology and fabrication technology for nonlinear crystal; and comprehensive investigation of photonics engineering: high-efficiency harmonic generation technology. (NEDO)

  1. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  2. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  3. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    Zhao, Kui

    2015-07-30

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  4. Highly efficient organic solar Cells based on a robust room-temperature solution-processed copper iodide hole transporter

    Zhao, Kui; Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy Olivier; Jagadamma, Lethy Krishnan; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Hu, Hanlin; Wang, Qingxiao; Li, Ruipeng; Abdelsamie, Maged; Beaujuge, Pierre; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high performance and reliable organic solar cells hinges on the development of stable and energetically suitable hole transporting buffer layers in tune with the electrode and photoactive materials of the solar cell stack. Here we have identified solution-processed copper(I) iodide (CuI) thin films with low-temperature processing conditions as an effective hole–transporting layer (HTL) for a wide range of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems. The solar cells using CuI HTL show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) in standard device structure for polymer blends, up to PCE of 8.8%, as compared with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL, for a broad range of polymer:fullerene systems. The CuI layer properties and solar cell device behavior are shown to be remarkably robust and insensitive to a wide range of processing conditions of the HTL, including processing solvent, annealing temperature (room temperature up to 200 °C), and film thickness. CuI is also shown to improve the overall lifetime of solar cells in the standard architecture as compared to PEDOT:PSS. We further demonstrate promising solar cell performance when using CuI as top HTL in an inverted device architecture. The observation of uncommon properties, such as photoconductivity of CuI and templating effects on the BHJ layer formation, are also discussed. This study points to CuI as being a good candidate to replace PEDOT:PSS in solution-processed solar cells thanks to the facile implementation and demonstrated robustness of CuI thin films.

  5. The construction of a process line for high efficiency silicon solar cells under clean-room conditions

    Aberle, A.; Faller, C.; Grille, T.; Glunz, S.; Kamerewerd, F.J.; Kopp, J.; Knobloch, J.; Klussmann, S.; Lauby, E.; Noel, A.; Paul, O.; Schaeffer, E.; Schubert, U.; Seitz, S.; Sterk, S.; Voss, B.; Warta, W.; Wettling, W.

    1992-08-01

    The aim of this research project was to plan, construct and test a clean-room technology laboratory for the manufacturing of silicon solar cells with 20% efficiency (1.5AM). In addition to the establishment of the laboratory, there existed the case of establishing the material and technological fundamentals of high-efficiency solar cells, testing and optimizing all stages of production as well as constructing test stands for accompanying characterisation work. The following final report describes the construction of the laboratory and characterisation systems, the material elements of high-efficiency solar cells as well as the most important results of solar cell production and optimisation. (orig./BWI) [de

  6. Novel immobilization process of a thermophilic catalase: efficient purification by heat treatment and subsequent immobilization at high temperature.

    Xu, Juan; Luo, Hui; López, Claudia; Xiao, Jing; Chang, Yanhong

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of the present work is to investigate a novel process of purification and immobilization of a thermophilic catalase at high temperatures. The catalase, originated from Bacillus sp., was overexpressed in a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET28-CATHis and efficiently purified by heat treatment, achieving a threefold purification. The purified catalase was then immobilized onto an epoxy support at different temperatures (25, 40, and 55 °C). The immobilizate obtained at higher temperatures reached its maximum activity in a shorter time than that obtained at lower temperatures. Furthermore, immobilization at higher temperatures required a lower ionic strength than immobilization at lower temperatures. The characteristics of immobilized enzymes prepared at different temperatures were investigated. The high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) showed the highest thermal stability, followed by the 40 °C immobilizate. And the high-temperature immobilizate (55 °C) had slightly higher operational stability than the 25 °C immobilizate. All of the immobilized catalase preparations showed higher stability than the free enzyme at alkaline pH 10.0, while the alkali resistance of the 25 °C immobilizate was slightly better than that of the 40 and 55 °C immobilizates.

  7. High-efficiency CARM

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  8. Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) for high-efficiency, precision grinding of ceramic parts: An experiment study

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) as applied to the efficient, high-precision grinding of structural ceramics, and describes work performed jointly by Dr. B.P. Bandyopadhyay, University of North Dakota, and Dr. R. Ohmori, of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RINEN), Tokyo, Japan, from June through August, 1994. Dr. Ohmori pioneered the novel ELID grinding technology which incorporates electrolytically enhanced, in-process dressing of metal bonded superabrasive wheels. The principle of ELID grinding technology is discussed in the report as will its application for rough grinding and precision grinding. Two types of silicon nitride based ceramics (Kyocerals Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and Eaton`s SRBSN) were ground under various conditions with ELID methods. Mirror surface finishes were obtained with {number_sign} 4000 mesh size wheel (average grain size = 4 {mu}m). Results of these investigations are presented in this report. These include the effects of wheel bond type, type of power supply, abrasive grit friability, and cooling fluid composition. The effects of various parameters are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of ELID grinding, and in particular, the manner of boundary layer formation on the wheels and abrasive grit protrusion.

  9. Product Chemistry and Process Efficiency of Biomass Torrefaction, Pyrolysis and Gasification Studied by High-Throughput Techniques and Multivariate Analysis

    Xiao, Li

    Despite the great passion and endless efforts on development of renewable energy from biomass, the commercialization and scale up of biofuel production is still under pressure and facing challenges. New ideas and facilities are being tested around the world targeting at reducing cost and improving product value. Cutting edge technologies involving analytical chemistry, statistics analysis, industrial engineering, computer simulation, and mathematics modeling, etc. keep integrating modern elements into this classic research. One of those challenges of commercializing biofuel production is the complexity from chemical composition of biomass feedstock and the products. Because of this, feedstock selection and process optimization cannot be conducted efficiently. This dissertation attempts to further evaluate biomass thermal decomposition process using both traditional methods and advanced technique (Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry). Focus has been made on data base generation of thermal decomposition products from biomass at different temperatures, finding out the relationship between traditional methods and advanced techniques, evaluating process efficiency and optimizing reaction conditions, comparison of typically utilized biomass feedstock and new search on innovative species for economical viable feedstock preparation concepts, etc. Lab scale quartz tube reactors and 80il stainless steel sample cups coupled with auto-sampling system were utilized to simulate the complicated reactions happened in real fluidized or entrained flow reactors. Two main high throughput analytical techniques used are Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) and Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (Py-MBMS). Mass balance, carbon balance, and product distribution are presented in detail. Variations of thermal decomposition temperature range from 200°C to 950°C. Feedstocks used in the study involve typical hardwood and softwood (red oak, white oak, yellow poplar, loblolly pine

  10. Flexible organic tandem solar modules with 6% efficiency: combining roll-to-roll compatible processing with high geometric fill factors

    Spyropoulos, G. D.; Kubis, P.; Li, Na

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cell technology bears the potential for high photovoltaic performance combined with truly low-cost, high-volume processing. Here we demonstrate organic tandem solar modules on flexible substrates fabricated by fully roll-to-roll compatible processing at temperatures...

  11. Highly Efficient 2D/3D Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via Low-Pressure Vapor-Assisted Solution Process.

    Li, Ming-Hsien; Yeh, Hung-Hsiang; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Jeng, U-Ser; Su, Chun-Jen; Shiu, Hung-Wei; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Ohigashi, Takuji; Chen, Yu-An; Shen, Po-Shen; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2018-06-08

    The fabrication of multidimensional organometallic halide perovskite via a low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process is demonstrated for the first time. Phenyl ethyl-ammonium iodide (PEAI)-doped lead iodide (PbI 2 ) is first spin-coated onto the substrate and subsequently reacts with methyl-ammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a low-pressure heating oven. The doping ratio of PEAI in MAI-vapor-treated perovskite has significant impact on the crystalline structure, surface morphology, grain size, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra, and the resultant device performance. Multiple photoluminescence spectra are observed in the perovskite film starting with high PEAI/PbI 2 ratio, which suggests the coexistence of low-dimensional perovskite (PEA 2 MA n -1 Pb n I 3 n +1 ) with various values of n after vapor reaction. The dimensionality of the as-fabricated perovskite film reveals an evolution from 2D, hybrid 2D/3D to 3D structure when the doping level of PEAI/PbI 2 ratio varies from 2 to 0. Scanning electron microscopy images and Kelvin probe force microscopy mapping show that the PEAI-containing perovskite grain is presumably formed around the MAPbI 3 perovskite grain to benefit MAPbI 3 grain growth. The device employing perovskite with PEAI/PbI 2 = 0.05 achieves a champion power conversion efficiency of 19.10% with an open-circuit voltage of 1.08 V, a current density of 21.91 mA cm -2 , and a remarkable fill factor of 80.36%. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Workflow efficiency for the treatment planning process in CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Michaud, Anthony L; Benedict, Stanley; Montemayor, Eliseo; Hunt, Jon Paul; Wright, Cari; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S

    2016-01-01

    To investigate process efficiency, we present a prospective investigation of the treatment planning phase of image-guided brachytherapy (BT) for cervical cancer using a specific checklist. From October 2012 to January 2014, 76 BT procedures were consecutively performed. Prospective data on the CT-based treatment planning process was collected using a specific checklist which details the following steps: (1) dosimetry planning, (2) physician review start, (3) physician review time, (4) dosimetry processing, (5) physics review start, (6) physics review, and (7) procedural pause. Variables examined included the use of a pre-BT MRI, clinic duty conflicts, resident teaching, and the use of specific BT planners. Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and analysis of variance. Seventy-five prospectively gathered checklists comprised this analysis. The mean time for treatment planning was 95 minutes (med 94, std 18). The mean intervals in the above steps were (1) = 42, (2) = 5, (3) = 19, (4) = 10, (5) = 6, (6) = 13, and (7) = 26 minutes. There was no statistical difference in patients who had a pre-BT MRI. Resident teaching did not influence time, p = 0.17. Treatment planning time was decreased with a specific planner, p = 0.0015. A skillful team approach is required for treatment planning efficiency in image-guided BT. We have found that the specific BT planners can have a significant effect on the overall planning efficiency. We continue to examine clinical and workflow-related factors that will enhance our safety and workflow process with BT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  14. Fiscal 1999 research report. Research on photonic measurement and processing technology (Development of high- efficiency production process technology); 1999 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on R and D of laser processing technology, in-situ measurement technology, and generation and control technology of photon as laser beam source, for energy saving and efficiency improvement of energy-consumptive production processes such as welding, jointing, surface treatment and fine particle fabrication. The research was carried out by a technical center, 9 companies and a university as contract research. The research themes are as follows: (1) Processing technology: simulation technology for laser welding phenomena, synthesis technology for quantum dot functional structures, and fabrication technology for functional composite materials, (2) In-situ measurement technology: fine particle element and size measurement technology, (3) All- solid state laser technology: efficient rod type LD-pumping laser module, pumping chamber of slab type laser, improvement of E/O efficiency of laser diode, high-quality nonlinear crystal growth technology, fabrication technology for nonlinear crystals, and high-efficiency harmonic generation technology. Comprehensive survey was also made on high- efficiency photon generation technologies. (NEDO)

  15. High efficiency positron moderation

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  16. A new processable electrochromic polymer based on an electron deficient fluorene derivative with a high coloration efficiency

    Çarbaş, Buket Bezgin; Kivrak, Arif; Önal, Ahmet M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrochemical synthesis and elecroptical properties of a new soluble polymer based on fluorenone and 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene are highlighted. ► The polymer film exhibits reversible electrochromic behavior and both p and n dopable. ► In addition it has high electrochemical stability and coloration efficiency. ► In THF, polymer film emits orange light when excited at 355 nm. - Abstract: A new fluorenone based soluble polymer, namely poly(2,7-bis-(3,3-dihexyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepin-6-yl) -fluoren-9-one) (PPFP), containing propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) as a donor and fluorenone (FO) as an acceptor group is highlighted. Electrochemical polymerization of 2,7-bis-(3,3-dihexyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepin-6-yl) -fluoren-9-one (PFP) was achieved in dichloromethane/acetonitrile mixture with 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate via potential cycling. The polymer shows an electrochromic behavior, a color change from orange to dark blue during oxidation with a high coloration efficiency (422 cm 2 /C at 684 nm) and orange to yellow during reduction with high optical and electrochemical stability as compared to its close analogues, in addition it is found to be both p and n dopable. Furthermore, this soluble polymer exhibits fluorescent properties (the emission of orange light (578 nm) in THF solution).

  17. Methods for efficient usage of energy and materials in high temperature metallurgical processes; Methoden zur Energie- und Stoffeffizienz in der metallurgischen Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Scholz, Reinhard; Stuermer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-15

    Metallurgy belongs to the most energy intensive industries where the chain of processes, from materials production to materials recycling, proceeds typically at high temperatures. The higher the process temperature, the more valuable is energy recovery. In parallel with the current trends of improving energy efficiencies, one observes an increase of energy conversion costs in conversion processes of both fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The paper is concerned with methods of improving energy efficiencies, as well as, with establishing their maximum values determined by the thermodynamics of the metallurgical processes considered. In a number of processes, for example in the blast furnace process of pig iron production, these thermodynamic limits have been reached. Then, if the prices of raw materials and/or energy (electricity produced either from fossil fuels or from renewables) are on the rise, the industry does not have any other option but increasing the final product prices which obviously affect competitiveness. (orig.)

  18. High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.

    Deepika; Li, Lu Hua; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Hait, Samik K; Hodgson, Peter; Chen, Ying

    2014-12-03

    Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 μm in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.

  19. Efficiency of cellular information processing

    Barato, Andre C; Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We show that a rate of conditional Shannon entropy reduction, characterizing the learning of an internal process about an external process, is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production. This approach allows for the definition of an informational efficiency that can be used to study cellular information processing. We analyze three models of increasing complexity inspired by the Escherichia coli sensory network, where the external process is an external ligand concentration jumping between two values. We start with a simple model for which ATP must be consumed so that a protein inside the cell can learn about the external concentration. With a second model for a single receptor we show that the rate at which the receptor learns about the external environment can be nonzero even without any dissipation inside the cell since chemical work done by the external process compensates for this learning rate. The third model is more complete, also containing adaptation. For this model we show inter alia that a bacterium in an environment that changes at a very slow time-scale is quite inefficient, dissipating much more than it learns. Using the concept of a coarse-grained learning rate, we show for the model with adaptation that while the activity learns about the external signal the option of changing the methylation level increases the concentration range for which the learning rate is substantial. (paper)

  20. Integrated process for synthetic natural gas production from coal and coke-oven gas with high energy efficiency and low emission

    Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu; Qian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel coal and coke-oven gas to SNG (CGtSNG) process is proposed. • Energy efficiency of CGtSNG increases 8% compared to coal-to-SNG process. • CGtSNG reduces 60% CO_2 emission and 72% effluent discharge. • CGtSNG proposes an idea of using redundant coke-oven gas for producing SNG production. - Abstract: There was a rapid development of coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG) projects in the last few years in China. The research from our previous work and some other researchers have found coal based SNG production process has the problems of environmental pollution and emission transfer, including CO_2 emission, effluent discharge, and high energy consumption. This paper proposes a novel co-feed process of coal and coke-oven gas to SNG process by using a dry methane reforming unit to reduce CO_2 emissions, more hydrogen elements are introduced to improve resource efficiency. It is shown that the energy efficiency of the co-feed process increases by 4%, CO_2 emission and effluent discharge is reduced by 60% and 72%, whereas the production cost decreases by 16.7%, in comparison to the conventional coal to SNG process. As coke-oven gas is a waste gas in most of the coking plant, this process also allows to optimize the allocation of resources.

  1. Advanced microlens and color filter process technology for the high-efficiency CMOS and CCD image sensors

    Fan, Yang-Tung; Peng, Chiou-Shian; Chu, Cheng-Yu

    2000-12-01

    New markets are emerging for digital electronic image device, especially in visual communications, PC camera, mobile/cell phone, security system, toys, vehicle image system and computer peripherals for document capture. To enable one-chip image system that image sensor is with a full digital interface, can make image capture devices in our daily lives. Adding a color filter to such image sensor in a pattern of mosaics pixel or wide stripes can make image more real and colorful. We can say 'color filter makes the life more colorful color filter is? Color filter means can filter image light source except the color with specific wavelength and transmittance that is same as color filter itself. Color filter process is coating and patterning green, red and blue (or cyan, magenta and yellow) mosaic resists onto matched pixel in image sensing array pixels. According to the signal caught from each pixel, we can figure out the environment image picture. Widely use of digital electronic camera and multimedia applications today makes the feature of color filter becoming bright. Although it has challenge but it is very worthy to develop the process of color filter. We provide the best service on shorter cycle time, excellent color quality, high and stable yield. The key issues of advanced color process have to be solved and implemented are planarization and micro-lens technology. Lost of key points of color filter process technology have to consider will also be described in this paper.

  2. New highly efficient piezoceramic materials

    Dantsiger, A.Ya.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Grineva, L.D.; Devlikanova, R.U.; Dudkina, S.I.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Dergunova, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    New high efficient piezoceramic materials with various combination of parameters inclusing high Curie point for high-temperature transducers using in atomic power engineering are worked. They can be used in systems for heated matters nondestructive testing, controllers for varied industrial power plants and other high-temperature equipment

  3. Highly efficient fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by nepheline prepared from kaolinite through alkali-hydrothermal process.

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Li, Zishun; Tang, Xuekun; Li, Guangze

    2017-07-01

    A direct alkali-hydrothermal induced transformation process was adopted to prepare nepheline from raw kaolinite (shortened form RK in this paper) and NaOH solution in this paper. Structure and morphology characterizations of the synthetic product showed that the nepheline possessed high degree of crystallinity and uniform surface morphology. Specific surface area of nepheline is 18 m 2 /g, with a point of zero charge at around pH 5.0-5.5. The fluoride (F - ions) adsorption by the synthetic nepheline (shortened form SN in this paper) from aqueous solution was also investigated under different experimental conditions. The adsorption process well matched the Langmuir isotherm model with an amazing maximum adsorption capacity of 183 mg/g at 323 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔS 0 ) for adsorption on SN were also determined from the temperature dependence. The adsorption capacities of fluoride on SN increased with increasing of temperature and initial concentration. Initial pH value also had influence on adsorption process. Adsorption of fluoride was rapidly increased in 5-60 min and thereafter increased slowly to reach the equilibrium in about 90-180 min under all conditions. The adsorption followed a pseudo-second order rate law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki; Jeong, Soon-Wook; Cho, Woon-Jo

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO) electrode grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a specially designed roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering system for use in flexible optoelectronics. It was found that both electrical and optical properties of the flexible IZO electrode were critically dependent on the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio during the roll-to-roll sputtering process. At optimized conditions (constant working pressure of 3 mTorr, Ar/O 2 flow ratio of Ar at only 30 sccm, DC power 800 W and rolling speed at 0.1 cm/s) the flexible IZO electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 17.25 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of 89.45% at 550 nm wavelength. Due to the low PET substrate temperature, which is effectively maintained by cooling drum system, all IZO electrodes showed an amorphous structure regardless of the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio. Furthermore, the IZO electrodes grown at optimized condition exhibited superior flexibility than the conventional amorphous ITO electrodes due to its stable amorphous structure. This indicates that the RTR sputter grown IZO electrode is a promising flexible electrode that can substitute for the conventional ITO electrode, due to its low resistance, high transparency, superior flexibility and fast preparation by the RTR process.

  5. Investigating the Role of Biogeochemical Processes in the Northern High Latitudes on Global Climate Feedbacks Using an Efficient Scalable Earth System Model

    Jain, Atul K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-09-14

    The overall objectives of this DOE funded project is to combine scientific and computational challenges in climate modeling by expanding our understanding of the biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes and their interactions in the northern high latitudes (NHLs) using an earth system modeling (ESM) approach, and by adopting an adaptive parallel runtime system in an ESM to achieve efficient and scalable climate simulations through improved load balancing algorithms.

  6. The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program

    Kuhn, W.L.; Gephart, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Integrated Program (ESPIP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The ESPIP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESPIP supports applied R ampersand D leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Examples of current ESPIP-funded separations technologies are described here

  7. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  8. Critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    Johnstone, lain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experim...

  9. Business process model repositories : efficient process retrieval

    Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As organizations increasingly work in process-oriented manner, the number of business process models that they develop and have to maintain increases. As a consequence, it has become common for organizations to have collections of hundreds or even thousands of business process models. When a

  10. Conceptual design of coke-oven gas assisted coal to olefins process for high energy efficiency and low CO2 emission

    Man, Yi; Yang, Siyu; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel coke-oven gas assisted coal to olefins (GaCTO) process is proposed. • GaCTO has higher energy efficiency and emits less CO 2 compared to coal-to-olefins process. • GaCTO proposes an idea of using redundant coke-oven gas for producing value added products. - Abstract: Olefins are one of the most important platform chemicals. Developing coal-to-olefins (CTO) processes is regarded as one of promising alternatives to oil-to-olefins process. However, CTO suffers from high CO 2 emission due to the high carbon contents of coal. In China, there is 7 × 10 10 m 3 coke-oven gas (COG) produced in coke plants annually. However, most of the hydrogen-rich COG is utilized as fuel or discharged directly into the air. Such situation is a waste of precious hydrogen resource and serious economic loss, which causes serious environmental pollution either. This paper proposes a novel co-feed process of COG assist CTO in which CH 4 of COG reacts with CO 2 in a Dry Methane Reforming unit to reduce emissions, while the Steam Methane Reforming unit produces H 2 -rich syngas. H 2 of COG can adjust the H/C ratio of syngas. The analysis shows that the energy efficiency of the co-feed process increases about 10%, while at the same time, life cycle carbon footprint is reduced by around 85% in comparison to the conventional CTO process. The economic sustainability of the co-feed process will be reached when the carbon tax would be higher than 150 CNY/t CO 2

  11. High-efficient method for spectrometric data real time processing with increased resolution of a measuring channel

    Ashkinaze, S.I.; Voronov, V.A.; Nechaev, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Solution of reduction problem as a mean to increase spectrometric tract resolution when it is realized using the digit-by-digit modified method and special strategy, significantly reducing the time of processing, is considered. The results presented confirm that the complex measurement tract plus microcomputer is equivalent to the use of the tract with a higher resolution, and the use of the digit-by-digit modified method permits to process spectrometric information in real time scale

  12. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  13. Process Optimization for High Efficiency Heterojunction c-Si Solar Cells Fabrication Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition: Preprint

    Ai, Y.; Yuan, H. C.; Page, M.; Nemeth, W.; Roybal, L.; Wang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The researchers extensively studied the effects of annealing or thermal history of cell process on the minority carrier lifetimes of FZ n-type c-Si wafers with various i-layer thicknesses from 5 to 60 nm, substrate temperatures from 100 to 350 degrees C, doped layers both p- and n-types, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO).

  14. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  15. Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Deep-Red Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on an Exciplex Host Composed of a Hole Transporter and a Bipolar Host.

