Kenyon, Chris R.; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven
Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered. PMID:26496073
Chris R Kenyon
Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation.We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable.There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05; reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001; and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence.Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered.
Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso
Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study's results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species' distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures.
Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin
Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study’s results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species’ distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures. PMID:27467587
Frisch, Kayt E.; Clark, Jacob; Hanson, Chad; Fagerness, Chris; Conway, Adam; Hoogendoorn, Lindsay
Background: Shoulder pain is becoming increasingly problematic in young players as volleyball gains popularity. Associations between repetitive motion and pain and overuse injury have been observed in other overhand sports (most notably baseball). Studies of adult athletes suggest that there is a shoulder pain and overuse problem present in volleyball players, but minimal research has been done to establish rates and causes in juvenile participants. Purpose: To establish rates of shoulder pain, regardless of whether it resulted in a loss of playing time, in female high school volleyball players. A secondary goal was to determine whether high repetition volumes correlated with an increased likelihood of experiencing pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: A self-report survey focusing on the prevalence of pain not associated with a traumatic event in female high school youth volleyball players was developed. Survey questions were formulated by certified athletic trainers, experienced volleyball coaches, and biomechanics experts. Surveys were received from 175 healthy, active high school volleyball players in Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Results: Forty percent (70/175) of active high school volleyball players remembered experiencing shoulder pain not related to traumatic injury, but only 33% (23/70) reported taking time off to recover from the pain. Based on these self-reported data, activities associated with significantly increased risk of nontraumatic shoulder pain included number of years playing competitive volleyball (P = .01) and lifting weights out of season (P = .001). Players who reported multiple risk factors were more likely to experience nontraumatic shoulder pain. Conclusion: When using time off for recovery as the primary injury criterion, we found that the incidence of shoulder pain is more than twice as high as the incidence of injury reported by previous studies. Findings also indicated that the incidence of shoulder pain
Sharon, Dror; Banin, Eyal
Nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common inherited retinal degeneration, and prevalence of the disease has been reported in populations of American and European origin with a relatively low consanguinity rate. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in the Jerusalem region, which has a population of about 1 million individuals with a high rate of consanguinity. The patients' clinical data included eye exam findings (visual acuity, anterior segment, and funduscopy) as well as electroretinographic (ERG) testing results under scotopic and photopic conditions. Mutation analysis on a subgroup of patients was performed mainly with candidate gene analysis and homozygosity mapping. We evaluated the medical records of patients with degenerative retinal diseases residing in the Jerusalem region who were examined over the past 20 years in a large tertiary medical center. A total of 453 individuals affected with nonsyndromic RP were diagnosed at our center, according to funduscopic findings and ERG testing. Based on the estimated population size of 945,000 individuals who reside in the vicinity of Jerusalem, the prevalence of nonsyndromic RP in this region is 1:2,086. The prevalence of RP was higher among Arab Muslims (1:1,798) compared to Jews (1:2,230), mainly due to consanguineous marriages that are more common in the Arab Muslim population. To identify the genetic causes of RP in our cohort, we recruited 383 patients from 183 different families for genetic analysis: 70 with autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance, 15 with autosomal dominant, 86 isolate cases, and 12 with an X-linked inheritance pattern. In 64 (35%) of the families, we identified the genetic cause of the disease, and we revised the inheritance pattern of 20 isolate cases to the AR pattern; 49% of the families in our cohort had AR inheritance. Interestingly, in 42 (66%) of the genetically identified families, the cause of disease was a founder mutation. Previous studies
Full Text Available The hospitalized cases and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD are increasing in Taiwan and worldwide. Meanwhile, the Asia–Pacific region also has a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The Taiwanese have the highest percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 deficiency and the lowest amount of alcohol consumption. Based on the histological changes, ALD is clinically classified as steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and alcoholic hepatitis on cirrhosis. Patients with overt alcoholic hepatitis often develop marked hepatomegaly, audible hepatic arterial bruit, mild leukocytosis, and mild fever. Patients having alcoholic cirrhosis had much more serious complications and mortality. It is clinically important to identify hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis earlier for early management. Active assessments for esophageal varices and ascites may help the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Sonography is helpful for exanimating features of cirrhosis including portal hypertension, ascites, increased hepatic portal flow, and collaterals. Synergistic damage of viral hepatitis on ALD patients lead to rapid progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Distinct from the Western population, 30% of Taiwanese alcoholics had concomitant chronic HBV regardless of the different histologic categories. Patient groups with combined alcoholics and HBV had fewer platelet counts and much more cirrhosis with Ishak Stage 5–6 fibrosis. The annual incidences of HCC were significantly higher in alcoholic cirrhotic patients having concomitant HBV infection than those with only HBV infection or alcoholism alone. Antiviral nucleotide and nucleoside analogs therapy reduces the prevalence of HCC to a similar level to those ALD patients without active HBV.
Full Text Available Domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis have frequently been documented in European regions of Russia, with the highest prevalence reported in wolves (Canis lupus. From 1998 to 2000, 75 carcasses of wolves shot by hunters were tested for Trichinella larvae, and 73 (97.3 % of them were found to be positive. This very high prevalence of infection, the highest ever detected in a natural population of carnivores, could be explained by the human impact on the natural ecosystem. In fact, the diet of wolves living in the region under study mainly consists of carcasses of dogs and wolves, which are left in the forest or used as bait by hunters.
Souverein, Dennis; Euser, Sjoerd M; Herpers, Bjorn L; Diederen, Bram; Houtman, Patricia; van Seventer, Marina; van Ess, Ingeborg; Kluytmans, Jan; Rossen, John W A; Den Boer, Jeroen W
BACKGROUND: This paper describes (1) the Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) prevalence rate, (2) their genotypes, acquired resistance genes and (3) associated risk factors of HR-GNR colonization among the hospitalized population in the Dutch region Kennemerland. METHODS: Between 1 October 2
Souverein, Dennis; Euser, Sjoerd M.; Herpers, Bjorn L.; Diederen, Bram; Houtman, Patricia; van Seventer, Marina; van Ess, Ingeborg; Kluytmans, Jan; Rossen, John W. A.; Den Boer, Jeroen W.
Background: This paper describes (1) the Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR) prevalence rate, (2) their genotypes, acquired resistance genes and (3) associated risk factors of HR-GNR colonization among the hospitalized population in the Dutch region Kennemerland. Methods: Between 1 October 2
De Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Traini, E; Giustozzi, E; Oragano, L; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P
Minimally-invasive procedures for parathyroidectomy have revolutionized the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Coexistence of goitre is considered a major contraindication for these approaches, especially if unilateral. A specific advantage of video-assisted parathyroidectomy (VAP) compared to other endoscopic techniques is the possibility to combine it with thyroidectomy when necessary and when the selection criteria for video-assisted thyroidectomy (VAT) are met. We evaluated the role of VAP in a region with a high prevalence of goitre. The medical records of all patients who underwent parathyroidectomy and concomitant thyroid resection in our Division, between May 1998 and June 2012, were reviewed. Patients who underwent VAP and concomitant VAT were included in this study. Overall, in this period, 615 patients were treated in our Division for pHPT and 227 patients (36.9%) underwent concomitant thyroid resection. Among these, 384 patients were selected for VAP and 124 (32.3%) underwent concomitant VAT (lobectomy in 26 cases, total thyroidectomy in 98). No conversion to conventional surgery was registered. Mean operative time was 66.6 ± 43.6 min. Transient hypocalcaemia was observed in 42 cases. A transient recurrent nerve lesion was registered in one case. No other complications occurred. Final histology showed parathyroid adenoma in all but two cases of parathyroid carcinoma, benign goitre in 119 cases and papillary thyroid carcinoma in the remaining 5 patients. After a mean follow-up of 33.2 months, no persistent or recurrent disease was observed. In our experience, a video-assisted approach for the treatment of synchronous thyroid and parathyroid diseases is feasible, effective and safe at least considering short-term follow-up.
Claire L Risley
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia, the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA, contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART to the scenario of universal access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1 The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2 In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3 The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4 If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.
Gupta, Aakriti; Kapil, Umesh; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Yadav, Chander Prakash
To assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies among children residing at high altitude regions of Himachal Pradesh, India. A total of 215 school children in the age group of 6-18 y were included. Biochemical estimation of serum vitamin B12 and folate levels was undertaken using chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The consumption pattern of foods high in dietary vitamin B12 and folate was recorded using Food Frequency Questionnaire. The median levels (interquartile range) of serum vitamin B12 and folate were 326 (259-395) pg/ml and 7.7 (6-10) ng/ml respectively. The prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency amongst school age children was found as 7.4% and 1.5% respectively. A low prevalence of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies was found amongst children aged 6-18 y living at high altitude regions in India. This is possibly due to high frequency of consumption of foods rich in vitamin B12 and folate.
Harvey, Tatiani Vitor; Heukelbach, Jorg; Assunção, Maíra Siles; Fernandes, Thalna Magalhães; da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães; Carlos, Renata Santiago Alberto
Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease neglected by authorities, health professionals, and the general population. Its occurrence is significantly associated with poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the prevalence of tungiasis, associated clinical signs and risk factors of the canine population at a tourist site in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia (northeast Brazil). All village households were visited and dogs inspected after authorization by owners. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered. Of the 114 dogs included in the study, 71 (62.3%) were infested; all of them had lesions on their pads. An ectopic lesion on the nose was observed in one dog (1.4%). The number of manipulated lesions outnumbered the number of vital and avital lesions with an average of 88.3%. Edema (95.8%) and hyperkeratosis (85.9%) were the most prevalent clinical signs. Behavioral disorders such as excessive licking (6/71; 8.5%), disobedience (1/71; 1.4%) and prostration (2/71; 2.8%) were reported. In the multi-variate analysis, semi-restricted condition of the dogs (adjusted OR=8.58; 95% CI=2.47-29.76) and the presence of sand on the compound (adjusted OR=14.23, 95% CI=2.88-70.28) were significantly associated with infestation. We concluded that, infestation with Tunga spp. is highly endemic in the canine population of the village. The low level of restrictions on dogs and the presence of sand in areas most frequented by the animals are perpetuating factors of infestation in the community, subject to integrated and multidisciplinary intervention measures.
Lepsanovic, Zorica; Jeremic, Ljiljana Petrovic; Lazic, Srdjan; Cirkovic, Ivana
With a view to estimating the prevalence and resistance patterns of CA-MRSA in one region of Serbia, we performed an analysis of MRSA isolates from healthy people and hospitalised patients. The detection of CA-MRSA was carried out by SCCmec typing. In MRSA isolates from hospitalised patients SCCmec types IV and V were found in 76% of the strains. Similar percentage (80%) of CA-MRSA genotypes was present in healthy people. SCCmec type V harbouring MRSA was the most successful clone. Higher prevalence of type V in hospitalised patients to that in healthy people (70% vs 54%) may indicate nosocomial transmissions in at least some hospital units. All MRSA strains from hospitalised patients were resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics while 52% were multi-resistant. In isolates from healthy people, 16% were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics and 40% were multi-resistant. Similar percentage of multi-resistant CA- and HA-genotypes occurred in a particular environment (53% vs 50% in hospitalised patients, and 37.5% vs 37.5% in healthy people) indicating selective pressure of antibiotics as a leading force conferring antibiotic resistance. High prevalence of CA-MRSA and high resistance rate both in hospitals and the community suggest that this pathogen has been present in the Pomoravlje Region, central Serbia for years.
Völzke, Henry; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Alte, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schwahn, Christian; Simon, Peter; John, Ulrich; Lerch, Markus M
Cholelithiasis is a common disorder in north-eastern Germany. Analyses of risk factors for gallstone formation in this population may have high explanatory power. Gender-specific risk factors for gallstone formation and their interactions were investigated by using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Data of 4,202 persons aged 20-79 years were available. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on abdominal ultrasound. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for gallstone formation. There were 468 persons (11.1%) with previous cholecystectomy and 423 persons (10.1%) with sonographic evidence of gallstones. Women had a twofold higher risk for cholelithiasis compared to men. Age, body mass index and low serum HDL cholesterol levels were independently associated with cholelithiasis in both men and women. In the male population, low alcohol and high coffee consumption and in the female population, low physical activity, were further independently related to gallstone formation. Additionally, sex-specific interactions between risk factors were found. Female sex, age and being overweight are major risk factors for gallstone formation in this region where cholelithiasis is a frequent disorder. Additional factors and interactions contribute to a gender-specific gallstone risk. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Divino, Flavia; de Lima Guerra Corado, Andre; Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Stefani, Mariane M. A.; Bello, Gonzalo
The Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Brazil is mainly driven by the subtype B pandemic lineage (BPANDEMIC), while Caribbean non-pandemic subtype B clades (BCAR) seem to account for a very low fraction of HIV-infections in this country. The molecular characteristics of the HIV-1 subtype B strains disseminated in the Northern and Northeastern Brazilian regions, however, have not been explored so far. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of the HIV-1 BPANDEMIC and BCAR clades across different Brazilian regions and we reconstruct the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of the major Brazilian BCAR clades. A total of 2,682 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected from 21 different Brazilian states from the five country regions between 1998 and 2013 were analyzed. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that the BCAR strains reached 16 out 21 Brazilian states here analyzed. The BCAR clades comprise a low fraction (<10%) of subtype B infections in most Brazilian states analyzed, with exception of Roraima (41%), Amazonas (14%) and Maranhão (14%). Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicate that BCAR strains originally from the Hispaniola and Trinidad and Tobago were introduced at multiple times into different states from all Brazilian regions and a few of those strains, probably introduced into Roraima, Maranhão and São Paulo between the late 1970s and the early 1980s, established secondary outbreaks in the Brazilian population. These results support that the HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in some Brazilian states from the Northern and Northeastern regions display a unique molecular pattern characterized by the high prevalence of BCAR lineages, which probably reflects a strong epidemiological link with the HIV-1 epidemics in the Caribbean region. PMID:27603317
Costa, Samya Thalita Picanço da; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Siqueira, Jones Anderson Monteiro; Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Hernández, Juliana das Mercês; Lucena, Maria Silvia Souza de; Reymão, Tammy Kathlyn Amaral; Soares, Luana da Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially in children under five years. Studies involving the detection and molecular characterisation of NoV have been performed in Brazil, demonstrating its importance as an etiological agent of AGE. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of human NoV and to genotype the strains isolated from 0-14-year-old patients of AGE in Manaus, Brazil, over a period of two years. A total of 426 faecal samples were collected between January 2010 and December 2011. All samples were tested for the presence of NoV antigens using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. RNA was extracted from all faecal suspensions and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the NoV-polymerase partial region was performed as a trial test. Positive samples were then subjected to PCR with specific primers for partial capsid genes, which were then sequenced. NoV was detected in 150 (35.2%) faecal samples, for at least one of the two techniques used. NoV was detected in children from all age groups, with the highest positivity observed among the group of 1-2 years old. Clinically, fever was verified in 43% of the positive cases and 46.3% of the negative cases, and vomiting was observed in 75.8% and 70.8% cases in these groups, respectively. Monthly distribution showed that the highest positivity was observed in January 2010 (81.2%), followed by February and April 2010 and March 2011, when the positivity rate reached almost 50%. Phylogenetic analyses performed with 65 positive strains demonstrated that 58 (89.2%) cases of NoV belonged to genotype GII.4, five (7.7%) to GII.6, and one (1.5%) each to GII.7 and GII.3. This research revealed a high circulation of NoV GII.4 in Manaus and contributed to the understanding of the importance of this virus in the aetiology of AGE cases, especially in a region with such few studies available.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes (1 the Highly Resistant Gram Negative Rod (HR-GNR prevalence rate, (2 their genotypes, acquired resistance genes and (3 associated risk factors of HR-GNR colonization among the hospitalized population in the Dutch region Kennemerland. Methods Between 1 October 2013 and 31 March 2014, cross-sectional prevalence measurements were performed in three regional hospitals as part of each hospitals infection control program. Rectal swabs were analyzed at the Regional Public Health Laboratory Kennemerland by direct culturing. Genotypes and acquired resistance genes of positive isolates were determined using Whole Genome Sequencing with the MiSeq instrument (Illumina. Association between several independent variables and HR-GNR positivity was examined using logistic regression models. Results Out of 427 patients, 24 HR-GNR positive isolates were recovered from 22 patients, resulting in a regional HR-GNR colonization prevalence (95 % CI of 5.2 % (3.6–7.9. Of these 22 positive patients, 15 were Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL positive (3.5 % (2.1–5.7, 7 patients were positive for a Fluoroquinolones and Aminoglycosides (Q&A resistant Enterobacteriaceae (1.6 % (0.8–3.3 and from one patient (0.2 % (0–1.3 a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant towards co-trimoxazole was isolated. No carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE, multi-resistant Acinetobacter species or multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. The ESBL genes found were bla CTX-M-1 (n = 4, 25.0 %, bla CTX-M-15 (n = 3, 18.8 %, bla CTX-M-27 (n = 2, 12.5 %, bla CTX-M-14b (n = 2, 12.5 %, bla CTX-M-9 (n = 2, 12.5 %, bla CTX-M-14 (n = 1, 6.3 %, bla CTX-M-3 (n = 1, 6.3 %, bla SHV-11 (n = 1, 6.3 % and bla SHV-12 (n = 1, 6.3 %. Being known HR-GNR positive in the past was the only significant associated risk factor for HR-GNR positivity, odds ratio (95 % CI: 7.32 (1.82–29.35, p
Lavania, Mallika; Jadhav, Rupendra; Turankar, Ravindra P; Singh, Itu; Nigam, Astha; Sengupta, U
Leprosy is still a major health problem in India which has the highest number of cases. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been proposed as tools of strain typing for tracking the transmission of leprosy. However, empirical data for a defined population from scale and duration were lacking for studying the transmission chain of leprosy. Seventy slit skin scrapings were collected from Purulia (West Bengal), Miraj (Maharashtra), Shahdara (Delhi), and Naini (UP) hospitals of The Leprosy Mission (TLM). SNP subtyping and MLVA on 10 VNTR loci were applied for the strain typing of Mycobacterium leprae. Along with the strain typing conventional epidemiological investigation was also performed to trace the transmission chain. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was done on variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) data sets using sequence type analysis and recombinational tests (START) software. START software performs analyses to aid in the investigation of bacterial population structure using multilocus sequence data. These analyses include data summary, lineage assignment, and tests for recombination and selection. Diversity was observed in the cross-sectional survey of isolates obtained from 70 patients. Similarity in fingerprinting profiles observed in specimens of cases from the same family or neighborhood locations indicated a possible common source of infection. The data suggest that these VNTRs including subtyping of SNPs can be used to study the sources and transmission chain in leprosy, which could be very important in monitoring of the disease dynamics in high endemic foci. The present study strongly indicates that multi-case families might constitute epidemic foci and the main source of M. leprae in villages, causing the predominant strain or cluster infection leading to the spread of leprosy in the community.
Gavrila, Diana; Salmerón, Diego; Egea-Caparrós, José-Manuel; Huerta, José M; Pérez-Martínez, Alfonso; Navarro, Carmen; Tormo, María-José
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain) registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. Both low (94/80) and high (102/88) waist circumference (WC) thresholds were considered. Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2), 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3) and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3) according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII) or 60.3% (JIS94/80) among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80). The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6%) and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively). Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese). Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be reinforced.
Huerta José M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MS is associated with subsequent appearance of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As compared to other Spanish regions, Murcia (southern Spain registers increased obesity as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components, awareness of obesity as a health risk and associated lifestyles. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2003, covering a sample of 1555 individuals 20 years and over. MS was defined according to the Revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII, International Diabetes Federation (IDF and Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Both low (94/80 and high (102/88 waist circumference (WC thresholds were considered. Results Prevalence of MS was 27.2% (95%CI: 25.2-29.2, 32.2% (95%CI: 30.1-34.3 and 33.2% (95%CI: 31.2-35.3 according to the R-ATPIII, IDF and JIS94/80 respectively. It increased with age until reaching 52.6% (R-ATPIII or 60.3% (JIS94/80 among persons aged 70 years and over, and was higher in persons with little or no formal education (51.7% R-ATPIII, 57.3% JIS94/80. The most common risk factors were hypertension (46.6% and central obesity (40.7% and 66.1% according to high and low WC cut-off points respectively. Although most persons were aware that obesity increased health risks, regular exercise was very unusual (13.0% centrally obese, 27.2% non-centrally obese. Adherence to dietary recommendations was similar among centrally obese and non-centrally obese subjects. Conclusions Prevalence of MS is high in our population, is comparable to that found in northern Europe and varies with the definition used. Adherence to preventive recommendations and to adequate weight promotion is very low. In the absence of a specific treatment for MS, integrated intervention based on a sustained increase in physical activity and changes in diet should be
Full Text Available In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7 but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3 (c2=0.76, P=0.38. Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05. Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%, followed by prostitution (13.6%, alcoholism (10.1%, carelessness (10.1%, poverty (9.7%, ignorance (9.5%, rape (4.7%, drug abuse (3.6% and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc. (6.2%. Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm
Full Text Available Background : While the clinical and immunocytochemical features of sarcoglycanopathies have been reported from India, genetic aspects have not been studied. There is large variation in the sarcoglycan mutations among the studied populations. Aim : To study the spectrum of mutations in sarcoglycan genes (SG. Materials and Methods : Patients fulfilling Bushby′s criteria for limb girdle muscular dystrophy were prospectively analyzed. Patients gave their medical history and underwent a clinical examination, serum creatine kinase estimation, electrophysiology, muscle biopsy with immunostaining for alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subunits and mutational analysis using denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. Results : Mutations in SG accounted for 26.4% of the cohort of limb girdle muscular dystrophy. The mean age of these 18 patients was 22.5 years. Generally, proximal weakness affected the flexor and adductor compartments of the lower and upper limbs. The clinical profile of various mutations was indistinguishable from each other. Gamma SG mutations were most common, seen in 8 patients, followed by delta SG mutation in 5 patients and alpha mutation in 4 patients, while only 1 patient had mutation in the beta sarcoglycan gene. The most prevalent mutation in the gamma SG gene was 525del T. This is of interest as the mutation has been known to exist only in specific populations. Conclusion : This study, the first mutational analysis of Indian patients with sarcoglycanopathies suggests gamma SG mutations were the most common and the most prevalent mutation in the gamma SG gene was 525del T.
ZHANG Dong-hong; ZHOU Li-ya; LIN San-ren; DING Shi-gang; HUANG Yong-hui; GU Fang; ZHANG Li; LI Yuan; CUI Rong-li; MENG Ling-mei; YAN Xiue; ZHANG Jing
Background The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylon)infection varies by geographic locations.Studies indicate that the infection rate of H.pylori was previously high in China but that rates had been declining worldwide over recent decades.The aims of our study were:(1)to determine the current prevalence of H.pylori infection among children and adults residing in areas with high(Muping County,Shandong)and low(Yanqing County,Beijing)incidences of gastric cancer in China,and(2)to compare the prevalence for 2006 with the prevalence for the early 1990s.Methods Using Warthin-Starry silver staining of gastdc mucosal biopsy specimens and H.pylori stool antigen tests (HpSA),we tested a total of 2065 asymptomatic children aged 8-15 years and adults aged 40-79 years in the above two regions from May to July 2006.We evaluated 520 children and 526 adults from Muping,and 516 children and 503 adults from Yanqing.Subjects were selected randomly and H.pylon status was determined by HpSA in children and either HpSA or histology of gastric biopsies in adults.Data obtained in the early 1990s in the same two areas of China were also collected and studied.Results For children,the prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly higher in Muping(37.69%)than it was in Yanqing(25.58%,P＜0.001).In both regions,the prevalence of H.pylori increased with age but was not related to gender.A significant difference was observed between 8-9-years old and 10-11-years old(P＜0.05),but not between other adjoining age groups(P＞0.05).From 1991 to 2006 H.py/ori prevalence among 8-10-year-old children decreased in Muping(60.00%vs 32.07%,P＜0.001),but not Yanqing(24.06%vs 19.10%,P＞0.05).In the adult group,H.pylori prevalence was 50.95%in Muping,which was significantly higher than the 41.35%positive rate in Yanqing(P＜0.01).But there were no statistically significant differences between different age groups of 40-49,50-59,and 60-79 years,or between males and females.A significant decrease in
McMAHON, B J; Bruce, M G; Koch, A
Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence) for the di......Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of peptic ulcer and is also associated with chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Guidelines have been developed in the United States and Europe (areas with low prevalence...