    Huang, Manli; Jiang, Bei; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2017-10-19

    With the aim to achieve highly efficient deep-red emission, we introduced an exciplex forming cohost, 4,4',4″-tris(3-methylphenylphenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA): 2,5-bis(2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (o-CzOXD) (1:1). Due to the efficient triplet up-conversion processes upon the exciplex forming cohost, excellent performances of the devices were achieved with deep-red emission. Using the heteroleptic iridium complexes as the guest dopants, the solution-processed deep-red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) with the iridium(III) bis(6-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)phenanthridine)acetylacetonate [(TP-BQ) 2 Ir(acac)]-based phosphorescent emitter exhibited an electroluminescent peak at 656 nm and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%, which is 6.6 times that of the device based on the guest emitter doped in the polymer-based cohost. The unique exciplex with a typical hole transporter and a bipolar material is ideal and universal for hosting the red PhOLEDs and tremendously improves the device performances.

  16. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  17. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  19. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  20. Development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; Teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    Takarada, Y; Kato, K; Kuroda, M; Nakagawa, N [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Roman, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Experiment reveals the characteristics of low rank coal serving as a desulfurizing material in fluidized coal bed reactor with oxygen-containing functional groups exchanged with Ca ions. This effort aims at identifying inexpensive Ca materials and determining the desulfurizing characteristics of Ca-carrying brown coal. A slurry of cement sludge serving as a Ca source and low rank coal is agitated for the exchange of functional groups and Ca ions, and the desulfurizing characteristics of the Ca-carrying brown coal is determined. The Ca-carrying brown coal and high-sulfur coal char is mixed and incinerated in a fluidized bed reactor, and it is found that a desulfurization rate of 75% is achieved when the Ca/S ratio is 1 in the desulfurization of SO2. This rate is far higher than the rate obtained when limestone or cement sludge without preliminary treatment is used as a desulfurizer. Next, Ca-carrying brown coal and H2S are caused to react upon each other in a fixed bed reactor, and then it is found that desulfurization characteristics are not dependent on the diameter of the Ca-carrying brown coal grain, that the coal is different from limestone in that it stays quite active against H2S for long 40 minutes after the start of the reaction, and that CaO small in crystal diameter is dispersed in quantities into the char upon thermal disintegration of Ca-carrying brown coal to cause the coal to say quite active. 5 figs.

  1. Efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution in the competitive period

    Olexandr Tyhorskіy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: foundation of efficiency of the technique of the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the competitive period. Material & Methods: 16 highly skilled bodybuilders of 22–30 years old participated in the research, the average body weight of sportsmen makes 872 – 1022 kg, which are included in the structure of the national team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Methods: method of the theoretical analysis and generalization of literature, pedagogical observation, pedagogical experiment, method of mathematical statistics. Results: the comparative characteristic of the most often used techniques of the training process in bodybuilding is provided. The effective technique for highly skilled bodybuilders of the mesomorphic type of constitution, depending on the initial uniform of a sportsman at the beginning of the competitive period of training is developed and proved. Dependence of change of body weight of a bodybuilder on the training process is directed. Conclusions: on the effective training method, depending on microcycle of trainings in the competitive period precompetitive and competitive mesocycles (selection and main competitions, is offered the basis of the conducted research.

  2. Realizing Highly Efficient Solution-Processed Homojunction-Like Sky-Blue OLEDs by Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Emitters Featuring an Aggregation-Induced Emission Property.

    Wu, Kailong; Wang, Zian; Zhan, Lisi; Zhong, Cheng; Gong, Shaolong; Xie, Guohua; Yang, Chuluo

    2018-04-05

    Two new blue emitters, i.e., bis-[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( o-ACSO2) and bis-[3-(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-phenyl]-sulfone ( m-ACSO2), with reserved fine thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) nature and simply tuned thermal and optoelectronic properties, were synthesized by isomer engineering. The meta-linking compound, i.e., m-ACSO2, obtains the highest photoluminescence quantum yield with a small singlet-triplet energy gap, a moderate delayed fluorescent lifetime, excellent solubility, and neat film homogeneity. Due to its unique aggregation-induced emission (AIE) character, neat film-based heterojunction-like organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are achievable. By inserting an excitonic inert exciton-blocking layer, the PN heterojunction-like emission accompanied by intefacial exciplex was shifted to a homojunction-like channel mainly from the AIE emitter itself, providing a new tactic to generate efficient blue color from neat films. The solution-processed nondoped sky-blue OLED employing m-ACSO2 as emitter with homojunction-like emission achieved a maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.2%. The design strategies presented herein provide practical methods to construct efficient blue TADF dyes and realize high-performance blue TADF devices.

  3. A novel highly porous ceramic foam with efficient thermal insulation and high temperature resistance properties fabricated by gel-casting process

    Yu, Jiahong; Wang, Guixiang; Tang, Di; Qiu, Ya; Sun, Nali; Liu, Wenqiao

    2018-01-01

    The design of super thermal insulation and high-temperature resistant materials for high temperature furnaces is crucial due to the energy crisis and the huge wasting. Although it is told that numerous studies have been reported about various of thermal insulation materials prepared by different methods, the applications of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic foams fabricated through tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)-based gel-casting process in bulk thermal isolators were barely to seen. In this paper, highly porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic foams were fabricated by a novel gel-casting method using tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as solvent and pore-forming agent. Different raw material ratio, sintering temperature and soaking time were all investigated to achieve optimal thermal insulation and mechanical properties. We can conclude that porosity drops gradually while compressive strength increases significantly with the rising temperature from 1000-1500°C. With prolonged soaking time, there is no obvious change in porosity but compressive strength increases gradually. All specimens have uniformly distributed pores with average size of 0.5-2μm and show good structural stability at high temperature. The final obtained ceramic foams displayed an outstanding ultra-low thermal conductivity property with only 200.6 °C in cold surface while the hot side was 1000 °C (hold 60 min to keep thermal balance before testing) at the thickness of 10 mm.

  4. High-efficient electron linacs

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  6. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  7. Efficient fabrication of high-capacity immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media: The role of the dextran-grafting process and its manipulation.

    Zhao, Lan; Zhang, Jingfei; Huang, Yongdong; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rongyue; Zhu, Kai; Suo, Jia; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhigang; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-03-01

    Novel high-capacity Ni(2+) immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media were prepared through the dextran-grafting process. Dextran was grafted to an allyl-activated agarose-based matrix followed by functionalization for the immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media. With elaborate regulation of the allylation degree, dextran was completely or partly grafted to agarose microspheres, namely, completely dextran-grafted agarose microspheres and partly dextran-grafted ones, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscope results demonstrated that a good adjustment of dextran-grafting degree was achieved, and dextran was distributed uniformly in whole completely dextran-grafted microspheres, while just distributed around the outside of the partly dextran-grafted ones. Flow hydrodynamic properties were improved greatly after the dextran-grafting process, and the flow velocity increased by about 30% compared with that of a commercial chromatographic medium (Ni Sepharose FF). A significant improvement of protein binding performance was also achieved by the dextran-grafting process, and partly dextran-grafted Ni(2+) chelating medium had a maximum binding capacity for His-tagged lactate dehydrogenase about 2.5 times higher than that of Ni Sepharose FF. The results indicated that this novel chromatographic medium is promising for applications in high-efficiency and large-scale protein purification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Can radiation chemistry supply a highly efficient AO(R)P process for organics removal from drinking and waste water? A review.

    Trojanowicz, Marek; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna; Capodaglio, Andrea G

    2017-09-01

    The increasing role of chemistry in industrial production and its direct and indirect impacts in everyday life create the need for continuous search and efficiency improvement of new methods for decomposition/removal of different classes of waterborne anthropogenic pollutants. This review paper addresses a highly promising class of water treatment solutions, aimed at tackling the pressing problem of emerging contaminants in natural and drinking waters and wastewater discharges. Radiation processing, a technology originating from radiation chemistry studies, has shown encouraging results in the treatment of (mainly) organic water pollution. Radiation ("high energy") processing is an additive-free technology using short-lived reactive species formed by the radiolysis of water, both oxidative and reducing, to carry out decomposition of organic pollutants. The paper illustrates the basic principles of radiolytic treatment of organic pollutants in water and wastewaters and specifically of one of its most practical implementations (electron beam processing). Application examples, highlighting the technology's strong points and operational conditions are described, and a discussion on the possible future of this technology follows.

  9. High Power Efficiency Solution-Processed Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Exciplex-Type Host with a Turn-on Voltage Approaching the Theoretical Limit.

    Ban, Xinxin; Sun, Kaiyong; Sun, Yueming; Huang, Bin; Ye, Shanghui; Yang, Min; Jiang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    Three solution-processable exciplex-type host materials were successfully designed and characterized by equal molar blending hole transporting molecules with a newly synthesized electron transporting material, which possesses high thermal stability and good film-forming ability through a spin-coating technique. The excited-state dynamics and the structure-property relationships were systematically investigated. By gradually deepening the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of electron-donating components, the triplet energy of exciplex hosts were increased from 2.64 to 3.10 eV. Low temperature phosphorescence spectra demonstrated that the excessively high triplet energy of exciplex would induce a serious energy leakage from the complex state to the constituting molecule. Furthermore, the low energy electromer state, which only exists under the electroexcitation, was found as another possible channel for energy loss in exciplex-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In particular, as quenching of the exciplex-state and the triplet exciton were largely eliminated, solution-processed blue phosphorescence OLEDs using the exciplex-type host achieved an extremely low turn-on voltage of 2.7 eV and record-high power efficiency of 22.5 lm W(-1), which were among the highest values in the devices with identical structure.

  10. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  11. Efficiency of manufacturing processes energy and ecological perspectives

    Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

     This monograph presents a reliable methodology for characterising the energy and eco-efficiency of unit manufacturing processes. The Specific Energy Consumption, SEC, will be identified as the key indicator for the energy efficiency of unit processes.  An empirical approach will be validated on different machine tools and manufacturing processes to depict the relationship between process parameters and energy consumptions. Statistical results and additional validation runs will corroborate the high level of accuracy in predicting the energy consumption. In relation to the eco-efficiency, the value and the associated environmental impacts of  manufacturing processes will also be discussed. The interrelationship between process parameters, process value and the associated environmental impact will be integrated in the evaluation of eco-efficiency. The book concludes with a further investigation of the results in order to develop strategies for further efficiency improvement. The target audience primarily co...

  12. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO{sub 2} emissions

    Kasahara, Seiji, E-mail: kasahara.seiji@jaea.go.jp; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H{sub 2} consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO{sub 2} emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex{sup ®} steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO{sub 2} reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO{sub 2} emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO{sub 2} emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO{sub 2} emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO{sub 2} emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a

  13. Energy efficient processing of natural resources; Energieeffiziente Verarbeitung natuerlicher Rohstoffe

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Projekt FU2; Hans, Carl [Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Abt. Intelligente Informations- und Kommunikationsumgebungen fuer die kooperative Produktion im Forschungsbereich Informations- und Kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Inst. fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung; Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Forschungsbereich Informations- und kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Austing, Bernhard [Fa. Austing, Damme (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Energy efficiency is gaining high importance in production processes. High energy consumption is directly related to high costs. The processing of natural resources is resulting in additional energy input because of defined output quality demands. This paper discussed approaches and IT-solutions for the automatically adjustment of production processes to cope with varying input qualities. The intention is to achieve the lowest energy input into the process without quality restraints.

  14. Iron(III) phthalocyanine supported on a spongin scaffold as an advanced photocatalyst in a highly efficient removal process of halophenols and bisphenol A.

    Norman, Małgorzata; Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, Sonia; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2018-04-05

    This study investigated for the first time the degradation of phenol, chlorophenol, fluorophenol and bisphenol A (BPA) by the novel iron phthalocyanine/spongin hybrid material under various process conditions: hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation. The heterogeneous catalyst, iron phthalocyanine/spongin (SFe), was produced by an adsorption process. The product obtained was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic techniques - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) - as well as elemental and thermal analysis. The study confirmed the stable immobilization of the dye on the biopolymer. The results demonstrate that the degradation of phenols and BPA followed pseudo-second-order kinetics under different experimental conditions. The synergy of SFe, H 2 O 2 and UV was found to produce a significant increase in the removal efficiency and resulted in complete removal of contaminants in a short time of 1 h. The reaction products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and possible degradation pathways were proposed, featuring a series of steps including cleavage of CC bonds and oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. FY1995 development of economical and high efficient desulfurization process using low rank coal; 1995 nendo teitankadotan wo mochiita ankana kokoritsu datsuryuho no kaihatsu

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new efficient desulfurization technique using a Ca ion-exchanged coal prepared from low rank coal and calcium raw material as a SO{sub 2} sorbent. Ion-exchange of calcium was carried out by soaking and mixing brown coal particles in milk of lime or slurry of industrial waste from concrete manufacture process. About 10wt% of Ca was easily incorporated into Yallourn coal. The ion-exchanged Ca was transformed to ultra-fine CaO particles upon pyrolysis of coal. The reactivity of CaO produced from Ca-exchanged coal to SO{sub 2} was extraordinary high and the CaO utilization of above 90% was easily achieved, while the conversion of natural limestone was less than 30% under the similar experimental conditions. High activity of Ca-exchanged coal was appreciably observed in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor. Ca-exchanged coal was quite effective for the removal of hydrogen sulfide. (NEDO)

  16. Towards highly efficient water photoelectrolysis

    Elavambedu Prakasam, Haripriya

    ethylene glycol resulted in remarkable growth characteristics of titania nanotube arrays, hexagonal closed packed up to 1 mm in length, with tube aspect ratios of approximately 10,000. For the first time, complete anodization of the starting titanium foil has been demonstrated resulting in back to back nanotube array membranes ranging from 360 mum--1 mm in length. The nanotubes exhibited growth rates of up to 15 mum/hr. A detailed study on the factors affecting the growth rate and nanotube dimensions is presented. It is suggested that faster high field ionic conduction through a thinner barrier layer is responsible for the higher growth rates observed in electrolytes containing ethylene glycol. Methods to fabricate free standing, titania nanotube array membranes ranging in thickness from 50 microm--1000 mum has also been an outcome of this dissertation. In an effort to combine the charge transport properties of titania with the light absorption properties of iron (III) oxide, films comprised of vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube arrays on FTO coated glass substrates have been successfully synthesized in ethylene glycol electrolytes. Depending upon the Fe content the bandgap of the resulting films varied from about 3.26 to 2.17 eV. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films demonstrated a photocurrent of 2 mA/cm2 under global AM 1.5 illumination with a 1.2% (two-electrode) photoconversion efficiency, demonstrating a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W·hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The Ti-Fe-O material architecture demonstrates properties useful for hydrogen generation by water photoelectrolysis and, more importantly, this dissertation demonstrates that the general nanotube-array synthesis technique can be extended to other ternary oxide compositions of interest for water photoelectrolysis.

  17. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  18. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  19. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  20. High efficiency inverter and ballast circuits

    Nilssen, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency push-pull inverter circuit employing a pair of relatively high power switching transistors is described. The switching on and off of the transistors is precisely controlled to minimize power losses due to common-mode conduction or due to transient conditions that occur in the process of turning a transistor on or off. Two current feed-back transformers are employed in the transistor base drives; one being saturable for providing a positive feedback, and the other being non-saturable for providing a subtractive feedback

  1. Improved energy efficiency in the process industries

    Pilavachi, P A [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-12-31

    The European Commission, through the JOULE Programme, is promoting energy efficient technologies in the process industries; the topics of the various R and D activities are: heat exchangers (enhanced evaporation, shell and tube heat exchangers including distribution of fluids, and fouling), low energy separation processes (adsorption, melt-crystallization and supercritical extraction), chemical reactors (methanol synthesis and reactors with integral heat exchangers), other unit operations (evaporators, glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens, dryers and packed columns and replacements for R12 in refrigeration), energy and system process models (batch processes, simulation and control of transients and energy synthesis), development of advanced sensors.

  2. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  3. Efficiency of European Dairy Processing Firms

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Dijk, van G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency and production frontier of dairy processing cooperativesand investor owned firms in six major dairy producing European countries. Two parametric produc-tion frontiers are estimated, i.e. for cooperatives and investor owned firms separately, which are

  4. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  5. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  6. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  7. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  8. Solution-processed highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/GO transparent film for efficient organic-Si hybrid solar cells.

    Xu, Qiaojing; Song, Tao; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xu, Weidong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-02-11

    Hybrid solar cells based on n-Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene- sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction promise to be a low cost photovoltaic technology by using simple device structure and easy fabrication process. However, due to the low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, a metal grid deposited by vacuum evaporation method is still required to enhance the charge collection efficiency, which complicates the device fabrication process. Here, a solution-processed graphene oxide (GO)-welded silver nanowires (AgNWs) transparent conductive electrode (TCE) was employed to replace the vacuum deposited metal grid. A unique "sandwich" structure was developed by embedding an AgNW network between PEDOT:PSS and GO with a figure-of-merit of 8.6×10(-3) Ω(-1), which was even higher than that of sputtered indium tin oxide electrode (6.6×10(-3) Ω(-1)). A champion power conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved, because of the decreased series resistance of the TCEs as well as the enhanced built-in potential (Vbi) in the hybrid solar cells. The TCEs were obtained by facile low-temperature solution process method, which was compatible with cost-effective mass production technology.

  9. Power and thermal efficient numerical processing

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Numerical processing is at the core of applications in many areas ranging from scientific and engineering calculations to financial computing. These applications are usually executed on large servers or supercomputers to exploit their high speed, high level of parallelism and high bandwidth...

  10. Event-related potential evidence for the processing efficiency theory.

    Murray, N P; Janelle, C M

    2007-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the central tenets of the processing efficiency theory using psychophysiological measures of attention and effort. Twenty-eight participants were divided equally into either a high or low trait anxiety group. They were then required to perform a simulated driving task while responding to one of four target light-emitting diodes. Cortical activity and dual task performance were recorded under two conditions -- baseline and competition -- with cognitive anxiety being elevated in the competitive session by an instructional set. Although driving speed was similar across sessions, a reduction in P3 amplitude to cue onset in the light detection task occurred for both groups during the competitive session, suggesting a reduction in processing efficiency as participants became more state anxious. Our findings provide more comprehensive and mechanistic evidence for processing efficiency theory, and confirm that increases in cognitive anxiety can result in a reduction of processing efficiency with little change in performance effectiveness.

  11. High efficiency atomic hydrogen source

    Lagomarsino, V.; Bassi, D.; Bertok, E.; De Paz, M.; Tommasini, F.

    1974-01-01

    This work presents preliminary results of research intended to produce a M.W. discharge atomic hydrogen source with good dissociation at pressures larger than 10 torr. Analysis of the recombination process at these pressures shows that the volume recombination by three body collisions may be more important than wall recombination or loss of atoms by diffusion and flow outside the discharge region

  12. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  13. Report on the results of the fiscal 1997 R and D under consignment from NEDO of photon measuring/processing technology (development of high-efficiency production process technology); 1997 nendo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku photon keisoku kako gijutsu (kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Development is made of high energy-efficiency laser processing technology and high efficiency/high grade photon generation/control technology as laser light source, for the purpose of energy conservation/efficiency heightening of production processes which require a large amount of energy such as welding, joining, surface treatment, and particle fabrication. As to keyhole dynamics of the molten metal generated on the laser weld, construction of simulational mathematical models was started. Equipment to fabricate semiconductor ultrafine particles which become the core of quantum dot functional structures was designed to fabricate particles. In-situ optical measuring technology was studied of element/size of particles of below 30 nm in size by emission spectroscopy associated with the plasma irradiation. As tightly focusing all-solid-state laser technology, studied was the wavelength conversion method in which harmonics are generated four times as much as the fundamental wave due to high efficient generation of high power UV laser. Also studied were high laser strength, low optical losses, conditions for fostering high homogenity crystals. Technology for high accuracy processing of element surface was established. High efficiency photon generation technology was comprehensively investigated. 140 refs., 276 figs., 46 tabs.

  14. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  15. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen-Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-15

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaflop-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency. The network implements collective network and a global asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. Integrated in the node design include a list-based prefetcher. The memory system implements transaction memory, thread level speculation, and multiversioning cache that improves soft error rate at the same time and supports DMA functionality allowing for parallel processing message-passing.

  16. Highly efficient red electrophosphorescent devices at high current densities

    Wu Youzhi; Zhu Wenqing; Zheng Xinyou; Sun, Runguang; Jiang Xueyin; Zhang Zhilin; Xu Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency decrease at high current densities in red electrophosphorescent devices is drastically restrained compared with that from conventional electrophosphorescent devices by using bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolate aluminum (BAlq) as a hole and exciton blocker. Ir complex, bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl) pyridinato-N,C 3' ) iridium (acetyl-acetonate) is used as an emitter, maximum external quantum efficiency (QE) of 7.0% and luminance of 10000cd/m 2 are obtained. The QE is still as high as 4.1% at higher current density J=100mA/cm 2 . CIE-1931 co-ordinates are 0.672, 0.321. A carrier trapping mechanism is revealed to dominate in the process of electroluminescence

  17. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  18. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda

    2018-05-01

    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  19. Highly efficient ZnO/Au Schottky barrier dye-sensitized solar cells: Role of gold nanoparticles on the charge-transfer process

    Tanujjal Bora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods decorated with gold (Au nanoparticles have been synthesized and used to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. The picosecond-resolved, time-correlated single-photon-count (TCSPC spectroscopy technique was used to explore the charge-transfer mechanism in the ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC. Due to the formation of the Schottky barrier at the ZnO/Au interface and the higher optical absorptions of the ZnO/Au photoelectrodes arising from the surface plasmon absorption of the Au nanoparticles, enhanced power-conversion efficiency (PCE of 6.49% for small-area (0.1 cm2 ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC was achieved compared to the 5.34% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanorod DSSC. The TCSPC studies revealed similar dynamics for the charge transfer from dye molecules to ZnO both in the presence and absence of Au nanoparticles. A slower fluorescence decay associated with the electron recombination process, observed in the presence of Au nanoparticles, confirmed the blocking of the electron transfer from ZnO back to the dye or electrolyte by the Schottky barrier formed at the ZnO/Au interface. For large area DSSC (1 cm2, ~130% enhancement in PCE (from 0.50% to 1.16% was achieved after incorporation of the Au nanoparticles into the ZnO nanorods.

  20. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  1. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  2. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  3. Survival Processing Enhances Visual Search Efficiency.

    Cho, Kit W

    2018-05-01

    Words rated for their survival relevance are remembered better than when rated using other well-known memory mnemonics. This finding, which is known as the survival advantage effect and has been replicated in many studies, suggests that our memory systems are molded by natural selection pressures. In two experiments, the present study used a visual search task to examine whether there is likewise a survival advantage for our visual systems. Participants rated words for their survival relevance or for their pleasantness before locating that object's picture in a search array with 8 or 16 objects. Although there was no difference in search times among the two rating scenarios when set size was 8, survival processing reduced visual search times when set size was 16. These findings reflect a search efficiency effect and suggest that similar to our memory systems, our visual systems are also tuned toward self-preservation.

  4. Multiscale approaches to high efficiency photovoltaics

    Connolly James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While renewable energies are achieving parity around the globe, efforts to reach higher solar cell efficiencies becomes ever more difficult as they approach the limiting efficiency. The so-called third generation concepts attempt to break this limit through a combination of novel physical processes and new materials and concepts in organic and inorganic systems. Some examples of semi-empirical modelling in the field are reviewed, in particular for multispectral solar cells on silicon (French ANR project MultiSolSi. Their achievements are outlined, and the limits of these approaches shown. This introduces the main topic of this contribution, which is the use of multiscale experimental and theoretical techniques to go beyond the semi-empirical understanding of these systems. This approach has already led to great advances at modelling which have led to modelling software, which is widely known. Yet, a survey of the topic reveals a fragmentation of efforts across disciplines, firstly, such as organic and inorganic fields, but also between the high efficiency concepts such as hot carrier cells and intermediate band concepts. We show how this obstacle to the resolution of practical research obstacles may be lifted by inter-disciplinary cooperation across length scales, and across experimental and theoretical fields, and finally across materials systems. We present a European COST Action “MultiscaleSolar” kicking off in early 2015, which brings together experimental and theoretical partners in order to develop multiscale research in organic and inorganic materials. The goal of this defragmentation and interdisciplinary collaboration is to develop understanding across length scales, which will enable the full potential of third generation concepts to be evaluated in practise, for societal and industrial applications.

  5. FY 2000 report on the results of the research and development project for the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies. Development of high-efficiency production process technologies; 2000 nendo photon keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of development of the photon-aided instrumentation and processing technologies, aimed at improving efficiency of the production processes which have been massively consuming energy, e.g., those for welding, joining, surface treatment and granulation for producing fine particles. The program for production of the functional composite compounds by the microscopic processing technologies prepares the electrically resistant films and dielectric films by in-situ mixing two types of the ultrafine particles. The program for the in-situ measuring technology is aimed at measuring contents of the constituent components of fine particles, 30nm or less in size, to an accuracy of 10% by the emission spectroscopy, after making them plasmatic. The program for the high-power, all-solid-state laser technology is developing the excited chamber for the high-power, all-solid-state slab type laser, in order to realize the energy-efficient laser-aided processing. The program for the tightly-focusing, all-solid-state laser technology develops the highly uniform crystals by growing the GLBO crystals for producing the high-power ultraviolet laser beams, is developing the techniques for production of the wavelength converting elements, including the GLBO crystal package, and develops the wavelength conversion method by the fourth-harmonic generation with the all-solid-state laser beams as the fundamental wave, realizing the high harmonic power of 23W, for generating the high-power ultraviolet laser beams at a high efficiency. (NEDO)

  6. High-multiplicity processes

    Shelkov, G.; Sisakyan, A.; Mandzhavidze, I.

    1999-01-01

    We wish to demonstrate that investigation of asymptotically high multiplicity (AHM) hadron reactions may solve, or at least clear up, a number of problems unsolvable by other ways. We would lean upon the idea: (i) the reactions final state entropy is proportional to multiplicity and, by this reason, just in the AHM domain one may expect the equilibrium final state and (ii) the AHM final state is cold because of the energy-momentum conservation laws. This means that the collective phenomena may become important in the AHM domain. The possibility of hard processes dominance is considered also

  7. Industrial burner and process efficiency program

    Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

    1982-10-01

    There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

  8. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  9. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  10. Solution-processed zinc oxide/polyethylenimine nanocomposites as tunable electron transport layers for highly efficient bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Chen, Hsiu-Cheng; Lin, Shu-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Ming; Su, Yu-Wei; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2015-03-25

    In this study, we employed polyethylenimine-doped sol-gel-processed zinc oxide composites (ZnO:PEI) as efficient electron transport layers (ETL) for facilitating electron extraction in inverted polymer solar cells. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy, we observed that ZnO:PEI composite films' energy bands could be tuned considerably by varying the content of PEI up to 7 wt %-the conduction band ranged from 4.32 to 4.0 eV-and the structural order of ZnO in the ZnO:PEI thin films would be enhanced to align perpendicular to the ITO electrode, particularly at 7 wt % PEI, facilitating electron transport vertically. We then prepared two types of bulk heterojunction systems-based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butryric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) and benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b́]dithiophene-thiophene-2,1,3-benzooxadiazole (PBDTTBO):phenyl-C71-butryric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)-that incorporated the ZnO:PEI composite layers. When using a composite of ZnO:PEI (93:7, w/w) as the ETL, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the P3HT:PC61BM (1:1, w/w) device improved to 4.6% from a value of 3.7% for the corresponding device that incorporated pristine ZnO as the ETL-a relative increase of 24%. For the PBDTTBO:PC71BM (1:2, w/w) device featuring the same amount of PEI blended in the ETL, the PCE improved to 8.7% from a value of 7.3% for the corresponding device that featured pure ZnO as its ETL-a relative increase of 20%. Accordingly, ZnO:PEI composites can be effective ETLs within organic photovoltaics.

  11. Rapid and efficient treatment of wastewater with high-concentration heavy metals using a new type of hydrogel-based adsorption process.

    Zhou, Guiyin; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Tang, Yanhong; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a new type of double-network hydrogel sorbent was developed to remove heavy metals in wastewater. The amino-functionalized Starch/PAA hydrogel (NH2-Starch/PAA) could be conducted in a wide pH and the adsorption process could rapidly achieve the equilibrium. The adsorption capacity got to 256.4mg/g for Cd(II). Resultantly, even though Cd(II) concentration was as high as 180mg/L, the Cd(II) could be entirely removed using 1g/L sorbent. Furthermore, the desirable mechanical durability of the adsorbent allowed easy separation and reusability. In the fixed-bed column experiments, the treatment volume of the effluent with a high Cd(II) concentration of 200mg/L reached 2400BV (27.1L) after eight times cycle. The NH2-Starch/PAA overcame the deficiency of conventional sorbents that could not effectively treat the wastewater with relatively high metal concentrations. This work provides a new insight into omnidirectional enhancement of sorbents for removing high-concentration heavy metals in wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process-based organization design and hospital efficiency.

    Vera, Antonio; Kuntz, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    The central idea of process-based organization design is that organizing a firm around core business processes leads to cost reductions and quality improvements. We investigated theoretically and empirically whether the implementation of a process-based organization design is advisable in hospitals. The data came from a database compiled by the Statistical Office of the German federal state of Rheinland-Pfalz and from a written questionnaire, which was sent to the chief executive officers (CEOs) of all 92 hospitals in this federal state. We used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure hospital efficiency, and factor analysis and regression analysis to test our hypothesis. Our principal finding is that a high degree of process-based organization has a moderate but significant positive effect on the efficiency of hospitals. The main implication is that hospitals should implement a process-based organization to improve their efficiency. However, to actually achieve positive effects on efficiency, it is of paramount importance to observe some implementation rules, in particular to mobilize physician participation and to create an adequate organizational culture.

  13. Disruption of Pseudomonas putida by high pressure homogenization: a comparison of the predictive capacity of three process models for the efficient release of arginine deiminase.

    Patil, Mahesh D; Patel, Gopal; Surywanshi, Balaji; Shaikh, Naeem; Garg, Prabha; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2016-12-01

    Disruption of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by high-pressure homogenization in a French press is discussed for the release of arginine deiminase (ADI). The enzyme release response of the disruption process was modelled for the experimental factors of biomass concentration in the broth being disrupted, the homogenization pressure and the number of passes of the cell slurry through the homogenizer. For the same data, the response surface method (RSM), the artificial neural network (ANN) and the support vector machine (SVM) models were compared for their ability to predict the performance parameters of the cell disruption. The ANN model proved to be best for predicting the ADI release. The fractional disruption of the cells was best modelled by the RSM. The fraction of the cells disrupted depended mainly on the operating pressure of the homogenizer. The concentration of the biomass in the slurry was the most influential factor in determining the total protein release. Nearly 27 U/mL of ADI was released within a single pass from slurry with a biomass concentration of 260 g/L at an operating pressure of 510 bar. Using a biomass concentration of 100 g/L, the ADI release by French press was 2.7-fold greater than in a conventional high-speed bead mill. In the French press, the total protein release was 5.8-fold more than in the bead mill. The statistical analysis of the completely unseen data exhibited ANN and SVM modelling as proficient alternatives to RSM for the prediction and generalization of the cell disruption process in French press.

  14. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  15. Role of computational efficiency in process simulation

    Kurt Strand

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated how efficient numerical algorithms may be combined to yield a powerful environment for analysing and simulating dynamic systems. The importance of using efficient numerical algorithms is emphasized and demonstrated through examples from the petrochemical industry.

  16. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  17. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen -Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Smith, Brian; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2015-07-14

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many processors can be integrated into a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Each ASIC computing node comprises a system-on-chip ASIC utilizing four or more processors integrated into one die, with each having full access to all system resources and enabling adaptive partitioning of the processors to functions such as compute or messaging I/O on an application by application basis, and preferably, enable adaptive partitioning of functions in accordance with various algorithmic phases within an application, or if I/O or other processors are underutilized, then can participate in computation or communication nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network with DMA that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency.

  18. High efficiency, variable geometry, centrifugal cryogenic pump

    Forsha, M.D.; Nichols, K.E.; Beale, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been developed which has a basic design that is rugged and reliable with variable speed and variable geometry features that achieve high pump efficiency over a wide range of head-flow conditions. The pump uses a sealless design and rolling element bearings to achieve high reliability and the ruggedness to withstand liquid-vapor slugging. The pump can meet a wide range of variable head, off-design flow requirements and maintain design point efficiency by adjusting the pump speed. The pump also has features that allow the impeller and diffuser blade heights to be adjusted. The adjustable height blades were intended to enhance the pump efficiency when it is operating at constant head, off-design flow rates. For small pumps, the adjustable height blades are not recommended. For larger pumps, they could provide off-design efficiency improvements. This pump was developed for supercritical helium service, but the design is well suited to any cryogenic application where high efficiency is required over a wide range of head-flow conditions

  19. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  20. Current efficiency in the chlorate cell process

    Spasojević Miroslav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model has been set up for current efficiency in a chlorate cell acting as an ideal electrochemical tubular reactor with a linear increase in hypochlorite concentration from the entrance to the exit. Good agreement was found between the results on current efficiency experimentally obtained under simulated industrial chlorate production conditions and the theoretical values provided by the mathematical model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057 i br. 172062

  1. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  2. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  3. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor research effort conducted by United Technologies Research Center under NASA Research Announcement NNC08CB03C is documented. The objectives were to identify key technical barriers to advancing the aerodynamic performance of high-efficiency, high work factor, compact centrifugal compressor aft-stages for turboshaft engines; to acquire measurements needed to overcome the technical barriers and inform future designs; to design, fabricate, and test a new research compressor in which to acquire the requisite flow field data. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage -- splittered impeller, splittered diffuser, 90 degree bend, and exit guide vanes -- with aerodynamically aggressive performance and configuration (compactness) goals were designed, fabricated, and subquently tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  4. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  5. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  6. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  7. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  8. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  9. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  10. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  11. Process improvement in healthcare: Overall resource efficiency

    de Mast, J.; Kemper, B.; Does, R.J.M.M.; Mandjes, M.; van der Bijl, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a unifying and quantitative conceptual framework for healthcare processes from the viewpoint of process improvement. The work adapts standard models from operation management to the specifics of healthcare processes. We propose concepts for organizational modeling of

  12. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  13. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  14. Efficient Cross-Device Query Processing

    H. Pirk (Holger)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractThe increasing diversity of hardware within a single system promises large performance gains but also poses a challenge for data management systems. Strategies for the efficient use of hardware with large performance differences are still lacking. For example, existing research on GPU

  15. Working memory capacity and redundant information processing efficiency.

    Endres, Michael J; Houpt, Joseph W; Donkin, Chris; Finn, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity (WMC) is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task-irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP) task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets) and to-be-ignored (distractor) information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170) completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant-target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85) and low (n = 85) WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory.

  16. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-08-01

    The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and cell rate capability. High efficiency Li/SOCl2 cells were thus achieved with catalyzed cathodes. The electrochemical reduction of SOCl2 seems to undergo modification at catalyzed cathode. For example, the reduction of SOCl2 at FePc catalyzed cathode involves 2-1/2 e-/mole of SOCl2. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism is simplified and unwanted chemical species are eliminated by the catalyst. Thus a potentially safer high efficiency Li/SOCl2 can be anticipated.

  17. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  18. Efficient querying of large process model repositories

    Jin, Tao; Wang, Jianmin; La Rosa, M.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wen, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increased uptake of business process management technology in industries. This has resulted in organizations trying to manage large collections of business process models. One of the challenges facing these organizations concerns the retrieval of models from large business

  19. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  20. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  1. Highly Efficient Estimators of Multivariate Location with High Breakdown Point

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    We propose an affine equivariant estimator of multivariate location that combines a high breakdown point and a bounded influence function with high asymptotic efficiency. This proposal is basically a location $M$-estimator based on the observations obtained after scaling with an affine equivariant

  2. Highly Concurrent Scalar Processing.

    1986-01-01

    rearrangement arise from data dependencies between instructions, hence it is critical that artificial - dependencies are eliminated whenever possible...An important class of artificial depen- *. dencies arise due to register reuse. In the following example, no parallelism can be • . exploited in the...specific procedure call site. The use of inteligent procedure expansion techniques is expected to be crucial to the achievement of high performance

  3. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  4. High-efficiency organic glass scintillators

    Feng, Patrick L.; Carlson, Joseph S.

    2017-12-19

    A new family of neutron/gamma discriminating scintillators is disclosed that comprises stable organic glasses that may be melt-cast into transparent monoliths. These materials have been shown to provide light yields greater than solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals and efficient PSD capabilities when combined with 0.01 to 0.05% by weight of the total composition of a wavelength-shifting fluorophore. Photoluminescence measurements reveal fluorescence quantum yields that are 2 to 5 times greater than conventional plastic or liquid scintillator matrices, which accounts for the superior light yield of these glasses. The unique combination of high scintillation light-yields, efficient neutron/gamma PSD, and straightforward scale-up via melt-casting distinguishes the developed organic glasses from existing scintillators.

  5. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  6. Efficient morphological tools for astronomical image processing

    Moschini, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many applications rely on a huge quantity of images at high resolution and with high quantity of information per pixel, due either to the technological improvements of the instruments or to the type of measurement observed. This thesis is focused on exploring and developing tools and new

  7. Efficient individualization of hearing aid processed sound

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Due to the large amount of options offered by the vast number of adjustable parameters in modern digital hearing aids, it is becoming increasingly daunting—even for a fine-tuning professional—to perform parameter fine tuning to satisfactorily meet the preference of the hearing aid user. In addition......, the communication between the fine-tuning professional and the hearing aid user might muddle the task. In the present paper, an interactive system is proposed to ease and speed up fine tuning of hearing aids to suit the preference of the individual user. The system simultaneously makes the user conscious of his own...... preferences while the system itself learns the user’s preference. Since the learning is based on probabilistic modeling concepts, the system handles inconsistent user feedback efficiently. Experiments with hearing impaired subjects show that the system quickly discovers individual preferred hearing...

  8. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  9. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  10. DU Processing Efficiency and Reclamation: Plasma Arc Melting

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    The work described here corresponds to one piece of a larger effort to increase material usage efficiency during DU processing operations. In order to achieve this goal, multiple technologies and approaches are being tested. These technologies occupy a spectrum of technology readiness levels (TRLs). Plasma arc melting (PAM) is one of the technologies being investigated. PAM utilizes a high temperature plasma to melt materials. Depending on process conditions, there are potential opportunities for recycling and material reclamation. When last routinely operational, the LANL research PAM showed extremely promising results for recycling and reclamation of DU and DU alloys. The current TRL is lower due to machine idleness for nearly two decades, which has proved difficult to restart. This report describes the existing results, promising techniques, and the process of bringing this technology back to readiness at LANL.

  11. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanooptics for high efficient photon managment

    Wyrowski, Frank; Schimmel, Hagen

    2005-09-01

    Optical systems for photon management, that is the generation of tailored electromagnetic fields, constitute one of the keys for innovation through photonics. An important subfield of photon management deals with the transformation of an incident light field into a field of specified intensity distribution. In this paper we consider some basic aspects of the nature of systems for those light transformations. It turns out, that the transversal redistribution of energy (TRE) is of central concern to achieve systems with high transformation efficiency. Besides established techniques nanostructured optical elements (NOE) are demanded to implement transversal energy redistribution. That builds a bridge between the needs of photon management, optical engineering, and nanooptics.

  13. Effect of annealing process on the heterostructure CuO/Cu2O as a highly efficient photocathode for photoelectrochemical water reduction

    Du, Fan; Chen, Qing-Yun; Wang, Yun-Hai

    2017-05-01

    CuO/Cu2O photocathodes were successfully prepared via simply annealing the electrodeposited Cu2O on fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the heterojunction of CuO/Cu2O was formed during the annealing process and presented the nature of p-type semiconductor. The photocurrent density and photoelectrochemical (PEC) stability of the p-type heterostructure CuO/Cu2O photocathode was improved greatly compared with the pure Cu2O, which was greatly affected by annealing time and temperature. The highest photo current density of -0.451 mA/cm2 and highest stability was obtained via annealing at 650 °C for 15 min (at -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl), which gave a remarkable improvement than the as-deposited Cu2O (-0.08 mA/cm2). This suggested that the CuO/Cu2O heterojunction facilitated the electron-hole pair separation and improved the photocathode's current and stability.

  14. Efficient Bayesian inference for ARFIMA processes

    Graves, T.; Gramacy, R. B.; Franzke, C. L. E.; Watkins, N. W.

    2015-03-01

    Many geophysical quantities, like atmospheric temperature, water levels in rivers, and wind speeds, have shown evidence of long-range dependence (LRD). LRD means that these quantities experience non-trivial temporal memory, which potentially enhances their predictability, but also hampers the detection of externally forced trends. Thus, it is important to reliably identify whether or not a system exhibits LRD. In this paper we present a modern and systematic approach to the inference of LRD. Rather than Mandelbrot's fractional Gaussian noise, we use the more flexible Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) model which is widely used in time series analysis, and of increasing interest in climate science. Unlike most previous work on the inference of LRD, which is frequentist in nature, we provide a systematic treatment of Bayesian inference. In particular, we provide a new approximate likelihood for efficient parameter inference, and show how nuisance parameters (e.g. short memory effects) can be integrated over in order to focus on long memory parameters, and hypothesis testing more directly. We illustrate our new methodology on the Nile water level data, with favorable comparison to the standard estimators.

  15. Business process reengineering and Nigerian banking system efficiency

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2000, and before banks in Nigeria embraced the NBS was inefficient, characterized by frauds, long queues, nonperforming loans, illiquidity and distress. As one way of overcoming these challenges banks started to focus on BPR as a veritable tool to drive efficiency customer satisfaction and improved shareholder value. With the advent of BPR and process improvement efficiency gradually strolled back in to the NBS Against the prereengineering era when the liquidity ratio of the NBS was minus 15.92 percent in 1996 with no bank meeting the 30 percent minimum prudential requirement, the NBS had a positive average liquidity ratio of 65.69 in 2011 with all the banks meeting the 30 percent minimum liquidity ratio. The banks that introduced BPR early in the 2000s have remained without distress, liquid, efficient with high growths in gross earnings, total assets profitability and total equity. The research design was deployed for the study, and it was found that BPR has positive effect on NBS efficiency.

  16. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  17. Process efficiency in isotope techniques by microelectronics

    Ziegler, J.; Boelke, L.; Nagli, G.; Schaelicke, W.

    1987-01-01

    The wide application of tracer techniques as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine requires the dosage of radioactive tracer solutions in a volume range of 0.5 to 10 ml with a high degree of precision. Two types of computer controlled filling and closing machines for injection bottles are described. Safe handling of radioactive solutions is taken in special consideration. (author)

  18. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  19. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  20. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  1. Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Hole-Transport Layers Processed from Aqueous Precursor Solutions and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors and Highly Efficient Organic and Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi

    2017-07-28

    This study reports the development of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole-transport layers (HTLs) processed from aqueous ammonia as a novel alternative to conventional n-alkyl sulfide solvents. Wide bandgap (3.4–3.9 eV) and ultrathin (3–5 nm) layers of CuSCN are formed when the aqueous CuSCN–ammine complex solution is spin-cast in air and annealed at 100 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the high compositional purity of the formed CuSCN layers, while the high-resolution valence band spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl sulfide solutions with the maximum values approaching 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. A further interesting characteristic is the low surface roughness of the resulting CuSCN layers, which in the case of solar cells helps to planarize the indium tin oxide anode. Organic bulk heterojunction and planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells based on aqueous-processed CuSCN HTLs yield power conversion efficiency of 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively. Importantly, aqueous-processed CuSCN-based cells consistently outperform devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate HTLs. This is the first report on CuSCN films and devices processed via an aqueous-based synthetic route that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing and paves the way for further developments.

  2. Eco-efficiency of grinding processes and systems

    Winter, Marius

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph aims at presenting an integrated assessment approach to describe, model, evaluate and improve the eco-efficiency of existing and new grinding processes and systems. Various combinations of grinding process parameters and system configurations can be evaluated based on the eco-efficiency. The book presents the novel concept of empirical and physical modeling of technological, economic and environmental impact indicators. This includes the integrated evaluation of different grinding process and system scenarios. The book is a valuable read for research experts and practitioners in the field of eco-efficiency of manufacturing processes but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  4. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program overview

    Gerdes, K.D. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Harness, J.L. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuhn, W.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Science and Technology (formerly the Office of Technology Development), as part of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites and wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety, and the environment and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with federal, state, and local regulations by the year 2019. The Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) is charged with developing and implementing new technologies that are safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than current methods. To focus resources and address opportunities, EM-50 has targeted four major remediation and waste management problem areas within the DOE complex for action based on risk, prevalence, or need for technology development to meet environmental requirements and regulations. Other areas may be added or current areas further partitioned to ensure that research technology development programs remain focused on EM`s most pressing remediation and waste management needs. These major problem areas, called Focus Areas are: high-level waste tank remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; subsurface contaminants; and facility transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition.

  5. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  6. Energy efficient process planning based on numerical simulations

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Hochmuth, C.; Schmidt, G.; Dix, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of energy-efficient manufacturing is to generate products with maximum value-added at minimum energy consumption. To this end, in metal cutting processes, it is necessary to reduce the specific cutting energy while, at the same time, precision requirements have to be ensured. Precision is critical in metal cutting processes because they often constitute the final stages of metalworking chains. This paper presents a method for the planning of energy-efficient machining processes ...