Helen Mary Haines
Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.
Mauro Shugiro Tada
Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.
Christian Akem Dimala
Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients but has also been associated with increased metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between HAART and hypertension (HTN in Africa are scarce.Primarily to compare the prevalence of HTN in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to assess other socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HTN in this population.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and sex to 100 HAART-naïve patients. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg.The prevalence of HTN in patients on HAART was twice (38%; 95% CI: 28.5-48.3 that of the HAART-naïve patients (19%; 95% CI, 11.8-28.1, p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, family history of HTN, and BMI-defined overweight, HAART was associated with HTN, the adjusted odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus HAART-naïve group was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.07-4.52, p = 0.032. HTN was associated with older age and male gender, in the HAART group and with BMI-defined overweight in the HAART-naïve group.The prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients in Limbe stands out to be elevated, higher in patients on HAART compared to those not on treatment. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors should be routinely monitored. Other factors such as diet, weight control and physical exercise should also be considered.
Bastemir, Mehmet; Emral, Rifat; Erdogan, Gurbuz; Gullu, Sevim
In the present study we evaluated the effects of iodine intake on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, autoimmunity, and goiter in two regions with different iodine status after two years of iodization in Turkey. In total 1733 adolescent subjects were enrolled into the study (993 from an iodine-sufficient area--the Eastern Black Sea Region (group 1) and 740 from an iodine-deficient area--Middle Anatolia (group 2)). We measured free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotropin (TSH), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-Tg), and urinary iodine (UI), and examined the thyroid gland by ultrasound. Median urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly different in group 1 and group 2 (139 micro/l vs 61micro/l, p 0.05). The percentage of anti-Tg positive subjects was found to be 17.6% in group 1 and 6.4% in group 2; that of anti-TPO positive subjects was 4.3% in group 1 and 1.5% in group 2. The prevalence of antithyroid antibody (anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO) positivity was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (18.52% vs 6.62%; p iodine supplementation in Turkey has resulted in the elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction.
Argilla, L S; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D; Alley, M R
Yellow-eyed penguins (YEPs) have suffered major population declines over the past 30 years, with no single cause established. Leucocytozoon was first identified in yellow-eyed penguins in 2005. During the 2008/09 breeding season, a high mortality was seen in both mainland yellow-eyed penguins as well as those on Enderby Island of the Auckland Islands archipelago. A high overall prevalence of Leucocytozoon spp. in association with a high incidence of chick mortality was observed during this period on Enderby Island. One chick had histological evidence of leucocytozoonosis with megaloschizonts in multiple organs throughout its body. In addition, a high prevalence (73·7%) of Leucocytozoon was observed by PCR in the blood of adult Enderby yellow-eyed penguins taken during the 2006/07 season. These findings were different from the low prevalence detected by PCR on the coast of the South Island (11%) during the 2008/2009 breeding session and earlier on Campbell Island (21%) during the 2006/2007 breeding session. The Leucocytozoon spp. sequences detected lead us to conclude that the Leucocytozoon parasite is common in yellow-eyed penguins and has a higher prevalence in penguins from Enderby Island than those from Campbell Island and the mainland of New Zealand. The Enderby Island yellow-eyed penguins are infected with a Leucocytozoon spp. that is genetically distinct from that found in other yellow-eyed penguin populations. The role of Leucocytozoon in the high levels of chick mortality in the yellow-eyed penguins remains unclear.
High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.
Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik
It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.
Acemoglu, H; Beyhun, N E; Vancelik, S; Polat, H; Guraksin, A
Haemoglobinopathies are the most widespread inherited disorders in the world, and are also common in Turkey. Haemoglobinopathies are preventable with control programmes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health initiated a control and prevention programme in 33 provinces in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of haemoglobinopathies in Erzurum as part of the programme mentioned above, and to discuss the need for premarital screening in a non-prevalent region (Erzurum) of a prevalent country (Turkey) as part of a national control programme. Epidemiological and descriptive survey. This study was conducted between May 2005 and February 2006 in Erzurum. Subjects were couples who attended for premarital screening. All blood samples were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine haemoglobinopathies. In total, 1610 individuals were screened. The frequency of beta-thalassaemia trait was 0.68%. Haemoglobin D was the most common (0.12%) abnormal haemoglobin. Haemoglobins S, C and E were not detected. The frequency of beta-thalassaemia trait and other haemoglobinopathies in Erzurum was quite low compared with other provinces in Turkey. Premarital haemoglobinopathy screening should not be mandatory in a non-prevalent region of a prevalent country as part of a national control programme. If screening is mandatory, it should be performed by total blood count or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which are simple, rapid and less expensive than HPLC.
Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infects a range of species, including humans, pigs, wild boars and deer. Zoonotic transmission may contribute to the high HEV seroprevalence in the human population of many countries. A novel divergent HEV from moose (Alces alces in Sweden was recently identified by partial genome sequencing. Since only one strain was found, its classification within the HEV family, prevalence in moose and zoonotic potential was unclear. We therefore investigated samples from 231 moose in seven Swedish counties for HEV, and sequenced a near complete moose HEV genome. Phylogenetic analysis to classify this virus within the family Hepeviridae and to explore potential host specific determinants was performed.The HEV prevalence of moose was determined by PCR (marker for active infection and serological assays (marker of past infection of sera and 51 fecal samples from 231 Swedish moose. Markers of active and past infection were found in 67 (29% animals, while 34 (15% were positive for HEV RNA, 43 (19% were seropositive for anti-HEV antibodies, and 10 (4% had both markers. The number of young individuals positive for HEV RNA was larger than for older individuals, and the number of anti-HEV antibody positive individuals increased with age. The high throughput sequenced moose HEV genome was 35-60% identical to existing HEVs. Partial ORF1 sequences from 13 moose strains showed high similarity among them, forming a distinct monophyletic clade with a common ancestor to HEV genotype 1-6 group, which includes members known for zoonotic transmission.This study demonstrates a high frequency of HEV in moose in Sweden, with markers of current and past infection demonstrated in 30% of the animals. Moose is thus an important animal reservoir of HEV. The phylogenetic relationship demonstrated that the moose HEV belonged to the genotype 1-6 group, which includes strains that also infect humans, and therefore may signify a potential for zoonotic transmission
Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F
-transitional countries. These regional differences in increased prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm were more pronounced in men aged 60-79 years than in those aged 40-59 years. Overall there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) over 4.3 years (between 5.3 and 6.1 %) with no significant regional differences at any age. Mid-upper arm muscle area declined during follow-up with the greatest decline among men from North-East European cities. In conclusion, increasing waist circumference is dissociated from change in body mass index and most rapid among men living in cities from transitional North-East European countries, presumably driven by economic and socio-political changes. Information on women would also be of value and it would be of interest to relate the changes in adiposity to dietary and other behavioural habits.
Jordaan Jacob A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be
Full Text Available The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD across many world regions is high. We aim to estimate COPD prevalence and number of disease cases for the years 1990 and 2010 across world regions based on the best available evidence in publicly accessible scientific databases. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health for original, population–based studies providing spirometry–based prevalence rates of COPD across the world from January 1990 to December 2014. Random effects meta–analysis was conducted on extracted crude prevalence rates of COPD, with overall summaries of the meta–estimates (and confidence intervals reported separately for World Health Organization (WHO regions, the World Bank's income categories and settings (urban and rural. We developed a meta–regression epidemiological model that we used to estimate the prevalence of COPD in people aged 30 years or more. Our search returned 37 472 publications. A total of 123 studies based on a spirometry–defined prevalence were retained for the review. From the meta–regression epidemiological model, we estimated about 227.3 million COPD cases in the year 1990 among people aged 30 years or more, corresponding to a global prevalence of 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.3%–14.0% in this age group. The number of COPD cases increased to 384 million in 2010, with a global prevalence of 11.7% (8.4%–15.0%. This increase of 68.9% was mainly driven by global demographic changes. Across WHO regions, the highest prevalence was estimated in the Americas (13.3% in 1990 and 15.2% in 2010, and the lowest in South East Asia (7.9% in 1990 and 9.7% in 2010. The percentage increase in COPD cases between 1990 and 2010 was the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (118.7%, followed by the African region (102.1%, while the European region recorded the lowest increase (22.5%. In 1990, we estimated about 120.9 million COPD cases among urban dwellers
Carvalho, Taiana Silva; Pellanda, Lucia Campos; Doyle, Pat
Brazil is a large, heterogeneous, and diverse country, marked by social, economic, and regional inequalities. Stillbirth is a global concern, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated the prevalence and possible determinants of stillbirth in different regions of Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including all women of reproductive age who had had a pregnancy in the last five years, enrolled in the most recent Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS/PNDS-2006/07). Logistic regression was used to assess the association between region and other maternal characteristics and stillbirth risk. The prevalence of stillbirth in Brazil was 14.82 per 1000 births, with great variation by region of the country, and a higher prevalence among the most deprived. The North and Northeast regions had the highest odds of stillbirth compared to the Center-West, which persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders - including deprivation level and ethnicity. Low maternal age and maternal obesity were also related to higher odds of stillbirth. In Brazil, the region influences stillbirth risk, with much higher risk in the North and Northeast. Variation in socioeconomic level does not explain this finding. Further research on the subject should explore other possible explanations, such as antenatal care and type of delivery, as well as the role of the private and public health systems in determining stillbirth. Preventive strategies should be directed to these historically disadvantaged regions, such as guaranteeing access and quality of care during pregnancy and around the time of birth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Yu I Tarasov
Full Text Available The undertaken study was to evaluate the severity of iodine deficiency and to establish the prevalence of goiter in the city of Nizhny Novgorod and in 35 districts of Nizhegorodsky region. 1868 children aged 8—11 years were examined. The median of urinary iodine concentration was measured, and the size of the thyroid was determined by palpation and by ultrasound study. Among all the examinees, the detection rate of the goiter was 19.4% (as evidenced by palpation and the median of urinary iodine concentration was 45.05 μg/l. The findings indicate natural iodine deficiency on the whole territory studied with severity variations from mild to moderate, and the disparity in goiter rate and iodine excretion level in some districts of Nizhegorodsky region. Cluster analysis and automatic classification of the districts based on goiter prevalence and urinary iodine parameters may be useful for a comprehensive assessment of iodine status in the whole region. Analyzing the pattern of the spread of goiter has demonstrated the role of geochemical, social and medical factors existing in the region. Key words: iodine deficiency, goiter, population based stady, thyroid.
Elizabeth J Castañeda-Ortiz
Full Text Available Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with and having mounted an immune response to a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This has been attributed to the higher prevalence of infection, with consequent immunity against primary strains and thus greater selective pressure for superinfection with antigenically distinct strains. However an alternative explanation would be the differences in the transmitting vector, Dermacentor andersoni in the studied temperate regions and Rhipicephalus microplus in the studied tropical regions. To address this question, we examined two tropical populations sharing the same vector, R. microplus, but with significantly different infection prevalence. Using two separate markers, msp1α (one allele per genome and msp2 (multiple alleles per genome, there were higher levels of multiple strain infections in the high infection prevalence as compared to the low prevalence population. The association of higher strain diversity with infection prevalence supports the hypothesis that high levels of infection prevalence and consequent population immunity is the predominant driver of strain superinfection.
Mikolajczyk Rafael T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug use and in particular injecting drug use has been at the forefront of the explosive spread of HIV in general populations in many countries in Asia. There is concern that also in China increased HIV incidence in drug users might spark off a generalized epidemic in the wider population. Close monitoring of HIV incidence and risk factors in drug users is therefore important to be able to target interventions effectively. Second generation surveillance was launched to assess HIV prevalence and risk behaviours jointly with the purpose of describing trends and predicting future developments. To assess whether these goals were fulfilled among drug users in China we provide an analysis of risk factors for HIV infection and of regional differences in HIV prevalence. Methods We analysed data collected in 2005 in 21 drug user second generation surveillance sentinel sites from 14 provinces in China. We used random effects logistic regression to test for risk factors for HIV infection and regional differences. Results The overall HIV-1 antibody prevalence was 5.4% (279/5128; 4.9% among injecting drug users (IDU not sharing needles and 3.7% among non-injecting drug users. We found substantial heterogeneity among the surveillance sites with prevalence rates ranging between 0% and 54%. HIV status was strongly affected by the regional prevalence of HIV. Risk behaviours were highly prevalent in regions where HIV prevalence is still low. The distribution of duration of drug use in different sites indicated different stages of the drug use epidemics. Conclusion ]Regional differences in HIV prevalence in China reflect different stages of the drug use and HIV epidemics rather than differences in risk behaviours. Therefore, outbreaks of HIV among drug users in regions where prevalence is still low can be expected in the future. However, methodological limitations of surveillance embedded into routine systems limit the usability of existing
Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R
The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hideyuki Kojima; Shinya Sakurai; Masahiko Matsumura; Norie Umemoto; Masahito Uemura; Hiroyo Morimoto; Yasuhiro Tamagawa; Hiroshi Fukui
AIM: Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity is the common feature of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is little information on CC in the region where obesity is not prevalent.METHODS: The clinical features, and the liver-related morbidity and mortality of CC were analyzed in Japan where the prevalence of obesity is low. Among 652 cirrhotic patients, we identified 29 patients (4.4%) with CC.Of these, 24 CC patients who were followed up for more than 6 months were compared in a case-control study with age-, sex-, and Child-Pugh score-matched controls having cirrhosis of viral etiology.RESULTS: Obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus,and hypertriglyceridemia were more frequent, and the visceral fat area was larger in the CC patients than in the controls. The indices of insulin resistance were higher and the serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the CC patients than in the controls. Logistic regression analysis identified the elevated hemoglobin A1c, BMI ≥ 25kg/m2, and normal aminotransferase levels as independent predictors of CC. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate in the CC than in the controls in contrast to the similar cumulative probability of liverrelated morbidity between those groups.CONCLUSION: CC more frequently presents with the clinical features suggestive of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with controls even in the region where obesity is not prevalent. The lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate may indicate an indolent clinical course in CC as compared with viral cirrhosis.
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according t...
Aljanakh, Mohammad; Shaikh, Sameer; Siddiqui, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Mansour, Moazzy; Hassan, Syed Sirajul
Dentists suffer a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) but studies are quite limited. The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of MSDs among dentists in the Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, questionnaire study was conducted among 80 licensed dentists af.filiated with the Ministry of Health (MoH), Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia from January 2014-January 2015. A self-administered questionnaire, based on the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was sent to participants after translation to Arabic. The questionnaire was delivered by mail with a prepaid return envelope. Sixty-eight questionnaires (85%) were returned. The prevalence of MSDs among respondents was 77.9% (n=53) with the most commonly affected areas the lower back (73.5%) (39/53) followed by the neck (66%) (35/53) and the shoulders (43.3%) (23/53). Twenty-four (45.2%) of 53 respondents had experienced MSDs in the neck and lower back at the same time throughout the past twelve months. Nearly 85% (45/53) of respondents were found to have MSDs affecting two or more sites. Prevalence of MSDs was high among dentists in the Ha'il region. Lower back, neck and shoul.ders were the most commonly affected body sites.
Abdulrahman O. Musaiger
Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region.
Full Text Available Streblidae flies are specialised parasites of bat hosts, mainly phyllostomids. There is a high richness of streblids in the savannah-like Cerrado region; however, there is little quantitative data available in parasitological indices. Here, we describe the component community, prevalence and intensity of a streblid infestation on a phyllostomid bat assemblage in Serra da Bodoquena, a Cerrado region in Southwest Brazil. We conducted surveys by capturing and inspecting bat hosts during the seven-month period between October 2004-December 2005. All the ectoparasites found on the bats were collected in the field and then counted and identified in the laboratory. We captured 327 bats belonging to 13 species, of which eight species were parasitized by 17 species of streblids. Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina were infested with seven streblid species, whereas the other bat species were infested with four or fewer streblid species. Megistopoda proxima and Aspidoptera falcata flies were found on Sturnira lilium, and Trichobius joblingi was the most prevalent fly on C. perspicillata. Megistopoda aranea and Aspidoptera phyllostomatis were highly prevalent and had a high intensity of infestation on Artibeus planirostris. Overall comparisons of the available data suggest that the component communities of streblids vary more between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest phytogeographical regions than between localities within the same phytogeographical region.
Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra
A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.
Solange Zacalusni Freitas
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.
Murthy, G S. S; Rao, P V
The prevalence study was conducted on gastrointestinal parasites of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and poultry belongs to in and around Korutla, Karimangar district (Telangana region) of Andhra Pradesh...
Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun
The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P children (r = 0.134, P prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.
Soylu, Aliye; Dolapcioglu, Can; Alis, Halil; Dolay, Kemal; Yasar, Nurgul; Boduroglu, Omer; Cildas, Aydin; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Bolukbas, Cengiz
We investigated the prevalence of amebiasis in patients with ulcerative colitis residing in two geographical regions with different socioeconomic status and climatic conditions, and its effect on the age of onset, duration, localization, and activity of disease. Ninety patients from a high socioeconomic location (group I) and 28 cases from a low socioeconomic location (group II) were enrolled. Median age at disease onset was significantly higher in group I compared with in group II. Prevalence of amebiasis in group I was significantly lower than in group II. A considerably number of patients with amebiasis in group I had a history of travel to the cities with a lower socioeconomic level, mainly located in the east of Turkey. There was a strong relationship between presence of amebiasis and history of travel to eastern parts of Turkey among residents from the northwestern part of Turkey. Median age and age at time of diagnosis were significantly lower in patients with amebiasis compared with those without infection. In patients with mild disease activity, prevalence of amebiasis was significantly lower compared with those with moderate or severe disease activity. In conclusion, prevalence of amebiasis was markedly higher in the southeast compared to the northwest of Turkey. Travel to regions with low socioeconomic status may be considered a risk factor for amebiasis in patients with ulcerative colitis. Amebiasis enhances disease activity in ulcerative colitis.
Full Text Available Dermatophytes are worldwide in distribution and dermatophytosis is a common problem in developing countries. It can occur in both sexes and all ages but the diseases are more common in school children. This study attempted to determine the prevalence and etiological agents of dermatophyte infections of hair, skin, and nail among primary school children in Harari Regional State from April to June 2015. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 428 primary school children. Skin scrapings, hair samples, and nail clippings were collected from children who showed dermatophytosis. All specimens were subjected to microscopic examination and culture. Following a meticulous collection, data was analysed using SPSS version 21. Of the 428 school children, 211 (49% male and 217 (51% female, 100 (23.4% had culture confirmed dermatophytosis and tinea capitis took the overall prevalence of 18% (77/428. Trichophyton violaceum was isolated from 43 samples, followed by Trichophyton rubrum in 24. The highest prevalence of dermatophytosis was seen in the age group 5–9 years and grade levels of 1-2 (p<0.05. As a result, this study found a high prevalence of dermatophytosis in the Harari’s Regional State school children and tinea capitis was the predominant clinical finding which needs an intervention.
Jerković Zoran J.
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at presenting contemporary knowledge in the field of integral wheat protection against parasites, i.e. the use of cultural measures and genetic analyses directed at adequate use of breeding results, monitoring and forecasting of prevalent parasite growth and development with the aim of rational fungicide application. In addition, the paper suggests the proper use of biological measures through artificial infection with Pyrenophora tritici repentis (Ptr in years not favourable for facultative parasite development. Growing of the varieties not lower than 85 cm with optimal stem growth ratio in regions with 550-650 mm precipitation, deep and complete soil cultivation plus nutrition before sowing in late October reduced the risk of facultative parasite appearance on lower and middle leaves by over 15%, which was considered useful because of the antagonism to obligate parasites. Severity of Puccinia triticina on last two leaves when facultative parasites were absent was increased at 60-70% as maximal level according to suggested SAGR. Nevertheless, we suggest growing of varieties with prolonged latency period resistant to Puccinia triticina. The aim is to avoid overaccumulation of resistance genes consequential through the decrease of wheat grain yielding potential. Genes facilitating toxin from Ptr spreading have to be excluded because of necessary antagonistic effect from the middle leaves. This implies gene for the obligate parasite specific resistance diversity of varieties in order to reduce the probability of simultaneous overcoming of resistance and avoid insurmountable changes in seed production. The final result of the proposed system should be the last two leaves with mostly minimal parasite appearance and the possibility of economical and efficient single curative treatment application once in ten years when facultative parasites are absent in spring or after the resistance of variety is overcome in standard conditions
Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Paccaud, Fred
In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879. Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman, West-Central (Mittelland, Zurich, South (Ticino, North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman and Italian (Ticino speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]. Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved.
Guo, Jie; Yu, Canqing; Lyu, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Zhou, Huiyan; Tan, Yunlong; Pei, Pei; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming
To describe the status of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among half a million adults in 10 regions under the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) cohort. The baseline survey of CKB was performed in 10 areas across China during 2004-2008, included 512 891 adults aged from 30 to 79 years. Regional differences of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared after adjustment for age and/or sex. The overall prevalence of hypertension from the CKB was 35.2% (180 612/512 891), with the highest as 44.4% in Zhejiang and the lowest as 22.0% in Haikou. Prevalence in the rural areas (35.1%) was higher than that in the urban areas (32.1%), with statistical significance (Phypertension, 59 703 (33.1%) were aware of hypertension, 65 172 (36.1%) were receiving anti-hypertension treatment and 22 329 (12.4%) were under controll. However, only a small part of those receiving treatment were under controll (30.5%, 19 884/65 172) in this study. The control of hypertension and of those receiving treatment were higher in Suzhou for males (17.4%, 39.1%), while were higher in Liuzhou for females (23.5%, 42.6%) than those in other regions. Participants under the CKB presented relatively high prevalence of hypertension, but lower rates on awareness, treatment and control of hypertension. Distribution of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension varied greatly among the ten areas, under the CKB.
Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals. HIV-positive patients are commonly co-infected with HBV due to shared routes of transmission.Our aim was to determine the risk factors, prevalence, genotypes, and mutations of the Surface S gene of HBV, and occult hepatitis B infection (OBI among patients infected with HIV in a northeastern Colombian city.A cross-sectional study was conducted with 275 HIV-positive patients attending an outpatient clinic in Bucaramanga, Colombia during 2009-2010. Blood samples were collected and screened for serological markers of HBV (anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg through ELISA assay. Regardless of their serological profile, all samples were tested for the HBV S gene by nested-PCR and HBV genotypes were determined by phylogenetic inference. Clinical records were used to examine demographic, clinical, virological, immunological and antiretroviral therapy (ART variables of HIV infection.Participants were on average 37±11 years old and 65.1% male. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was 12% (95%CI 8.4-16.4 of which 3.3% had active HBV infection and 8.7% OBI. The prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection was associated with AIDS stage and ART treatment. Sequence analysis identified genotype F, subgenotype F3 in 93.8% of patients and genotype A in 6.2% of patients. A C149R mutation, which may have resulted from failure in HBsAg detection, was found in one patient with OBI.The present study found a high prevalence of HIV-HBV coinfection with an incidence of OBI 2.6-fold higher compared to active HBV infection. These findings suggest including HBV DNA testing to detect OBI in addition to screening for HBV serological markers in HIV patients.
Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed
Full Text Available Background. Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methodology. Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs in Hail Region. Results. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Conclusion. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.
Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmajeed; Elasbali, Abdelbaset Mohamed; Ashankyty, Ibraheem M; Al-Hazimi, Awdah M
Obesity contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. We, therefore, aimed to provide epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected during cross-sectional survey which included 5000 Saudi selected from 30 primary health care centers (PHCs) in Hail Region. The overall prevalence of obesity in Hail was 63.6%. Moreover, the prevalence of males was 56.2% and the prevalence of females was 71%. Obesity is prevalent in the Hail Region which necessitates urgent interventions including health education.
Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio
In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.
Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.
Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil
Full Text Available As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV, EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.
Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.
Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da
As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is an important health problem affecting >500 million people worldwide. Esophageal dysmotility is a gastrointestinal pathology associated with obesity; however, its prevalence and characteristics remain unclear. Esophageal dysmotilities have a high prevalence among obese patients regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms.
Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.
Full Text Available Abdulrahman O Musaiger1, Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa21Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain, and Arab Center for Nutrition, Bahrain; 2Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Science, College of Education, and Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: This paper reviews the current situation concerning nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (N-NCDs and the risk factors associated with these diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR. A systematic literature review of studies and reports published between January 1, 1990 and September 15, 2011 was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, and osteoporosis have become the main causes of morbidity and mortality, especially with progressive aging of the population. The estimated mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease and diabetes ranged from 179.8 to 765.2 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates in poor countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was very high, ranging from 19% to 45%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 has reached an alarming level in most countries of the region, ranging from 25% to 82%, with a higher prevalence among women. The estimated mortality rate for cancer ranged from 61.9 to 151 per 100,000 population. Osteoporosis has become a critical problem, particularly among women. Several risk factors may be contributing to the high prevalence of N-NCDs in EMR, including nutrition transition, low intake of fruit and vegetables, demographic transition, urbanization, physical inactivity, hypertension, tobacco smoking, stunting of growth of preschool children, and lack of nutrition and health awareness. Intervention programs to prevent and control N-NCDs are urgently needed, with special focus
Full Text Available The narcotization prevalence in Russia as whole and its regions is described. In order to provide the adequate models the clusters of regions on the level of their economic development are defined. For every group the regression model of drug addiction social distress is constructed. Modeling results allow to find the features of regions and the most significant factors determining the drug addiction prevalence.
African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Further, cannabis was used in selected high schools, and its abuse prevalence was greater in urban private schools, ... enhanced sexual activity, with increased risks for negative consequences.
Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... High prevalence of tuberculosis among adults with fever admitted at a tertiary hospital in ... 1Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Catholic University of Health and Allied.
Burkhalter, Felix; Sannon, Herriot; Mayr, Michael; Dickenmann, Michael; Ernst, Silvia
In the Caribbean region chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing challenge. High rates of non-communicable and infectious diseases and the rise in people suffering from diabetes and hypertension explain the observed and further expected increase of CKD. However, data about the magnitude of the problem are rare and in some countries such as Haiti completely lacking. The aim of our study was to generate data about the prevalence and risk factors for CKD in a rural region in Haiti. In this prospective cross-sectional study, adult patients visiting the medical outpatient clinic of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles Haiti were included. CKD was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and measurement of proteinuria by dipstick test. Risk factors for CKD were assessed by clinical examinations and questionnaires. Overall 608 patients were screened for CKD, of whom 27% had CKD. CKD stages 1 to 2 were found in 15.3% and stages 3 to 5 in 11.7%. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 49.2% and 36.3%, respectively. Risk factors independently associated with CKD were hypertension (p = 0.0002) and HIV infection (p = 0.019) and age >60 years (p = 0.0052), whereas diabetes mellitus was not independently associated (p = 0.72). Our data show a high prevalence of CKD and traditional risk factors, and their association with CKD in Haiti. These findings have now to be confirmed in other regions in longitudinal analyses as a basic step to build up screening and prevention programmes for CKD.
V. V. Kоzyaikin
Full Text Available Analysis of the clinical-and-epidemiological parameters of the stroke was carried out and the prevalence of arterial hypertension was studied as one of the leading factors of stroke development among the residents of the small regional settlement of the Moscow Region. The epidemiological data obtained are indicative of the high stroke morbidity. A significant prevalence of the arterial hypertension was found in the population studied as well as an insufficient control and low understanding by patients of the necessity of regular taking antihypertensive drugs.
Maria Franca Coscia
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since human papillomavirus (HPV is the central casual factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology and geographical area distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes constitutes an important step towards development of strategies of prevention. AIM. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV infection and to determine HPV types distribution among 822 HPV positive women and some sexual male partners in Apulia (Italy. METHODS. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by nested-PCR for the L1 region and reverse line blot hybridization allowing the specific detection of 24 HPV genotyping both high risk (HR and low risk (LR. RESULTS. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (35%, HPV 31 (16% HPV 6 (9%, HPV 58 and 66 (7%, followed by HPV 33 (6%, HPV 18 and 56 (4%, HPV 70 and 45 (3%, HPV 53 and 11 (2%. Currently 1.5% of tested specimens remained unclassified. Multiple infections with at last two different high-risk HPV genotypes were observed in 10% of specimens. CONCLUSIONS. This finding adds knowledge to HPV epidemiological investigation, and addresses further studies aimed to consider public health for identifying groups at risk for cervical cancer.
Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun
Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.
Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Shield, Kevin; Kraicer-Melamed, Hannah; Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Rehm, Jürgen
To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region, by country. First, a comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify all published and unpublished studies. Then, several meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population for countries in the WHO African Region with two or more studies available. Lastly, for countries with less than two studies or no known data predictions were obtained using regression modelling. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population ranged from 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-2.8%; Equatorial Guinea) to 12.6% (95% CI: 9.9-15.4%; Cameroon) in Central Africa, 3.4% (95% CI: 2.6-4.3%; Seychelles) to 20.5% (95% CI: 16.4-24.7%; Uganda) in Eastern Africa, 5.7% (95% CI: 4.4-7.1%; Botswana) to 14.2% (95% CI: 11.1-17.3%; Namibia) in Southern Africa, 6.6% (95% CI: 5.0-8.3%; Mauritania) to 14.8% (95% CI: 11.6-17.9%; Sierra Leone) in Western Africa, and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.2-5.3%; Algeria) in Northern Africa. The high prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy in some African countries calls for educational campaigns, screening and targeted interventions for women of childbearing age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Híjar, Martha; Rojas Martínez, Rosalba; Avila Burgos, Leticia; Arenas Monreal, María de la Luz
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight indigenous regions of Mexico, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic variables that are associated with this phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in indigenous regions that have a greater availability of government medical services than other indigenous regions. Interviews were conducted with female patients (n = 3287) seeking medical care in either of the two public health institutions in these regions. The severity of intimate partner violence (SIPV) during the previous 12 months was measured using a 33-item scale. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with SIPV. Intimate partner violence prevalence was 25.5% (95%CI 24.93-25.26). Female partner variables such as personal history of child abuse (ORA 3.48; 95%CI 2.48-4.89) and work outside the home (ORA 1.74; 95%CI 1.22-2.49) and male partner variables such as unemployment (ORA 2.31; 95%CI 1.34-3.97) and a high frequency of alcohol use (ORA 13.35; 95%CI 7.02-25.39) were the main predictors for IPV. We found a three-fold higher risk of IPV for women living in the Los Altos de Chiapas region (ORA 3.01; 95%CI 1.88-4.79) compared with women in the Mayan region (reference category). Such results should aid decision makers in the development of extended public policies and interventions to address violence against women in the indigenous populations of Mexico.
Kerario, Isack I.; Simuunza, Martin C; Chenyambuga, Sebastian W
regions of Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from 648 cattle in the three regions. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using T. parva-specific primers targeting the 104-kD antigen (P104) gene. In addition, information was collected on the possible risk factors...... of T. parva infection (animal age, region, animal sex, tick burden, tick control method, and frequency of acaricide application). The prevalence of T. parva across the three regions was 14.2%. There was variation in prevalence among the three regions with Mara (21.8%) having a significantly higher (p...
Becerra, C; Gonzales, G F; Villena, A; de la Cruz, D; Florián, A
Population based health surveys in Peru show that the general fertility rates, proportion of pregnant adolescents, and maternal and child morbidity are higher in the jungle regions than in other parts of the country. Endemic intestinal parasitic diseases increase the risk of anemia in pregnant women already suffering from iron, folic acid, and other nutritional deficiencies. This is the most common complication of pregnancy in many Latin American countries and is often associated with premature labor, low birthweight, and perinatal mortality. There are very few studies on this subject based on jungle populations and no reliable estimates of the prevalence of anemia in local pregnant women. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women attending the Regional Hospital in Pucallpa, located in the Peruvian jungle, from January 1993 to June 1995. This cross-sectional study, which was based on the registries of prenatal and childbirth services encompassing 1,015 pregnant women, looked into the potential association between anemia and such variables as the mother's chronological age, schooling, previous pregnancies, and weight at the beginning of pregnancy. Maternal hemoglobin levels were compared with the newborns' weight at birth. The prevalence of anemia in this population sample was 70.1%. This value was not modified when adjusted for maternal age, schooling, or interval between births. Anemia prevalence was directly related to the number of previous pregnancies and inversely related to weight gain during pregnancy. The perinatal mortality rate was 37.7 per 1,000 births. Neither this rate nor the birthweights were associated with the mother's degree of anemia. A multivariate regression analysis showed that maternal body weight at the start of pregnancy (P = 0.0001), weight gain during pregnancy (P = 0.0001), and the number of pregnancies (P = 0.008) are predictors of birthweight. Results showed that the high prevalence of
Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E
The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.
Lim, Apiradee; McNeil, Don
This study aimed to describe using national survey data the demographic and regional prevalence and trends of smoking in Thai males during the past 25 years. Data from eight national surveys conducted by the National Statistics Office from 1986 to 2011 were used to examine the prevalence of smoking. Males aged 15 and older were included in this study. Logistic regression was used to model smoking patterns, according to year of survey, age group, urbanization, and Public Health Area (PHA). The prevalence of smoking among males aged 15 years and older in 2011 was 38.4%. Sharply increasing smoking prevalence was found in the 15-24 years-old age group in all surveys. Before survey year 1999, the prevalence of smoking started to level off near retirement age, and subsequently, it leveled off after 40 years of age. The prevalence of smoking in all age groups decreased after 1986 except in the 15-19 years-old age group. Higher prevalence of smoking was found in rural areas. Males from the Northeast and the lower South regions had the highest prevalence. More effective anti-smoking policies should focus on males aged below 25 years to reduce the increasing prevalence of smoking in this group.
Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite
To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.
Carreon-Guarnizo, E; Andreu-Reinon, E; Cerdan-Sanchez, M; Carrasco-Torres, R; Hernandez-Clares, R; Prieto-Valiente, L; Garcia-Escriba, C; Sola-Roca, A; Martinez-Andreu, M E; Miralles Gonzalez-Conde, M A; Martin-Fernandez, J J; Meca-Lallana, J E
Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central con patogenia inmunomediada. Recientes estudios indican un aumento de su prevalencia, y numerosos trabajos relacionan el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) con su etiologia. Objetivo. Analisis de prevalencia de la EM en la Region de Murcia, incluyendo la descripcion de las caracteristicas clinicas en el momento del inicio de la enfermedad, y del estado serologico del VEB de los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio epidemiologico retrospectivo, tomando como muestra la poblacion residente en el area sanitaria centro-oeste de la Region de Murcia (257.865 habitantes). Se analizan datos clinicos y serologicos extraidos de diferentes fuentes. Resultados. Prevalencia de la EM en la poblacion estudiada: 88 casos/100.000 habitantes. Prevalencia de la EM junto con el sindrome desmielinizante aislado: 98,4 casos/100.000 habitantes. Incidencia media de la EM: 5,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/año. En el inicio de la EM, el 67,8% eran mujeres, el 81,9% presentaba un curso recurrente-remitente, la edad media era de 31,4 años, el sistema funcional mas frecuentemente afectado era el sensitivo (45,1%), el inicio fue monofocal en el 55,4% y el grado de discapacidad en la Expanded Disability Status Scale era de 2,1 puntos. La seroprevalencia del VEB fue del 99,3%. La reactivacion de la infeccion por VEB se relaciono con actividad clinica de EM en 10 pacientes (45,4%). Conclusiones. Actualmente, la prevalencia de la EM en la Region de Murcia es similar a la estimada en otras comunidades autonomas españolas. El estudio confirma la tendencia de incremento de prevalencia observada en las ultimas decadas.
It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM(2.5)) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (pinsolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r(2) = 0.43; pinsolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.
Rabah M. Shawky
Feb 4, 2012 ... In Egypt advanced maternal age has significant role ..... secondary craniosynostosis according to history, clinical exam- ination and investigations. .... turing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) after ARMS-PCR ...
Abdulhakeem Hamood Alrawahi
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic nephropathy among Omani type 2 diabetics in Al-Dakhiliyah region of the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A cross-sectional and a case control study designs were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors respectively. For the prevalence study a sample of 699 diabetic subjects were selected randomly from two polyclinics in Al-Dakhiliyah region; Sumail and Nizwa polyclinics. For the case control study, a sample consisting of 215 cases and 358 controls were randomly selected from those who were included in the cross-sectional study. A well designed questionnaire has been used to collect data regarding the disease and risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS19 statistical program.Results: Total prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was calculated as 42.5% (95% C.I: 38.83% - 46.15%. The difference in the prevalence in the two polyclinic catchment area was not significant. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (51.6% compared to females (36.5%. Crude analysis of the risk factors showed significant association between diabetic nephropathy and the following factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, retinopathy, neuropathy, family history of diabetic nephropathy, poor glycemic control (high HbA1c, and hypertriglyceridemia. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be independent risk factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycaemic control (high HbA1c.Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in this study was 42.5% and the significant risk factors associated with it included male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycemic control (high HbA1c.
Lane, H.; Caulton, D.; Golston, L.; Lu, J.; Zondlo, M. A.; Wendt, L. P.; Pan, D.
Natural gas has been touted as a "transition fuel" that can ease the Unites States' move towards a low-carbon economy. However, recent studies have shown natural gas leakage rates are larger than expected. High emission rates have the potential to minimize or entirely counteract the early climatic benefits of switching from coal because of the high global warming potential of methane, the primary component of natural gas. Several studies have noted that the distribution of well emissions seems to be skewed, or "fat tailed," with a small number of sites accounting for disproportionately large percentages of emissions. The subset of high-emitting wells, dubbed "super-emitters," is poorly understood and difficult to quantify in studies with small sample sizes. This study seeks to quantify natural gas leaks and understand the statistical significance of "super-emitters" within the Marcellus Shale region. During a field campaign in July 2015, we sampled 250 separate well pads in the Marcellus Region, with an ultimate goal of 1000 wells to be completed in subsequent campaigns in 2015 and 2016. A mobile lab was equipped with LICOR open-path sensors measuring CH4, CO2, and H2O mixing ratios as well as a GPS device. Well pad emissions are determined by isolating peaks and employing an inverse Gaussian plume method. The wind information necessary for these calculations is taken from NOAA READY archived meteorology modeling. Median emission rates of a data subset are 0.14 g CH4/s among emitting wells, which are comparable in order of magnitude with those in other basins. The preliminary distribution also exhibits skewed characteristics with about 10% of wells accounting for 75% of emissions. Data comparing the prevalence and relative emission strength of these 'super-emitters' will be presented. Further research will examine their prevalence, shared attributes, and implications for the Marcellus Shale natural gas industry.
Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI. In this population, 84.9% (434/511 of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%, linea alba (33.9%, traumatic ulcers (21.5%, Fordyce's granules (20.4%, coated tongue (12.5% and fissured tongue (10.0%. Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90 and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care.
Drost, Diederik; Kalf, Annette; Vogtlander, Nils; van Munster, Barbara C.
Purpose Prognosis of the increasing number of elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is poor with high risk of functional decline and mortality. Frailty seems to be a good predictor for those patients that will not benefit from dialysis. Varying prevalences between populations are prob
Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa
Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…
Full Text Available Using random PCR amplification followed by plasmid subcloning and DNA sequencing, we detected bocavirus related sequences in 9 out of 17 porcine stool samples. Using primer walking, we sequenced the nearly complete genomes of two highly divergent bocaviruses we provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 isolate H18 (PBoV1-H18 and porcine bocavirus 2 isolate A6 (PBoV2-A6 which differed by 51.8% in their NS1 protein. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PBoV1-H18 was very closely related to a ∼2 Kb central region of a porcine bocavirus-like virus (PBo-LikeV from Sweden described in 2009. PBoV2-A6 was very closely related to the porcine bocavirus genomes PBoV-1 and PBoV2 from China described in 2010. Among 340 fecal samples collected from different age, asymptomatic swine in five Chinese provinces, the prevalence of PBoV1-H18 and PBoV2-A6 related viruses were 45-75% and 55-70% respectively, with 30-47% of pigs co-infected. PBoV1-A6 related strains were highly conserved, while PBoV2-H18 related strains were more diverse, grouping into two genotypes corresponding to the previously described PBoV1 and PBoV2. Together with the recently described partial bocavirus genomes labeled V6 and V7, a total of three major porcine bocavirus clades have therefore been described to date. Further studies will be required to elucidate the possible pathogenic impact of these diverse bocaviruses either alone or in combination with other porcine viruses.
Olias, Philipp; Olias, Lena; Krücken, Jürgen; Lierz, Michael; Gruber, Achim D
The emerging Sarcocystis calchasi induces a severe and lethal central nervous disease in its intermediate host, the domestic pigeon (Columba livia f. domestica). Experimental studies have identified the Northern goshawk (Accipiter g. gentilis) as final host. Phylogenetically closely related European sparrowhawks (Accipiter n. nisus) and wood pigeons (Columba palumbus) have been found to harbor genetically closely related Sarcocystis spp. However, data on the prevalence and potential interspecies occurrence of these parasites are lacking. Here, we report that European Accipiter hawks (Accipitrinae) are highly infected with S. calchasi, S. columbae and Sarcocystis sp. ex A. nisus in their small intestine. Thirty-one of 50 (62%) Northern goshawks necropsied during 1997-2008 were positive for S. calchasi in a newly established species-specific semi-nested PCR assay based on the first internal transcribed spacer region. Unexpectedly, 14 of 20 (71.4%) European sparrowhawks tested also positive. In addition, birds of both species were found to be infested with S. columbae and an, as yet, unnamed Sarcocystis sp. recently isolated from European sparrowhawks. These findings raise new questions about the host specificity of S. calchasi and its high virulence in domestic pigeons, since sparrowhawks only rarely prey on pigeons. Notably, isolated sporocysts from both infected Accipiter spp. measured 8 μm × 11.9 μm, precluding a preliminary identification of S. calchasi in feces of Accipiter hawks based on morphology alone. Importantly, three of four Northern goshawks used in falconry tested positive for S. calchasi. In conclusion, the results indicate that both European Accipter spp. in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons.
Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una
The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.
Henry Bautista-Amorocho; Yeny Zulay Castellanos-Domínguez; Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar; Sindi Alejandra Velandia-Cruz; Jeysson Andrey Becerra-Peña; Ana Elvira Farfán-García
Introduction Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HIV-positive patients are commonly co-infected with HBV due to shared routes of transmission. Objectives Our aim was to determine the risk factors, prevalence, genotypes, and mutations of the Surface S gene of HBV, and occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) among patients infected with HIV in a northeastern Colombian city. Methods A c...
Hazel, A; Ponnaluri-Wears, S; Davis, G S; Low, B S; Foxman, B
The highly remote pastoralist communities in Kaokoland, Namibia, have long been presumed to have high gonorrhoea prevalence. To estimate gonorrhoea prevalence and correlates of infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 446 adults across 28 rural villages. Gonorrhoea status was determined from urethral and vaginal swabs via qPCR assay. All participants answered a closed-ended interview about demographics, sexual behaviour and symptom history. Sixteen per cent of participants had high-level infections (⩾ID(50) dose) and 48% had low-level infections (
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to record the prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to parental education level, parental body mass index and region of residence, in preschool children in Greece. Methods A total of 2374 children (1218 males and 1156 females aged 1–5 years, stratified by parental educational level (Census 1999, were examined from 105 nurseries in five counties, from April 2003 to July 2004, Weight (kg and height (cm were obtained and BMI (kg/m2 was calculated. Both the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF methods were used to classify each child as "normal", "at risk of overweight" and "overweight". Parental demographic characteristics, such as age and educational level and parental anthropometrical data, such as stature and body weight, were also recorded with the use of a specifically designed questionnaire. Results The overall estimates of at risk of overweight and overweight using the CDC method was 31.9%, 10.6 percentage points higher than the IOTF estimate of 21.3% and this difference was significant (p Conclusion Both methods used to assess prevalence of obesity have demonstarted that a high percentage of the preschool children in our sample were overweight. Parental body mass index was also shown to be an obesity risk factor in very young children.
Godrich, Stephanie; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda
Inequities can negatively impact the health outcomes of children. The aims of this study were to: i) ascertain the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children; and ii) determine which socio-demographic factors predicted child FI. Caregiver-child dyads (n=219) completed cross-sectional surveys. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS version 23. Overall, 20.1% of children were classified as FI. Children whose family received government financial assistance were more likely to be FI (OR 2.60; CI 1.15, 5.91; p=0.022), as were children living in a Medium disadvantage area (OR 2.60; CI 1.18, 5.72; p=0.017), compared to High or Low SEIFA ratings. Study findings are suggestive of the impact low income has on capacity to be food secure. The higher FI prevalence among children from families receiving financial assistance and living in medium disadvantage areas indicates more support for these families is required. Recommendations include: ensuring government plans and policies adequately support disadvantaged families; increasing employment opportunities; establishing evidence on the causes and the potential impact of FI on children's health. Implications for public health: One in five children were FI, demonstrating that FI is an issue in Western Australia. © 2017 The Authors.
Honda, M; Chompikul, J; Rattanapan, C; Wood, G; Klungboonkrong, S
Sharps injuries (SIs) are one of the most serious occupational accidents among nurses due to the possible severe consequences, such as the transmission of infectious diseases and inducing of mental impairment. To discover the prevalence of SIs among nurses in a regional hospital in Thailand and to identify factors associated with SIs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents, with wards as the strata and the number of nurses selected proportional to the size of the ward nurse population. 261 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to nurses who used needles, syringes or other sharp medical equipment in their work. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of SIs for the previous 12 months was 55.5% among the 250 nurses who returned a completed questionnaire. Of these, 91.1% were with blood. Needles (52.8%) were the main cause of SIs. The reporting rate of SIs to the hospital was 23.8%. SIs had a significant association with each of marital status, work duration, work department, attitude regarding SI prevention, and preventive management. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of SIs when adjusted for other factors. Nurses who had negative attitudes towards prevention of SIs were nearly two times more likely to have SIs than those with positive attitudes (adjusted odds ratio = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.03-3.38). The study showed a high prevalence of SIs, but a low reporting rate. This suggests the reporting system requires simplification and also should include a quick response management component. Promoting positive attitudes to SI prevention, and improving the reporting system would reduce SIs.
Full Text Available Background: Sharps injuries (SIs are one of the most serious occupational accidents among nurses due to the possible severe consequences, such as the transmission of infectious diseases and inducing of mental impairment.Objective: To discover the prevalence of SIs among nurses in a regional hospital in Thailand and to identify factors associated with SIs.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. Stratified random sampling was used to select the respondents, with wards as the strata and the number of nurses selected proportional to the size of the ward nurse population. 261 self-administered questionnaires were distributed to nurses who used needles, syringes or other sharp medical equipment in their work. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: The prevalence of SIs for the previous 12 months was 55.5% among the 250 nurses who returned a completed questionnaire. Of these, 91.1% were with blood. Needles (52.8% were the main cause of SIs. The reporting rate of SIs to the hospital was 23.8%. SIs had a significant association with each of marital status, work duration, work department, attitude regarding SI prevention, and preventive management. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of SIs when adjusted for other factors. Nurses who had negative attitudes towards prevention of SIs were nearly two times more likely to have SIs than those with positive attitudes (adjusted odds ratio=1.86; 95% CI: 1.03–3.38.Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence of SIs, but a low reporting rate. This suggests the reporting system requires simplification and also should include a quick response management component. Promoting positive attitudes to SI prevention, and improving the reporting system would reduce SIs.