  7. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Sunitha K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  9. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  10. The CRRES high efficiency solar panel

    Trumble, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP) experiments which is to provide both engineering and scientific information concerning the effects of space radiation on advanced gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The HESP experiment consists of an ambient panel, and annealing panel and a programmable load. This experiment, in conjunction with the radiation measurement experiments abroad the CREES, provides the first opportunity to simultaneously measure the trapped radiation belts and the results of radiation damage to solar cells. The engineering information will result in a design guide for selecting the optimum solar array characteristics for different orbits and different lifetimes. The scientific information will provide both correlation of laboratory damage effects to space damage effects and a better model for predicting effective solar cell panel lifetimes

  11. Efficient processing of fluorescence images using directional multiscale representations.

    Labate, D; Laezza, F; Negi, P; Ozcan, B; Papadakis, M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in high-resolution fluorescence microscopy have enabled the systematic study of morphological changes in large populations of cells induced by chemical and genetic perturbations, facilitating the discovery of signaling pathways underlying diseases and the development of new pharmacological treatments. In these studies, though, due to the complexity of the data, quantification and analysis of morphological features are for the vast majority handled manually, slowing significantly data processing and limiting often the information gained to a descriptive level. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing highly efficient automated analysis and processing tools for fluorescent images. In this paper, we present the application of a method based on the shearlet representation for confocal image analysis of neurons. The shearlet representation is a newly emerged method designed to combine multiscale data analysis with superior directional sensitivity, making this approach particularly effective for the representation of objects defined over a wide range of scales and with highly anisotropic features. Here, we apply the shearlet representation to problems of soma detection of neurons in culture and extraction of geometrical features of neuronal processes in brain tissue, and propose it as a new framework for large-scale fluorescent image analysis of biomedical data.

  12. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  13. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  14. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  15. Development and efficiency assessment of process lubrication for hot forging

    Kargin, S.; Artyukh, Viktor; Ignatovich, I.; Dikareva, Varvara

    2017-10-01

    The article considers innovative technologies in testing and production of process lubricants for hot bulk forging. There were developed new compositions of eco-friendly water-graphite process lubricants for hot extrusion and forging. New approaches to efficiency assessment of process lubricants are developed and described in the following article. Laboratory and field results are presented.

  16. Efficient Processing of Multiple DTW Queries in Time Series Databases

    Kremer, Hardy; Günnemann, Stephan; Ivanescu, Anca-Maria

    2011-01-01

    . In many of today’s applications, however, large numbers of queries arise at any given time. Existing DTW techniques do not process multiple DTW queries simultaneously, a serious limitation which slows down overall processing. In this paper, we propose an efficient processing approach for multiple DTW...... for multiple DTW queries....

  17. High bandgap III-V alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics

    Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wanlass, Mark

    2017-01-10

    High bandgap alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics are disclosed. An exemplary optoelectronic device may include a substrate, at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer, and a step-grade buffer between the substrate and at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer. The buffer may begin with a layer that is substantially lattice matched to GaAs, and may then incrementally increase the lattice constant in each sequential layer until a predetermined lattice constant of Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP is reached.

  18. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  19. Application of BiFeO3-based on nickel foam composites with a highly efficient catalytic activity and easily recyclable in Fenton-like process under microwave irradiation

    Li, Shuo; Zhang, Guangshan; Zheng, Heshan; Zheng, Yongjie; Wang, Peng

    2018-05-01

    In this study, BiFeO3 (BFO) powders decorated on nickel foam (NF) with a high catalytic activity are prepared via a one-step microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The factors that influence the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) with BFO/NFs as catalysts are optimized to improve the catalytic activity in a microwave-enhanced Fenton-like process. BFO/NF exhibit a superior catalytic activity with a high BPA removal ratio (98.4%) and TOC removal ratio (69.5%) within 5 min. Results indicate that NF significantly affect the improvement of the catalytic activity of BFO because it served as a source of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) during degradation. The amount of •OH generated by BFO/NF is approximately 1.65-fold higher than that by pure BFO. After six reaction cycles, the stability and reusability of •OH remain high. These findings provide new insights into the synthesis of composites on heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency and easy recyclability for water treatment applications.

  20. Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program. Technology summary

    1995-06-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect separations technologies and processes to treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE Complex. The ESP funds several multi-year tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R and D) leading to demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within DOE-EM. Treating essentially all DOE defense wastes requires separation methods that concentrate the contaminants and/or purify waste streams for release to the environment or for downgrading to a waste form less difficult and expensive to dispose of. Initially, ESP R and D efforts focused on treatment of high-level waste (HLW) from underground storage tanks (USTs) because of the potential for large reductions in disposal costs and hazards. As further separations needs emerge and as waste management and environmental restoration priorities change, the program has evolved to encompass the breadth of waste management and environmental remediation problems

  1. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  2. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  4. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  5. Milk pasteurization: efficiency of the HTST process according to its bacterial concentration

    Ari Ajzental

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of milk pasteurization (HTST related to its standard plate count (SPC values were assessed in 41 milk samples using a laboratory designed pasteurizing equipment. Based on results, it is demonstrated that efficiency of the process is affected by its bacterial concentration, where lower SPC values mean decrease in efficiency and that the performance of the process is not affected in presence of high SPC values in raw product.

  6. A novel high efficiency solar photovoltalic pump

    Diepens, J.F.L.; Smulders, P.T.; Vries, de D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The daily average overall efficiency of a solar pump system is not only influenced by the maximum efficiency of the components of the system, but just as much by the correct matching of the components to the local irradiation pattern. Normally centrifugal pumps are used in solar pump systems. The

  7. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  8. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    Johnstone, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Barkhausen Noise Amplitude (BNA) measurements, surface roughness and Vickers micro-hardness appraisal. It has been shown that the fundamentals of the HEDG process have been understood through experimental as well as theoretical means and that through the various thermal models used, grinding temperatures can be predicted to give more control over this dynamic process. The main contributions to knowledge are made up of a number of elements within the grinding environment, the most important being the demonstration of the HEDG effect, explanation of the phenomenon and the ability to model the process. It has also been shown that grinding is a dynamic process and factors such as wheel wear will result in a continuous change in the optimum grinding conditions for a given material and wheel combination. With the significance of these factors recognised, they can be accounted for within an industrial adaptive control scenario with the process engineer confident of a

  9. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  10. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  11. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  13. Investigation of combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process efficiency for the removal of Clarithromycin from wastewater

    ahmad reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In general the results of the performed tests indicated that combined coagulation and advanced oxidation process has high efficiency in removal of Claritromycin wastewater COD. But application this method in the industry should be surveyed.

  14. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respec...

  16. Process efficiency. Redesigning social networks to improve surgery patient flow.

    Samarth, Chandrika N; Gloor, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to improve throughput of the surgery patient flow process of a Boston area teaching hospital. A social network analysis was conducted in an effort to demonstrate that process efficiency gains could be achieved through redesign of social network patterns at the workplace; in conjunction with redesign of organization structure and the implementation of workflow over an integrated information technology system. Key knowledge experts and coordinators in times of crisis were identified and a new communication structure more conducive to trust and knowledge sharing was suggested. The new communication structure is scalable without compromising on coordination required among key roles in the network for achieving efficiency gains.

  17. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  18. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  19. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...

  2. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  3. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  4. Boosting the IGCLC process efficiency by optimizing the desulfurization step

    Hamers, H.P.; Romano, M.C.; Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-CLC hot gas desulfurization and post-CLC desulfurization are assessed. • Process efficiency increases by 0.5–1% points with alternative desulfurization methods. • Alternative desulfurization methods are more beneficial for CFB configurations. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the desulfurization method on the process efficiency of an integrated gasification chemical-looping combustion (IGCLC) systems is investigated for both packed beds and circulating fluidized bed CLC systems. Both reactor types have been integrated in an IGCLC power plant, in which three desulfurization methods have been compared: conventional cold gas desulfurization with Selexol (CGD), hot gas desulfurization with ZnO (HGD) and flue gas desulfurization after the CLC reactors (post-CLC). For CLC with packed bed reactors, the efficiency gain of the alternative desulfurization methods is about 0.5–0.7% points. This is relatively small, because of the relatively large amount of steam that has to be mixed with the fuel to avoid carbon deposition on the oxygen carrier. The HGD and post-CLC configurations do not contain a saturator and therefore more steam has to be mixed with a negative influence on the process efficiency. Carbon deposition is not an issue for circulating fluidized bed systems and therefore a somewhat higher efficiency gain of 0.8–1.0% point can be reached for this reactor system, assuming that complete fuel conversion can be reached and no sulfur species are formed on the solid, which is however thermodynamically possible for iron and manganese based oxygen carriers. From this study, it can be concluded that the adaptation of the desulfurization method results in higher process efficiencies, especially for the circulating fluidized bed system, while the number of operating units is reduced.

  5. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  6. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  7. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  8. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  9. A high-efficiency electromechanical battery

    Post, Richard F.; Fowler, T. K.; Post, Stephen F.

    1993-03-01

    In our society there is a growing need for efficient cost-effective means for storing electrical energy. The electric auto is a prime example. Storage systems for the electric utilities, and for wind or solar power, are other examples. While electrochemical cells could in principle supply these needs, the existing E-C batteries have well-known limitations. This article addresses an alternative, the electromechanical battery (EMB). An EMB is a modular unit consisting of an evacuated housing containing a fiber-composite rotor. The rotor is supported by magnetic bearings and contains an integrally mounted permanent magnet array. This article addresses design issues for EMBs with rotors made up of nested cylinders. Issues addressed include rotational stability, stress distributions, generator/motor power and efficiency, power conversion, and cost. It is concluded that the use of EMBs in electric autos could result in a fivefold reduction (relative to the IC engine) in the primary energy input required for urban driving, with a concomitant major positive impact on our economy and on air pollution.

  10. Origin of poor doping efficiency in solution processed organic semiconductors.

    Jha, Ajay; Duan, Hong-Guang; Tiwari, Vandana; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2018-05-21

    Doping is an extremely important process where intentional insertion of impurities in semiconductors controls their electronic properties. In organic semiconductors, one of the convenient, but inefficient, ways of doping is the spin casting of a precursor mixture of components in solution, followed by solvent evaporation. Active control over this process holds the key to significant improvements over current poor doping efficiencies. Yet, an optimized control can only come from a detailed understanding of electronic interactions responsible for the low doping efficiencies. Here, we use two-dimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy to examine these interactions in the course of the doping process by probing the solution mixture of doped organic semiconductors. A dopant accepts an electron from the semiconductor and the two ions form a duplex of interacting charges known as ion-pair complexes. Well-resolved off-diagonal peaks in the two-dimensional spectra clearly demonstrate the electronic connectivity among the ions in solution. This electronic interaction represents a well resolved electrostatically bound state, as opposed to a random distribution of ions. We developed a theoretical model to recover the experimental data, which reveals an unexpectedly strong electronic coupling of ∼250 cm -1 with an intermolecular distance of ∼4.5 Å between ions in solution, which is approximately the expected distance in processed films. The fact that this relationship persists from solution to the processed film gives direct evidence that Coulomb interactions are retained from the precursor solution to the processed films. This memory effect renders the charge carriers equally bound also in the film and, hence, results in poor doping efficiencies. This new insight will help pave the way towards rational tailoring of the electronic interactions to improve doping efficiencies in processed organic semiconductor thin films.

  11. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  12. Efficient separations and processing crosscutting program: Develop and test sorbents

    Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed during FY 1995 under the task open-quotes Develop and Test Sorbents,close quotes the purpose of which is to develop high-capacity, selective solid extractants to recover cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. This work is being done for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP), operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's Office of Technology Development. The task is under the direction of staff at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with key participation from industrial and university staff at 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota; IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Forks, Utah; AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, Illinois, and Texas A ampersand M University, College Station, Texas. 3M and IBC are responsible for ligand and membrane technology development; AlliedSignal and Texas A ampersand M are developing sodium titanate powders; and PNL is testing the materials developed by the industry/university team members. Major accomplishments for FY 1995 are summarized in this report

  13. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Increased Efficiencies in the INEEL SAR/TSR/USQ Process

    Cole, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has implemented a number of efficiencies to reduce the time and cost of preparing safety basis documents. The INEEL is continuing to look at other aspects of the safety basis process to identify other efficiencies that can be implemented and remain in compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 830. A six-sigma approach is used to identify areas to improve efficiencies and develop the action plan for implementation of the new process, as applicable. Three improvement processes have been implemented: The first was the development of standardized Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirement (TSR) documents that all nuclear facilities use, by adding facility-specific details. The second is a material procurement process, which is based on safety systems specified in the individual safety basis documents. The third is a restructuring of the entire safety basis preparation and approval process. Significant savings in time to prepare safety basis document, cost of materials, and total cost of the documents are currently being realized

  15. Efficient Adoption and Assessment of Multiple Process Improvement Reference Models

    Simona Jeners

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of reference models such as CMMI, COBIT or ITIL support IT organizations to improve their processes. These process improvement reference models (IRMs cover different domains such as IT development, IT Services or IT Governance but also share some similarities. As there are organizations that address multiple domains and need to coordinate their processes in their improvement we present MoSaIC, an approach to support organizations to efficiently adopt and conform to multiple IRMs. Our solution realizes a semantic integration of IRMs based on common meta-models. The resulting IRM integration model enables organizations to efficiently implement and asses multiple IRMs and to benefit from synergy effects.

  16. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional 3 He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the 252 Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. The authors will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results

  17. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  18. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  19. A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier

    Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)

  20. Decomposition based parallel processing technique for efficient collaborative optimization

    Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2000-01-01

    In practical design studies, most of designers solve multidisciplinary problems with complex design structure. These multidisciplinary problems have hundreds of analysis and thousands of variables. The sequence of process to solve these problems affects the speed of total design cycle. Thus it is very important for designer to reorder original design processes to minimize total cost and time. This is accomplished by decomposing large multidisciplinary problem into several MultiDisciplinary Analysis SubSystem (MDASS) and processing it in parallel. This paper proposes new strategy for parallel decomposition of multidisciplinary problem to raise design efficiency by using genetic algorithm and shows the relationship between decomposition and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization(MDO) methodology

  1. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  2. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  3. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  4. Advances in a high efficiency commercial pulse tube cooler

    Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    The pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of no moving part at the cold end and offers a high reliability. To further extend its use in commercial applications, efforts are still needed to improve efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. This paper generalizes several key innovations in our newest cooler. The cooler consists of a moving magnet compressor with dual-opposed pistons, and a co-axial cold finger. Ambient displacers are employed to recover the expansion work to increase cooling efficiency. Inside the cold finger, the conventional flow straightener screens are replaced by a tapered throat between the cold heat exchanger and the pulse tube to strengthen its immunity to the working gas contamination as well as to simplify the manufacturing processes. The cold heat exchanger is made by copper forging process which further reduces the cost. Inside the compressor, a new gas bearing design has brought in assembling simplicity and running reliability. Besides the cooler itself, electronic controller is also important for actual application. A dual channel and dual driving mode control mechanism has been selected, which reduces the vibration to a minimum, meanwhile the cool-down speed becomes faster and run-time efficiency is higher. With these innovations, the cooler TC4189 reached a no-load temperature of 44 K and provided 15 W cooling power at 80K, with an input electric power of 244 W and a cooling water temperature of 23 ℃. The efficiency reached 16.9% of Carnot at 80 K. The whole system has a total mass of 4.3 kg.

  5. Energy-Efficient High-Performance Routers

    2012-02-01

    procedures described in Sections III- B2b and III-B2d. If the update is an insert, then a new vertex is added to the priority graph. All rules overlapping with...discussed (Section III- B2b ), then we describe the creation of LTCAM1 entries using the process of carving (Section III-B2c). Next we describe partial port

  6. Evaluation of economic efficiency of process improvement in food packaging

    Jana Hron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, we make gains in process by the three fundamental ways. First, we define or redefine our process in a strategic sense. Second, once defined or redefined, we commence process operations and use process control methods to target and stabilize our process. Third, we use process improvement methods, as described in this paper, along with process control to fully exploit our process management and/or technology. Process improvement is focused primarily in our subprocesses and sub-subprocesses. Process leverage is the key to process improvement initiatives. This means that small improvements of the basic manufacturing operations can have (with the assumption of mass repetition of the operation a big impact on the functioning of the whole production unit. The complexity within even small organizations, in people, products, and processes, creates significant challenges in effectively and efficiently using these initiatives tools. In this paper we are going to place process purposes in the foreground and initiatives and tools in the background as facilitator to help accomplish process purpose. Initiatives and tools are not the ends we are seeking; result/outcomes in physical, economics, timeliness, and customer service performance matter. In the paper process boundaries (in a generic sense are set by our process purpose and our process definition. Process improvement is initiated within our existing process boundaries. For example, in a fast-food restaurant, if we define our cooking process around a frying technology, then we provide process improvements within our frying technology. On the other hand, if we are considering changing to a broiling technology, then we are likely faced with extensive change, impacting our external customers, and a process redefinition may be required. The result / aim of the paper are based on the example of the process improving of a food packaging quality. Specifically, the integration of two approaches

  7. Biomass Gasification for Power Generation Internal Combustion Engines. Process Efficiency

    Lesme-Jaén, René; Garcia-Faure, Luis; Oliva-Ruiz, Luis; Pajarín-Rodríguez, Juan; Revilla-Suarez, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy sources worldwide greater prospects for its potential and its lower environmental impact compared to fossil fuels. By different processes and energy conversion technologies is possible to obtain solid, liquid and gaseous fuels from any biomass.In this paper the evaluation of thermal and overall efficiency of the gasification of Integral Forestry Company Santiago de Cuba is presented, designed to electricity generation from waste forest industry. The gasifier is a downdraft reactor, COMBO-80 model of Indian manufacturing and motor (diesel) model Leyland modified to work with producer gas. The evaluation was conducted at different loads (electric power generated) of the motor from experimental measurements of flow and composition of gas supplied to the engine. The results show that the motor operates with a thermal efficiency in the range of 20-32% with an overall efficiency between 12-25 %. (author)

  8. GPC Light Shaper for energy efficient laser materials processing

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    The biggest use of lasers is in materials processing. In manufacturing, lasers are used for cutting, drilling, marking and other machining processes. Similarly, lasers are important in microfabrication processes such as photolithography, direct laser writing, or ablation. Lasers are advantageous...... with steep, well defined edges that would further increase laser cutting precision or allow “single shot” laser engraving of arbitrary 2D profiles, as opposed to point scanning [3,4]. Instead of lossy approaches, GPC beam shaping is achieved with simplified, binary phase-only optics [5] that redistributes...... because they do not wear out, have no physical contact with the processed material, avoid heating or warping effects, and are generally more precise. Since lasers are easier to adapt to different optimized shapes, they can be even more precise and energy efficient for materials processing. The cost...

  9. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  10. The Efficiency of Halal Processed Food Industry in Malaysia

    Mohd Ali Mohd Noor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is indispensable for an industry to ensure cost reduction and profit maximization. It also helps the industry to be competitive and remain in the market. In 2010, Malaysia aims to be the world halal hub. The hub should capture at least five percent of the world halal market with at least 10,000 exporting firms. However the hub failed due to the small number of firms efficiency that finally contribute to less number of firms export. Thus, this study aimed to measure the efficiency of halal processed food industry in Malaysia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Input variables used were local raw inputs, labour, and monetary assets of halal food industry in Malaysia. Meanwhile the output used was the total sales revenue of the halal industry in Malaysia. The study shows that very few indusries are efficient in each category led by meat, dairy, cordials and juices, marine products, food crops, and grains industry. Therefore, the government needs to emphasize on industry’s efficiency to be competitive and be the world halal hub in the future.

  11. Overall equipment efficiency of Flexographic Printing process: A case study

    Zahoor, S.; Shehzad, A.; Mufti, NA; Zahoor, Z.; Saeed, U.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the efficiency improvement of a flexographic printing machine by reducing breakdown time with the help of a total productive maintenance measure called overall equipment efficiency (OEE). The methodology is comprised of calculating OEE of the machine before and after identifying the causes of the problems. Pareto diagram is used to prioritize main problem areas and 5-whys analysis approach is used to identify the root cause of these problems. OEE of the process is improved from 34% to 40.2% for a 30 days time period. It is concluded that OEE and 5-whys analysis techniques are useful in improving effectiveness of the equipment and for the continuous process improvement as well.

  12. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  13. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  14. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  15. Cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies

    Christoph Hochreiner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase of unbound streaming data poses several challenges to established data stream processing engines. One of the most important challenges is the cost-efficient enactment of stream processing topologies under changing data volume. These data volume pose different loads to stream processing systems whose resource provisioning needs to be continuously updated at runtime. First approaches already allow for resource provisioning on the level of virtual machines (VMs, but this only allows for coarse resource provisioning strategies. Based on current advances and benefits for containerized software systems, we have designed a cost-efficient resource provisioning approach and integrated it into the runtime of the Vienna ecosystem for elastic stream processing. Our resource provisioning approach aims to maximize the resource usage for VMs obtained from cloud providers. This strategy only releases processing capabilities at the end of the VMs minimal leasing duration instead of releasing them eagerly as soon as possible as it is the case for threshold-based approaches. This strategy allows us to improve the service level agreement compliance by up to 25% and a reduction for the operational cost of up to 36%.

  16. Business Process Design Of An Efficient And Effective Literature Review

    Sayuthi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this articleis to design business processesan organization efficiently and effectively. Based on our literature review the design of business processes that is best suitable for an organization belongs to Harrington 1992 namely the concept of Business Process Improvement BPI which is a systematic framework that helps organizations in making significant progress in the implementation of business processes. BPI provides a system that will simplify or streamline business processes to provide an assurance that the internal and external customers of the organization will get a better output. One advantage of BPI concept suggested by Harrington is the continuous improvement whereas the other authorsor experts of BPI have not recognize the idea of continuous improvement. With thisidea the products services offered by organization becomes more innovative.

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  18. Highly Efficient Thermostable DSM Cellulases: Why & How?

    Kumar, Manoj [DSM Innovation, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-04-26

    These are the slides from this presentation. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  19. Highly efficient induction of chirality in intramolecular

    Cossio; Arrieta; Lecea; Alajarin; Vidal; Tovar

    2000-06-16

    Highly stereocontrolled, intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloadditions between ketenimines and imines leading to 1,2-dihydroazeto[2, 1-b]quinazolines have been achieved. The source of stereocontrol is a chiral carbon atom adjacent either to the iminic carbon or nitrogen atom. In the first case, the stereocontrol stems from the preference for the axial conformer in the first transition structure. In the second case, the origin of the stereocontrol lies on the two-electron stabilizing interaction between the C-C bond being formed and the sigma orbital corresponding to the polar C-X bond, X being an electronegative atom. These models can be extended to other related systems for predicting the stereochemical outcome in this intramolecular reaction.

  20. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  1. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  2. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  3. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  4. Highly Efficient TADF Polymer Electroluminescence with Reduced Efficiency Roll-off via Interfacial Exciplex Host Strategy.

    Lin, Xingdong; Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Xiaofei; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Yanxiang; Li, Zhanguo; Qu, Yi; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-10

    Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (s-OLED) consisting of TAPC/TmPyPB interfacial exciplex host and polymer PAPTC TADF emitter are prepared, simultaneously displaying ultralow voltages (2.50/2.91/3.51/4.91 V at luminance of 1/100/1000/1000 cd m -2 ), high efficiencies (14.9%, 50.1 lm W -1 ), and extremely low roll-off rates (J 50 of 63.16 mA cm -2 , L 50 of ca. 15000 cd m -2 ). Such performance is distinctly higher than that of pure-PAPTC s-OLED. Compared to pure-PAPTC, the advanced emissive layer structure of TAPC:PAPTC/TmPyPB is unique in much higher PL quantum yield (79.5 vs 36.3%) and nearly 4-fold enhancement in k RISC of the PAPTC emitter to 1.48 × 10 7 s -1 .

  5. All passive architecture for high efficiency cascaded Raman conversion

    Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Chayran, G.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Cascaded Raman fiber lasers have offered a convenient method to obtain scalable, high-power sources at various wavelength regions inaccessible with rare-earth doped fiber lasers. A limitation previously was the reduced efficiency of these lasers. Recently, new architectures have been proposed to enhance efficiency, but this came at the cost of enhanced complexity, requiring an additional low-power, cascaded Raman laser. In this work, we overcome this with a new, all-passive architecture for high-efficiency cascaded Raman conversion. We demonstrate our architecture with a fifth-order cascaded Raman converter from 1117nm to 1480nm with output power of ~64W and efficiency of 60%.

  6. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  7. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  8. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient high throughput computing

    Accion, E; Bria, A; Bernabeu, G; Caubet, M; Delfino, M; Espinal, X; Merino, G; Lopez, F; Martinez, F; Planas, E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and the size of their datasets and total volume of data continues increasing. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of scientific data centers has shifted from efficiently coping with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful data storage and processing service in an intensive HTC environment.

  9. Lignocellulosic ethanol: Technology design and its impact on process efficiency.

    Paulova, Leona; Patakova, Petra; Branska, Barbora; Rychtera, Mojmir; Melzoch, Karel

    2015-11-01

    This review provides current information on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, with the main focus on relationships between process design and efficiency, expressed as ethanol concentration, yield and productivity. In spite of unquestionable advantages of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for ethanol production (availability, price, non-competitiveness with food, waste material), many technological bottlenecks hinder its wide industrial application and competitiveness with 1st generation ethanol production. Among the main technological challenges are the recalcitrant structure of the material, and thus the need for extensive pretreatment (usually physico-chemical followed by enzymatic hydrolysis) to yield fermentable sugars, and a relatively low concentration of monosaccharides in the medium that hinder the achievement of ethanol concentrations comparable with those obtained using 1st generation feedstocks (e.g. corn or molasses). The presence of both pentose and hexose sugars in the fermentation broth, the price of cellulolytic enzymes, and the presence of toxic compounds that can inhibit cellulolytic enzymes and microbial producers of ethanol are major issues. In this review, different process configurations of the main technological steps (enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hexose/and or pentose sugars) are discussed and their efficiencies are compared. The main features, benefits and drawbacks of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with delayed inoculation (dSSF), consolidated bioprocesses (CBP) combining production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass and fermentation into one step, together with an approach combining utilization of both pentose and hexose sugars are discussed and compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) processes. The impact of individual technological steps on final process efficiency is emphasized and the potential for use

  10. Emergency preparedness planning: A process to insure effectiveness and efficiency

    Schroeder, A.J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Prevention is undoubtedly the preferred policy regarding emergency response. Unfortunately, despite best intentions, emergencies do occur. It is the prudent operator that has well written and exercised plans in place to respond to the full suite of possible situations. This paper presents a planning process to help personnel develop and/or maintain emergency management capability. It is equally applicable at the field location, the district/regional office, or the corporate headquarters. It is not limited in scope and can be useful for planners addressing incidents ranging from fires, explosions, spills/releases, computer system failure, terrorist threats and natural disasters. By following the steps in the process diagram, the planner will document emergency management capability in a logical and efficient manner which should result in effective emergency response and recovery plans. The astute planner will immediately see that the process presented is a continuing one, fully compatible with the principles of continuous improvement

  11. Parallel processing based decomposition technique for efficient collaborative optimization

    Park, Hyung Wook; Kim, Sung Chan; Kim, Min Soo; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2001-01-01

    In practical design studies, most of designers solve multidisciplinary problems with large sized and complex design system. These multidisciplinary problems have hundreds of analysis and thousands of variables. The sequence of process to solve these problems affects the speed of total design cycle. Thus it is very important for designer to reorder the original design processes to minimize total computational cost. This is accomplished by decomposing large multidisciplinary problem into several MultiDisciplinary Analysis SubSystem (MDASS) and processing it in parallel. This paper proposes new strategy for parallel decomposition of multidisciplinary problem to raise design efficiency by using genetic algorithm and shows the relationship between decomposition and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization(MDO) methodology

  12. Efficient processing of MPEG-21 metadata in the binary domain

    Timmerer, Christian; Frank, Thomas; Hellwagner, Hermann; Heuer, Jörg; Hutter, Andreas

    2005-10-01

    XML-based metadata is widely adopted across the different communities and plenty of commercial and open source tools for processing and transforming are available on the market. However, all of these tools have one thing in common: they operate on plain text encoded metadata which may become a burden in constrained and streaming environments, i.e., when metadata needs to be processed together with multimedia content on the fly. In this paper we present an efficient approach for transforming such kind of metadata which are encoded using MPEG's Binary Format for Metadata (BiM) without additional en-/decoding overheads, i.e., within the binary domain. Therefore, we have developed an event-based push parser for BiM encoded metadata which transforms the metadata by a limited set of processing instructions - based on traditional XML transformation techniques - operating on bit patterns instead of cost-intensive string comparisons.

  13. Quality and efficiency successes leveraging IT and new processes.

    Chaiken, Barry P; Christian, Charles E; Johnson, Liz

    2007-01-01

    Today, healthcare annually invests billions of dollars in information technology, including clinical systems, electronic medical records and interoperability platforms. While continued investment and parallel development of standards are critical to secure exponential benefits from clinical information technology, intelligent and creative redesign of processes through path innovation is necessary to deliver meaningful value. Reports from two organizations included in this report review the steps taken to reinvent clinical processes that best leverage information technology to deliver safer and more efficient care. Good Samaritan Hospital, Vincennes, Indiana, implemented electronic charting, point-of-care bar coding of medications prior to administration, and integrated clinical documentation for nursing, laboratory, radiology and pharmacy. Tenet Healthcare, during its implementation and deployment of multiple clinical systems across several hospitals, focused on planning that included team-based process redesign. In addition, Tenet constructed valuable and measurable metrics that link outcomes with its strategic goals.

  14. A Foundation for Efficient Indoor Distance-Aware Query Processing

    Lu, Hua; Cao, Xin; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    model that integrates indoor distance seamlessly. To enable the use of the model as a foundation for query processing, we develop accompanying, efficient algorithms that compute indoor distances for different indoor entities like doors as well as locations. We also propose an indexing framework......Indoor spaces accommodate large numbers of spatial objects, e.g., points of interest (POIs), and moving populations. A variety of services, e.g., location-based services and security control, are relevant to indoor spaces. Such services can be improved substantially if they are capable of utilizing...... that accommodates indoor distances that are pre-computed using the proposed algorithms. On top of this foundation, we develop efficient algorithms for typical indoor, distance-aware queries. The results of an extensive experimental evaluation demonstrate the efficacy of the proposals....

  15. New efficient hydrogen process production from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives

    Brunel, Jean Michel [Unite URMITE, UMR 6236 CNRS, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille 05 (France)

    2010-04-15

    While the source of hydrogen constitutes a significant scientific challenge, addressing issues of hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery is equally important. None of the current hydrogen storage options, liquefied or high pressure H{sub 2} gas, metal hydrides, etc.. satisfy criteria of size, costs, kinetics, and safety for use in transportation. In this context, we have discovered a methodology for the production of hydrogen on demand, in high yield, under kinetic control, from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives and methanol as co-reagent under mild conditions catalyzed by a cheap ammonium fluoride salt. Finally, the silicon by-products can be efficiently recycle leading to an environmentally friendly source of energy. (author)

  16. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  17. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  18. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  19. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  20. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  1. Efficient Option Pricing under Levy Processes, with CVA and FVA

    Jimmy eLaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the Piterbarg (2010 model to include 1 bilateral default risk as in Burgard and Kjaer (2012, and 2 jumps in the dynamics of the underlying asset using general classes of L'evy processes of exponential type. We develop an efficient explicit-implicit scheme for European options and barrier options taking CVA-FVA into account. We highlight the importance of this work in the context of trading, pricing and management a derivative portfolio given the trajectory of regulations.

  2. Women process multisensory emotion expressions more efficiently than men.

    Collignon, O; Girard, S; Gosselin, F; Saint-Amour, D; Lepore, F; Lassonde, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite claims in the popular press, experiments investigating whether female are more efficient than male observers at processing expression of emotions produced inconsistent findings. In the present study, participants were asked to categorize fear and disgust expressions displayed auditorily, visually, or audio-visually. Results revealed an advantage of women in all the conditions of stimulus presentation. We also observed more nonlinear probabilistic summation in the bimodal conditions in female than male observers, indicating greater neural integration of different sensory-emotional informations. These findings indicate robust differences between genders in the multisensory perception of emotion expression.

  3. Increasing operational efficiency in a radioactive waste processing plant - 16100

    Turner, T.W.; Watson, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    The solid waste plant at Harwell in Oxfordshire, contains a purpose built facility to input, assay, visually inspect and sort remote handled intermediate level radioactive waste (RHILW). The facility includes a suite of remote handling cells, known as the head-end cells (HEC), which waste must pass through in order to be repackaged. Some newly created waste from decommissioning works on site passes through the cells, but the vast majority of waste for processing is historical waste, stored in below ground tube stores. Existing containers are not suitable for long term storage, many are already badly corroded, so the waste must be efficiently processed and repackaged in order to achieve passive safety. The Harwell site is currently being decommissioned and the land is being restored. The site is being progressively de-licensed, and redeveloped as a business park, which can only be completed when all the nuclear liabilities have been removed. The recovery and processing of old waste in the solid waste plant is a key project linked to de-licensing of a section of the site. Increasing the operational efficiency of the waste processing plant could shorten the time needed to clear the site and has the potential to save money for the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). The waste processing facility was constructed in the mid 1990's, and commissioned in 1999. Since operations began, the yearly throughput of the cells has increased significantly every year. To achieve targets set out in the lifetime plan (LTP) for the site, throughput must continue to increase. The operations department has measured the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) of the process for the last few years, and has used continuous improvement techniques to decrease the average cycle time. Philosophies from operational management practices such as 'lean' and 'kaizen' have been employed successfully to drive out losses and increase plant efficiency. This paper will describe how the solid waste plant

  4. Development and optimization of processes for producing highly efficient large-area PV modules based on amorphous silicon. Final report; Entwicklung und Optimierung von Prozessen zur Fertigung hocheffizienter grossflaechiger a-Si-PV-Module. Abschlussbericht

    Maurus, H.; Ruebel, H.; Frammelsberger, W.; Geyer, R.; Lechner, P.; Psyk, W.; Schade, H.

    2001-07-31

    This report contains fundamental topics on further developing the PV technology based on amorphous silicon (a-Si), namely upscaling of laboratory processes to production size areas, improvement of patterning processes to minimize area losses due to monolithic series connection of cells, speeding up individual process steps while maintaining their reproducibility, long-term stability of encapsulated modules. Among the superstrate technologies of the competitors, the module efficiency has reached an international standard. The throughput of the pilot production line has been substantially increased by improving the process cycle times and the equipment uptime. (orig.) [German] Der vorliegende Bericht beinhaltet grundlegende Arbeiten zur Weiterentwicklung der a-Si PV-Technologie. Er behandelt die Themen: Aufskalierung von kleinflaechiger Laborabscheidetechnologie auf groessere industrierelevante Flaechen, Verbesserung und Optimierung von Strukturierungsverfahren fuer hohe Flaechenausnutzung, Beschleunigung und Reproduzierbarkeit der Einzelprozesse sowie Langzeitstabilitaet von verkapselten Modulen. Der Modulwirkungsgrad hat - verglichen mit gleichartiger Technologie von Wettbewerbern - internationalen Standard erreicht. Der Durchsatz der Pilotfertigungsanlage konnte aufgrund der Verbesserung der wirtschaftlichen Kenngroessen Anlagenverfuegbarkeit und Taktzeit wesentlich erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  5. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  6. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  7. Non-Markovian quantum processes: Complete framework and efficient characterization

    Pollock, Felix A.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César; Frauenheim, Thomas; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is no systematic way to describe a quantum process with memory solely in terms of experimentally accessible quantities. However, recent technological advances mean we have control over systems at scales where memory effects are non-negligible. The lack of such an operational description has hindered advances in understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes, where often unjustified theoretical assumptions are made to render a dynamical description tractable. This has led to theories plagued with unphysical results and no consensus on what a quantum Markov (memoryless) process is. Here, we develop a universal framework to characterize arbitrary non-Markovian quantum processes. We show how a multitime non-Markovian process can be reconstructed experimentally, and that it has a natural representation as a many-body quantum state, where temporal correlations are mapped to spatial ones. Moreover, this state is expected to have an efficient matrix-product-operator form in many cases. Our framework constitutes a systematic tool for the effective description of memory-bearing open-system evolutions.

  8. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process.

    Jia, Yuying; Yao, Xingdong; Zhao, Mingzhe; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Yanli; Yu, Cuimei; Xie, Futi

    2015-08-07

    The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert) with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman), which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA) levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA). Higher zeatin riboside (ZR) content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA) content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  9. Comparison of Soybean Transformation Efficiency and Plant Factors Affecting Transformation during the Agrobacterium Infection Process

    Yuying Jia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of soybean genotype to Agrobacterium infection is a key factor for the high level of genetic transformation efficiency. The objective of this study is to evaluate the plant factors related to transformation in cotyledonary nodes during the Agrobacterium infection process. This study selected three genotypes (Williams 82, Shennong 9 and Bert with high transformation efficiency, which presented better susceptibility to Agrobacterium infection, and three low transformation efficiency genotypes (General, Liaodou 16 and Kottman, which showed a relatively weak susceptibility. Gibberellin (GA levels and soybean GA20ox2 and CYP707A2 transcripts of high-efficiency genotypes increased and were higher than those of low-efficiency genotypes; however, the opposite performance was shown in abscisic acid (ABA. Higher zeatin riboside (ZR content and DNA quantity, and relatively higher expression of soybean IPT5, CYCD3 and CYCA3 were obtained in high-efficiency genotypes. High-efficiency genotypes had low methyl jasmonate (MeJA content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD activity, and relatively lower expression of soybean OPR3, PPO1 and PRX71. GA and ZR were positive plant factors for Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation by facilitating germination and growth, and increasing the number of cells in DNA synthesis cycle, respectively; MeJA, PPO, POD and ABA were negative plant factors by inducing defence reactions and repressing germination and growth, respectively.

  10. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  11. ADDED VALUE AS EFFICIENCY CRITERION FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS

    L. M. Korotkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literary analysis has shown that the majority of researchers are using classical efficiency criteria for construction of an optimization model for production process: profit maximization; cost minimization; maximization of commercial product output; minimization of back-log for product demand; minimization of total time consumption due to production change. The paper proposes to use an index of added value as an efficiency criterion because it combines economic and social interests of all main interested subjects of the business activity: national government, property owners, employees, investors. The following types of added value have been considered in the paper: joint-stock, market, monetary, economic, notional (gross, net, real. The paper makes suggestion to use an index of real value added as an efficiency criterion. Such approach permits to bring notional added value in comparable variant because added value can be increased not only due to efficiency improvement of enterprise activity but also due to environmental factors – excess in rate of export price increases over rate of import growth. An analysis of methods for calculation of real value added has been made on a country-by-country basis (extrapolation, simple and double deflation. A method of double deflation has been selected on the basis of the executed analysis and it is counted according to the Laspeyires, Paasche, Fischer indices. A conclusion has been made that the used expressions do not take into account fully economic peculiarities of the Republic of Belarus: they are considered as inappropriate in the case when product cost is differentiated according to marketing outlets; they do not take account of difference in rate of several currencies and such approach is reflected in export price of a released product and import price for raw material, supplies and component parts. Taking this into consideration expressions for calculation of real value added have been specified

  12. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  13. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  14. Efficiency of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells

    Margalef, Pere; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    High temperature fuel cells can be designed and operated to poly-generate electricity, heat, and useful chemicals (e.g., hydrogen) in a variety of configurations. The highly integrated and synergistic nature of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells, however, precludes a simple definition of efficiency for analysis and comparison of performance to traditional methods. There is a need to develop and define a methodology to calculate each of the co-product efficiencies that is useful for comparative analyses. Methodologies for calculating poly-generation efficiencies are defined and discussed. The methodologies are applied to analysis of a Hydrogen Energy Station (H{sub 2}ES) showing that high conversion efficiency can be achieved for poly-generation of electricity and hydrogen. (author)

  15. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  16. High Efficiency S-Band 20 Watt Amplifier

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project includes the design and build of a prototype 20 W, high efficiency, S-Band amplifier.   The design will incorporate the latest semiconductor technology,...

  17. The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene

    Chaban, Vitaly; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of...

  18. Efficient LIDAR Point Cloud Data Managing and Processing in a Hadoop-Based Distributed Framework

    Wang, C.; Hu, F.; Sha, D.; Han, X.

    2017-10-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is one of the most promising technologies in surveying and mapping city management, forestry, object recognition, computer vision engineer and others. However, it is challenging to efficiently storage, query and analyze the high-resolution 3D LiDAR data due to its volume and complexity. In order to improve the productivity of Lidar data processing, this study proposes a Hadoop-based framework to efficiently manage and process LiDAR data in a distributed and parallel manner, which takes advantage of Hadoop's storage and computing ability. At the same time, the Point Cloud Library (PCL), an open-source project for 2D/3D image and point cloud processing, is integrated with HDFS and MapReduce to conduct the Lidar data analysis algorithms provided by PCL in a parallel fashion. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can efficiently manage and process big LiDAR data.

  19. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  20. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  1. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  2. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  3. High diffraction efficiency polarization gratings recorded by biphotonic holography in an azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester

    Sánchez, C; Alcalá, R; Hvilsted, Søren

    2001-01-01

    High diffraction efficiencies have been achieved with polarization gratings recorded in thin films of an azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester by means of biphotonic processes. Efficiency values up to 30% have been reached after an induction period of 300 s and subsequent evolution...

  4. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  5. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  6. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiography has gained popularity in many areas of clinical practice. This transition brings interest in advancing the methodologies for image quality characterization. However, as the methodologies for such characterizations have not been standardized, the results of these studies cannot be directly compared. The primary objective of this study was to standardize methodologies for image quality characterization. The secondary objective was to evaluate affected factors to Modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) according to image processing algorithm. Image performance parameters such as MTF, NPS, and DQE were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) images of hand posterior-anterior (PA) for measuring signal to noise ratio (SNR), slit image for measuring MTF, white image for measuring NPS were obtained and various Multi-Scale Image Contrast Amplification (MUSICA) parameters were applied to each of acquired images. In results, all of modified images were considerably influence on evaluating SNR, MTF, NPS, and DQE. Modified images by the post-processing had higher DQE than the MUSICA=0 image. This suggests that MUSICA values, as a post-processing, have an affect on the image when it is evaluating for image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing could be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study could be guided as a baseline to evaluate imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by measuring MTF, NPS, and DQE.

  7. Private and Efficient Query Processing on Outsourced Genomic Databases.

    Ghasemi, Reza; Al Aziz, Md Momin; Mohammed, Noman; Dehkordi, Massoud Hadian; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-09-01

    Applications of genomic studies are spreading rapidly in many domains of science and technology such as healthcare, biomedical research, direct-to-consumer services, and legal and forensic. However, there are a number of obstacles that make it hard to access and process a big genomic database for these applications. First, sequencing genomic sequence is a time consuming and expensive process. Second, it requires large-scale computation and storage systems to process genomic sequences. Third, genomic databases are often owned by different organizations, and thus, not available for public usage. Cloud computing paradigm can be leveraged to facilitate the creation and sharing of big genomic databases for these applications. Genomic data owners can outsource their databases in a centralized cloud server to ease the access of their databases. However, data owners are reluctant to adopt this model, as it requires outsourcing the data to an untrusted cloud service provider that may cause data breaches. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving model for outsourcing genomic data to a cloud. The proposed model enables query processing while providing privacy protection of genomic databases. Privacy of the individuals is guaranteed by permuting and adding fake genomic records in the database. These techniques allow cloud to evaluate count and top-k queries securely and efficiently. Experimental results demonstrate that a count and a top-k query over 40 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in a database of 20 000 records takes around 100 and 150 s, respectively.

  8. Efficient high-performance ultrasound beamforming using oversampling

    Freeman, Steven R.; Quick, Marshall K.; Morin, Marc A.; Anderson, R. C.; Desilets, Charles S.; Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    1998-05-01

    High-performance and efficient beamforming circuitry is very important in large channel count clinical ultrasound systems. Current state-of-the-art digital systems using multi-bit analog to digital converters (A/Ds) have matured to provide exquisite image quality with moderate levels of integration. A simplified oversampling beamforming architecture has been proposed that may a low integration of delta-sigma A/Ds onto the same chip as digital delay and processing circuitry to form a monolithic ultrasound beamformer. Such a beamformer may enable low-power handheld scanners for high-end systems with very large channel count arrays. This paper presents an oversampling beamformer architecture that generates high-quality images using very simple; digitization, delay, and summing circuits. Additional performance may be obtained with this oversampled system for narrow bandwidth excitations by mixing the RF signal down in frequency to a range where the electronic signal to nose ratio of the delta-sigma A/D is optimized. An oversampled transmit beamformer uses the same delay circuits as receive and eliminates the need for separate transmit function generators.

  9. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  10. Charge transport in highly efficient iridium cored electrophosphorescent dendrimers

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Weiter, Martin; Bässler, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Electrophosphorescent dendrimers are promising materials for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. They consist of a phosphorescent core onto which dendritic groups are attached. Here, we present an investigation into the optical and electronic properties of highly efficient phosphorescent dendrimers. The effect of dendrimer structure on charge transport and optical properties is studied using temperature-dependent charge-generation-layer time-of-flight measurements and current voltage (I-V) analysis. A model is used to explain trends seen in the I-V characteristics. We demonstrate that fine tuning the mobility by chemical structure is possible in these dendrimers and show that this can lead to highly efficient bilayer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with neat emissive layers. Power efficiencies of 20 lm/W were measured for devices containing a second-generation (G2) Ir(ppy)3 dendrimer with a 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene electron transport layer.

  11. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  12. Eco-efficient butanol separation in the ABE fermentation process

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than the more popular ethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is still high, mainly due to the

  13. [Characteristics of phosphorus uptake and use efficiency of rice with high yield and high phosphorus use efficiency].