Wang, X Y; Harrison, T J; He, X; Chen, Q Y; Li, G J; Liu, M H; Li, H; Yang, J Y; Fang, Z L
Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may result in vaccine escape, failure of immunotherapy and antiviral resistance. These mutants may be transmitted and constitute a public health threat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MHR mutations of HBV in areas of high endemicity in Guangxi, China. HBV surface gene was analysed from 278 HBsAg-positive asymptomatic individuals recruited from Guangxi using cluster sampling. Three genotypes, B, C and I, were identified. The overall prevalence of MHR mutations is 17·6%. The prevalence of MHR mutations in genotype B (15·1%) is not significantly different from that in genotype C (16·4%). However, the prevalence in subgenotype C5 (31·1%) is significantly higher than in subgenotype C2 (13·0%) (χ 2 = 6·997, P subgenotype C5 is significantly higher than in subgenotypes B2 and C2. In total, 7·9% of MHR mutants are escape mutations and 72·1% of MHR mutations produced amino-acid changes in the overlapping polymerase, including resistance mutations to entecavir. Our results suggest that the prevalence of MHR mutations varies with subgenotype. The prevalence of escape mutations and polymerase mutations may be associated with subgenotype.
Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.
Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a highly infectious viral disease of swine. This disease is becoming threat to pig industry of every corner of the world. As the status of this disease in Nepal is not properly understood so far, a cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was carried out in four development regions. A total of 200 blood samples were collected from major pig producing areas of eight districts of four development regions of Nepal and the serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRS virus by rapid antibody detection kit (Immunochromatographic test using colloidal gold immunoassay: Schenzhen Lvshiyuan biotechnology Co. Ltd, China. Among the tested serum samples, 37 were found to be positive for PRRS indicating 18.5% prevalence of the disease. Statistically the prevalence difference was significant between different development regions and between topographical regions (P<0.05 of the country, but no significant difference was observed in age, sex and housing systems of pigs. Presence of antibodies in serum against PRRSV in the unvaccinated pig population of the country clearly indicates that pigs of the surveyed regions of Nepal have already been exposed to PRRS virus and the disease should be given adequate attention during differential diagnosis of porcine respiratory diseases in Nepal. Further studies are needed for molecular characterization of the virus and to develop control strategies against this disease in the country.
Ahmed E. Mansour
Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.
Wong, Gary W K; Leung, Ting Fan; Ko, Fanny W S
Asia-Pacific is one of the most densely populated regions of the world and is experiencing rapid economic changes and urbanization. Environmental pollution is a significant problem associated with the rapid modernization of many cities in South Asia. It is not surprising that the prevalences of asthma and allergies are increasing rapidly, although the underlying reasons remain largely unknown. Many studies from this region have documented the changing prevalence of allergic diseases in various parts of the world. However, the methodologies used were neither standardized nor validated, making the results difficult to evaluate. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) has provided a global epidemiology map of asthma and allergic diseases, as well as the trend of changes in the prevalence of these diseases. Allergic sensitization is extremely common in many Asian communities. However, the prevalence of allergic diseases remains relatively rare. The rapid urbanization in the region, which increases environmental pollution and can affect the rural environment, will likely increase the prevalence of asthma and allergies in Asia.
Background Regional musculoskeletal pain such as back or shoulder pain are commonly reported symptoms in the community. The extent of consultation to primary care with such problems is unknown as a variety of labels may be used to record such consultations. The objective was to classify musculoskeletal morbidity codes used in routine primary care by body region, and to determine the annual consultation prevalence of regional musculoskeletal problems. Methods Musculoskeletal codes within the Read morbidity Code system were identified and grouped by relevant body region by four GPs. Consultations with these codes were then extracted from the recorded consultations at twelve general practices contributing to a general practice consultation database (CiPCA). Annual consultation prevalence per 10,000 registered persons for the year 2006 was determined, stratified by age and gender, for problems in individual regions and for problems affecting multiple regions. Results 5,908 musculoskeletal codes were grouped into regions. One in seven of all recorded consultations were for a musculoskeletal problem. The back was the most common individual region recorded (591 people consulting per 10,000 registered persons), followed by the knee (324/10,000). In children, the foot was the most common region. Different age and gender trends were apparent across body regions although women generally had higher consultation rates. The annual consultation-based prevalence for problems encompassing more than one region was 556 people consulting per 10,000 registered persons and increased in older people and in females. Conclusions There is an extensive and varied regional musculoskeletal workload in primary care. Musculoskeletal problems are a major constituent of general practice. The output from this study can be used as a resource for planning future studies. PMID:20598124
Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra
Sevbitov, A V; Skatova, E A
Analysing dental diseases prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions after the Chernobyl accident, one should take into account not only the level of the soil contamination with radionuclides but also factors of individual sensitivity to radioactivity, main of which is the age of the exposed person.
Katelaris, C H; Lee, B W; Potter, P C; Maspero, J F; Cingi, C; Lopatin, A; Saffer, M; Xu, G; Walters, R D
There is comparatively little information in the public domain on the diversity in prevalence and triggers/factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western-Europe and North America. To review the prevalence and the sensitizing agents/triggers and factors associated with AR/C in several countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Australia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Turkey. Articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were assessed and selected for further review, following an extensive literature search using the Medline database. This review demonstrated that prevalence of AR and AR/C in these regions has predominantly been investigated in children; with studies indicating wide inter- and intra-regional variations ranging from 2.9% AR and 3.8% AR/C in 10-18-years-old children from one region in Turkey to 54.1% AR and 39.2% AR/C in 13-14-years-old children in one region in Nigeria. Moreover, the prevalence of AR and AR/C has increased markedly over the last decade particularly in some of the more affluent African countries, China-Taiwan and several Middle East countries, likely as a consequence of improved living standards leading to increased exposure to multiple traditional and non-traditional sensitizing agents and risk factors similar to those noted in western-Europe and North America. Our findings suggest that the greater diversity in prevalence of AR or AR/C in populations in these regions is in contrast to the lower diversity of AR or AR/C in the 'western populations (USA and Europe), which tend to be more uniform. This review provides a comprehensive database of the important allergens and triggers which are likely to influence the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these diverse regions, where the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing and its adverse impact on the quality of life of affected individuals is increasingly recognised. © 2011 Blackwell
Katharine J Looker
Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.
Dassah, Sylvester; Lokpo, Sylvester; Ameke, Louise; Noagbe, Mark; Adatara, Peter; Hagan, Oheneba; Binka, Fred
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98%) and multigravida (1.42%). The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women), which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child) state. PMID:28299162
Ponce, Lucía; Larenas, Gladys; Riedemann, Pablo
Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for variations in the frequency of osteoporosis. Prevalence of osteoporosis in Mapuche women (native Chileans) is unknown. To assess the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis in Mapuche women. A random sample of 95 asymptomatic postmenopausal Mapuche females, stratified by age, was studied. Women with diseases or medications that could interfere with calcium metabolism were excluded. Spine and femoral neck bone mass density was determined using a Lunar DPX Alpha densitometer. Seventeen percent of women had normal bone mineral density in both spine and femoral neck. In the spine, 25.3% had a normal bone mineral density, 17.9% had osteopenia and 56.8% had osteoporosis. In the femoral neck, 34.7% had a normal bone mineral density, 57.9% had osteopenia, and 7.4% had osteoporosis. There was a positive correlation between bone mineral density and body mass index. Women with more than one hour per day of physical activity, had a significantly lower proportion of osteopenia or osteoporosis. No association between bone mineral density and parity or calcium intake, was observed. There is a high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among Mapuche women. Osteoporosis was associated with low body mass index.
Tian, H; Cranmer, S R; De Pontieu, B; Peter, H; Martínez-Sykora, J; Golub, L; McKillop, S; Reeves, K K; Miralles, M P; McCauley, P; Saar, S; Testa, P; Weber, M; Murphy, N; Lemen, J; Title, A; Boerner, P; Hurlburt, N; Tarbell, T D; Wuelser, J P; Kleint, L; Kankelborg, C; Jaeggli, S; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V; McIntosh, S W
As the interface between the Sun's photosphere and corona, the chromosphere and transition region play a key role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. Observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph reveal the prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with speeds of 80-250 km/s from the narrow bright network lanes of this interface region. These jets have lifetimes of 20-80 seconds and widths of 300 km or less. They originate from small-scale bright regions, often preceded by footpoint brightenings and accompanied by transverse waves with ~20 km/s amplitudes. Many jets reach temperatures of at least ~100000 K and constitute an important element of the transition region structures. They are likely an intermittent but persistent source of mass and energy for the solar wind.
Allaert, F-A; Fouchères, G; Elias-Billon, I; Maigret, P
A meta-analysis has shown that an asymmetry of the blood pressure (ABP) between arm≥15mmHg and perhaps≥10mmHg is associated with an increase of cardiovascular diseases. To describe the prevalence of ABP in patients presenting an uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) under treatment, an observational cross sectional study was conducted. Factors influencing prevalence of ABP were identified and relation of ABP with the frequency of the cardiovascular diseases or subclinicals organs damages was evaluated. A total of 2417 patients, 63.3±11.0years old, presenting uncontrolled BP (according ESC criteria) by a previous antihypertensive therapy were included. Only 36.8% (95% CI [34.9-38.7]) were presenting a between-arm difference in systolic blood pressure≥10mmHg, and 17.1% (95% CI [15.6-18.6])≥15mmHg. MRA shows systolic ABP≥10mmHg prevalence was influenced by dyslipidemia (OR: 1.5 [1.2-1.7], PABP≥10mmHg influences the frequency of sub-clinical impairment of target organ (OR: 1.6 [1.3-1.9], PABP≥15mmHg (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.4], PABP should help to identify clinically patients with high risk of cardiovascular diseases or with subclinical organs damages.
Tate Arbacher, Rebecca; Tian, Hui; Cranmer, Steven R.
The complicated energy transfer and plasma motion in the transition region, between the photosphere and the corona, may play a significant role in the formation and acceleration of the solar wind. New observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have revealed unprecedented levels of detail in this less-studied region. Coronal holes in particular are a likely source of solar wind material, though the formation and acceleration mechanisms of the fast solar wind are still largely unknown. In our previous work, we have reported the prevalence of small-scale high-speed (~80-250 km/s) jets with transition region temperatures from the network structures of coronal holes. Here we undertake a comparative study of these short-lived episodic network jets in a coronal hole region and a quiet sun region using IRIS sit-and-stare slit-jaw imaging in the 1330 Angstrom (C II) passband. The pointing coordinates, exposure time, observing cadence, and field of view of both observations are all identical. Our preliminary study suggests that the speeds and lengths of the network jets may differ between quiet sun and coronal hole regions. The quiet sun region exhibits many compact bright regions with sizes of 5-10 arcseconds which produce very few jets. The jets that do exist tend to propagate at much slower speeds over smaller distances than their coronal hole counterparts. Comparatively, in the coronal hole, such compact regions are almost absent and all network patches are permeated by the intermittent high-reaching jets. Such a difference suggests that magnetic loops are much smaller in the coronal hole and the network jets are produced at low heights. The recurrence frequency seems to be higher in the coronal hole region, with many of the isolated quiet sun region jets demonstrating curved trajectories.This work is supported under contract 8100002705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO and by the NSF-REU solar physics program at SAO, grant number AGS-1263241.
Mo Li; He Quanying; Wang Yinna; Dong Birong; He Jinhan
Objective To review the current evidence about the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Marfan's syndrome,and discuss some proposed potential mechanisms for this relationship.Data sources The data in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to 2013.The search term was "Marfan's syndrome and sleep apnea".Study selection Clinical evidence about the epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Marfan's syndrome; the mechanism that causes obstructive sleep apnea; interventional therapy for patients with Marfan's syndrome,and coexisting obstructive sleep apnea.Results A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea exists in patients with Marfan's syndrome.The potential reasons are craniofacial abnormalities and lax upper airway muscles,which lead to high nasal airway resistance and upper airway collapse.Obstructive sleep apnea mechanically deteriorates aortic dilatation and accelerates progression of aortic aneurysms.The condition is reversible and rapid maxillary expansion and adequate continuous positive airway pressure therapy are possible effective therapies to delay the expansion of aortic diameter in patients with Marfan's syndrome.Conclusions Obstructive sleep apnea is strongly associated with Marfan's syndrome.Craniofacial abnormalities and lax upper airway are the main mechanisms.Untreated obstructive sleep apnea accelerates progression of aortic dissection and rupture.Effective therapies for obstructive sleep apnea could postpone the aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan's syndrome.
Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.
Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…
Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.
Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…
Mardani, Siamak; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Baharvand, Maryam
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of referred pain with pulpal source in the head, face and neck region among patients referred to Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran in 2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients (55 males and 45 females) referred to oral medicine department of Shahid Beheshti Dental School evaluated via clinical and radiographic examination to seek their pain sources and sites. Inclusion cr...
Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E.; Paxton, Robert J.;
of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses......, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density...... facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies....
Kaddam, Ibrahim M; Al-Shaikh, Adnan M; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A; Asseri, Khalid S; Al-Saleh, Yousef M; Al-Qarni, Ali A; Al-Shuaibi, Ahmed M; Tamimi, Waleed G; Mukhtar, Abdelmoneim M
To measure prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, unveil the life style, nutritional habits and status, as well as identify the potential risk factors. Method: A school-based survey targeting Saudi school students and employees was conducted during the period from 2013 to 2014 using multistage cluster random sample in Central, Western and Eastern regions. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and difference between various population subgroups were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of potential risk factors. Results: Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 49.5% in students and 44% in employees. Life style was not adequate to protect against vitamin D depletion. Unhealthy nutritional habits were widespread, some manifested in childhood while others manifested later in life. Living in the Eastern region, females, 16-19 years of age, low economic class, obese and lack of omega 3 supplements were risk factors in students. Employees living in the Eastern region, females, middle-income class, carbonated soft drink consumers, and lack of multivitamin supplements were at higher risk. Conclusion: There is a need for a health awareness program using evidence-based recommendations. Screening for early detection and correction of the condition should be proposed to be part of the national health strategy. There is need for identifying the burden of vitamin D deficiency on other diseases to control and improve the prognosis of these conditions.
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available Although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of Brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil. A total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the IFAT and ELISA. The serological prevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 41.3% and 55.5% in ELISA and 35.7% and 48.8% in IFAT, respectively. The overall prevalence of A. marginale, B. bovis, and B. bigemina was 63%, 25%, and 21% by ELISA and 50.0%, 22.5%, and 18.8% by IFAT, respectively. This study shows valuable information regarding the serological survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of Brazil which will likely be very beneficial for the management and control programs of this disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs per household through distribution of about 20 million LLIN by the end of 2007. The aim of this study was to generate baseline information on malaria parasite prevalence and coverage of key malaria control interventions in Oromia and SNNPR and to relate the prevalence survey findings to routine surveillance data just before further mass distribution of LLINs. Methods A 64 cluster malaria survey was conducted in January 2007 using a multi-stage cluster random sampling design. Using Malaria Indicator Survey Household Questionnaire modified for the local conditions as well as peripheral blood microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests, the survey assessed net ownership and use and malaria parasite prevalence in Oromia and SNNPR regions of Ethiopia. Routine surveillance data on malaria for the survey time period was obtained for comparison with prevalence survey results. Results Overall, 47.5% (95% confidence interval (CI 33.5–61.9% of households had at least one net, and 35.1% (95% CI 23.1–49.4% had at least one LLIN. There was no difference in net ownership or net utilization between the regions. Malaria parasite prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI 1.6–3.5% overall, but differed markedly between the two regions: Oromia, 0.9% (95% CI 0.5–1.6; SNNPR, 5.4% (95% CI 3.4–8.5, p Conclusion Household net ownership exhibited nearly ten-fold increase compared to the results of Demographic and Health Survey 2005 when fewer than 5% of households in these two regions owned any nets. The results of the survey as well as the routine surveillance data demonstrated that malaria continues to be a
Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Weigang; Chuang, Yi-Li; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Background: Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of death in the world. This article describes and compares tobacco use prevalence for students attending junior high schools and senior high schools in Taiwan. Methods: This report uses data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) completed among 4689 junior high school students and 4426…
Rivers Patrick A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.
Adenis, A; Dufit, V; Douine, M; Corlin, F; Ayhan, G; Najioullah, F; Molinie, V; Brousse, P; Carles, G; Lacoste, V; Cesaire, R; Nacher, M
Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women in French Guiana. Studies have shown that populations living in the remote areas of the interior have early sexual debut and that multiple sexual partnerships are common. The objective of the present study was thus to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these areas. A study was conducted in women aged 20-65 years with previous sexual activity. Women were included on a voluntary basis after using local media and leaders to inform them of the visit of the team. HPV infection was defined by the detection of HPV DNA using the Greiner Bio-One kit. In addition to HPV testing cytology was performed. The overall age-standardized prevalence rate was 35%. There was a U-shaped evolution of HPV prevalence by age with women aged >50 years at highest risk for HPV, followed by the 20-29 years group. Twenty-seven percent of women with a positive HPV test had normal cytology. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer in French Guiana and the high prevalence of HPV infections the present results re-emphasize the need for screening for cervical cancer in these remote areas. Vaccination against HPV, preferably with a nonavalent vaccine, also seems an important prevention measure. However, in this region where a large portion of the population has no health insurance, this still represents a challenge.
Erdes, Svetlana I.; Antishin, Anton S.
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of dietary gluten from some cereals mainly in individuals carrying the HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. As an autoimmune disease, CD is manifested in the small intestine in the form of a progressive and reversible inflammatory lesion due to immune response to self-antigens. Indeed, CD is one of the most challenging medicosocial problems in current gastroenterology. At present, the global CD prevalence is estimated at approximately 1% based on data sent from different locations and available CD screening strategies used. However, it is impossible to estimate global CD prevalence without all the data from the world, including Russia. In this review, we summarize the data on the incidence and prevalence of CD across geographically distinct regions of Russia, which are mostly present in local Russian scientific sources. Our conclusion is that the situation of CD prevalence in Russia is higher than is commonly believed and follows global tendencies that correspond to the epidemiologic situation in Europe, America, and Southwest Asia. PMID:28316996
Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da
To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother's education, toilet and tap water availability, children's medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children's nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (factor for early childhood malnutrition.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem in many developing countries. This study was conducted to determine prevalence and risk factors of human T. solium infections in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 13 villages of Mbozi district in 2009. Sera of 830 people (mean 37.9±11.3 years (SD; 43% females were tested for circulating cysticerci antigen (Ag-ELISA and antibody (Ab-ELISA. A subset of persons found seropositive by Ag-ELISA underwent computed tomography (CT scan of the brain for evidence of neurocysticercosis. Stool samples from 820 of the same participants were tested for taeniosis by copro-antigens (copro-Ag-ELISA and formol-ether concentration technique. Cases of T. solium taeniosis were confirmed serologically by EITB assay (rES38. A questionnaire was used for identification of risk factors. Active cysticercosis by positive Ag-ELISA was found in 139 (16.7% persons while anti-cysticercal antibodies were detected in 376 (45.3% persons by Ab-ELISA. Among 55 persons positive for Ag-ELISA undergoing CT scan, 30 (54.6% were found to have structures in the brain suggestive of neurocysticercosis. Using faecal analysis, 43 (5.2% stool samples tested positive for taeniosis by copro-Ag-ELISA while Taenia eggs were detected in 9 (1.1% stool samples by routine coprology. Antibodies specifically against adult T. solium were detected in 34 copro-Ag-ELISA positive participants by EITB (rES38 indicating T. solium taeniosis prevalence of 4.1%. Increasing age and hand washing by dipping in contrast to using running water, were found associated with Ag-ELISA seropositivity by logistic regression. Gender (higher risk in females and water source were risk factors associated with Ab-ELISA seropositivity. Reported symptoms of chronic severe headaches and history of epileptic seizures were found associated with positive Ag-ELISA (p≤0
Ott Jördis J
Full Text Available Abstract Background HBeAg presence in childbearing-age women is a major determinant of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission. The risk of developing chronic HBV infection and liver disease is highest at young age. Our aim was to assess perinatal HBV transmission risk by means of estimating age- and region-specific HBeAg prevalence. Methods Based on observed HBeAg seroprevalence data obtained from a systematic literature review, we modeled HBeAg prevalence using an empirical Bayesian hierarchical model. Age- and region-specific estimates were generated for 1990 and 2005. Results Globally, highest HBeAg prevalence of over 50 % was found in 0–9 years old girls. At reproductive age, HBeAg prevalence was 20-50 %. Prevalence was highest in young females in East Asia in 1990 (78 %, the infection was less common in Sub-Saharan and North Africa. Regional differences in prevalence were smaller in 2005. There was an overall decrease in HBeAg between 1990 and 2005, which was strongest among girls in Oceania (23.3 % decline, South and South-East Asia (14 % decline. However, in these regions, prevalence remained high at 67 % among young females in 2005. Smaller decreases were observed in women at reproductive age, at which 24-32 % of all HBsAg-positive women were HBeAg-positive in 2005, with lowest prevalence in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and highest prevalence in Oceania and South-East Asia. Conclusions HBeAg estimates are crucial for understanding the epidemiology of HBV and for prioritizing implementation of WHO`s prevention recommendations for all infants to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. Results will have importance as access to treatment for chronic HBV infection is expanded.
Perminder S Sachdev
Full Text Available Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment.The published range of MCI prevalence estimates was 5.0%-36.7%. This was reduced with all cognitive impairment definitions: performance in the bottom 6.681% (3.2%-10.8%; Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (1.8%-14.9%; Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-27 (2.1%-20.7%. Prevalences using the first definition were 5.9% overall, and increased with age (P < .001 but were unaffected by sex or the main races/ethnicities investigated (Whites and Chinese. Not completing high school increased the likelihood of MCI (P ≤ .01.Applying uniform criteria to harmonized data greatly reduced the variation in MCI prevalence internationally.
Forfert, Nadège; Natsopoulou, Myrsini E; Paxton, Robert J; Moritz, Robin F A
Transmission among colonies is a central feature for the epidemiology of honey bee pathogens. High colony abundance may promote transmission among colonies independently of apiary layout, making colony abundance a potentially important parameter determining pathogen prevalence in populations of honey bees. To test this idea, we sampled male honey bees (drones) from seven distinct drone congregation areas (DCA), and used their genotypes to estimate colony abundance at each site. A multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (MLPA) was used to assess the prevalence of ten viruses, using five common viral targets, in individual drones. There was a significant positive association between colony abundance and number of viral infections. This result highlights the potential importance of high colony abundance for pathogen prevalence, possibly because high population density facilitates pathogen transmission. Pathogen prevalence in drones collected from DCAs may be a useful means of estimating the disease status of a population of honey bees during the mating season, especially for localities with a large number of wild or feral colonies.
Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197
Harlow, Tanya L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro
Several uncontrolled reports in the literature dating from decades ago suggest a link between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and essential tremor (ET). Aiming to determine whether this association truly exists, we designed a controlled survey to ascertain the prevalence of reported tremor in KS. We identified subjects with KS through our hospital database and recruited controls among men who were accompanying patients to our Neurology Clinic. The presence of tremor and other variables were recorded employing a previously validated questionnaire. Whereas our control population was slightly older and more frequently reported a family history of tremor, the frequency of reported tremor was significantly higher in subjects with KS than controls with onset at a younger age. In addition, a high proportion of subjects with KS indicated gait imbalance. In summary, our study supports the previously reported association of an ET-like syndrome and KS.