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Tinx-Xuan; Yu, Hai-Ying; Ji, Lin; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-07-01

    A total of twenty seven middle maturing rice varieties as parent materials were divided into four types based on P use efficiency for grain yield in 2011 by field experiment with normal phosphorus (P) application. The rice variety with high yield and high P efficiency was identified by pot experiment with normal and low P applications, and the contribution rates of various P efficiencies to yield were investigated in 2012. There were significant genotype differences in yield and P efficiency of the test materials. GRLu17/AiTTP//Lu17_2 (QR20) was identified as a variety with high yield and high P efficiency, and its yields at the low and normal rates of P application were 1.96 and 1.92 times of that of Yuxiang B, respectively. The contribution rate of P accumulation to yield was greater than that of P grain production efficiency and P harvest index across field and pot experiments. The contribution rates of P accumulation and P grain production efficiency to yield were not significantly different under the normal P condition, whereas obvious differences were observed under the low P condition (66.5% and 26.6%). The minimal contribution to yield was P harvest index (11.8%). Under the normal P condition, the contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and P harvest index were the highest at the jointing-heading stage, which were 93.4% and 85.7%, respectively. In addition, the contribution rate of P accumulation to grain production efficiency was 41.8%. Under the low P condition, the maximal contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and grain production efficiency were observed at the tillering-jointing stage, which were 56.9% and 20.1% respectively. Furthermore, the contribution rate of P accumulation to P harvest index was 16.0%. The yield, P accumulation, and P harvest index of QR20 significantly increased under the normal P condition by 20.6%, 18.1% and 18.2% respectively compared with that in the low P condition. The rank of the contribution rates of P

  14. Exciplex-Forming Cohost for High Efficiency and High Stability Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Shih, Chun-Jen; Lee, Chih-Chien; Chen, Ying-Hao; Biring, Sajal; Kumar, Gautham; Yeh, Tzu-Hung; Sen, Somaditya; Liu, Shun-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2018-01-17

    An exciplex forming cohost system is employed to achieve a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with good electroluminescent lifetime. The exciplex is formed at the interfacial contact of a conventional star-shaped carbazole hole-transporting material, 4,4',4″-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA), and a triazine electron-transporting material, 2,4,6-tris[3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine (3P-T2T). The excellent combination of TCTA and 3P-T2T is applied as the cohost of a common green phosphorescent emitter with almost zero energy loss. When Ir(ppy) 2 (acac) is dispersed in such exciplex cohost system, OLED device with maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.6%, the ultrahigh power efficiency of 147.3 lm/W, and current efficiency of 107 cd/A were successfully achieved. More importantly, the OLED device showed a low-efficiency roll-off and an operational lifetime (τ 80 ) of ∼1020 min with the initial brightness of 2000 cd/m 2 , which is 56 times longer than the reference device. The significant difference of device stability was attributed to the degradation of exciplex system for energy transfer process, which was investigated by the photoluminescence aging measurement at room temperature and 100 K, respectively.

  15. High Efficiency of Two Efficient QSDC with Authentication Is at the Cost of Their Security

    Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Luo-Ming, Meng; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Two efficient protocols of quantum secure direct communication with authentication [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 2354] were recently proposed by Liu et al. to improve the efficiency of two protocols presented in [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301] by four Pauli operations. We show that the high efficiency of the two protocols is at the expense of their security. The authenticator Trent can reach half the secret by a particular attack strategy in the first protocol. In the second protocol, not only Trent but also an eavesdropper outside can elicit half-information about the secret from the public declaration

  16. High Efficiency Hydrodynamic DNA Fragmentation in a Bubbling System.

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-18

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling system. We expect that hydrodynamic forces generated during the bubbling process shear the DNA molecules, extending and breaking them at the points where shearing forces are larger than the strength of the phosphate backbone. Factors of applied pressure, bubbling time and temperature have been investigated. Genomic DNA could be fragmented down to controllable 1-10 Kbp fragment lengths with a yield of 75.30-91.60%. We demonstrate that the ends of the genomic DNAs generated from hydrodynamic shearing can be ligated by T4 ligase and the fragmented DNAs can be used as templates for polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, in the bubbling system, DNAs could be hydrodynamically sheared to achieve smaller pieces in dsDNAs available for further processes. It could potentially serve as a DNA sample pretreatment technique in the future.

  17. Can Intrinsic Fluctuations Increase Efficiency in Neural Information Processing?

    Liljenström, Hans

    2003-05-01

    All natural processes are accompanied by fluctuations, characterized as noise or chaos. Biological systems, which have evolved during billions of years, are likely to have adapted, not only to cope with such fluctuations, but also to make use of them. We investigate how the complex dynamics of the brain, including oscillations, chaos and noise, can affect the efficiency of neural information processing. In particular, we consider the amplification and functional role of internal fluctuations. Using computer simulations of a neural network model of the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, we demonstrate how microscopic fluctuations can result in global effects at the network level. We show that the rate of information processing in associative memory tasks can be maximized for optimal noise levels, analogous to stochastic resonance phenomena. Noise can also induce transitions between different dynamical states, which could be of significance for learning and memory. A chaotic-like behavior, induced by noise or by an increase in neuronal excitability, can enhance system performance if it is transient and converges to a limit cycle memory state. We speculate whether this dynamical behavior perhaps could be related to (creative) thinking.

  18. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  19. Effects of image processing on the detective quantum efficiency

    Park, Hye-Suk; Kim, Hee-Joung; Cho, Hyo-Min; Lee, Chang-Lae; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of image quality is an important part of digital radiography. The modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are widely accepted measurements of the digital radiographic system performance. However, as the methodologies for such characterization have not been standardized, it is difficult to compare directly reported the MTF, NPS, and DQE results. In this study, we evaluated the effect of an image processing algorithm for estimating the MTF, NPS, and DQE. The image performance parameters were evaluated using the international electro-technical commission (IEC 62220-1)-defined RQA5 radiographic techniques. Computed radiography (CR) posterior-anterior (PA) images of a hand for measuring the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the slit images for measuring the MTF, and the white images for measuring the NPS were obtained, and various multi-Scale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) factors were applied to each of the acquired images. All of the modifications of the images obtained by using image processing had a considerable influence on the evaluated image quality. In conclusion, the control parameters of image processing can be accounted for evaluating characterization of image quality in same way. The results of this study should serve as a baseline for based on evaluating imaging systems and their imaging characteristics by MTF, NPS, and DQE measurements.

  20. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    McGehee, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    organic cation evolution and moisture penetration to overcome the often-reported thermal and environmental instability of metal halide perovskites. Previous perovskite-containing tandems utilized molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as a sputter buffer layer, but this has raised concerns over long-term stability, as the iodide in the perovskite can chemically react with MoOx. Mixed-cation perovskite solar cells have consistently outperformed their single-cation counterparts. The first perovskite device to exceed 20% PCE was fabricated with a mixture of methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA). Recent reports have shown promising results with the introduction of cesium mixtures, enabling high efficiencies with improved photo-, moisture, and thermal stability. The increased moisture and thermal stability are especially important as they broaden the parameter space for processing on top of the perovskite, enabling the deposition of metal oxide contacts through atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that may require elevated temperatures or water as a counter reagent. Both titanium dioxide (TiO2) and tin oxide (SnO2) have consistently proven to be effective electron-selective contacts for perovskite solar cells and both can be deposited via ALD at temperatures below 150 °C. We introduced a bilayer of SnO2 and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) that can be deposited by either low-temperature ALD or pulsed-CVD as a window layer with minimal parasitic absorption, efficient electron extraction, and sufficient buffer properties to prevent the organic and perovskite layers from damage during the subsequent sputter deposition of a transparent ITO electrode. We explored pulsed-CVD as a modified ALD process with a continual, rather than purely step-wise, growth component in order to considerably reduce the process time of the SnO2 deposition process and minimize potential perovskite degradation. These layers, when

  1. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

  2. Energy Efficient Pump Control for an Offshore Oil Processing System

    Yang, Zhenyu; Soleiman, Kian; Løhndorf, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficient control of a pump system for an offshore oil processing system is investigated. The seawater is lifted up by a pump system which consists of three identical centrifugal pumps in parallel, and the lifted seawater is used to cool down the crude oil flowing out of a threephase...... separator on one of the Danish north-sea platform. A hierarchical pump-speed control strategy is developed for the considered system by minimizing the pump power consumption subject to keeping a satisfactory system performance. The proposed control strategy consists of online estimation of some system...... operating parameters, optimization of pump configurations, and a real-time feedback control. Comparing with the current control strategy at the considered system, where the pump system is on/off controlled, and the seawater flows are controlled by a number of control valves, the proposed control strategy...

  3. Highly efficient deep-blue organic light emitting diode with a carbazole based fluorescent emitter

    Sahoo, Snehasis; Dubey, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Joseph, Vellaichamy; Thomas, K. R. Justin; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency deep-blue emission is essential to realize energy-saving, high-quality display and lighting applications. We demonstrate here a deep-blue organic light emitting diode using a novel carbazole based fluorescent emitter 7-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]-9-(2-ethylhexyl)-9H-carbazole-2-carbonitrile (JV234). The solution processed resultant device shows a maximum luminance above 1,750 cd m-2 and CIE coordinates (0.15,0.06) with a 1.3 lm W-1 power efficiency, 2.0 cd A-1 current efficiency, and 4.1% external quantum efficiency at 100 cd m-2. The resulting deep-blue emission enables a greater than 100% color saturation. The high efficiency may be attributed to the effective host-to-guest energy transfer, suitable device architecture facilitating balanced carrier injection and low doping concentration preventing efficiency roll-off caused by concentration quenching.

  4. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    None

    2008-06-30

    was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be

  5. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  6. Energy efficient solvent regeneration process for carbon dioxide capture

    Zhou, Shaojun; Meyer, Howard S.; Li, Shiguang

    2018-02-27

    A process for removing carbon dioxide from a carbon dioxide-loaded solvent uses two stages of flash apparatus. Carbon dioxide is flashed from the solvent at a higher temperature and pressure in the first stage, and a lower temperature and pressure in the second stage, and is fed to a multi-stage compression train for high pressure liquefaction. Because some of the carbon dioxide fed to the compression train is already under pressure, less energy is required to further compress the carbon dioxide to a liquid state, compared to conventional processes.

  7. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  8. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  9. Development of high-efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Meier, D. L.; Greggi, J.; Okeeffe, T. W.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1986-01-01

    Work was performed to improve web base material with a goal of obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Efforts in this program are directed toward identifying carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon, eliminating or reducing these mechanisms, designing a high efficiency cell structure with the aid of numerical models, and fabricating high efficiency web solar cells. Fabrication techniques must preserve or enhance carrier lifetime in the bulk of the cell and minimize recombination of carriers at the external surfaces. Three completed cells were viewed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to investigate further the relation between structural defects and electrical performance of web cells. Consistent with past TEM examinations, the cell with the highest efficiency (15.0%) had no dislocations but did have 11 twin planes.

  10. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  11. Efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high frequency

    Sørensen, Michael

    A general theory of efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high fre- quency is presented. High frequency sampling is now possible in many applications, in particular in finance. The theory is formulated in term of approximate martingale estimating functions and covers a large class...

  12. High-Efficiency Klystron Design for the CLIC Project

    Mollard, Antoine; Peauger, Franck; Plouin, Juliette; Beunas, Armel; Marchesin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    The CLIC project requests new type of RF sources for the high power conditioning of the accelerating cavities. We are working on the development of a new kind of high-efficiency klystron to fulfill this need. This work is performed under the EuCARD-2 European program and involves theoretical and experimental study of a brand new klystron concept.

  13. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... and web duplicate detection tasks....

  14. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  15. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of the efficiency of high-temperature steam electrolysis system for hydrogen production

    Mingyi, Liu; Bo, Yu; Jingming, Xu; Jing, Chen

    High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), a reversible process of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in principle, is a promising method for highly efficient large-scale hydrogen production. In our study, the overall efficiency of the HTSE system was calculated through electrochemical and thermodynamic analysis. A thermodynamic model in regards to the efficiency of the HTSE system was established and the quantitative effects of three key parameters, electrical efficiency (η el), electrolysis efficiency (η es), and thermal efficiency (η th) on the overall efficiency (η overall) of the HTSE system were investigated. Results showed that the contribution of η el, η es, η th to the overall efficiency were about 70%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. As temperatures increased from 500 °C to 1000 °C, the effect of η el on η overall decreased gradually and the η es effect remained almost constant, while the η th effect increased gradually. The overall efficiency of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with the HTSE system under different conditions was also calculated. With the increase of electrical, electrolysis, and thermal efficiency, the overall efficiencies were anticipated to increase from 33% to a maximum of 59% at 1000 °C, which is over two times higher than that of the conventional alkaline water electrolysis.

  17. Environmentally Printing Efficient Organic Tandem Solar Cells with High Fill Factors: A Guideline Towards 20% Power Conversion Efficiency

    Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Spyropoulos, George D.

    2014-01-01

    presents a major challenge. The reported high PCE values from lab-scale spin-coated devices are, of course, representative, but not helpful for commercialization. Here, organic tandem solar cells with exceptionally high fill factors and PCE values of 7.66% (on glass) and 5.56% (on flexible substrate...... to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, due to the undeveloped deposition techniques, the challenges in ink formulation as well as the lack of commercially available high performance active materials, roll-to-roll fabrication of highly efficient organic tandem solar cells currently......), which are the highest values for the solution-processed tandem solar cells fabricated by a mass-production compatible coating technique under ambient conditions, are demonstrated. To predict the highest possible performance of tandem solar cells, optical simulation based on experimentally feasible...

  18. Hot nuclei studied with high efficiency neutron detectors

    Galin, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have shown the invaluable benefit that a high efficiency 4π neutron detector can bring to the study of reaction mechanisms following collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate energy. Analysis requires Monte-Carlo simulations for comparison between experimental data and any emission model. In systematic measurements with projectiles of velocity corresponding to energies between 27 and 77 MeV/u, where both the influence of beam velocity and mass have been investigated separately, it has been shown that the projectile-target mass asymmetry, much more than velocity, has a decisive influence on energy dissipation. The closer the projectile mass to the target mass, the more energy is dissipated per unit mass of the considered projectile plus target system. The latter presents all the characteristics of a thermalized system, evaporating a copious number of light particles: up to about 40 neutrons (after efficiency correction) and 11 light charged particles in the most dissipative collisions between Kr+Au, and 90 neutrons for Pb+U with a yet unknown number of l.c.p. In the Kr experiment, these particles are isotropically emitted in the frame of a fused system, excited with 1.2 GeV. Moreover, l.c.p. exhibit Maxwellian energy distributions as in any standard evaporation process. We are now eager to better characterize the properties of the Pb+Au (U) systems for which about 1/3 of the neutrons are freed in a rather large fraction of all collisions. The thermalized energy should then approach very closely the total binding energy of the two interacting nuclei

  19. Process Cycle Efficiency Improvement Through Lean: A Case Study

    P.V. Mohanram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is an applied methodology of scientific, objective techniques that cause work tasks in a process to be performed with a minimum of non-value adding activities resulting in greatly reduced wait time, queue time, move time, administrative time, and other delays. This work addresses the implementation of lean principles in a construction equipment company. The prime objective is to evolve and test several strategies to eliminate waste on the shop floor. This paper describes an application of value stream mapping (VSM. Consequently, the present and future states of value stream maps are constructed to improve the production process by identifying waste and its sources. A noticeable reduction in cycle time and increase in cycle efficiency is confirmed. The production flow was optimized thus minimizing several non-value added activities/times such as bottlenecking time, waiting time, material handling time, etc. This case study can be useful in developing a more generic approach to design lean environment.

  20. Decontamination Efficiency of Fish Bacterial Flora from Processing Surfaces

    Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous parameters that can influence bacterial decontamination during washing of machinery and equipment in a food processing establishment. Incomplete decontamination of bacteria will increase the risk of biofilm formation and consequently increase the risk of pathogen contamination or prevalence of other undesirable microorganisms such as spoilage bacteria in the processing line. The efficiency of a typical washing protocol has been determined by testing three critical parameters and their effects on bacterial decontamination. Two surface materials (plastic and stainless steel, water temperatures (7 and 25 °C and detergent concentrations (2 and 4 % were used for this purpose in combination with two types of detergents. Biofilm was prepared on the surfaces with undefined bacterial flora obtained from minced cod fillets. The bacterial flora of the biofilm was characterised by cultivation and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes. All different combinations of washing protocols tested were able to remove more than 99.9 % of the bacteria in the biofilm and reduce the cell number from 7 to 0 or 2 log units of bacteria/cm2. The results show that it is possible to use less diluted detergents than recommended with comparable success, and it is easier to clean surface material made of stainless steel compared to polyethylene plastic.

  1. Towards efficient next generation light sources: combined solution processed and evaporated layers for OLEDs

    Hartmann, D.; Sarfert, W.; Meier, S.; Bolink, H.; García Santamaría, S.; Wecker, J.

    2010-05-01

    Typically high efficient OLED device structures are based on a multitude of stacked thin organic layers prepared by thermal evaporation. For lighting applications these efficient device stacks have to be up-scaled to large areas which is clearly challenging in terms of high through-put processing at low-cost. One promising approach to meet cost-efficiency, high through-put and high light output is the combination of solution and evaporation processing. Moreover, the objective is to substitute as many thermally evaporated layers as possible by solution processing without sacrificing the device performance. Hence, starting from the anode side, evaporated layers of an efficient white light emitting OLED stack are stepwise replaced by solution processable polymer and small molecule layers. In doing so different solutionprocessable hole injection layers (= polymer HILs) are integrated into small molecule devices and evaluated with regard to their electro-optical performance as well as to their planarizing properties, meaning the ability to cover ITO spikes, defects and dust particles. Thereby two approaches are followed whereas in case of the "single HIL" approach only one polymer HIL is coated and in case of the "combined HIL" concept the coated polymer HIL is combined with a thin evaporated HIL. These HIL architectures are studied in unipolar as well as bipolar devices. As a result the combined HIL approach facilitates a better control over the hole current, an improved device stability as well as an improved current and power efficiency compared to a single HIL as well as pure small molecule based OLED stacks. Furthermore, emitting layers based on guest/host small molecules are fabricated from solution and integrated into a white hybrid stack (WHS). Up to three evaporated layers were successfully replaced by solution-processing showing comparable white light emission spectra like an evaporated small molecule reference stack and lifetime values of several 100 h.

  2. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  3. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  4. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  5. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  6. High pressure processing of meat

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  7. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  8. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail: cyjia@uestc.edu.cn

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  9. Efficiency Optimization Methods in Low-Power High-Frequency Digitally Controlled SMPS

    Aleksandar Prodić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of several power efficiency optimization techniques that are utilizing advantages of emerging digital control in high frequency switch-mode power supplies (SMPS, processing power from a fraction of watt to several hundreds of watts. Loss mechanisms in semiconductor components are briefly reviewed and the related principles of online efficiency optimization through power stage segmentation and gate voltage variation presented. Practical implementations of such methods utilizing load prediction or data extraction from a digital control loop are shown. The benefits of the presented efficiency methods are verified through experimental results, showing efficiency improvements, ranging from 2% to 30%,depending on the load conditions.

  10. Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Efficiency Evaluation with High-Efficiency Steam Injector System

    Shoji, Goto; Shuichi, Ohmori; Michitsugu, Mori

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injectors (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condensers and extracted steam from turbines. It can get higher pressure than supplied steam pressure. The maintenance and reliability are still higher than the feedwater ones because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance, plant efficiency and the operation of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency and operation are compared with the electric power of 1100 MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show that plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to original BWR ones. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  11. All-Ambient Processed Binary CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Perovskites with Synergistic Enhancement for High-Efficiency Cs-Pb-Br-Based Solar Cells.

    Zhang, Xisheng; Jin, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingru; Bai, Dongliang; Bian, Hui; Wang, Kang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-02-28

    All-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cells display outstanding stability toward moisture, light soaking, and thermal stressing, demonstrating great potential in tandem solar cells and toward commercialization. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to prepare high-performance CsPbBr 3 films at moderate temperatures. Herein, a uniform, compact CsPbBr 3 film was fabricated using its quantum dot (QD)-based ink precursor. The film was then treated using thiocyanate ethyl acetate (EA) solution in all-ambient conditions to produce a superior CsPbBr 3 -CsPb 2 Br 5 composite film with a larger grain size and minimal defects. The achievement was attributed to the surface dissolution and recrystallization of the existing SCN - and EA. More specifically, the SCN - ions were first absorbed on the Pb atoms, leading to the dissolution and stripping of Cs + and Br - ions from the CsPbBr 3 QDs. On the other hand, the EA solution enhances the diffusion dynamics of surface atoms and the surfactant species. It is found that a small amount of CsPb 2 Br 5 in the composite film gives the best surface passivation, while the Br-rich surface decreases Br vacancies (V Br ) for a prolonged carrier lifetime. As a result, the fabricated device gives a higher solar cell efficiency of 6.81% with an outstanding long-term stability.

  12. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Xin Duan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  13. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Duan, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Lin

    2016-12-01

    A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS) for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  14. Doping efficiency analysis of highly phosphorous doped epitaxial/amorphous silicon emitters grown by PECVD for high efficiency silicon solar cells

    El-Gohary, H.G.; Sivoththaman, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The efficient doping of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon thin films is a key factor in the fabrication of silicon solar cells. The most popular method for developing those films is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) because it minimizes defect density and improves doping efficiency. This paper discussed the preparation of different structure phosphorous doped silicon emitters ranging from epitaxial to amorphous films at low temperature. Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was employed as the doping gas source with the same gas concentration for both epitaxial and amorphous silicon emitters. The paper presented an analysis of dopant activation by applying a very short rapid thermal annealing process (RTP). A spreading resistance profile (SRP) and SIMS analysis were used to detect both the active dopant and the dopant concentrations, respectively. The paper also provided the results of a structural analysis for both bulk and cross-section at the interface using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, for epitaxial and amorphous films. It was concluded that a unity doping efficiency could be achieved in epitaxial layers by applying an optimized temperature profile using short time processing rapid thermal processing technique. The high quality, one step epitaxial layers, led to both high conductive and high doping efficiency layers.

  15. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    1984-01-01

    J/ FTA c« ;« MO G SO KM s s P WS W-U Hi ; T 14 434 CASK G S3 K 11 ma WM MM MM ACTS 1 TC*4 U S7« ill GC 135 V M NTA «M FT...relative feed range 2nd digit -relative force range FMd 1 Very Low Fore* t 2 Low 2 3 Medium Low 3 4 Medium 4 5 Medium 5 6 Medium High 6 7 Medium

  16. Very high multiplicity hadron processes

    Mandzhavidze, I.; Sisakyan, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a first attempt to understand the extremely inelastic high energy hadron collisions, when the multiplicity of produced hadrons considerably exceeds its mean value. Problems with existing model predictions are discussed. The real-time finite-temperature S-matrix theory is built to have a possibility to find model-free predictions. This allows one to include the statistical effects into consideration and build the phenomenology. The questions to experiment are formulated at the very end of the paper

  17. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO x control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO x control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO x control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO x control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO x levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO x control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO x control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO 2 , N 2 O, total

  18. Segmentation of low‐cost high efficiency oxide‐based thermoelectric materials

    Le, Thanh Hung; Van Nong, Ngo; Linderoth, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) oxide materials have attracted great interest in advanced renewable energy research owing to the fact that they consist of abundant elements, can be manufactured by low-cost processing, sustain high temperatures, be robust and provide long lifetime. However, the low conversion...... efficiency of TE oxides has been a major drawback limiting these materials to broaden applications. In this work, theoretical calculations are used to predict how segmentation of oxide and semimetal materials, utilizing the benefits of both types of materials, can provide high efficiency, high temperature...... oxide-based segmented legs. The materials for segmentation are selected by their compatibility factors and their conversion efficiency versus material cost, i.e., “efficiency ratio”. Numerical modelling results showed that conversion efficiency could reach values of more than 10% for unicouples using...