Skedros, John G; Kiser, Casey J; Mendenhall, Shaun D
Using circularly polarized light microscopy,we described a weighted-scoring method for quantifying regional distributions of six secondary osteon morphotypes(Skedros et al.: Bone 44 (2009) 392-403). This osteon morphotype score (MTS) strongly correlated with "tension" and "compression" cortices produced by habitual bending. In the present study, we hypothesized that the osteon MTS is superior to a relatively simpler method based on the percent prevalence (PP) of these osteon morphotypes. This was tested in proximal femoral diaphyses of adult chimpanzees and habitually bent bones: calcanei from sheep, deer, and horses, radii from sheep and horses, and third metacarpals (MC3s) from horses. Sheep tibiae were examined because their comparatively greater torsion/shear would not require regional variations in osteon morphotypes. Predominant collagen fiber orientation (CFO), a predictor of regionally prevalent/predominant strain mode, was quantified as image gray levels (birefringence). Ten PP calculations were conducted. Although PP calculations were similar to the osteon MTS in corroborating CFO differences between "tension" and "compression" cortices of the chimpanzee femora and most of the habitually bent bones, PP calculations failed to show a compression/tension difference in equine MC3s and sheep radii. With the exception of the prevalence of the "distributed" osteon morphotype, correlations of PP calculations with CFO were weak and/or negative. By contrast, the osteon MTS consistently showed positive correlations with predominant CFO. Compared with the osteon MTS and predominant CFO, regional variations in PP of osteon morpho types are not stronger predictors of nonuniform strain distributions produced by bending.
Makuka, Gerald Jamberi; Egger, Joseph R.; Maro, Venance; Maro, Honest; Karia, Francis; Patel, Uptal D.; Burton, Matthew J.
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, diabetes is a growing burden, yet little is known about its prevalence, risk factors, and complications. To address these gaps and help inform public health efforts aimed at prevention and treatment, we conducted a community-based study assessing diabetes epidemiology. Methods and Findings We conducted a stratified, cluster-designed, serial cross-sectional household study from 2014–2015 in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. We used a three-stage cluster probability sampling method to randomly select individuals. To estimate prevalence, we screened individuals for glucose impairment, including diabetes, using hemoglobin A1C. We also screened for hypertension and obesity, and to assess for potential complications, individuals with diabetes were assessed for retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. We enrolled 481 adults from 346 urban and rural households. The prevalence of glucose impairment was 21.7% (95% CI 15.2–29.8), which included diabetes (5.7%; 95% CI 3.37–9.47) and glucose impairment with increased risk for diabetes (16.0%; 95% CI 10.2–24.0). Overweight or obesity status had an independent prevalence risk ratio for glucose impairment (2.16; 95% CI 1.39–3.36). Diabetes awareness was low (35.6%), and few individuals with diabetes were receiving biomedical treatment (33.3%). Diabetes-associated complications were common (50.2%; 95% CI 33.7–66.7), including renal (12.0%; 95% CI 4.7–27.3), ophthalmic (49.6%; 95% CI 28.6–70.7), and neurological (28.8%; 95% CI 8.0–65.1) abnormalities. Conclusions In a northern region of Tanzania, diabetes is an under-recognized health condition, despite the fact that many people either have diabetes or are at increased risk for developing diabetes. Most individuals were undiagnosed or untreated, and the prevalence of diabetes-associated complications was high. Public health efforts in this region will need to focus on reducing modifiable risk factors, which appear to include
Ades, A E; Parker, S; Berry, T; Holland, F J; Davison, C F; Cubitt, D; Hjelm, M; Wilcox, A H; Hudson, C N; Briggs, M
To monitor the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual population, residues of blood samples collected routinely on absorbent paper for neonatal screening (Guthrie cards) in NE, NW, and SW Thames Regions in England have been tested for antibodies to HIV-1 since June, 1988. 323,369 dried blood spots were analysed to end March, 1991. Prevalence of anti-HIV-1 in newborn babies has remained stable in outer London and non-metropolitan districts whereas prevalence in inner London has increased from 1 in 2000 in the 12 months beginning June, 1988, to 1 in 500 in the first 3 months of 1991. Either exponential or linear growth in the numbers of new seropositives could account for the results. That obstetricians were aware of maternal HIV infection in only 20% of infected pregnancies, indicates the extent to which HIV infection goes unrecognised in the heterosexual community.
Cady, K C; White, A S; Hammond, J H; Abendroth, M D; Karthikeyan, R S G; Lalitha, P; Zegans, M E; O'Toole, G A
Here, we report the characterization of 122 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from three distinct geographical locations: Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire, USA, the Charles T. Campbell Eye Microbiology Lab at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, and the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. We identified and located clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in 45/122 clinical isolates and sequenced these CRISPR, finding that Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions (33 %) were more prevalent than the Escherichia CRISPR region subtype (6 %) in these P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Further, we observed 132 unique spacers from these 45 CRISPR that are 100 % identical to prophages or sequenced temperate bacteriophage capable of becoming prophages. Most intriguingly, all of these 132 viral spacers matched to temperate bacteriophage/prophages capable of inserting into the host chromosome, but not to extrachromosomally replicating lytic P. aeruginosa bacteriophage. We next assessed the ability of the more prevalent Yersinia subtype CRISPR regions to mediate resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny by deleting the entire CRISPR region from sequenced strain UCBPP-PA14 and six clinical isolates. We found no change in CRISPR-mediated resistance to bacteriophage infection or lysogeny rate even for CRISPR with spacers 100 % identical to a region of the infecting bacteriophage. Lastly, to show these CRISPR and cas genes were expressed and functional, we demonstrated production of small CRISPR RNAs. This work provides both the first examination to our knowledge of CRISPR regions within clinical P. aeruginosa isolates and a collection of defined CRISPR-positive and -negative strains for further CRISPR and cas gene studies.
Sunil Kumar Raina
Full Text Available Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people.
Goosen, Simone; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Waldhober, Quita; Kunst, Anton E
Asylum seekers are considered to be a particularly vulnerable group with respect to HIV. Data on the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers, however, are scarce. The aim of this study is to map the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers who gave birth in The Netherlands. We used a nationwide electronic medical records database from the community health services for asylum seekers (MOA). The study population consisted of 4,854 women and girls who delivered in asylum reception between 2000 and 2008. A unique electronic health data base was used and case allocation was based on ICPC-codes. The number of women and girls that was HIV positive during their last pregnancy was 80, of which 79 originated from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence for women from this region of origin (3.4%) was high compared to women from all other regions of origin (0.04%; OR = 90.2; 95%CI 12.5-648.8). The highest HIV prevalence rates were found for women from Rwanda (17.0%) and Cameroon (13.2%). HIV prevalence rates were higher among women who arrived in reception without partner (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 0.75-4.44) and unaccompanied minors (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.79-8.49), compared to women who arrived in reception with partner. We conclude that, among asylum-seeking women from sub-Saharan Africa giving birth in The Netherlands, the HIV prevalence is high compared to the host population. For women from other regions of origin, the prevalence is at the same level as in the host population. The high HIV prevalence underlines the importance of preventive interventions and voluntary HIV testing for sub-Saharan African asylum seekers as from shortly after arrival.
Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Huyen, Nguyen Xuan; Shinuo, Cao; Inpankaew, Tawin; Maklon, Khuanwalai; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Ueno, Akio; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo
Bovine babesiosis is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan disease that is mainly caused by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and is characterized by significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is widespread in the northeastern region of Thailand, where an increasingly large part of the livestock is composed of water buffaloes. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological distribution of B. bovis and B. bigemina in water buffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand. A total of 305 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and simultaneously analyzed by the nested PCR (nPCR) assay, ELISA, and IFAT techniques. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 11.2% and 3.6% by nPCR, 14.7% and 5.9% by ELISA, and 16.8% and 5.6% by IFAT, respectively. The high concordance between the molecular and the serological detection tests revealed the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic assays used for the detection of infection as well as the endemic stability status of the parasites in the surveyed areas. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of the two infections were observed on the basis of age and location but not gender. Our data provide valuable information regarding the epidemiology of B. bovis and B. bigemina infection in water buffaloes in the northeastern region of Thailand which will likely be very beneficial for management and control programs of this disease.
Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.
Akgun, Cihangir; Kayan, Mustafa; Tuncer, Oguz; Arslan, Sukru; Caksen, Huseyin; Atas, Bulent; Akbayram, Sinan
We aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of urinary lithiasis in childhood in our region, Van, Turkey. A total of 1120 children were included in the study. Urinary ultrasonography was performed in all the children between April 2003 and June 2003. During the study, the kidneys were examined longitudinally and transversally using a 3.75 MHz convex probe in a Hitachi EUB -315 ultrasonography machine. The children's ages ranged from 7 years to 14 years (10.16 ± 1.92 years) and 572 (51.1...
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165
Blom, Marieke T.; Cohen, Dan; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Tan, Hanno L.
Background The causes of increased risk of sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia are not resolved. We aimed to establish (1) whether ECG markers of sudden cardiac death risk, in particular Brugada-ECG pattern, are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, and (2) whether increased prevalence
Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.
Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required. PMID:26464950
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.
B Hari Vinay
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions and to determine the potential risk factors associated among general population aged 20-70 years of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: An oral screening campaign was organized with the help of local general dental practitioners in each district. All the relevant information regarding the subject was documented and clinical examination of the oral soft tissues was carried out. Clinically diagnosed as precancerous lesion or condition were subjected to punch (incisional biopsy biopsy and evaluated histopathologically to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Among 1200 screened, 150 subjects were chewers and 136 subjects were smokers with 29 chewers and 16 smokers had precancerous lesions and conditions. An overall prevalence of oral precancerous lesions and conditions were found to be 4.2% (males 5.5%; females 2.5%. Leukoplakia was seen in 0.8%, Oral submucous fibrosis in 1.3% and lichen planus in 2% of the study population. Conclusions: The prevalence of precancerous lesions and conditions in our study is higher when compared with the reports from different parts of the country and in South East Asia. These lesions can be prevented from malignant transformation by mass screening, close monitoring, early detection, appropriate treatment plan and prognosis.
H. C. F. F. Vasconcelos
Full Text Available The prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection has been determined in a seroepidemiological survey among blood donors from the south of Brazil (Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina. These markers has also been correlated with the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, a surrogate marker to prevent post-transfusion hepatitis. Sera from 5000 donors were randomly collected in the period of April to November 1991. The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were respectively 0.78, 7.02 and 13.98. The anti-HCV prevalence after confirmation testing with line immunoassay (LIA, was 1.14. Normal values of ALT ( = 70 U/ml in 2.48. The positivity of anti-HCV antibodies increased with the elevation of ALT levels. This correlation was not observed in relation to HBsAg. There exists a diversity in the recognition of HCV epitopes among HCV positive donors. Via the confirmation test used, we could observe that 94.7 of donors recognize the structural core antigen. Besides that, we observed that 5.26 of the HCV reactive sera recognized only epitopes located in the NS4 and/or NS5 region, indicating the importance of these epitopes for the improvement of assays.
Melotti, Rita Maria; Fortuna, Daniela; Chiari, Paolo; Cavicchioli, Andrea; Mongardi, Maria; Santullo, Antonella; Grilli, Roberto
This audit initiative aimed at assessing the prevalence of pressure sores in the public hospitals of Emilia-Romagna, and at monitoring the rate of use of specific modalities of prevention and cure. The design was cross-sectional, with information collected on three index days during 2000 by trained personnel. Overall, the prevalence of pressure sores at the regional level was 7.1%, with remarkable variation across hospitals (from 2.9% to 9.7%), also after adjustment for case mix. As for patterns of prevention and cure, 74% of patients at risk (according to the Braden scale) of developing a pressure sores received only standard low technology devices, and 50% of those in need were included in a systematic programme of postural change. Adequate (according to the available evidence) medications were used in 45% of patients with a pressure sore. The overall prevalence of pressure sore is close (or even inferior) to that observed in similar studies. However, variation between hospitals indicates that the current health services ability to deal with pressure sore is variable and often suboptimal. This evaluation is also supported by the limited adoption of adequate preventive and curative modalities.
Fedorova, O S; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Evdokimova, T A
Food allergy to peanuts and nuts is an actual problem of practical health care, associated with significant prevalence of this disease, severe clinical symptoms and difficulty of diet organization. Purpose of the study--to study the prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in Russian children, the investigation of clinical characteristics of this disease, and the mechanisms of sensitization to allergen components. The cross-sectional study was performed in the framework of the EuroPrevall (No FP6-2006-TTC-TU-5 Proposal 045879). The first stage was performed in random samples of primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years (n = 13 010) from the Tomsk Region, Russia using a standardized questionnaire. The case-control sample was recruited for the second stage (n = 1288). Thus who reported adverse reactions to food in the screening stage were considered as cases (n = 652), children without reported reactions were controls (n = 636). The case-control stage included the completion of a clinical questionnaire, skin-prick test (ALK-Abelly, Spain), serum specific IgE measurement and component-resolved diagnostic: IgE measurement of allergen components of peanut (Ara h1, Ara h26, Ara h34, Ara h8), hazelnut (Cor a1, Cor a8, Cor a11) and birch allergen Bet v1 (ImmunoCAP, Phadia, Sweden). The prevalence of food allergy to peanut and hazelnut in children aged 7-10 years in the Tomsk region is 0.08 and 0.09%, respectively. The manifestation of the food allergy to nuts occurs in the preschool years, main reactions associated with allergy to nuts were oral allergy syndrome (75-80%), gastrointestinal disorders (60-80%) and itching skin rash (20-50%). Sensitization to birch is significantly correlated with the level of specific IgE to hazelnut (r = 0.53, p hazelnut Cor a1 (8.8%) (homologues of Bet v1) dominates in the sample of children with food sensitization, that determines the cross-reactivity mechanism in the formation of food sensitization in the studied sample. The
Luciano Lima Correia
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.
Correia, Luciano Lima; Silva, Anamaria Cavalcante e; Campos, Jocileide Sales; Andrade, Francisca Maria de Oliveira; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; da Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves
OBJECTIVE To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD); stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight) were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight). Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g), appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition. PMID:24789633
Mukhin, V N; Moskalenko, V Z; Grona, V N; Sopov, G A; Linchevskiĭ, G L
The population prevalence of congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Donetsk region in the course of 11 years (1989-1999) has been descriptively studied. Its frequency is 0.73:1000 or 1:1370 newborn infants annual with range of 0.54 to 1.01:1000. It is somewhat lower than that of more wide spread congenital diseases: labial cleft and hemochromatoses. Pyloric stenosis is detected in 42 of 43 populations of Donetsk region. There is a population nonuniformity of the case rate: from 0.19 to 1.9:1000 newborn infants, that the authors are inclined to explain by dissimilarity of a gene pool in the populations due to random migration of the population.
Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Sharma, Rajan;
included in the synthesis and meta-analyses. Hypertension is defined when an individual had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, was taking antihypertensive drugs, or had previously been diagnosed as hypertensive by health care professionals......Hypertension is a leading attributable risk factor for mortality in South Asia. However, a systematic review on prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has not carried out before.The study was conducted according...... to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guideline. A literature search was performed with a combination of medical subject headings terms, "hypertension" and "Epidemiology/EP". The search was supplemented by cross-references. Thirty-three publications that met the inclusion criteria were...
Shabani, Driton; Tahiri, Zejdush; Bara, Petrit; Hudhra, Klejda; Malaj, Ledian; Jucja, Besnik; Bozalia, Adnan; Burazeri, Genc
Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged ≥18 years (mean age: 57.8±11.2 years; 50.3% women; overall response: 96%) from the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo, during 2011-2013. Potential drug-drug-interactions were assessed and clinical data as well as demographic and socioeconomic information were collected. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the correlates of drug-drug interactions. Upon multivariable adjustment for all the demographic and socioeconomic factors as well as the clinical characteristics, drug-drug interactions were positively and significantly related to older age (OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.3-2.8), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9), a longer hospitalization period (OR=2.7, 95%CI=2.1-3.6), presence of three groups of diseases [infectious diseases (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.3-2.4), cardiovascular diseases (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.4-2.6), respiratory diseases (OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.2-2.5)], presence of comorbid conditions (OR=3.2, 95%CI=2.3-4.4) and an intake of at least four drugs (OR=5.9, 95%CI=4.6-7.1). Our study provides important evidence on the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the hospitalized patients in the regional hospital of Gjilan, Kosovo. Findings from our study should raise the awareness of decision-makers and policy makers about the prevalence and determinants of drug-drug interactions in the adult population of post-war Kosovo.
Akgün, Cihangir; Kayan, Mustafa; Tuncer, Oğuz; Arslan, Sükrü; Caksen, Hüseyin; Ataş, Bülent; Akbayram, Sinan
We aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of urinary lithiasis in childhood in our region, Van, Turkey. A total of 1120 children were included in the study. Urinary ultrasonography was performed in all the children between April 2003 and June 2003. During the study, the kidneys were examined longitudinally and transversally using a 3.75 MHz convex probe in a Hitachi EUB -315 ultrasonography machine. The children's ages ranged from 7 years to 14 years (10.16 +/- 1.92 years) and 572 (51.1%) were males and 548 (48.9%) females. Urinary ultrasonography showed that 19 (1.7%) children had urinary lithiasis, which was in the right kidney in 15 children and in the left kidney in four children. Urinary lithiasis was in the upper urinary tract in all children. The etiological studies showed metabolic disorder in 14 children, and congenital renal anomaly in one child, but no underlying cause was diagnosed in four children. In conclusion, we found that was the prevalence of urinary lithiasis was 1.7% in school-aged children in our region. It was also noted that all urinary lithiasis was in the upper urinary system and its most common cause was metabolic disorder.
Blaise Noa Noatina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in the North Region of Cameroon in order to facilitate the planning of trachoma control activities in this region, a survey was carried out in 2011 and 2012 in 15 health districts (HDs. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, two-stage cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of Trachomatous Inflammation-Follicular (TF and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT. The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of HDs. The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 30,562 children aged 1 to 9 years and 24,864 people aged 15 and above were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of TF was 4.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI: 4.0-4.5%. Three (3 of 15 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ≥ 10% (Poli, Rey Bouba, and Tcholliré. The overall TT prevalence was 0.25% (95% CI: 0.20-0.33%. There were estimated 1265 TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.01% (95% CI: 0.00-0.03%, low vision was 0.11% (95% CI: 0.07-0.17%, and corneal opacity was 0.22% (95% CI: 0.17-0.29%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey provides baseline data for the planning of activities to control trachoma in the region. The overall prevalence of TF in the region is 4.2%, and that of TT is 0.2%; three HDs have a TF prevalence ≥ 10%. These three HDs are eligible for mass drug administration with azythromycin, along with the implementation of the "F" and "E" components of the SAFE strategy.
Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.
The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…
NGUYEN, Nga Thi; LE, Thinh Cong; VO, Minh Duc Co; VAN CAO, Hoang; NGUYEN, Ly Thi; HO, Khanh Thi; NGUYEN, Quyet Ngoc; TRAN, Vui Quang; MATSUMOTO, Yasunobu
In Vietnam, especially central Vietnam, patients with fascioliasis are increasingly being reported. Since the fascioliasis is zoonotic, survey on the cattle fascioliasis should be informative for the control of human fascioliasis. In this study, the prevalence of cattle fascioliasis as well as the density of the intermediate host snails, Lymnaea swinhoei and L. viridis, were studied in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province during 2014–2015. A total of 572 cattle feces were examined from 27 communes in 9 districts. Fasciola eggs were detected in cattle from 24 communes with an average prevalence of 23.4% (134/ 572). The highest prevalence was detected in cattle in the coastal plain terrain (31.0%) followed by plain (25.5%), mountain (21.7%), and low hilly (16.2%) terrains. The highest proportion of heavy infection (>200 EPG) was observed in the coastal plain terrain (36.1%), followed by mountains (20.0%), low hills (13.0%), and plains (8.9%). Low number of heavy infection, as well as relatively low prevalence in low hills and plains were associated with the extensive use of anti-fluke treatments. High number of intermediate host snails in low hilly and plain terrains also indicate high risk of fascioliasis. In this study, the density of Lymnaea snails in the coastal plain terrain was found to be very high (17.3 snails/m2) compared to that in previous studies. This is the first report indicating the recent expansion of cattle fascioliasis in the coastal region in Vietnam. PMID:28458272
Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco
The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension.
H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)
textabstractOBJECTIVES: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. METHODS: Twelve layman descriptions of com
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY ... Differences are known to occur in prevalence rates in urinary tract infections (UTI) between men and ... pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Staphylococcus saprophyticus,and .... in skin microflora that may cause opportunistic.
Inderjeet Singh Sahota
Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA. It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213. Mean SpO 2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO 2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001. In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors
ŞANLIDAĞ, Burçin; ÇAĞIN, Buse; ÖZENLİ, Övgü; ŞAHALOĞLU, Özlem; DALKAN, Ceyhun; GALİP, Nilüfer; BABAYİĞİT HOCAOĞLU, Arzu; BAHÇECİLER, Nerin
Background: Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is an important health problem all around the world especially in developing countries. In the Mediterranean countries another prevelant reason of anemia is Thalassemia. Certain strategies had been established as a government policy to reduce prevalence in North Cyprus, such as pre-marital screening of Thalassemia. The prevalence of thalassemia trait has not been evaluated since then. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of IDA, thalassemia trait in infants under regular follow-up and to evaluate the compliance to prophylactic iron supplementation (PIS) and its effect on IDA. Methods: Healthy children admitted to Department of Pediatrics, Near East University Hospital, in 2011–2013 were included. Data of anthropometric measurements, parental thalassemia trait status, duration of PIS usage, complete blood count, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were collected from hospital database program. Anemic children were grouped as IDA, thalassemia trait, both IDA and thalassemia trait and others. Results: Eıghty-nine infants with a mean age 13.52±2.09 mo were included. Compliance with PIS recommendation was 85.3% and, the mean duration of iron usage was 6.44±3.18 mo. IDA and thalassemia trait were found to be 11.2% and 4.5% respectively, while 3.4% of the infants had both IDA and thalassemia trait. Conclusion: Prevalence of thalassemia trait was 7.9% demonstrating approximately a 50% decline within 5 decades. This result confirms the success of premarital screening policy in North Cyprus. In addition, prevalence of IDA was relatively low being 14.6% supporting the beneficial effect of PIS on prevention of IDA. PMID:27928530
Okumu, P O; Gathumbi, P K; Karanja, D N; Mande, J D; Wanyoike, M M; Gachuiri, C K; Kiarie, N; Mwanza, R N; Borter, D K
The potential for rabbit production in Kenya is high. However, high morbidity and mortality of domestic rabbits were reported. The aim of the study was to determine the pathology, prevalence and the predisposing factors to coccidiosis in domestic rabbits in selected regions in Kenya. A total of 61 farms keeping rabbits in six different counties were visited in the survey. A total of 2680 live rabbits were examined and 61 rabbits and 302 fecal samples were randomly collected from the farms and examined for coccidian oocysts by ante-mortem and post-mortem methods. The predisposing factors to coccidiosis were assessed through questionnaires and direct observation. Chi square (χ(2)) statistics was used with P values coccidiosis and hepatic coccidiosis was 29.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Higher counts of coccidian oocysts per gram of feces were recovered in weaners than in growers and adults rabbits (P coccidiosis in domestic rabbits in Kenya.
Crawford Thomas O
Full Text Available Abstract Background The segmental relationship between cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR peak circumferential strain (Ecc and myocardial scar has not been well characterized in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, and it is unknown whether echocardiography accurately measures Ecc in DMD. We assessed segmental Ecc and scar using CMR with myocardial tissue tagging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE in patients with DMD, then compared CMR with echocardiographic velocity vector imaging (VVI for regional Ecc based on independent observer assessments. Results Participants enrolled (n = 16; age 8-23 had median left ventricular (LV ejection fraction of 0.52 (range 0.28-0.69, and 156 basal and mid-cavity myocardial segments from the 13 patients completing the LGE protocol were analyzed for strain and scar. Segmental CMR Ecc in the most negative quartile (quartile 4 ruled out scar in that segment, but scar was present in 46% of segments in the least negative (most dysfunctional Ecc quartile 1, 33% of Ecc quartile 2 segments, and 15% of Ecc quartile 3 segments. Overall scar prevalence in inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments was eight times higher than in inferoseptal, anteroseptal, and anterior segments (p Conclusions The relationship between scar and Ecc in DMD is complex. Among myocardial segments with depressed Ecc, scar prevalence was much higher in inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments, indicating a regionally dependent association between abnormal Ecc and scar, with free wall segments commonly developing dysfunction with scar and septal segments developing dysfunction without scar. Although normal echocardiographic Ecc predicted absence of scar, regional echocardiographic Ecc by VVI has only a limited association with CMR Ecc in DMD.