  19. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  20. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  1. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  2. Process configuration of Liquid-nitrogen Energy Storage System (LESS) for maximum turnaround efficiency

    Dutta, Rohan; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-12-01

    Diverse power generation sector requires energy storage due to penetration of variable renewable energy sources and use of CO2 capture plants with fossil fuel based power plants. Cryogenic energy storage being large-scale, decoupled system with capability of producing large power in the range of MWs is one of the options. The drawback of these systems is low turnaround efficiencies due to liquefaction processes being highly energy intensive. In this paper, the scopes of improving the turnaround efficiency of such a plant based on liquid Nitrogen were identified and some of them were addressed. A method using multiple stages of reheat and expansion was proposed for improved turnaround efficiency from 22% to 47% using four such stages in the cycle. The novelty here is the application of reheating in a cryogenic system and utilization of waste heat for that purpose. Based on the study, process conditions for a laboratory-scale setup were determined and presented here.

  3. The thermodynamic characteristics of high efficiency, internal-combustion engines

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamics of an automotive engine are determined using a cycle simulation. ► The net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. ► High compression ratio, lean mixtures and high EGR were the important features. ► Efficiency increased due to lower heat losses, and increased work conversion. ► The nitric oxides were essentially zero due to the low combustion temperatures. - Abstract: Recent advancements have demonstrated new combustion modes for internal combustion engines that exhibit low nitric oxide emissions and high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of EGR, multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. Although the exact combination of these features that provides the best design is not yet clear, the results (low emissions with high efficiencies) are of major interest. The current work is directed at determining some of the fundamental thermodynamic reasons for the relatively high efficiencies and to quantify these factors. Both the first and second laws are used in this assessment. An automotive engine (5.7 l) which included some of the features mentioned above (e.g., high compression ratios, lean mixtures, and high EGR) was evaluated using a thermodynamic cycle simulation. These features were examined for a moderate load (bmep = 900 kPa), moderate speed (2000 rpm) condition. By the use of lean operation, high EGR levels, high compression ratio and other features, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. These increases are explained in a step-by-step fashion. The major reasons for these improvements include the higher compression ratio and the dilute charge (lean mixture, high EGR). The dilute charge resulted in lower temperatures which in turn resulted in lower heat loss. In addition, the lower temperatures resulted in higher ratios of the specific heats which

  4. Gaining efficiency by centralising the corporate business resiliency process.

    Martinez, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Organisations have compiled many business continuity plans over the years in response to uncontrollable events and natural disasters. As the types of threats increase, even more plans are being created. Unfortunately, many corporations do not communicate the existence of these various plans outside of their centre of excellence. Creating a centralised oversight of your business resiliency process brings many benefits, including greater awareness, a bigger pool of expertise, common terminology and reducing the chances of redundant efforts. Having an overarching corporate response plan in place makes it possible to have high-level leadership trained and ready in case an extreme event occurs.

  5. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel production. We focused on the influence of approaches to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen in the reduction step, namely by mechanical approaches (sweep gassing or vacuum pumping), chemical approaches (chemical scavenger), and combinations thereof. The results indicated that the sweep gas schemes work more efficient at non-isothermal than isothermal conditions, and efficient gas phase heat recovery and sweep gas recycling was important to ensure efficient fuel processing. The vacuum pump scheme achieved best efficiencies at isothermal conditions, and at non-isothermal conditions heat recovery was less essential. The use of oxygen scavengers combined with sweep gas and vacuum pump schemes further increased the system efficiency. The present work can be used to predict the performance of solar-driven non-stoichiometric redox cycles and further offers quantifiable guidelines for system design and operation. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted for ceria-based thermochemical cycles. • Five novel cycle designs and various operating conditions were proposed and investigated. • Pressure reduction method affects optimal operating conditions for maximized efficiency. • Chemical oxygen scavenger proves to be promising in further increasing efficiency. • Formulation of quantifiable design guidelines for economical competitive solar fuel processing

  6. A Fast and Efficient Dehydration Process for Waste Drilling Slurry

    Zheng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, slurry system was converted to colloid from fluid with the colloidization of high polymer coagulants with high viscosity. The solid-liquid separation of the waste slurry was realized by the process of chemical colloidal gel breaking, coagulation function, acidification gelout. In addition, the surface morphology of slurry cake was investigated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. The results indicate that mud separation effect is decides on the type of flocculants, gel breaker. The solid content of mud cake increases from 40.5% to 77.5% when A-PA and H20 are employed as the flocculants, gelout, with the dosage of zero point four grams and zero point five grams.

  7. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  8. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  9. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  10. Optimization of high-efficiency components; Optimieren auf hohem Niveau

    Neumann, Eva

    2009-07-01

    High efficiency is a common feature of modern current inverters and is not a unique selling proposition. Other factors that influence the buyer's decision are cost reduction, reliability and service, optimum grid integration, and the challenges of the competitive thin film technology. (orig.)

  11. Orion, a high efficiency 4π neutron detector

    Crema, E.; Piasecki, E.; Wang, X.M.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collisions the multiplicity of emitted neutrons is strongly connected to energy dissipation and to impact parameter. We present the 4π detector ORION, a high efficiency liquid scintillator detector which permits to get information on the multiplicity of neutrons measured event-wise and on the spatial distribution of these neutrons [fr

  12. High efficiency hydrodynamic DNA fragmentation in a bubbling system

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling

  13. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  14. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  15. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  16. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  17. Impurity effects in silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Hopkins, R. H.; Rohatgi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Model analyses indicate that sophisticated solar cell designs including, e.g., back surface fields, optical reflectors, surface passivation, and double layer antireflective coatings can produce devices with conversion efficiencies above 20 percent (AM1). To realize this potential, the quality of the silicon from which the cells are made must be improved; and these excellent electrical properties must be maintained during device processing. As the cell efficiency rises, the sensitivity to trace contaminants also increases. For example, the threshold Ti impurity concentration at which cell performance degrades is more than an order of magnitude lower for an 18-percent cell. Similar behavior occurs for numerous other metal species which introduce deep level traps that stimulate the recombination of photogenerated carriers in silicon. Purification via crystal growth in conjunction with gettering steps to preserve the large diffusion length of the as-grown material can lead to the production of devices with efficiencies aboved 18 percent, as has been verified experimentally.

  18. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  19. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  20. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  1. Economic efficiency analysis of electron accelerator for irradiation processing

    Shi Huidong; Chen Ronghui

    2003-01-01

    The fixed assets, running cost and economic efficiency were discussed in this paper. For building electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 3 kW, the running cost is one time higher than building cobalt source at 2.22 x 10 15 Bq, but economic efficiency of building a electron accelerator is much higher than building a cobalt source

  2. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for HEPA filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to assume trouble-free operation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing was performed with fly ash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 volume percent water vapor in the gas stream

  3. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  4. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  5. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  6. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  7. A test of processing efficiency theory in a team sport context.

    Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.

  8. Highly Flexible and Efficient Solar Steam Generation Device.

    Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kuang, Yudi; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Gong, Amy; Jiang, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Yang, Bao; Xie, Jia; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-01

    Solar steam generation with subsequent steam recondensation has been regarded as one of the most promising techniques to utilize the abundant solar energy and sea water or other unpurified water through water purification, desalination, and distillation. Although tremendous efforts have been dedicated to developing high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and inability to scale up. Here, inspired by the water transpiration behavior of trees, the use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified flexible wood membrane (F-Wood/CNTs) is demonstrated as a flexible, portable, recyclable, and efficient solar steam generation device for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation applications. Benefitting from the unique structural merits of the F-Wood/CNTs membrane-a black CNT-coated hair-like surface with excellent light absorbability, wood matrix with low thermal conductivity, hierarchical micro- and nanochannels for water pumping and escaping, solar steam generation device based on the F-Wood/CNTs membrane demonstrates a high efficiency of 81% at 10 kW cm -2 , representing one of the highest values ever-reported. The nature-inspired design concept in this study is straightforward and easily scalable, representing one of the most promising solutions for renewable and portable solar energy generation and other related phase-change applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells with crosslinked PCBM interlayers

    Qiu, W.

    2017-01-09

    Commercially available phenyl-C-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is crosslinked with 1,6-diazidohexane (DAZH), resulting in films resistant to common solvents used in perovskite solar cell processing. By using crosslinked PCBM as an interlayer and (HC(NH))(CHNH)PbIBr as the active layer, we achieve small area devices and modules with a maximum steady-state power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and 14.9%, respectively.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  11. High efficiency graphene coated copper based thermocells connected in series

    Sindhuja, Mani; Indubala, Emayavaramban; Sudha, Venkatachalam; Harinipriya, Seshadri

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60ºC of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  12. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  13. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  14. HIGH JET EFFICIENCY AND SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES

    Punsly, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports on a growing body of observational evidence that many powerful lobe-dominated (FR II) radio sources likely have jets with high efficiency. This study extends the maximum efficiency line (jet power ∼25 times the thermal luminosity) defined in Fernandes et al. so as to span four decades of jet power. The fact that this line extends over the full span of FR II radio power is a strong indication that this is a fundamental property of jet production that is independent of accretion power. This is a valuable constraint for theorists. For example, the currently popular 'no-net-flux' numerical models of black hole accretion produce jets that are two to three orders of magnitude too weak to be consistent with sources near maximum efficiency.

  15. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  16. Clean and efficient energy conversion processes (Cecon-project). Final report

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the work programme reported are the development and testing of two optimised energy conversion processes, both consisting of a radiant surface gas burner and a ceramic heat exchanger. The first sub-objective of the programme is related to industrial heating, drying and curing processes requireing low and medium heat fluxes. It is estimated that around one tenth of the total EC industrial energy use is associated with such processes. The majority of these processes currently use convection and conduction as the main heat transfer mechanisms and overall energy efficiencies are typically below 25%. For many drying and finishing processes (such as curing powder coatings and drying paints, varnishes, inks, and for the fabrication of paper and textiles), radiant heating can achieve much faster dyring rates and higher energy efficiency than convective heating. In the project new concepts of natural gas fired radiant heating have been investigated which would be much more efficient than the existing processes. One element of the programme was the evelopment of gas burners having enhanced radiant efficiencies. A second concerned the investigation of the safety of gas burners containing significant volumes of mixed gas and air. Finally the new gas burners were tested in combination with the high temperature heat exchanger to create highly efficient radiant heating systems. The second sub-objective concerned the development of a compact low cost heat exchanger capable of achieving high levels of heat recovery (up to 60%) which could be easily installed on industrial processes. This would make heat recovery a practical proposition on processes where existing heat recovery technology is currently not cost effective. The project will have an impact on industrial processes consuming around 80 MTOE of energy per year within EU countries (1 MTOE equals 41.8 PJ). The overall energy saving potential of the project is estimated to be around 22 MTOE which is around 10

  17. Investigation of Processing, Microstructures and Efficiencies of Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Films and Devices

    Munshi, Amit Harenkumar

    CdTe based photovoltaics have been commercialized at multiple GWs/year level. The performance of CdTe thin film photovoltaic devices is sensitive to process conditions. Variations in deposition temperatures as well as other treatment parameters have a significant impact on film microstructure and device performance. In this work, extensive investigations are carried out using advanced microstructural characterization techniques in an attempt to relate microstructural changes due to varying deposition parameters and their effects on device performance for cadmium telluride based photovoltaic cells deposited using close space sublimation (CSS). The goal of this investigation is to apply advanced material characterization techniques to aid process development for higher efficiency CdTe based photovoltaic devices. Several techniques have been used to observe the morphological changes to the microstructure along with materials and crystallographic changes as a function of deposition temperature and treatment times. Traditional device structures as well as advanced structures with electron reflector and films deposited on Mg1-xZnxO instead of conventional CdS window layer are investigated. These techniques include Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to study grain structure and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with electron diffraction and EDS. These investigations have provided insights into the mechanisms that lead to change in film structure and device performance with change in deposition conditions. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used for chemical mapping of the films as well as to understand interlayer material diffusion between subsequent layers. Electrical performance of these devices has been studied using current density vs voltage plots. Devices with efficiency over 18% have been fabricated on low cost commercial glass substrates

  18. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  19. Efficient Smoothed Concomitant Lasso Estimation for High Dimensional Regression

    Ndiaye, Eugene; Fercoq, Olivier; Gramfort, Alexandre; Leclère, Vincent; Salmon, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    In high dimensional settings, sparse structures are crucial for efficiency, both in term of memory, computation and performance. It is customary to consider ℓ 1 penalty to enforce sparsity in such scenarios. Sparsity enforcing methods, the Lasso being a canonical example, are popular candidates to address high dimension. For efficiency, they rely on tuning a parameter trading data fitting versus sparsity. For the Lasso theory to hold this tuning parameter should be proportional to the noise level, yet the latter is often unknown in practice. A possible remedy is to jointly optimize over the regression parameter as well as over the noise level. This has been considered under several names in the literature: Scaled-Lasso, Square-root Lasso, Concomitant Lasso estimation for instance, and could be of interest for uncertainty quantification. In this work, after illustrating numerical difficulties for the Concomitant Lasso formulation, we propose a modification we coined Smoothed Concomitant Lasso, aimed at increasing numerical stability. We propose an efficient and accurate solver leading to a computational cost no more expensive than the one for the Lasso. We leverage on standard ingredients behind the success of fast Lasso solvers: a coordinate descent algorithm, combined with safe screening rules to achieve speed efficiency, by eliminating early irrelevant features.

  20. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  1. Combustion phasing for maximum efficiency for conventional and high efficiency engines

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion phasing for max efficiency is a function of engine parameters. • Combustion phasing is most affected by heat transfer, compression ratio, burn duration. • Combustion phasing is less affected by speed, load, equivalence ratio and EGR. • Combustion phasing for a high efficiency engine was more advanced. • Exergy destruction during combustion as functions of combustion phasing is reported. - Abstract: The importance of the phasing of the combustion event for internal-combustion engines is well appreciated, but quantitative details are sparse. The objective of the current work was to examine the optimum combustion phasing (based on maximum bmep) as functions of engine design and operating variables. A thermodynamic, engine cycle simulation was used to complete this assessment. As metrics for the combustion phasing, both the crank angle for 50% fuel mass burned (CA 50 ) and the crank angle for peak pressure (CA pp ) are reported as functions of the engine variables. In contrast to common statements in the literature, the optimum CA 50 and CA pp vary depending on the design and operating variables. Optimum, as used in this paper, refers to the combustion timing that provides the maximum bmep and brake thermal efficiency (MBT timing). For this work, the variables with the greatest influence on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp were the heat transfer level, the burn duration and the compression ratio. Other variables such as equivalence ratio, EGR level, engine speed and engine load had a much smaller impact on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp . For the conventional engine, for the conditions examined, the optimum CA 50 varied between about 5 and 11°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp varied between about 9 and 16°aTDC. For a high efficiency engine (high dilution, high compression ratio), the optimum CA 50 was 2.5°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp was 7.8°aTDC. These more advanced values for the optimum CA 50 and CA pp for the high efficiency engine were

  2. Scale-up of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re production using graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W targets and demonstration of an efficient target recycling process

    Balkin, Ethan R.; Gagnon, Katherine; Dorman, Eric [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-07-01

    Production of high specific activity {sup 186g}Re is of interest for development of theranostic radiopharmaceuticals. Previous studies have shown that high specific activity {sup 186g}Re can be obtained by cyclotron irradiation of enriched {sup 186}W via the {sup 186}W(d,2n){sup 186g}Re reaction, but most irradiations were conducted at low beam currents and for short durations. In this investigation, enriched {sup 186}W metal targets were irradiated at high incident deuteron beam currents to demonstrate production rates and contaminants produced when using thick targets. Full-stopping thick targets, as determined using SRIM, were prepared by uniaxial pressing of powdered natural abundance W metal or 96.86% enriched {sup 186}W metal encased between two layers of graphite flakes for target material stabilization. An assessment of structural integrity was made on each target preparation. To assess the performance of graphite-encased thick {sup 186}W metal targets, along with the impact of encasing on the separation chemistry, targets were first irradiated using a 22 MeV deuteron beam for 10 min at 10, 20, and 27 μA, with an estimated nominal deuteron energy of 18.7 MeV on the {sup 186}W target material (after energy degradation correction from top graphite layer). Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed post EOB on all targets to assess production yields and radionuclidic byproducts. The investigation also evaluated a method to recover and recycle enriched target material from a column isolation procedure. Material composition analyses of target materials, pass-through/wash solutions and recycling process isolates were conducted with SEM, FTIR, XRD, EDS and ICP-MS spectrometry. To demonstrate scaled-up production, a graphite-encased {sup 186}W target made from recycled {sup 186}W was irradiated for ∝2 h with 18.7 MeV deuterons at a beam current of 27 μA to provide 0.90 GBq (24.3 mCi) of {sup 186g}Re, decay-corrected to the end of bombardment. ICP-MS analysis of the

  3. A novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient micro w-EDM

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chen, Chi-Hung

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the development of a novel power source for high-precision, highly efficient machining of micropart microstructures using micro wire electrical discharge machining (w-EDM). A novel power source based on a pluri resistance–capacitance (pRC) circuit that can generate a high-frequency, high-peak current with a short pulse train is proposed and designed to enhance the performance of micro w-EDM processes. Switching between transistors is precisely controlled in the designed power source to create a high-frequency short-pulse train current. Various microslot cutting tests in both aluminum and copper alloys are conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the pRC power source creates instant spark erosion resulting in markedly less material for removal, diminishing discharge crater size, and consequently an improved surface finish. A new evaluation approach for spark erosion ability (SEA) to assess the merits of micro EDM power sources is also proposed. In addition to increasing the speed of micro w-EDM by increasing wire feed rates by 1.6 times the original feed rate, the power source is more appropriate for machining micropart microstructures since there is less thermal breaking. Satisfactory cutting of an elaborate miniature hook-shaped structure and a high-aspect ratio microstructure with a squared-pillar array also reveal that the developed pRC power source is effective, and should be very useful in the manufacture of intricate microparts. (paper)

  4. Leveraging the Cloud for Robust and Efficient Lunar Image Processing

    Chang, George; Malhotra, Shan; Wolgast, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is tasked to aggregate lunar data, from the Apollo era to the latest instruments on the LRO spacecraft, into a central repository accessible by scientists and the general public. A critical function of this task is to provide users with the best solution for browsing the vast amounts of imagery available. The image files LMMP manages range from a few gigabytes to hundreds of gigabytes in size with new data arriving every day. Despite this ever-increasing amount of data, LMMP must make the data readily available in a timely manner for users to view and analyze. This is accomplished by tiling large images into smaller images using Hadoop, a distributed computing software platform implementation of the MapReduce framework, running on a small cluster of machines locally. Additionally, the software is implemented to use Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) facility. We also developed a hybrid solution to serve images to users by leveraging cloud storage using Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3) for public data while keeping private information on our own data servers. By using Cloud Computing, we improve upon our local solution by reducing the need to manage our own hardware and computing infrastructure, thereby reducing costs. Further, by using a hybrid of local and cloud storage, we are able to provide data to our users more efficiently and securely. 12 This paper examines the use of a distributed approach with Hadoop to tile images, an approach that provides significant improvements in image processing time, from hours to minutes. This paper describes the constraints imposed on the solution and the resulting techniques developed for the hybrid solution of a customized Hadoop infrastructure over local and cloud resources in managing this ever-growing data set. It examines the performance trade-offs of using the more plentiful resources of the cloud, such as those provided by S3, against the bandwidth limitations such use

  5. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  6. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  7. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  8. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  9. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  10. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  11. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 deg C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project 'two-zone' blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 deg C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case. (author)

  12. Irradiation effects on high efficiency Si solar cells

    Nguyen Duy, T.; Amingual, D.; Colardelle, P.; Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    By optimizing the diffusion parameters, high efficiency cells are obtained with 2ohmsxcm (13.5% AMO) and 10ohmsxcm (12.5% AMO) silicon material. These new cells have been submitted to radiation tests under 1MeV, 2MeV electrons and 2.5MeV protons. Their behavior under irradiation is found to be dependent only on the bulk material. By using the same resistivity silicon, the rate of degradation is exactly the same than those of conventional cells. The power increase, due to a better superficial response of the cell, is maintained after irradiation. These results show that new high efficiency cells offer an E.O.L. power higher than conventional cells [fr

  13. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  14. All-Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide-Free Flexible Organic Solar Cells with Over 10% Efficiency.

    Song, Wei; Fan, Xi; Xu, Bingang; Yan, Feng; Cui, Huiqin; Wei, Qiang; Peng, Ruixiang; Hong, Ling; Huang, Jiaming; Ge, Ziyi

    2018-05-16

    All-solution-processing at low temperatures is important and desirable for making printed photovoltaic devices and also offers the possibility of a safe and cost-effective fabrication environment for the devices. Herein, an all-solution-processed flexible organic solar cell (OSC) using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly-(styrenesulfonate) electrodes is reported. The all-solution-processed flexible devices yield the highest power conversion efficiency of 10.12% with high fill factor of over 70%, which is the highest value for metal-oxide-free flexible OSCs reported so far. The enhanced performance is attributed to the newly developed gentle acid treatment at room temperature that enables a high-performance PEDOT:PSS/plastic underlying substrate with a matched work function (≈4.91 eV), and the interface engineering that endows the devices with better interface contacts and improved hole mobility. Furthermore, the flexible devices exhibit an excellent mechanical flexibility, as indicated by a high retention (≈94%) of the initial efficiency after 1000 bending cycles. This work provides a simple route to fabricate high-performance all-solution-processed flexible OSCs, which is important for the development of printing, blading, and roll-to-roll technologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO 2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  16. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  17. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  18. Sm , Bi phosphors with high efficiency white-light-emittin

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Therefore, researches on high efficiency red phos- phors are very important. So far ..... ing concentration and reached a maximum at y = 8 mol%. A .... [10] Xue L P, Wang Y J, Lv P W, Chen D G, Lin Z, Liang J K et al. 2009 Crystal ... [28] Liu J, Xu B, Song C, Luo H, Zou X, Han L et al 2012 Cryst-. EngComm.

  19. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  20. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  1. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  2. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  3. Hydrogen production methods efficiency coupled to an advanced high temperature accelerator driven system

    Rodríguez, Daniel González; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Fernández, Carlos García, E-mail: danielgonro@gmail.com, E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    The hydrogen economy is one of the most promising concepts for the energy future. In this scenario, oil is replaced by hydrogen as an energy carrier. This hydrogen, rather than oil, must be produced in volumes not provided by the currently employed methods. In this work two high temperature hydrogen production methods coupled to an advanced nuclear system are presented. A new design of a pebbled-bed accelerator nuclear driven system called TADSEA is chosen because of the advantages it has in matters of transmutation and safety. For the conceptual design of the high temperature electrolysis process a detailed computational fluid dynamics model was developed to analyze the solid oxide electrolytic cell that has a huge influence on the process efficiency. A detailed flowsheet of the high temperature electrolysis process coupled to TADSEA through a Brayton gas cycle was developed using chemical process simulation software: Aspen HYSYS®. The model with optimized operating conditions produces 0.1627 kg/s of hydrogen, resulting in an overall process efficiency of 34.51%, a value in the range of results reported by other authors. A conceptual design of the iodine-sulfur thermochemical water splitting cycle was also developed. The overall efficiency of the process was calculated performing an energy balance resulting in 22.56%. The values of efficiency, hydrogen production rate and energy consumption of the proposed models are in the values considered acceptable in the hydrogen economy concept, being also compatible with the TADSEA design parameters. (author)

  4. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  5. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  6. Interrelationships between trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort predict phonological processing efficiency, but not effectiveness.