Selen Uludag Kis
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enuresis nocturna is a recurrent inability to retain urination, mostly observed during sleep in children 5 years old and older, unexplainable by any physical deficiency. The risk is increased especially among children exposed to physicosocially inadequate conditions. METHODS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of enuresis nocturna in regional dormitory school in Karatas district of Adana province. The cross-sectional study covered regional dormitory school students in Karatas district of Adana province in May 2007. The students were children of families with low socio-economic status engaged in seasonal farm working in the region. The presence of enuresis nocturna was defined as dependent variable, while age, gender, sleep depth, urinary infection, selection status of dormitory school, family structure and visiting frequency of families as independent variables. The statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 10.0 statistical package programme. Continuous variables like age were analysed by Students t-test, while categorical variables by chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 201 students, 135 (67.2% and 66 (32.8% were males and females, respectively with a mean age of 12.2±2.1 (min 7 and max 17. The prevalence of enuresis nocturna was found as 15.4%. The frequency was found to be more frequent among students with deeper sleep, in presence of urinary infection, among those who preferred dormitory school with family guidance, in case of unwillingness to frequent the school, in presence of urinary tract infaction and deep sleep. CONCLUSION: Enuresis nocturna was found to be related to age, sleeping status, urinary tract infection and unwillingness to go to schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 213-216
Nasser M Al-Daghri
Full Text Available A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7 and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7 of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI, Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. METHODS: A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS®, the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS® 4 and highly suspected (BIRADS® 5 lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS® 4 and BIRADS® 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. CONCLUSION: The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.
Milani, Vivian; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Finguerman, Flora; Pinotti, Marianne; Ribeiro, Celso Scazufka; Abdalla, Nitamar; Szejnfeld, Jacob
Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI), Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI) and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS), the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS 4) and highly suspected (BIRADS 5) lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS 4 and BIRADS 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.
Hara, Yuka; Terada, Yutaka; Yonemitsu, Kenzo; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Keita; Suzuki, Kazuo; Maeda, Ken
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.
Hirakata, Yoichi; Matsuda, Junichi; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kamihira, Shimeru; Kawakami, Sayoko; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Ono, Yasuo; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Turnidge, John D; Bell, Jan M; Jones, Ronald N; Kohno, Shigeru
We examined the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter koseri, and Salmonella spp. that were isolated as part of the SENTRY Asia-Pacific Surveillance Program between 1998 and 2002. During the study period, a total of 6,388 strains were gathered from 17 medical centers in 7 countries and examined for ESBL production and hyperproduction of K. oxytoca chromosomal K1 beta-lactamase enzyme. High rates of confirmed ESBL-producing isolates were found in K. pneumoniae strains from Singapore (35.6%), followed by those from mainland China (30.7%), South Africa (28.1%), and the Philippines (21.9%), whereas the rates were less than 10% in Japan and Australia. ESBL-producing E. coli strains were also prominent in mainland China (24.5%), Hong Kong (14.3%), and Singapore (11.3%). ESBL-producing K. oxytoca were common in the Philippines (38.5%), Singapore (33.3%), and China (30.0%). Hyperproduction of K. oxytoca chromosomal K1 beta-lactamase enzyme was common in Australia and Japan. P. mirabilis strains from Singapore produced ESBL (17.9%) despite the low prevalence (0-8.1%) in other countries. Few ESBL-producing C. koseri and Salmonella spp. strains were found in Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Africa. Although there was variation among countries in substrate preference, ceftazidime was more likely to detect presumptive ESBL phenotype in K. pneumoniae and aztreonam more likely in E. coli, whereas ceftriaxone was the best substrate for the confirmation of ESBL production. ESBL-producing strains showed high levels of co-resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Imipenem retained activity against all ESBL-producing strains. Organisms expressing ESBLs are widely distributed in the Asia-Pacific region, although prevalence rates vary significantly.
Schémann, Jean-François; Banou, Albert A; Guindo, Ando; Joret, Vincent; Traore, Lamine; Malvy, Denis
A representative sample of 1510 preschool children living in the Bandiagra circle (Mopti Region, Mali) was examined between March and April 1997 to determine the level of vitamin A deficiency. Using a randomized two level cluster sampling, 20 clusters of 75 children aged six months to six years were selected for evaluating xerophthalmia (XN night blindness and/or X1B Bitot spot). Concurrently stature and weight were determined. A semiquantitative seven-day dietary questionnaire was applied to the mothers of 484 infants to assess consumption of vitamin A rich foodstuffs. The prevalence of biochemical deficiency was attested using the Modified Relative Dose Response test (MRDR) on a sub-sample of 192. Of the studied children, 4.3% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-5.3) reported night blindness and 2% (95% CI: 1.3-2.7) had Bitot spots. Prevalence of xerophthalmia attested by at least one of these signs was 5.4% (95% CI: 4.2-6.5). The prevalence reached 10.5% at three years of age. The MRDR test proved abnormal in 77.1% of the subjects (95% CI: 70.3-82.7). Serum retinol was lower than 0.35 micro mol/L in 43.8% (95.6% CI: 36.9-51.3) and less than 0.70 micro mol/L in 92.7% of the children (95% CI: 87.8-95.8). Weekly consumption of vitamin A rich food was rare: 75.8% had not eaten any animal vitamin A rich food, and 22.1% had consumed less than seven times a vitamin A rich food of either vegetable or animal origin. These data define vitamin A deficiency as a severe public health problem in the Bandiagara area of Mali.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine, in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP. The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%, with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%, and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%. The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72% in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78% in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32% in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain.
Hamidi, Afrim; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Muji, Skender; Behluli, Behlul; Latifi, Fatgzim; Robaj, Avni; Postoli, Rezart; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael; Sparagano, Olivier
The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50%) at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%). This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The poultry red mite (PRM, Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g. is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50% at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%. Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms.
Background The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae (D.g.) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of poultry and potential pathogen vector. The prevalence of D. g. and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. within mites on infested laying poultry farms were investigated in Kosovo. Findings In total, 14 populated layer farms located in the Southern Kosovo were assessed for D. g. presence. Another two farms in this region were investigated 6 months after depopulation. Investigated flocks were all maintained in cages, a common housing system in Kosovo. A total of eight farms were found to be infested with D. g. (50%) at varying levels, including the two depopulated farms. The detection of Salmonella spp. from D. g. was carried out using PCR. Out of the eight layer farms infested with D. g., Salmonella spp. was present in mites on three farms (37.5%). Conclusions This study confirms the high prevalence of D. g. in layer flocks in Kosovo and demonstrates the link between this mite and the presence of Salmonella spp. on infested farms. PMID:21762497
Marcelo Loquette Damasceno
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:This study assessed the prevalence of scoliosis and the patterns of scoliotic curves in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Williams-Beuren syndrome is caused by a chromosome 7q11.23 deletion in a region containing 28 genes, with the gene encoding elastin situated approximately at the midpoint of the deletion. Mutation of the elastin gene leads to phenotypic changes in patients, including neurodevelopmental impairment of varying degrees, characteristic facies, cardiovascular abnormalities, hypercalcemia, urological dysfunctions, and bone and joint dysfunctions.METHODS:A total of 41 patients diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome, who were followed up at the genetics ambulatory center of a large referral hospital, were included in the study. There were 25 male subjects. The patients were examined and submitted to radiographic investigation for Cobb angle calculation.RESULTS:It was observed that 14 patients had scoliosis; of these 14 patients, 10 were male. The pattern of deformity in younger patients was that of flexible and simple curves, although adults presented with double and triple curves. Statistical analysis showed no relationships between scoliosis and age or sex.CONCLUSION:This study revealed a prevalence of scoliosis in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome of 34.1%; however, age and sex were not significantly associated with scoliosis or with the severity of the curves.
Full Text Available Autoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune disease. Antineuronal antibodies are autoantibodies directed against antigens in the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of these antibodies in CRPS patients with the normal values of those antibodies in the healthy population. Twenty seven (33% of the 82 CRPS patients of whom serum was available showed a positive ANA test. This prevalence is significantly higher than in the general population. Six patients (7.3% showed a positive result for typical antineuronal antibodies. This proportion, however, does not deviate from that in the general population. Our findings suggest that autoantibodies may be associated with the pathophysiology of CRPS, at least in a subset of patients. Further research is needed into defining this subset and into the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of CRPS.
Wermuth, L; Joensen, P; Bünger, N
We used several case-findings methods and strict criteria for case ascertainment to diagnose parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands. In the last few years before the prevalence date of July 1, 1995, we searched various registries from pharmacies, hospitals......, and general practices, and found 195 patients with suspected parkinsonism out of 43,709 inhabitants. After excluding those who died before the prevalence date or were treated with levodopa (LD) for other diseases, a total of 124 patients remained for study, of whom 122 participated. We found 102 patients...... with parkinsonism and 82 with PD versus the expected 53 (p
Ali Asghar Keshavarz
Full Text Available Objective. The prevalence of Celiac Disease (CD is high in Iran, and evaluation of CD is not part of the routine screening procedure for dyspeptic patients; therefore, cases of occult CD may be missed. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occult CD among dyspeptic patients who presented at a gastroenterology clinic in the Western region of Iran. Methods. In this descriptive, cross-sectional prospective study, patients who had a history of at least 12 weeks of upper abdominal discomfort were eligible to participate in the study during a 14-month recruitment period. Patients with a clinical or paraclinical data in favor of organic causes were excluded from the study. Enrolled patients were screened for IgA antiendomysium antibody (EMA and IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG. Those who screened positive for EMA/tTG received a confirmatory diagnostic biopsy for Marsh classification of CD. Results. From 225 potential participants with dyspepsia, 55 patients were excluded due to having explainable organic causes. The study sample included 170 patients with “functional dyspepsia.” Mean age of participants was 31 years and 55.8% were female. Twelve patients (7% had positive tests (EMA/tTG, of which 10 were female (83.4%. According to Rome II criteria, all twelve patients with positive tests had “dysmotility type dyspepsia.” Based on Marsh classification, six patients were consistent with “Marsh I,” four with “Marsh II,” and two with the “Marsh III” classification. Conclusions. In this study, the prevalence of CD in dyspeptic patients was high. As a result, this study suggests that screening by serology tests (EMA/tTG is justifiable for the detection of CD among functional dyspeptic patients in the tertiary centers in our country.
S. A. Tonon
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV cervical infection among women residing in a region of northeastern Argentina with a high incidence of cervical cancer.
Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke
INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort...
Hannachi, Neila; El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Nakhli, Jaafar; Letaief, Leila; Gaabout, Samia; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel
Many studies have reported an association between Herpes family viruses and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the role of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has never been investigated. This study aimed to assess HHV8 prevalence in schizophrenic patients as well as the possible association between HHV8 infection and schizophrenia clinical features. We consecutively enrolled 108 patients meeting fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria of schizophrenia and 108 age and sex matched controls. Data about a number of demographic characteristics and potential HHV8 risk factors of infection were collected. Standardized psychopathology measures, disease severity and functioning level were obtained using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and Global Assessment of functioning (GAF). The presence of anti-HHV8 antibodies was analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A higher prevalence of HHV8 infection in schizophrenic patients than in controls was found. Marital status, having children, sexual behavior and risk factors of blood transmission were not associated with HHV8 prevalence. However, among schizophrenic patients, HHV8 prevalence was statically associated with positive symptoms. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of a possible role of HHV8 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To prove this hypothesis, further investigation of HHV8 in schizophrenia with larger samples is needed.
N. Wlazlo; H.J.B.H. Beijers; E.J. Schoon; H.P. Sauerwein; C.D.A. Stehouwer; B. Bravenboer
P>Aims The reported prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with liver cirrhosis is five times higher than in the general population. However, these data were never adjusted for classical risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association between cirrhosis and Typ
Wermuth, L; Joensen, P; Bünger, N
We used several case-findings methods and strict criteria for case ascertainment to diagnose parkinsonism and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands. In the last few years before the prevalence date of July 1, 1995, we searched various registries from pharmacies, hospitals, and ...
Van De Wal, RMA; Asselbergs, FW; Plokker, HWT; Smilde, TDJ; Lok, D; Van Veldhuisen, DJ; Van Gilst, WH; Voors, AA
Background: Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relation between microalbuminuria and chronic heart failure has not been well described yet. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria an
Holzinger, Dana; Salvador, Christianne; Orosa, Jose; Racelis, Sheryl; Leaño, Modesty; Sanchez, Danilo; Angeles, Lara Mae; Halec, Gordana; Schmitt, Markus; Ramos, John Donnie; Pawlita, Michael
Background Geographic heterogeneity of human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been observed over the last few years. This trend has not been evaluated in the Philippines. Hence, this study aims to provide for the first time a data on the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in the northwestern region of the Philippines. Methods Two hundred one (201) biopsy samples (179 formalin fixed paraffin embedded and 22 fresh frozen) from 163 Filipino HNSCC cases (oral cavity = 88; larynx = 60; oropharynx = 15) diagnosed between 2003 to 2013 were initially included in this study. HPV DNA was detected by two methods: (1) BSGP5+/6+-PCR/ multiplex human papillomavirus genotyping and (2) TaqMan probes-based real-time qPCR. Presence of HPV type-specific transcripts were also analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR with subsequent hybridization to oligonucleotide probes coupled to Luminex beads. Co-amplification of the β-globin and ubiquitin C genes served as internal positive controls for DNA and RNA analyses, respectively. Results and conclusions Of the 163, 82 (50.3%) cases had at least one tissue sample that was valid for molecular analysis. Only two of the DNA valid cases (2.4%) were HPV DNA-positive (HPV11 and HPV33). All HPV mRNA assays rendered negative results except for HPV11 transcripts. Results of this study may indicate that there is probably very low prevalence of HPV-associated HNSCC among Filipino adults living in a rural region of the Philippines. This study could serve as a benchmark for designing follow-up studies that would assess possible changes in trends of HNSCC among Filipinos in different ethnic regions of the country, especially urban areas in which the population is expected to adapt Western style sexual behavior. A prospective sampling of fresh frozen tissue is also highly recommended to ensure better molecular analyses. PMID:28199413
Vanek, J A; Dubey, J P; Thulliez, P; Riggs, M R; Stromberg, B E
Sera from 1,367 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from 4 geographic regions in Minnesota collected during 4 hunting seasons (1990-1993) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the modified direct agglutination test incorporating mercaptoethanol. Sera from 30% of the deer had antibody titers > or = 25; 8.6% were positive at a titer of 25, 11% at a titer of 50, and 10% at a titer > or = 500. There was a significant increase in seropositivity with age (P oak suburban park land. There were no statistically significant differences by year of collection. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer remains high and deer hunters and consumers should ensure that venison is well-cooked or frozen prior to consumption.
Boamah, Vivian Etsiapa; Agyare, Christian; Odoi, Hayford
The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic...... infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana...... (57.03%), doxycycline (43.75%), and oxacillin (43.36%). Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was observed in 19.14% of the isolates. MDR was higher in isolates obtained from poultry farm workers (61.22%) than isolates from poultry litter (38.78%). The above findings call for stricter monitoring of antibiotic...
Zhou, Yan-Heng; Liu, Feng-Liang; Yao, Zhi-Hong; Duo, Lin; Li, Hong; Sun, Yi; Zheng, Yong-Tang
Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs). Because of the proximity to the "Golden Triangle", HIV prevalence among the IDUs is very high in the China-Myanmar border region. However, there are few studies about co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV, especially in the region that belongs to Myanmar. 721 IDUs, including 403 Chinese and 318 Burmese, were investigated for their HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serological status. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the differences of the epidemic situation between the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs. Among the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs, HCV infection was the most prevalent (69.0% vs 48.1%, P0.05). Besides, there were more HIV-HBV co-infected IDUs (20.1% vs 11.3%, Ptriple infection (19.1% vs 10.4%, Pborder region. The HIV epidemic appears to be in a downward trend, compared with previous reports. However, all infections were more prevalent among the Chinese IDUs than among the Burmese.
Full Text Available Historically the western sahelian dry regions of Mali are known to be highly endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL caused by Leishmania major, while cases are rarely reported from the Southern savanna forest of the country. Here, we report baseline prevalence of CL infection in 3 ecologically distinct districts of Mali (dry sahelian, north savanna and southern savanna forest areas. We screened 195 to 250 subjects from 50 to 60 randomly selected households in each of the 6 villages (four from the western sahelian district of Diema in Kayes region, one from the central district of Kolokani and one from the southern savanna district of Kolodieba, region of Sikasso. The screening consisted of: 1] A Leishmanin Skin Test (LST for detection of exposure to Leishmania parasites; 2] clinical examination of suspected lesions, followed by validation with PCR and 3] finger prick blood sample to determine antibody levels to sand fly saliva. LST positivity was higher in the western district of Diema (49.9% than in Kolokani (24.9% and was much lower in Kolondieba (2.6%. LST positivity increased with age rising from 13.8% to 88% in Diema for age groups 2-5 years and 41-65 years, respectively. All eight PCR-confirmed L. major CL cases were diagnosed in subjects below 18 years of age and all were residents of the district of Diema. Exposure to sand fly bites, measured by anti-saliva antibody titers, was comparable in individuals living in all three districts. However, antibody titers were significantly higher in LST positive individuals (P<0.0001. In conclusion, CL transmission remains active in the western region of Mali where lesions were mainly prevalent among children under 18 years old. LST positivity correlated to higher levels of antibodies to sand fly salivary proteins, suggesting their potential as a risk marker for CL acquisition in Mali.
Li Juan Wu
Full Text Available To evaluate prevalence and associated factors for myopia in high school students in Beijing.Grade 10 and 11 high school students were randomly selected from nine randomly selected districts of Beijing. The students underwent non-cylcoplegic auto-refractometry and an interview.Out of 4798 eligible students, 4677 (93.4% students (mean age:16.9±0.7years;range:16-18 years participated. Mean refractive error of right eyes and left eyes was -2.78±2.29 diopters and -2.59±2.50 diopters, respectively. Prevalence of myopia (defined as ≤ -1.00 diopters in the worse eye was 80.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 79.6-81.8%. Out of 3773 students with myopia, 1525 (40.4% wore glasses daily. In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher prevalence of myopia was associated with female sex (odds ratio (OR = 1.31;95%CI:1.11-1.55, Han ethnicity (OR = 1.64;95%CI:1.28-2.11, attending key schools (OR = 1.48;95%CI:1.24,1.77, higher family income (OR = 1.37;95%CI:1.09-1.71, longer time spent for near work (OR = 1.43;95%CI:1.06-1.93, shorter near work distance (OR = 1.87;95%CI:1.55-2.26, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.16-1.70, and parental myopia (OR = 2.28;95%CI:1.80-2.87. The interaction between distance from near work and time spent for near work was statistically (P = 0.03 significant. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher prevalence of high myopia (≤-6.0 diopters was associated with studying in key schools (OR = 1.38;95%CI:1.05,1.81, lower frequency of active rest during studying (OR = 1.40;95%CI:1.09,1.79, and a higher number of myopic parents (OR = 2.66;95%CI:2.08,3.40.A prevalence of about 80% for myopia and a prevalence of about 10% for high myopia in students aged 16 to 18 years and attending classes of grade 10 and 11 in a Chinese metropolitan region is another example of the high prevalence of moderate and high myopia in metropolitan areas of China. With this young myopic generation getting older, myopia
Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.
Bassene, Hubert; Sambou, Masse; Fenollar, Florence; Clarke, Siân; Djiba, Sawdiatou; Mourembou, Gaël; L Y, Alioune Badara; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg
Large parts of African and American countries are colonized by Mansonella, a very common but poorly described filarial nematode. Bloodsucking flies of the genus Culicoides are suspected to be the vector of Mansonella perstans, but no study in Senegal has confirmed that Culicoides can transmit the parasite. Designed specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be used to identify microfilaria in stained blood smears. This study was performed in July and December 2010 in the southeastern Senegal, which is known to be endemic for M. perstans. We analyzed 297 blood smears from febrile and afebrile resident people by qPCR. The global prevalence of M. perstans was approximately 14.5% in both febrile and afebrile individuals. The age group of > 30 years had the highest prevalence (22.0%). No Culicoides among 1,159 studied specimens was positive for M. perstans and its vector in Senegal still requires identification.
Full Text Available Black band disease (BBD is the oldest recognised disease associated with scleractinian corals. However, despite this, few BBD surveys have been conducted in the Indonesian archipelago, one of the world’s hot spots for coral diversity. In this study, we show that BBD was recorded in the reefs of Kepulauan Seribu, Indonesia, at the time of surveying. The disease was found to mainly infect corals of the genus Montipora. In some instances, upwards of 177 colonies (31.64% were found to be infected at specific sites. Prevalence of the disease ranged from 0.31% to 31.64% of Montipora sp. colonies throughout the archipelago. Although BBD was found at all sites, lower frequencies were associated with sites closest to the mainland (17.99 km, as well as those that were furthest away (63.65 km. Despite there being no linear relationship between distance from major population centers and BBD incidence, high incidences of this disease were associated with sites characterized by higher levels of light intensity. Furthermore, surveys revealed that outbreaks peaked during the transitional period between the dry and rainy seasons. Therefore, we suggest that future surveys for disease prevalence in this region of Indonesia should focus on these transitory periods.
Vildósola, H; Farfán, G; Colan, E; Delgado, G; Mendoza, L; Pineda, R; Linares, O; Miyasato, D; Lescano, R
A prospective study was performed in order to establish HBsAg prevalence on population living in urban areas of three geographical regions of Peru. There were included 100 apparently healthy people of each city, with a residence major to 5 years, no migrate neither transitory. Each subdivided group in 50 adults and 50 children. Of these last ones 15 between 1 to 7 years old and 20 cases between 7 to 14 years old. Samples were obtained by venipuncture, then they were centrifuged and the serum obtained was stored at -20 degrees C before being sent to Lima for processing. Determination of HBsAg was made by the Elisa's technic (Abbott Lab-III.-USA). In this preliminary report we informed about results in 7 cities (Lima, Iquitos, Chiclayo, Arequipa,Ica, Chachapoyas y Tarapoto) that include 680 persons of which 373 were adults and 307 children. The HBsAg, was positive in 26 cases (3.8%). In the adult group were 13 positives (3.4%), and in the children also 13 cases (4.2%). Result of all sample shows figures of prevalence (3.8%) major to that reported before at national level. The same phenomenon was observed in the cost while in the jungle our results were similar to those found before. In the andean area not studied previously there were obtained similar results to the rest of the country. It is also interesting to mention the high percentages of prevalence in children. These results indicate that hepatitis B is a serious problem of public health in our country that merit to take immediate prophylactic measures.
Jee, JunBae; DeGraves, Fred J.; Kim, TeaYoun; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard
We investigated the acquisition and prevalence of Chlamydophila sp. infection in calves. Specimens were collected at weekly intervals from birth to week 12 postpartum from 40 female Holstein calf-dam pairs in a dairy herd. Real-time PCR detected, quantified, and differentiated Chlamydophila 23S rRNA gene DNA from vaginal cytobrush swabs and milk samples. Chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with lysed Chlamydophila abortus or Chlamydophila pecorum elementary body antigens quant...
Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L
Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in
Prevalência de enterococos isolados de frangos caipiras em diferentes regiões do Distrito Federal Prevalence of Enterococcus spp. isolated from free-range chickens in different regions of Distrito Federal, Brazil
Full Text Available It was studied whether vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE colonize poultry raised without receiving antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP, in non-intensive production systems. A total of 200 cloacal swabs were colleted in farms (n=40 of eight different regions of the Distrito Federal. After selective isolation, the typical enterococcal colonies were submitted to the multiplex PCR to identify enterococcal species (E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. gallinarum, and E. casseliflavus, and genes coding for high-level vancomycin resistance phenotypes. No VRE were found in the examined samples. The prevalence rates were higher for E. gallinarum (n=26; 13.0% and E. casseliflavus (n=11; 5.5%. It was found remarkable differences in the prevalence of E. gallinarum and E. casseliflavus among the poultry farms and studied regions, and it seems that poultry raised in non-intensive production systems in the Distrito Federal of Brazil are not reservoirs of VRE.
Peddayelachagiri, Bhavani V; Paul, Soumya; Nagaraj, Sowmya; Gogoi, Madhurjya; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V
Accurate identification of pathogens with biowarfare importance requires detection tools that specifically differentiate them from near-neighbor species. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of a fatal disease melioidosis, is one such biothreat agent whose differentiation from its near-neighbor species is always a challenge. This is because of its phenotypic similarity with other Burkholderia species which have a wide spread geographical distribution with shared environmental niches. Melioidosis is a major public health concern in endemic regions including Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In India, the disease is still considered to be emerging. Prevalence surveys of this saprophytic bacterium in environment are under-reported in the country. A major challenge in this case is the specific identification and differentiation of B. pseudomallei from the growing list of species of Burkholderia genus. The objectives of this study included examining the prevalence of B. pseudomallei and near-neighbor species in coastal region of South India and development of a novel detection tool for specific identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species. Briefly, we analyzed soil and water samples collected from Malabar coastal region of Kerala, South India for prevalence of B. pseudomallei. The presumptive Burkholderia isolates were identified using recA PCR assay. The recA PCR assay identified 22 of the total 40 presumptive isolates as Burkholderia strains (22.72% and 77.27% B. pseudomallei and non-pseudomallei Burkholderia respectively). In order to identify each isolate screened, we performed recA and 16S rDNA sequencing. This two genes sequencing revealed that the presumptive isolates included B. pseudomallei, non-pseudomallei Burkholderia as well as non-Burkholderia strains. Furthermore, a gene termed D-beta hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (bdha) was studied both in silico and in vitro for accurate detection of Burkholderia genus. The optimized bdha
Moreno-Montoya, José; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Sanin, Luz Helena; Pérez-Barbosa, Lorena; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Santana, Natalia; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Cardiel, Mario Humberto; Riega-Torres, Janeth; Maradiaga, Marco; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris
The overall estimated prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Mexico is 1.6%, but there are major variations in different geographic areas of the country. This study aimed to determine the impact of individual and regional variables on the geographic distribution of RA in Mexico. This multilevel analysis used data from a cross-sectional study that investigated the prevalence of RA among 19,213 individuals older than 18 years throughout 5 geographic regions in Mexico. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of RA, including individual and regional variables as well as cultural factors. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined. The prevalence of RA varied from 0.77% to 2.8% across the 5 regions. Individual factors associated with RA were sex (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.74-3.07), previous medical diagnosis of RA ( OR 3.3, 95%CI: 2919–5.1 [corrected]), disability (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.48-2.93), and the 56- to 65-year age group (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.08-3.74). The regional factor of speaking an indigenous language had an OR of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.13-4.55). Various individual and regional factors were associated with variations in the prevalence of RA in the Mexican population.
statistically significant. Conclusion: It was observed that the prevalence of HAI was high in the teaching hospitals. Surgical site infections and pneumonia were the most common types of HAIs. Hospital management should give more attention to promoting infection prevention practice for better control of HAIs in teaching hospitals. Keywords: hospital-acquired infection, surgical site infections, Ethiopia, point prevalence
Cheng, Cecilia; Li, Angel Yee-lam
Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1-6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4-16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0-4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators.
Li, Angel Yee-lam
Abstract Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1–6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I2=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4–16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0–4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators. PMID:25489876
Frare, Erica; Polverino De Laureto, Patrizia; Zurdo, Jesús; Dobson, Christopher M; Fontana, Angelo
Amyloid fibrils obtained after incubating hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) at pH 2.0 and 65 degrees C for extended periods of time have been found to consist predominantly of fragments of the protein corresponding to residues 49-100, 49-101, 53-100 and 53-101, derived largely from the partial acid hydrolysis of Asp-X peptide bonds. These internal fragments of HEWL encompass part of the beta-domain and all the residues forming the C-helix in the native protein, and contain two internal disulfide bridges Cys64-Cys80 and Cys76-Cys94. The complementary protein fragments, including helices A, B and D of the native protein, are not significantly incorporated into the network of fibrils, but remain largely soluble, in agreement with their predicted lower propensities to aggregate. Further analysis of the properties of different regions of HEWL to form amyloid fibrils was carried out by studying fragments produced by limited proteolysis of the protein by pepsin. Here, we show that only fragment 57-107, but not fragment 1-38/108-129, is able to generate well-defined amyloid fibrils under the conditions used. This finding is of particular importance, as the beta-domain and C-helix of the highly homologous human lysozyme have been shown to unfold locally in the amyloidogenic variant D67H, which is associated with the familial cases of systemic amyloidosis linked to lysozyme deposition. The identification of the highly amyloidogenic character of this region of the polypeptide chain provides strong support for the involvement of partially unfolded species in the initiation of the aggregation events that lead to amyloid deposition in clinical disease.
Mohlman, Mary Kate; Saleh, Doa’a A.; Ezzat, Sameera; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Korba, Brent; Shetty, Kirti; Amr, Sania; Loffredo, Christopher A.
Background Egypt has the world’s highest prevalence of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. The high HCV prevalence is largely attributed to the parenteral antischistosomal therapy (PAT) campaigns conducted from the 1950s through the 1980s; however, the primary modes of transmission in the post-PAT period are not well known. In this study we examined the associations between HCV prevalence and exposures to risk factors, including PAT, in ...
Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.
Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.
Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While diabetes mellitus (DM is a known risk factor for tuberculosis, the prevalence among TB patients in India is unknown. Routine screening of TB patients for DM may be an opportunity for its early diagnosis and improved management and might improve TB treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of TB patients registered from June-July 2011 in the state of Kerala, India, to determine the prevalence of DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A state-wide representative sample of TB patients in Kerala was interviewed and screened for DM using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; patients self-reporting a history of DM or those with HbA1c ≥6.5% were defined as diabetic. Among 552 TB patients screened, 243(44% had DM - 128(23% had previously known DM and 115(21% were newly diagnosed - with higher prevalence among males and those aged >50 years. The number needed to screen(NNS to find one newly diagnosed case of DM was just four. Of 128 TB patients with previously known DM, 107(84% had HbA1c ≥7% indicating poor glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly half of TB patients in Kerala have DM, and approximately half of these patients were newly-diagnosed during this survey. Routine screening of TB patients for DM using HbA1c yielded a large number of DM cases and offered earlier management opportunities which may improve TB and DM outcomes. However, the most cost-effective ways of DM screening need to be established by futher operational research.
Chandra, A K; Bhattacharjee, A; Malik, T; Ghosh, S
The present work was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of goiter, state of iodine nutrition of the population, distribution of iodine through edible salt, bioavailability of iodine, consumption of common goitrogenic food that generally interfere with iodine nutrition in Naugarh sub-division of Siddharthnagar district in Uttar Pradesh, India. Five areas were selected from 5 Community Development (CD) Blocks taking one from each by purposive sampling method. In each area, Primary and Junior high schools were selected by simple random sampling to get representative target population. Clinical goiter survey was conducted in 1663 school-aged children from both sexes (6-12 yrs), along with the biochemical analysis of iodine (I) and thiocyanate (SCN) in 200 urine samples, iodine content in 175 edible salt samples and 20 water samples collected from the selected study areas. The studied region is severely affected by Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) as goiter prevalence is 30.2% (grade 1: 27.1% grade 2:3.1%). Median urinary iodine level was 96 microg/L indicating biochemical iodine deficiency. The mean urinary thiocyanate was 0.810+/-0.490 mg/dL and mean of I/SCN ratios in all the studied areas were above the critical level of 7. However, 22% of the individual had I/SCN ratio salt samples had adequate iodine i.e., >or=15 ppm while iodine content in drinking water varied between 7.5-10.7 microg/L. Iodine deficiency is the primary cause, however the consumption of cyanogenic food may have important role for the persistence of IDD in the studied region during post salt iodization phase.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs. Because of the proximity to the "Golden Triangle", HIV prevalence among the IDUs is very high in the China-Myanmar border region. However, there are few studies about co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV, especially in the region that belongs to Myanmar. METHODS: 721 IDUs, including 403 Chinese and 318 Burmese, were investigated for their HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological status. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the differences of the epidemic situation between the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs. RESULTS: Among the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs, HCV infection was the most prevalent (69.0% vs 48.1%, P0.05. Besides, there were more HIV-HBV co-infected IDUs (20.1% vs 11.3%, P<0.005, and HIV-HCV co-infected IDUs (31.8% vs 23.9%, P<0.05 in China than in Myanmar, as well as HIV-HBV-HCV triple infection (19.1% vs 10.4%, P<0.005. CONCLUSION: Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent among the IDUs in the China-Myanmar border region. The HIV epidemic appears to be in a downward trend, compared with previous reports. However, all infections were more prevalent among the Chinese IDUs than among the Burmese.
Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G
The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.
Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Maijala, Riitta; Korkeala, Hannu
Samples from pork cuts for minced meat and cheeks from processing plants and a slaughterhouse, and modified atmosphere (MA) packaged pork from retail were studied to estimate the prevalence of pathogenic, i.e. virulence plasmid bearing, Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pork, as well as to quantify pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in pork cuts. Pathogenic (virF-positive) Y. enterocolitica was isolated from 17 pig cheeks (23%) but not from any of the MA-packaged 54 retail pork samples and only from one of the 155 pork cut (0.6%). Most (16/17) of the cheek samples were contaminated with pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 and one with bioserotype 2/O:9. No Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. The prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was clearly higher (39%) in 155 pork cuts when studied with nested PCR targeting yadA on the virulence plasmid pYV although the contamination level was low varying between 0.1 and 1.6 MPN/g. Raw pork cuts and especially pig cheeks may serve as possible sources for yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Y. enterocolitica.
Full Text Available Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves’ disease. ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP, and rheumatoid factor (RF was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%, anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%, anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%, RF in 3/93 (3.2%, and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted.
Teklue, Teshale; Tolosa, Tadele; Tuli, Getachew; Beyene, Belay; Hailu, Birhanu
This study reports a prevalence and risk factor survey of brucellosis in small ruminants in Southern Zone of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia between October 2011 and April 2012 to determine the sero-prevalence of small-ruminant brucellosis and to identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of disease in small ruminants under extensive production system. Multistage random sampling was followed to select locations, flocks, and individual animals. Laboratory analysis of serum samples provided sero-prevalence estimates for flocks and geographic location. Information on risk factors at the individual and flock level was obtained by examination of individual animal and a questionnaire interview to flock owners. The overall individual animal-level sero-prevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants was 3.5 % and flock level sero-prevalence was 28.3 %, and the within-flock sero-prevalence was ranged from 0 % to 22.2 % based on the Complement Fixation Test. Multivariable logistic regression showed that the major risk factors for flock level sero-positivity were flock size and abortion history. This study showed that small-ruminant brucellosis is prevalent in the study area. Larger flock size and history of previous abortion in the flock were major risk factors identified for sero-positivity of small-ruminant brucellosis.
Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei
This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.
Rothermel, Betsie B; Travis, Emilie R; Miller, Debra L; Hill, Robert L; McGuire, Jessica L; Yabsley, Michael J
The interactive effects of environmental stressors and emerging infectious disease pose potential threats to stream salamander communities and their headwater stream ecosystems. To begin assessing these threats, we conducted occupancy surveys and pathogen screening of stream salamanders (Family Plethodontidae) in a protected southern Appalachians watershed in Georgia and North Carolina, USA. Of the 101 salamanders screened for both chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus, only two exhibited low-level chytrid infections. Prevalence of Ranavirus was much higher (30.4% among five species of Desmognathus). Despite the ubiquity of ranaviral infections, we found high probabilities of site occupancy (≥0.60) for all stream salamander species.
Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus mackerrasae are metastrongyloid nematodes that infect various rat species. Terrestrial and aquatic molluscs are intermediate hosts of these worms while humans and dogs are accidental hosts. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the major cause of angiostrongyliasis, a disease characterised by eosinophilic meningitis. Although both A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae are found in Australia, A. cantonensis appears to account for most infections in humans and animals. Due to the occurrence of several severe clinical cases in Sydney and Brisbane, the need for epidemiological studies on angiostrongyliasis in this region has become apparent. In the present study, a conventional PCR and a TaqMan assay were compared for their ability to amplify Angiostrongylus DNA from DNA extracted from molluscs. The TaqMan assay was more sensitive, capable of detecting the DNA equivalent to one hundredth of a nematode larva. Therefore, the TaqMan assay was used to screen molluscs (n=500 of 14 species collected from the Sydney region. Angiostrongylus DNA was detected in 2 of the 14 mollusc species; Cornu aspersum [14/312 (4.5%], and Bradybaenia similaris [1/10 (10%], which are non-native terrestrial snails commonly found in urban habitats. The prevalence of Angiostrongylus spp. was 3.0% ± 0.8% (CI 95%. Additionally, experimentally infected Austropeplea lessoni snails shed A. cantonensis larvae in their mucus, implicating mucus as a source of infection. This is the first Australian study to survey molluscs using real-time PCR and confirms that the garden snail, C. aspersum, is a common intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. in Sydney.
Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir
Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525
İsmail Hamdi KARA
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of malnutrition, obesity andoverweight, calculated by body mass index (BMI, in elementary school children in theSoutheast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Method: This research is a cross-sectional epidemiological study and elementary schoolchildren with aged 7-16 years were included randomly by layered random sampling method. Atotal of selected 20 schools and 1912 students filled the questionnaires in Diyarbakır and MardinCity Centers. A questionnaire included questions related to the educational and professionalstatus of parents, siblings, household conditions, children’s demographic characteristics andbody mass indexes, body weight and heights was applied to each student. Determined BMIswere classified according to the percentile values of Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC-US growth charts and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF.Results: Mean age of 1040 boys (52,3% and 872 girls (47,7%, totally 1912 students was10,8±2,4 years and mean BMI was 17,6±2,8 kg/m2. According to CDC classification, 7,2% ofmale students were categorized as “underweight”, 12,3% of them as “overweight”, and 3,4%of them as “obese” whereas 5,5% of them were categorized as “overweight” and 0,6% of themas “obese” according to IOTF classification. In female students, 8,4% were categorized as“underweight”, 11,1% “overweight”, and 3,3% as “obese” according to CDC classificationwhereas 5,2% were categorized as “overweight” and 1,2% “obese” according to IOTF. Theprevalences were not between boys and girls (p>0.05. Conclusion: In school children in the Southeast Anatolia Region, one of the most importanthealth problems was malnutrition; however prevalances of overweight and obesity had alsononignorable levels.
Marcelo Militão Abrantes
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças, adolescentes, adultos e idosos brasileiros das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste; MÉTODOS: Avaliação antropométrica de 17.184 pessoas, estudadas na Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida (PPV realizada pelo IBGE em 1996/97, através do índice de massa corporal sendo usados como limite para sobrepeso e obesidade os valores propostos por Cole et al. por permitirem uma continuidade de critério de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância, adolescência e idade adulta. RESULTADOS: Predomínio do sexo feminino, 53,1%, na população estudada. A média de idade foi de 29 anos e 5 meses (desvio padrão de ± 20 anos, a mediana foi de 25 anos e 6 meses. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 10,8% entre crianças, 9,9% nos adolescentes e 28,3% entre adultos e a de obesidade foi 7,3%, 1,8% e 9,7%, respectivamente. Observado um aumento gradativo da prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade desde a infância até a idade adulta, com declínio entre os idosos. CONCLUSÕES: Prevalência conjunta de sobrepeso e obesidade na população brasileira é maior no sexo feminino sendo que mais da metade das mulheres das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste do Brasil, com idade entre 50 e 69 anos, têm sobrepeso e/ou obesidade. A comparação de estudos de prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade na infância e adolescência é dificultada pela escassez de estudos populacionais nacionais e diversidade de critérios utilizados na avaliação nutricional.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, adolescents, adults and elderlies from Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil. METHODS: anthropometric evaluation of 17.184 people, studied in Life Pattern Research conducted by Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics in 1996/97, by body mass index. Overweight and obesity definitions according to body mass index values proposed by Cole et al. which are related to adult definition. RESULTS: It
Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B
We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others
Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)
Tabagismo no Brasil: desigualdades regionais e prevalência segundo características ocupacionais Tobacco smoking in Brazil: regional inequalities and prevalence according to occupational characteristics
Aluísio J. D. Barros
Full Text Available O estudo descreveu a prevalência do tabagismo diário segundo sexo, idade, renda domiciliar e ocupação dos moradores de 15 anos ou mais, no Brasil e regiões, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra Domiciliar 2008 (PNAD/IBGE. A análise considerou o desenho da amostra e incluiu 252.768 indivíduos. A prevalência de fumo diário no Brasil foi 15,1%, variando de 12,8% na região Norte a 17,4% na região Sul, sendo 62% maior nos homens que mulheres. A prevalência de fumo foi inversamente proporcional à renda domiciliar, sendo 18,6% entre os 20% mais pobres e 11,5% entre os 20% mais ricos. As mesmas tendências para sexo, idade e renda foram observadas nas diferentes regiões do país. O consumo diário de cigarros foi 3% maior entre os trabalhadores comparados com não trabalhadores. Trabalhadores não manuais apresentaram prevalências de fumo abaixo de 10%, enquanto trabalhadores manuais relataram frequências acima de 20%. A associação entre tabagismo e ocupação permaneceu após ajuste para sexo, idade e renda. As desigualdades encontradas devem ser consideradas no planejamento e direcionamento de ações efetivas para redução do tabagismo. Os grupos ocupacionais mais expostos deveriam ter prioridade nas intervenções.This study describes the prevalence of daily tobacco smoking according to sex, age, per capita household income and occupation of residents aged 15 years or more in Brazil and regions using data from the 2008 National Household Sample Survey (PNAD/IBGE. The analysis was adjusted for the sampling design and included 252.768 individuals. Daily smoking prevalence in Brazil was 15.1%, varying from 12.8% in the North region to 17.4% in the South region, and it was 62% higher in men compared to women. Smoking prevalence was inversely proportional to household income, 18.6% among the poorest 20% and 11.5% among the wealthiest 20%. The same trends for gender, age and income were observed in the different regions of
Full Text Available Polycarp Ojok,1,2 Caesar Oyet,1 Fred Webbo,1,3 Bashir Mwambi,1 Ivan M Taremwa1 1Institute of Allied Health Sciences, International Health Sciences University, Kampala, 2Gulu Regional Blood Bank, Gulu, 3Lancet Laboratories, Kampala, Uganda Aim/objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RhD variant phenotypes among voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBDs at Gulu Regional Blood Bank (GRBB, Northern Uganda. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, in which the first 4.0 mL of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood samples were collected from VNRBDs and typed for their ABO and RhD blood group status using IgM and IgG monoclonal typing antisera, respectively. Blood samples that tested as RhD negative were further investigated for RhD variant phenotypes using indirect antihuman globulin hemagglutination technique. Results: We assayed 138 RhD-negative blood samples obtained from VNRBDs. Of these, 66.7% (n=92 were males. Their median age was 24.4 years (range, 14–33 years. Majority of the participants were of ABO blood group O (62.8%, n=86, followed by A (19.7%, n=27, then B (13.9%, n=19 and least AB (3.6%, n=6. The prevalence of RhD variant phenotypes was 0.7% (n=1; 95% confidence interval, 0.5–0.9. There was no statistical association of RhD variant phenotypes with donor gender, tribe and their ABO blood groups. Conclusion: This study has revealed a high prevalence of RhD variant among blood donors at GRBB in Northern Uganda. It further highlights a potential risk of alloimmunization, as the present blood typing practices do not identify RhD variant phenotypes. Keywords: Rh blood group, D variants, D antigen, weak D, partial D, Uganda
R. M. Balabanova
Full Text Available Reactive arthritis (ReA is one of the types of spondyloarthritis. According to the statistics reports by the Ministry of Health of Russia, the prevalence of ReA in 2013 was 42.8 per 100,000 adult population, 99, and 172.4 per 100,000 children aged 0–14 and 15–17 years, respectively. There is a wide scatter of ReA detection rates in both the federal districts and subjects of the Russian Federation, which may be associated with both the spread of sexually transmitted infections, asymptomatic trigger Chlamydia infection, and overdiagnosis of ReA.
Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.
Pacini, Adriana; Mira, Anabela; Molineri, Ana; Giacobino, Agostina; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Aignasse, Andrea; Zago, Luis; Izaguirre, Mercedes; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Pietronave, Hernan; Russo, Romina; Scannapieco, Alejandra; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Schnittger, Leonhard; Signorini, Marcelo
A total of 361 colonies from 59 apiaries located in two temperate and three subtropical eco-regions were examined during the post-harvest period to determine distribution and prevalence of Nosema spp. Apiaries from subtropical eco-regions showed a lower spore count than those from temperate eco-regions. Pure N. ceranae and co-infection were detected in apiaries from all regions. In contrast, pure N. apis infection was exclusively observed in the subtropical study region. The predominant detection of N. apis in a subtropical region joining a southern temperate region where mainly co-infected apiaries were identified is in contrast to previous reports. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kunow, H.; Lee, M. A.; Fisk, L. A.; Forsyth, R. J.; Heber, B.; Horbury, T. S.; Keppler, E.; Kóta, J.; Lou, Y.-Q.; McKibben, R. B.; Paizis, C.; Potgieter, M. S.; Roelof, E. C.; Sanderson, T. R.; Simnett, G. M.; von Steiger, R.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Jokipii, J. R.
Ulysses observed a stable strong CIR from early 1992 through 1994 during its first journey into the southern hemisphere. After the rapid latitude scan in early 1995, Ulysses observed a weaker CIR from early 1996 to mid-1997 in the northern hemisphere as it traveled back to the ecliptic at the orbit of Jupiter. These two CIRs are the observational basis of the investigation into the latitudinal structure of CIRs. The first CIR was caused by an extension of the northern coronal hole into the southern hemisphere during declining solar activity, whereas the second CIR near solar minimum activity was caused by small warps in the streamer belt. The latitudinal structure is described through the presentation of three 26-day periods during the southern CIR. The first at ˜24°S shows the full plasma interaction region including fast and slow wind streams, the compressed shocked flows with embedded stream interface and heliospheric current sheet (HCS), and the forward and reverse shocks with associated accelerated ions and electrons. The second at 40°S exhibits only the reverse shock, accelerated particles, and the 26-day modulation of cosmic rays. The third at 60°S shows only the accelerated particles and modulated cosmic rays. The possible mechanisms for the access of the accelerated particles and the CIR-modulated cosmic rays to high latitudes above the plasma interaction region are presented. They include direct magnetic field connection across latitude due to stochastic field line weaving or to systematic weaving caused by solar differential rotation combined with non-radial expansion of the fast wind. Another possible mechanism is particle diffusion across the average magnetic field, which includes stochastic field line weaving. A constraint on connection to a distant portion of the CIR is energy loss in the solar wind, which is substantial for the relatively slow-moving accelerated ions. Finally, the weaker northern CIR is compared with the southern CIR. It is weak
Full Text Available To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes circulating in the central region of Argentina, 96 consecutive anti-HCV positive subjects were studied. The presence of HCV RNA was detected in 60 samples by RT-nested PCR of the 5' noncoding region (5' NCR. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 5' NCR region combined with PCR using type-specific primers of the core region. The groups of individuals in this study included hemophilia and hemodialysis patients, injecting drug users, screened blood donors, and patients with acute or chronic liver disease, all from Córdoba, Argentina. Overall, genotype 2 was the most prevalent (55.0%, followed by genotypes 1 (38.3 %, and 3 (5.0%. Within genotype 1, subtype 1b was the most prevalent. An unexpected high prevalence of genotype 2 (61.9% was found among patients with acute or chronic HCV infection (without known risk factors. These figures differ from other cohorts from East-Argentina where genotype 1 has been found as the most prevalent. This indicates that regional differences of genotype distribution might exist between Central and East Argentina.A fin de determinar los genotipos del virus de la hepatitis C (HCV circulantes en la región central de Argentina, se estudiaron 96 individuos anti-HCV positivos. La presencia del ARN de HCV se detectó en 60 muestras mediante RT-nested PCR de la región 5' no codificante (5' NCR. La genotipificación se realizó mediante restricción enzimática y el análisis del polimorfismo de los fragmentos largos de la región 5' NCR combinada con PCR usando primers tipo específico de la región del core. El grupo de individuos estudiados incluyó pacientes hemofílicos y hemodializados, drogadictos intravenosos, donantes de sangre y pacientes con enfermedad hepática aguda y crónica, todos provenientes de Córdoba, Argentina. El genotipo 2 fue el más prevalente (55.0%, seguido por los genotipos 1 (38.3 %, con mayor prevalencia
Nora A. Al-Faris
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
van de Wal, Ruud M A; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Plokker, H W Thijs; Smilde, Tom D J; Lok, Dirk; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van Gilst, Wiek H; Voors, Adriaan A
Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relation between microalbuminuria and chronic heart failure has not been well described yet. In this cross-sectional study, we aim to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria and the association with neurohormonal parameters in severe chronic heart failure patients. We studied 94 stable chronic heart failure patients (New York Heart Association class III/IV) receiving therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for over three months. In all patients, renal function and neurohormonal status were evaluated and correlated with urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. The studied population consisted of 70 men and 21 women (mean age 69 +/- 12 years). Ischemia was the underlying cause of heart failure in 61 patients. Overall, 100% of the patients were treated with an ACE inhibitor, 72% with a beta-blocker, and 47% with spironolactone. In 32% (95% confidence interval 22-42) of the patients, microalbuminuria was present, which is significantly higher than in the general population. However, we found no significant association between the presence of microalbuminuria and renal function. Plasma NT-proBNP, active renin protein, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, and aldosterone did not differ significantly between groups with and without microalbuminuria. In 32% of the patients, microalbuminuria was present. No association was found with either renal or neurohormonal parameters.
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada Magalhães
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on studies that estimated the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP or systemic arterial hypertension (SAH in Brazilian adolescents, considering the employed methodological procedures. METHODS: Bibliographical research of prevalence studies of HBP/SAH in adolescents from 1995 to 2010. The search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed/Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and Isi Adolec. The descriptors "hypertension", "BP", "teen", "students", "cross-sectional", "prevalence" and "Brazil" were used in Portuguese and English. Furthermore, a score ranging from 0 to 18 based on Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals and the VI Brazilian Guidelines of Hypertension was elaborated, in order to analyze the procedures used to measure BP in studies. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were identified, mostly published in the last 10 years, and 90.5% were performed in school-based and regions of the Southeast, Northeast and South. The prevalence of HBP/SAH ranged from 2.5 to 30.9%. The score of the studies ranged from 0 to 16. A significant negative correlation (rho = -0.504; p = 0.020 was observed between the prevalence of HBP/SAH and the score of BP measurement quality. CONCLUSION: The great variability of PAE/SAH estimates appears to be influenced by methodological procedures used in the studies.
Bron, Carel; Dommerholt, J.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
Background: Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols.
Bron, Carel; Dommerholt, J.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Wensing, M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
Background: Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols.
Differential diagnosis of stroke in a setting of high HIV prevalence in Blantyre, Malawi. ... neurological deficit of acute onset (< 24 hours) had baseline investigations, ... In HIV negative patients (mean age 58.6 years) 55% had ischemic stroke ...
Maria Teresa Fera
Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of arcobacters colonization in type 2 diabetic and older subjects. The clinical significance and the potential health risk associated with these emerging species remain to be determined.
Schuster, Tibor; Pang, Menglan; Platt, Robert W
The high-dimensional propensity score algorithm attempts to improve control of confounding in typical treatment effect studies in pharmacoepidemiology and is increasingly being used for the analysis of large administrative databases. Within this multi-step variable selection algorithm, the marginal prevalence of non-zero covariate values is considered to be an indicator for a count variable's potential confounding impact. We investigate the role of the marginal prevalence of confounder variables on potentially caused bias magnitudes when estimating risk ratios in point exposure studies with binary outcomes. We apply the law of total probability in conjunction with an established bias formula to derive and illustrate relative bias boundaries with respect to marginal confounder prevalence. We show that maximum possible bias magnitudes can occur at any marginal prevalence level of a binary confounder variable. In particular, we demonstrate that, in case of rare or very common exposures, low and high prevalent confounder variables can still have large confounding impact on estimated risk ratios. Covariate pre-selection by prevalence may lead to sub-optimal confounder sampling within the high-dimensional propensity score algorithm. While we believe that the high-dimensional propensity score has important benefits in large-scale pharmacoepidemiologic studies, we recommend omitting the prevalence-based empirical identification of candidate covariates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U
The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment.
Senterre, J M; Carpentier, M; Foidart, J M
We calculated the prevalences of different yeast species isolated from more than 20,000 vulvovaginal specimens carried out at the CHR hospital in Liege. To assess the value of the observed relative frequencies, the culture results of 149 samples were confronted with those of a real-time PCR technique of fungal identification. With a prevalence close to 90%, Candida albicans remains the largely dominant species. In contrast with other teams, we observed no increase of the prevalences of Candida non-albicans species.
Ebadi, Setareh; Shakoorzadeh, Reza
The present study was carried out with the aim of Investigation of academic procrastination prevalence and its relationship with academic self-regulation and achievement motivation among high-school students in Tehran city. The sample included 624 high school students (312 Boys & 312 Girls) from different areas and regions that selected using…
Siddiqa, Abida; Zainab, Maidah; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Parish, Joanna L
Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is established as the cause of cervical carcinoma, therefore, high risk HPV detection may have prognostic significance for the women who are at increased risk of disease progression. The paucity of data on the incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan makes it difficult to determine disease burden. Even less information is available regarding the prevalent HPV strains in cervical specimens collected from this region. Cervical cancer is a neglected disease in Pakistan in terms of screening, prevention, and vaccination. Identification and accurate genotyping of the virus burden in cancer specimens is important to inform intervention policies for future management of HPV associated disease and to potentially stratify patients dependent on HPV status. In this study, detection and genotyping of HPV types 16 and 18 from 77 cervical specimens were carried out. Consensus primers GP5+/GP6+, which detect 44 genital HPV types, and type specific primers (TS16 and TS18) were used in conjunction with newly designed type specific primers. Using a combination of these methods of detection, a total of 94.81% (95% CI ±4.95) of cervical lesions were positive for HPV. Single infections of HPV16 were detected in 24.68% (95% CI ±9.63) of total samples and HPV18 was found in 25.97% (95% CI ±9.79) samples. Interestingly, a high proportion of samples (40.26%, 95% CI ±10.95) was positive for both HPV16 and 18, indicating a higher incidence of co-infection than previously reported for similar ethnic regions. The HPV genotype of 3.90% of HPV positive samples remained undetected, although these samples were positive with the GP5+/GP6+ primer set indicating infection with an HPV type other than 16 or 18. These data indicate that the overall incidence of high risk HPV infection in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia specimens in Punjab
Alves Vasconcelos, Alba Maria; Da Silva Ferreira, Haroldo
The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis A in children hypovitaminosis A was 44.8%, which included a significantly higher proportion of females (54.5% vs. 45.5%; odds ratio = 1.41; CI 95% = 1.02 to 1.95). Although there were no significant differences between the five different age ranges studied, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis A was marginally higher (p = 0.09) amongst 12 to 23 month old children. The results indicated that the prevalence of hypovitaminosis A in the population studied was 2.2-times greater than the prevalence established by the World Health Organization (20%) in order to characterise the situation as a severe public health problem. Hence, the control of hypovitaminosis A should constitute an absolute priority on the agenda of governmental authorities in order to guarantee better health and quality of life for this population.
Skonieczna-Zydecka, Karolina; Gorzkowska, Izabela; Pierzak-Sominka, Joanna; Adler, Grazyna
Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) varies worldwide from 1.4/10 000 children in the Arabian Peninsula to 185/10 000 children of Asian population. In Europe, the highest prevalence has been observed in Sweden, while the lowest in Croatia (115/10 000 and 2-3/10 000, respectively). There have been no epidemiological studies…
Chávez Zúñiga, María Concepción; Madrigal Fritsch, Herlinda; Villa, Antonio R; Guarneros Soto, Noé
Malnutrition among the indigenous early childhood population is still currently a serious public health problem, and given that no specific studies affording the possibility of knowing the nutritional condition of this population, the question was posed of identifying the prevalence of malnutrition among the indigenous population of Mexico by means of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey. A rural sample was selected from the Northern, Central and Southern regions where 70% or more of the population speak an indigenous language. The weight/age, height/age and weight/height Score Z desviations was calculated for 3,236 preschoolers and 4,899 school-age children. Nationwide and by regions, there were no difference by age group regarding the prevalences of the three indicators. By regions, for preschoolers, the South showed the highest prevalences of underheight (69.8%) and underweight (49.8%) than the North (respectively 36.1% and 22.6%), entailing statistically significant differences (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.04). For overweight and obesity, the North showed a 14.2% prevalence, and the South 5.6% (p Mexico, whilst those due to overalimentation were located in the North, this phenomenon possibly being due to lifestyles and availability of food differing from one region to the other.
Md Zohorul Islam
Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157 infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates.Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression.A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16-6.20. The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35-50.04, 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44-8.26, 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41-11.29, 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21-6.09, 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05-6.33 and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77-2.53, respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001, type of cattle (p<0.001 and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074 as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110, were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle.The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157.
Elizabeth L Corbett
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%, and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%. Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients.
Romero, Candice; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. Médico cirujano.; Zavaleta, Carol; Unidad Salud Indígena-Fundación Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.6 Departamento de Geografía, Universidad McGill. Montreal, Canadá. Médico cirujano.; Cabrera, Lilia; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. enfermera, especialista en Salud Pública.; Gilman, Robert H.; Área de Investigación y Desarrollo, A. B. PRISMA, Lima, Perú. CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, EE. UU. médico, especialista en enfermedades infecciosas.; Miranda, J. Jaime; CRONICAS Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, magíster y doctor en Epidemiología.
In order to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in indigenous Ashaninkas, with limited contact with Western culture, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 in five Ashaninka communities of the Junin region in the jungle of Peru. Individuals aged 35 or older were included. 76 subjects were evaluated (average age 47.4 years old, 52.6 % women) corresponding to 43.2% of the eligible population. The prevalence of hypertension was 14.5% (CI 95%: 6.4-22.6) and the prev...
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs, 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9, 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs (P < 0.001 including all dogs diagnosed with ORMD. In conclusion, in the studied obesogenic region of Spain, the prevalence of canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.
Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Huizinga, Pepijn; van Spreuwel, Nick; Verhulst, Carlo; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F Q; Kluytmans, Jan A J W
Recently, plasmid-mediated colistin resistance was reported in humans, animals and food. We studied the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2 in Dutch retail chicken meat. The prevalence of mcr-1 was 24,8% (53/214), whereas mcr-2 was not found. The presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae was confirmed by culture in 34/53 samples (64,2%). The prevalence depended on the supermarket chain and was lower in free-range chicken samples. The unexpected high prevalence of mcr-1 in food is cause for concern.
Aftab, Huma; Ambreen, Atiqa; Jamil, Mohammad;
BACKGROUND: In Pakistan the prevalence of diabetes (DM) among adults is 6.9% and expected to double by 2040. DM may facilitate transmission and halter the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients in Pakistan and to investigate anthropometric...... significant when using multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: We report a high prevalence of DM among TB patients who may be anthropometrically and biochemically distinct from TB patients without DM, and this heterogeneity further transcends the different DM groups. This article is protected by copyright. All...
Sunil Kumar Raina
Full Text Available Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8 were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9% as compared to females (8/131; 6%. Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7% while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%. Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations.
Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Prasher, Chaman Lal; Raina, Sujeet
Introduction. Extensive pubmed search reveals paucity of data on prevalence of hypertension in tribal population at high altitude. The data is all the more scarce from our part of India. Studies among tribal populations at high altitudes provide an interesting epidemiological window to study human evolution and adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and Methods. 401 participants above the age of 20 years were evaluated for blood pressure using a stratified simple random technique among villages located at high altitude. Results. Out of a total of 401 individuals studied 43 (males: 35; females: 8) were identified as hypertensive yielding a crude prevalence of 10.7%. The prevalence was higher in males (35/270; 12.9%) as compared to females (8/131; 6%). Prevalence was the highest in the age group of 30–39 among males (16/35; 45.7%) while it was the highest in the age group of 40–49 among females (7/8; 87%). Conclusions. Prevalence of 10.5% is noteworthy when interpreted in light of prevalence of hypertension in general population especially if hypobaric hypoxia is considered to have a protective effect on blood pressure in high altitude native populations. PMID:26989560
Shill, Kumar B; Karmakar, Palash; Kibria, Md G; Das, Abhijit; Rahman, Mohammad A; Hossain, Mohammad S; Sattar, Mohammad M
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a common health problem in rural women and young children of Bangladesh. The university students usually take food from residential halls, and the food value of their diets is not always balanced. This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia among the university students of Noakhali region, Bangladesh. Haemoglobin level of 300 randomly-selected students was measured calorimetrically, using Sahli's haemoglobinometer during October to December 2011. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS software for Windows (version 16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). In the study, 55.3% students were found anaemic, of whom 36.7% were male, and 63.3% were female. Students aged 20-22 years were more anaemic (43.4%) than other age-groups. Majority (51.3%) of male students showed their haemoglobin level in the range of 13-15 g/dL, followed by 26.0% and 21.3% with 10-12 g/dL and 16-18 g/dL respectively. Although 50.5% anaemic and 51.1% non-anaemic female students showed normal BMI--lower percentage than anaemic (60.7%) and non-anaemic (71.9%) male students, the underweight students were found more anaemic than the overweight and obese subjects. Regular breakfast-taking habit showed significant (p = 0.035, 95% CI 0.5-1.0) influence on IDA compared to non-regular breakfast takers. Consumption of meat, fish, poultry, eggs, or peanut butter regularly; junk food; multivitamins; and iron/iron-rich food showed insignificant (p = 0.097, 95% CI 0.5-1.1; p = 0.053, 95% CI 1.1-2.3; p = 0.148, 95% CI 0.6-1.2; and p = 0.487, 95% CI 0.7-1.4 respectively) role in provoking IDA. In the case of non-anaemic subjects, all of the above parameters were significant, except the junk food consumption (p = 0.342, 95% CI 0.5-1.2). Our study revealed that majority of university students, especially female, were anaemic that might be aggravated by food habit and lack of awareness. The results suggest that anaemia can be
Alderete, Jussara M S; Jacob, Cristina M A; Pastorino, Antonio C; Elefant, Guita R; Castro, Ana P M; Fomin, Angela B F; Chieffi, Pedro P
Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > or = 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p or = 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.
Jussara MS Alderete
Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.
Blaise Noa Noatina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cameroon is known to be endemic with trachoma. To appreciate the burden of the disease and facilitate the national planning of trachoma control in the integrated control program for the neglected tropical diseases, an epidemiological mapping of trachoma was conducted in the Far North region in 2010-11. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of active trachoma and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of trichiasis (TT. The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of Health Districts (HDs. The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 48,844 children aged 1 to 9 years and 41,533 people aged 15 and over were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF was 11.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI: 11.0-11.5%. More girls were affected than boys (p = 0.003. Thirteen (13 of 27 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ≥10%. The overall TT prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9-1.1%. There were estimated 17193 (95% CI: 12576-25860 TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.04% (95% CI: 0.03-0.07% and visual impairment was 0.09% (95% CI: 0.07-0.13%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survey confirmed that trachoma is a public health problem in the Far North region with 13 HDs qualified for district-level mass drug administration with azithromycin. It provided a foundation for the national program to plan and implement the SAFE strategy in the region. Effort must be made to find resources to provide the surgical operations to the 17193 TT cases and prevent them from becoming blind.
Vulcano, A; Angelucci, M; Candelori, E; Martini, V; Patti, A M; Mancini, C; Santi, A L; Calvani, A; Casagni, L; Lamberti, A
Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are responsible for large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries. Sporadic cases in the developed world are mainly imported from endemic areas. HEV has been suggested to be a zoonotic infection, for which pigs may be the reservoir; specific swine strains of HEV have been identified. Humans are susceptible to infections with swine strains. The aim of this study was to analyse whether Italian pig farmers, veterinarians and abattoir workers are more exposed than persons with other occupations. A total of 92 workers at zoonotic risk and 3511 controls from the general population of two Latium cities, Rome and Rieti, were tested for IgG-HEV antibodies. No significant difference in anti-HEV prevalence was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of general population was 2.9% against 3.3% of pig breeders, while there was a statistically significant difference (p = .0004) between subjects recruited in Rome (prevalence 2.5%) and those recruited in Rieti (prevalence 5.5%). Moreover, in some subgroups of general population and in a subgroup of pig breeders, the prevalence was higher than that previously reported in Italy and in other European countries. The highest value (33%) was found in male housekeepers enrolled in Rome; an analogous value was found in the employees of abattoirs (33%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the transmission routes.
Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Paredes-Tello, María Antonia; Pérez-Terrón, Héctor; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica
To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31 in Mexican women living in rural areas of Puebla, Mexico and to evaluate risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm in this population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 326 women at the General Hospital of Metepec, Puebla. Cervical samples were obtained using a cytobrush and tested for HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers. A questionnaire was completed regarding gynecological, obstetric, and sexual behavior of the patients. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 25.4%, with two peaks of higher HPV prevalence in those aged 18-24 and 55-64 years. The individual genotype prevalences were: 9.6% HPV6, 4.8% HPV11, 54.2% HPV16, 37.3% HPV18, and 9.6% HPV31. Number of pregnancies was the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. HPV16 was the most common type found in all cervical lesions. Genotype 16 or 18 was detected in patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer. We found two peaks of age-specific HPV prevalence similar to findings reported worldwide.
N. G. Barannik
, frozen and stored before use at minus 20°C. cytokines concentration was determined with commercial test systems OOO "cytokine" "Vector-Best" (St. Petersburg. The results were recorded according to absorbance measured in a spectrophotometer – analyzer Sunrise (Austria at 450 nm. The cytokines were determined by constructing a calibration curve using the computer program «Calibration» in picogram per milliliter (pg/ml units. The results and discussion. All phlegmons of the maxillofacial region, regardless of their degree of prevalence are accompanied by an increase in the blood levels of pro-inflammatory interleukins majority. IL-4 concentration in the blood of patients with phlegmones was close to normal range (0.43±0.03, р>0.5. Serum IL4 concentration was increased only in patient with pyoinflammatory changes in more than one area. This indicates adequate response of the immune system against massive antigen load of the immune system (0.93±0.05, p<0.001. IL 4 serum levels in patient with mediastinitis were lower than in the control group (0.25±0.03, p<0.01. this indicated immunosupression in such cases.
Tuch Brian B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.
Nelson, Caro Méndez
As a result of Guatemala's growing involvement in international markets and policies favoring industrial and export-oriented efforts, the population has experienced substantial changes in its economic and social organization, with consequences for the health and well-being of marginal groups. The article discusses various links between global processes, national policies and priorities, social and economic strategies, and malaria prevalence, with the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala as the case study carried out between 2001 and 2003.
Hense, S; Luque Ramos, A; Callhoff, J; Albrecht, K; Zink, A; Hoffmann, F
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common chronic inflammatory joint disease with a prevalence of up to 1 % in the adult population. This study describes the prevalence of RA diagnoses in outpatient health insurance claims data, based on different case definitions and stratified by age, sex and region of residence. Based on data from a nationwide statutory health insurance fund (BARMER GEK) from the year 2013, a cross-sectional study of insurants aged 18 years or older was conducted. The following case definitions were applied: A) a diagnosis of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (M05) or other rheumatoid arthritis (M06) according to the international classification of diseases 10 German modification (ICD-10-GM) in at least two quarterly periods of the year 2013, B) case definition A plus determination of C‑reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at least once, C) case definition B plus specific drug therapy and D) case definition A plus treatment by a rheumatologist. Raw as well as age and sex-standardized prevalences were calculated and stratified according to the federal state. The study population consisted of 7,155,315 insurants of whom 60.2 % were female. Overall, RA prevalences for the respective case definitions were 1.62 % (A), 1.11 % (B), 0.94 % (C) and 0.64 % (D). When standardized to the German population the prevalences were 1.38 % (A), 0.95 % (B), 0.81 % (C) and 0.55 % (D). The proportion of women was approximately 80 % for all case definitions. Prevalences increased with age, peaking in the age group 70-79 years old and showing the highest values in eastern and the lowest in southern Germany for raw as well as standardized measures. Regional differences in the prevalence of RA diagnoses in health insurance claims data were observed independent of age, sex and case definition. The expected prevalence according to the results of international studies was best achieved when case definitions with CRP or
Lau, May; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn
The study purpose was to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to identify factors that, when clustered, are associated with a high prevalence of pregnancy involvement among US adolescent males. The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative survey of individuals 15-44 years old. RPA was done for the 2002 and 2006-2010 cycles to identify factors which, when combined, identify adolescent males with the highest prevalence of pregnancy involvement. Pregnancy-involvement prevalence among adolescent males was 6 %. Two clusters of adolescent males have the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence, at 84-87 %. In RPA, the highest pregnancy-involvement prevalence (87 %) was seen in adolescent males who ever HIV tested, had >4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment of 4 lifetime sexual partners, reported less than an almost certain chance of feeling less physical pleasure with condom use, had an educational attainment ≥11th grade, were >17 years old, and had their first contraceptive education ≥10th grade, had a pregnancy-involvement prevalence of 84 %. Pregnancy-prevention efforts among adolescent males who have been involved in a pregnancy may need to target risk factors identified in clusters with the highest pregnancy prevalence to prevent subsequent pregnancies in these adolescent males and improve their future outcomes.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to UNDCP World Drug Report, the problem of substance abuse in adolescence is fast assuming alarming proportions in both developed and developing nations. Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh has regularly been in media headlines for extensive cannabis cultivation and abuse of other substances. The study was conducted to provide an essential source of information about substance abuse and its correlates in this Himalayan region. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive school-based cross-sectional study conducted among students (13-19 years studying in classes 7th to 12th. Multi-stage cluster random design and PPS sampling methodology was adopted. A sample of 3000 students both from rural and urban areas studying in 20 government and private senior secondary schools was selected. An anonymous, pretested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from WHO and ESPAD questionnaires was used to collect relevant information. Statistical analysis was done by entering the data in SPSS. RESULTS The ultimate response rate was 98.5%. Out of the total of 2864 participants, 785 (27.4%; 95%, CI 25.8% to 29.1% had indulged in substance abuse at least once in their lifetime. Prevalence of current and regular users was 13.8% (95%, CI 12.5% to 15.1% and 4.1% (95%, CI 3.4% to 4.9%, respectively. Alcohol was the most commonly abused substance among ever users at 18.1% followed by tobacco (17.6% and cannabis (6.2%. Around 85% of the students perceived indulgence in substance abuse to be harmful for health. The logistic regression model revealed that substance abuse among friends (AOR 5.32, family members (AOR 2.04, inability to spend quality time with parents (AOR 2.44, gender (AOR 1.68 and older age group of 16-19 years (AOR 1.51 were the factors found to be positively associated with substance abuse. CONCLUSION The study has brought out a high prevalence of substance abuse among the students. The participants’ high knowledge about
A perfect storm is brewing in eastern Massachusetts: high home prices, rising interest rates, and a proliferation of high-cost mortgage products. More buyer education and better state regulation of lenders not covered by the Community Reinvestment Act are needed.
Høj, Kirsten; Vinther Skriver, Mette; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle
BACKGROUND: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Yet, our knowledge about the prevalence of poor CRF is limited. We investigated the prevalence of poor CRF among middle-aged Danish adults from a community-based health promotio...
García-Álvarez, Lara; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Blanco, José Ramón; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José Antonio
Tropheryma whipplei is the causative agent of Whipple disease. T. whipplei has also been detected in asymptomatic carriers with a very different prevalence. To date, in Spain