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) describes the mechanisms associated with the relationship between anxiety and cognitive performance. We investigated the relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress and mental effort on phonological performance using a simple (forward-) and complex (backward-) word span task. Ninety undergraduate students participated in the study. Predictor variables were cognitive trait anxiety, indexed using questionnaire scores; situational stress, manipulated using ego threat instructions; and perceived level of mental effort, measured using a visual analogue scale. Criterion variables (a) performance effectiveness (accuracy) and (b) processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) were analyzed in separate multiple moderated-regression analyses. The results revealed (a) no relationship between the predictors and performance effectiveness, and (b) a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency for both the simple and complex tasks, such that at higher effort, trait anxiety and situational stress did not predict processing efficiency, whereas at lower effort, higher trait anxiety was associated with lower efficiency at high situational stress, but not at low situational stress. Our results were in full support of the assumptions of ACT and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  8. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  9. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  10. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  11. High precision efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.; Helmer, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Many experiments involving measurements of γ rays require a very precise efficiency calibration. Since γ-ray detection and identification also requires good energy resolution, the most commonly used detectors are of the coaxial HPGe type. We have calibrated our 70% HPGe to ∼ 0.2% precision, motivated by the measurement of precise branching ratios (BR) in superallowed 0 + → 0 + β decays. These BRs are essential ingredients in extracting ft-values needed to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, a test that it currently fails by more than two standard deviations. To achieve the required high precision in our efficiency calibration, we measured 17 radioactive sources at a source-detector distance of 15 cm. Some of these were commercial 'standard' sources but we achieved the highest relative precision with 'home-made' sources selected because they have simple decay schemes with negligible side feeding, thus providing exactly matched γ-ray intensities. These latter sources were produced by us at Texas A and M by n-activation or by nuclear reactions. Another critical source among the 17 was a 60 Co source produced by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany: its absolute activity was quoted to better than 0.06%. We used it to establish our absolute efficiency, while all the other sources were used to determine relative efficiencies, extending our calibration over a large energy range (40-3500 keV). Efficiencies were also determined with Monte Carlo calculations performed with the CYLTRAN code. The physical parameters of the Ge crystal were independently determined and only two (unmeasurable) dead-layers were adjusted, within physically reasonable limits, to achieve precise absolute agreement with our measured efficiencies. The combination of measured efficiencies at more than 60 individual energies and Monte Carlo calculations to interpolate between them allows us to quote the efficiency of our

  12. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  13. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  14. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  15. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  16. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  17. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Erqiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  18. Selection Process for New Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  19. Selection Process for Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  20. Efficient process migration in the EMPS multiprocessor system

    van Dijk, G.J.W.; Gils, van M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The process migration facility in the Eindhoven multiprocessor system (EMPS) is presented. In the EMPS system, mailboxes are used for interprocess communication. These mailboxes provide transparency of location for communicating processes. The major advantages of mailbox communication in the EMPS

  1. Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

    Hurk, P.A.M. van den; Giommi, F.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Barendregt, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their

  2. GPC Light Shaper for energy efficient laser materials processing.

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson; Aabo, Thomas; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The biggest use of lasers is in materials processing. In manufacturing, lasers are used for cutting, drilling, marking and other machining processes. Similarly, lasers are important in microfabrication processes such as photolithography, direct laser writing, or ablation. Lasers are advantageous because they do not wear out, have no physical contact with the processed material, avoid heating or warping effects, and are generally more precise. Since lasers are easier to adapt to different opti...

  3. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  4. Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Hole-Transport Layers Processed from Aqueous Precursor Solutions and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors and Highly Efficient Organic and Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Wijeyasinghe, Nilushi; Regoutz, Anna; Eisner, Flurin; Du, Tian; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Lin, Yen-Hung; Faber, Hendrik; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Li, Jinhua; Yan, Feng; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Payne, David J.; Heeney, Martin; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl

  5. Novel efficient process for methanol synthesis by CO2 hydrogenation

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Pragt, J.J.; Vos, H.J.; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Groot, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is an alternative fuel that offers a convenient solution for efficient energy storage. Complementary to carbon capture activities, significant effort is devoted to the development of technologies for methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. While CO2 is available from plenty

  6. An Integrated Refurbishment Design Process to Energy Efficiency

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    2013-01-01

    Given the very low renewal rate of the building stock, the efforts to reduce energy demand must focus on the existing residential buildings. Even though awareness has been raised, the effect on energy efficiency is often neglected during the design phase of refurbishment projects. This paper

  7. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  8. High-efficiency ballistic electrostatic generator using microdroplets

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Vreede, Lennart J.; de Boer, Hans L.; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; Sprenkels, Ad J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2014-04-01

    The strong demand for renewable energy promotes research on novel methods and technologies for energy conversion. Microfluidic systems for energy conversion by streaming current are less known to the public, and the relatively low efficiencies previously obtained seemed to limit the further applications of such systems. Here we report a microdroplet-based electrostatic generator operating by an acceleration-deceleration cycle (‘ballistic’ conversion), and show that this principle enables both high efficiency and compact simple design. Water is accelerated by pumping it through a micropore to form a microjet breaking up into fast-moving charged droplets. Droplet kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy when the charged droplets decelerate in the electrical field that forms between membrane and target. We demonstrate conversion efficiencies of up to 48%, a power density of 160 kW m-2 and both high- (20 kV) and low- (500 V) voltage operation. Besides offering striking new insights, the device potentially opens up new perspectives for low-cost and robust renewable energy conversion.

  9. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  10. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  11. High diffraction efficiency polarization gratings recorded by biphotonic holography in an azobenzene liquid crystalline polyester

    Sanchez, C.; Alcala, R.; Hvilsted, S.; Ramanujam, P. S.

    2001-01-01

    High diffraction efficiencies have been achieved with polarization gratings recorded in thin films of an azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester by means of biphotonic processes. Efficiency values up to 30% have been reached after an induction period of 300 s and subsequent evolution with the sample in darkness. These values are at least two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported for biphotonic recording. The gratings can be erased with unpolarized blue light and partial recovery of the diffraction efficiency has been observed after the erasure process when the sample is kept in darkness. Red light illumination of the erased film increases the recovered efficiency value and the recovery rate. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. High efficient plastic solar cells fabricated with a high-throughput gravure printing method

    Kopola, P.; Jin, H.; Tuomikoski, M.; Maaninen, A.; Hast, J. [VTT, Kaitovaeylae 1, FIN-90571 Oulu (Finland); Aernouts, T. [IMEC, Organic PhotoVoltaics, Polymer and Molecular Electronics, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guillerez, S. [CEA-INES RDI, 50 Avenue Du Lac Leman, 73370 Le Bourget Du Lac (France)

    2010-10-15

    We report on polymer-based solar cells prepared by the high-throughput roll-to-roll gravure printing method. The engravings of the printing plate, along with process parameters like printing speed and ink properties, are studied to optimise the printability of the photoactive as well as the hole transport layer. For the hole transport layer, the focus is on testing different formulations to produce thorough wetting of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate. The challenge for the photoactive layer is to form a uniform layer with optimal nanomorphology in the poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend. This results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.8% under simulated AM1.5G solar illumination for a solar cell device with gravure-printed hole transport and a photoactive layer. (author)

  13. EFFICIENT LIDAR POINT CLOUD DATA MANAGING AND PROCESSING IN A HADOOP-BASED DISTRIBUTED FRAMEWORK

    C. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR is one of the most promising technologies in surveying and mapping,city management, forestry, object recognition, computer vision engineer and others. However, it is challenging to efficiently storage, query and analyze the high-resolution 3D LiDAR data due to its volume and complexity. In order to improve the productivity of Lidar data processing, this study proposes a Hadoop-based framework to efficiently manage and process LiDAR data in a distributed and parallel manner, which takes advantage of Hadoop’s storage and computing ability. At the same time, the Point Cloud Library (PCL, an open-source project for 2D/3D image and point cloud processing, is integrated with HDFS and MapReduce to conduct the Lidar data analysis algorithms provided by PCL in a parallel fashion. The experiment results show that the proposed framework can efficiently manage and process big LiDAR data.

  14. High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for EnergyManagement in High-Tech Industries

    Shanshoian, Gary; Blazek, Michele; Naughton, Phil; Seese, RobertS.; Mills, Evan; Tschudi, William

    2005-11-15

    In the race to apply new technologies in ''high-tech'' facilities such as data centers, laboratories, and clean rooms, much emphasis has been placed on improving service, building capacity, and increasing speed. These facilities are socially and economically important, as part of the critical infrastructure for pharmaceuticals,electronics, communications, and many other sectors. With a singular focus on throughput, some important design issues can be overlooked, such as the energy efficiency of individual equipment (e.g., lasers, routers and switches) as well as the integration of high-tech equipment into the power distribution system and the building envelope. Among technology-based businesses, improving energy efficiency presents an often untapped opportunity to increase profits, enhance process control,maximize asset value, improve the work place environment, and manage a variety of business risks. Oddly enough, the adoption of energy efficiency improvements in this sector lags behind many others. As a result, millions of dollars are left on the table with each year ofoperation.

  15. Efficient Four-Parametric with-and-without-Memory Iterative Methods Possessing High Efficiency Indices

    Alicia Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a family of derivative-free optimal iterative methods without memory to approximate a simple zero of a nonlinear function. Error analysis demonstrates that the without-memory class has eighth-order convergence and is extendable to with-memory class. The extension of new family to the with-memory one is also presented which attains the convergence order 15.5156 and a very high efficiency index 15.51561/4≈1.9847. Some particular schemes of the with-memory family are also described. Numerical examples and some dynamical aspects of the new schemes are given to support theoretical results.

  16. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  17. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  18. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  19. Opto-electrical approaches for high efficiency and ultra-thin c-Si solar cells

    Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The need for cost reduction requires using less raw material and cost-effective processes without sacrificing the conversion efficiency. For keeping high the generated photo-current, an advanced light trapping scheme for ultra-thin silicon wafers is here proposed, exhibiting absorptances up to 99%

  20. Highly Efficient and Reliable Transparent Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Film.

    Jia, Li-Chuan; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Rujun; Wu, Hong-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-04-11

    Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Mayer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNW/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20.7 dB, which meets the requirements for commercial shielding applications. A superior EMI SE of 31.3 dB could be achieved, whereas the transparent film still maintains a transmittance of 81%. The integrated efficient EMI SE and high transmittance are superior to those of most previously reported transparent EMI shielding materials. Moreover, our transparent films exhibit a highly reliable shielding ability in a complex service environment, with 98 and 96% EMI SE retentions even after 30 min of ultrasound treatment and 5000 bending cycles (1.5 mm radius), respectively. The comprehensive performance that is associated with the facile fabrication strategy imparts the CA/AgNW/PU film with great potential as an optimized EMI shielding material in emerging optoelectronic devices, such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

  1. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  2. Improved motion contrast and processing efficiency in OCT angiography using complex-correlation algorithm

    Guo, Li; Li, Pei; Pan, Cong; Cheng, Yuxuan; Ding, Zhihua; Li, Peng; Liao, Rujia; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The complex-based OCT angiography (Angio-OCT) offers high motion contrast by combining both the intensity and phase information. However, due to involuntary bulk tissue motions, complex-valued OCT raw data are processed sequentially with different algorithms for correcting bulk image shifts (BISs), compensating global phase fluctuations (GPFs) and extracting flow signals. Such a complicated procedure results in massive computational load. To mitigate such a problem, in this work, we present an inter-frame complex-correlation (CC) algorithm. The CC algorithm is suitable for parallel processing of both flow signal extraction and BIS correction, and it does not need GPF compensation. This method provides high processing efficiency and shows superiority in motion contrast. The feasibility and performance of the proposed CC algorithm is demonstrated using both flow phantom and live animal experiments. (paper)

  3. Research & Implementation of AC - DC Converter with High Power Factor & High Efficiency

    Hsiou-Hsian Nien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design and develop a high power factor, high efficiency two-stage AC - DC power converter. This paper proposes a two-stage AC - DC power converter. The first stage is boost active power factor correction circuit. The latter stage is near constant frequency LLC resonant converter. In addition to traditional LLC high efficiency advantages, light-load conversion efficiency of this power converter can be improved. And it possesses high power factor and near constant frequency operating characteristics, can significantly reduce the electromagnetic interference. This paper first discusses the main structure and control manner of power factor correction circuit. And then by the LLC resonant converter equivalent model proceed to circuit analysis to determine the important parameters of the converter circuit elements. Then design a variable frequency resonant tank. The resonant frequency can change automatically on the basis of the load to reach near constant frequency operation and a purpose of high efficiency. Finally, actually design and produce an AC – DC power converter with output of 190W to verify the characteristics and feasibility of this converter. The experimental results show that in a very light load (9.5 W the efficiency is as high as 81%, the highest efficiency of 88% (90 W. Full load efficiency is 87%. At 19 W ~ 190 W power changes, the operating frequency change is only 0.4 kHz (AC 110 V and 0.3 kHz (AC 220 V.

  4. Image Segmentation and Processing for Efficient Parking Space Analysis

    Tutika, Chetan Sai; Vallapaneni, Charan; R, Karthik; KP, Bharath; Muthu, N Ruban Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to detect vacant parking spaces in an environment with unclear segments and contours with the help of MATLAB image processing capabilities. Due to the anomalies present in the parking spaces, such as uneven illumination, distorted slot lines and overlapping of cars. The present-day conventional algorithms have difficulties processing the image for accurate results. The algorithm proposed uses a combination of image pre-processing and false contour detection ...

  5. Alexandria: towards an efficient centralised document management. More efficient business processes

    Couvreur, D.

    2011-01-01

    The capital of SCK-CEN is the knowledge of its staff. There is an enormous amount of information circulating within the research centre. A centralised management for all documents is also critical to efficiently manage, share and unlock the expertise. Since 2009, SCK-CEN has been working on a document management system: Alexandria. A first test draft was completed in 2010.

  6. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  7. Operator-based linearization for efficient modeling of geothermal processes

    Khait, M.; Voskov, D.V.

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulation is one of the most important tools required for financial and operational management of geothermal reservoirs. The modern geothermal industry is challenged to run large ensembles of numerical models for uncertainty analysis, causing simulation performance to become a critical issue. Geothermal reservoir modeling requires the solution of governing equations describing the conservation of mass and energy. The robust, accurate and computationally efficient implementation of ...

  8. Fused Methoxynaphthyl Phenanthrimidazole Semiconductors as Functional Layer in High Efficient OLEDs.

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Ramanathan, Periyasamy; Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Thanikachalam, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Efficient hole transport materials based on novel fused methoxynaphthyl phenanthrimidazole core structure were synthesised and characterized. Their device performances in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes were investigated. The high thermal stability in combination with the reversible oxidation process made promising candidates as hole-transporting materials for organic light-emitting devices. Highly efficient Alq3-based organic light emitting devices have been developed using phenanthrimidazoles as functional layers between NPB [4,4-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl] and Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium] layers. Using the device of ITO/NPB/4/Alq3/LiF/Al, a maximum luminous efficiency of 5.99 cd A(-1) was obtained with a maximum brightness of 40,623 cd m(-2) and a power efficiency of 5.25 lm W(-1).

  9. Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.

    2003-06-01

    High-efficiency single-layer-solution-processed green light-emitting diodes based on a phosphorescent dendrimer are demonstrated. A peak external quantum efficiency of 10.4% (35 cd/A) was measured for a first generation fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium cored dendrimer when blended with 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl and electron transporting 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene at 8.1 V. A maximum power efficiency of 12.8 lm/W was measured also at 8.1 V and 550 cd/m2. These results indicate that, by simple blending of bipolar and electron-transporting molecules, highly efficient light-emitting diodes can be made employing a very simple device structure.

  10. Pressurized Recuperator For Heat Recovery In Industrial High Temperature Processes

    Gil S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recuperators and regenerators are important devices for heat recovery systems in technological lines of industrial processes and should have high air preheating temperature, low flow resistance and a long service life. The use of heat recovery systems is particularly important in high-temperature industrial processes (especially in metallurgy where large amounts of thermal energy are lost to the environment. The article presents the process design for a high efficiency recuperator intended to work at high operating parameters: air pressure up to 1.2 MPa and temperature of heating up to 900°C. The results of thermal and gas-dynamic calculations were based on an algorithm developed for determination of the recuperation process parameters. The proposed technical solution of the recuperator and determined recuperation parameters ensure its operation under maximum temperature conditions.

  11. Energy-efficient biogas reforming process to produce syngas: The enhanced methane conversion by O_2

    Chen, Xuejing; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, Kaimin; Tian, Sicong; Yan, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of O_2 content from 0 to 15% on Ni/SiO_2 are studied for biogas reforming. • The presence of O_2 in biogas improves CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. • An obvious carbon-resistance effect is observed due to the carbon gasification effect of O_2 in biogas. • The presence of O_2 in biogas greatly helps inhibit the catalyst sintering. - Abstract: We report an energy-efficient biogas reforming process with high and stable methane conversions by O_2 presence. During this biogas reforming process, the effects of various O_2 concentrations in biogas on initial conversions and stability at various temperatures on a Ni/SiO_2 catalyst were detailed investigated. In addition, theoretical energy consumption and conversions were calculated based on the Gibbs energy minimization method to compare with experimental results. Carbon formation and sintering during the reforming process were characterized by thermal gravity analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to investigate the feasibility of applying this process to an inexpensive nickel catalyst. The results showed that 5% O_2 in biogas improved the CH_4 conversion and stability of biogas reforming. The enhancement of stability was attributed to the inhibited sintering, our first finding, and the reduced carbon deposition at the same time, which sustained a stable conversion of CH_4, and proved the applicability of base Ni catalyst to this process. Higher O_2 concentrations (⩾10%) in biogas resulted in severe decrease in CO_2 conversion and greater H_2O productivity. Our proposed biogas reforming process, with a high and stable conversion of CH_4, reduced energy input, and the applicability to inexpensive base metal catalyst, offers a good choice for biogas reforming with low O_2 concentrations (⩽5%) to produce syngas with high energy efficiency.

  12. Zinc oxide nanostructures and its nano-compounds for efficient visible light photo-catalytic processes

    Adam, Rania E.; Alnoor, Hatim; Elhag, Sami; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) in its nanostructure form is a promising material for visible light emission/absorption and utilization in different energy efficient photocatalytic processes. We will first present our recent results on the effect of varying the molar ratio of the synthesis nutrients on visible light emission. Further we will use the optimized conditions from the molar ration experiments to vary the synthesis processing parameters like stirring time etc. and the effect of all these parameters in order to optimize the efficiency and control the emission spectrum are investigated using different complementary techniques. Cathodoluminescence (CL) is combined with photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) as the techniques to investigate and optimizes visible light emission from ZnO/GaN light emitting diodes. We will then show and discuss our recent finding of the use of high quality ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photo-degradation of toxic dyes using the visible spectra, namely with a wavelength up to 800 nm. In the end, we show how ZnO nanorods (NRs) are used as the first template to be transferred to bismuth zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6). The BiZn2VO6 is then used to demonstrate efficient and cost effective hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar radiation.

  13. Energy-efficient neural information processing in individual neurons and neuronal networks.

    Yu, Lianchun; Yu, Yuguo

    2017-11-01

    Brains are composed of networks of an enormous number of neurons interconnected with synapses. Neural information is carried by the electrical signals within neurons and the chemical signals among neurons. Generating these electrical and chemical signals is metabolically expensive. The fundamental issue raised here is whether brains have evolved efficient ways of developing an energy-efficient neural code from the molecular level to the circuit level. Here, we summarize the factors and biophysical mechanisms that could contribute to the energy-efficient neural code for processing input signals. The factors range from ion channel kinetics, body temperature, axonal propagation of action potentials, low-probability release of synaptic neurotransmitters, optimal input and noise, the size of neurons and neuronal clusters, excitation/inhibition balance, coding strategy, cortical wiring, and the organization of functional connectivity. Both experimental and computational evidence suggests that neural systems may use these factors to maximize the efficiency of energy consumption in processing neural signals. Studies indicate that efficient energy utilization may be universal in neuronal systems as an evolutionary consequence of the pressure of limited energy. As a result, neuronal connections may be wired in a highly economical manner to lower energy costs and space. Individual neurons within a network may encode independent stimulus components to allow a minimal number of neurons to represent whole stimulus characteristics efficiently. This basic principle may fundamentally change our view of how billions of neurons organize themselves into complex circuits to operate and generate the most powerful intelligent cognition in nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High efficiency electrophosphorescence from bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Li Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; Oswald, Iain; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemeistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-14

    An electron mobility of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured for the phosphorescent emitter bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)(Pt(ptp)2), which prompted its evaluation as both the emissive layer and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure. Power and external quantum efficiencies of 54.0 {+-} 0.2 lm W{sup -1} and 15.9% were obtained, which as far as we could ascertain are amongst the highest reported values for bilayer devices. We ascribe the high device efficiency to the combination of the high electron mobility, short excited-state lifetime (117 ns) and high luminescence quantum yield (60%) of the bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II). The colour temperature of the devices was 2855 K at 5 V, which places the emission in the 'warm' light spectral region.

  15. Detecting Android Malwares with High-Efficient Hybrid Analyzing Methods

    Yu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle the security issues caused by malwares of Android OS, we proposed a high-efficient hybrid-detecting scheme for Android malwares. Our scheme employed different analyzing methods (static and dynamic methods to construct a flexible detecting scheme. In this paper, we proposed some detecting techniques such as Com+ feature based on traditional Permission and API call features to improve the performance of static detection. The collapsing issue of traditional function call graph-based malware detection was also avoided, as we adopted feature selection and clustering method to unify function call graph features of various dimensions into same dimension. In order to verify the performance of our scheme, we built an open-access malware dataset in our experiments. The experimental results showed that the suggested scheme achieved high malware-detecting accuracy, and the scheme could be used to establish Android malware-detecting cloud services, which can automatically adopt high-efficiency analyzing methods according to the properties of the Android applications.

  16. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  17. Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2011-12-19

    The recent progress in solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic medium has revitalized solar laser researches, revealing a promising future for renewable reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide. Here we show a big advance in solar laser collection efficiency by utilizing an economical Fresnel lens and a most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused by a 0.9 m diameter Fresnel lens. A dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary concentrator is employed to couple the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone to a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pumping cavity. 12.3 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 19.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency, which is 2.9 times larger than the previous results with Nd:YAG single-crystal medium. Record-high slope efficiency of 3.9% is also registered. Laser beam quality is considerably improved by pumping a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod.

  18. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  20. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs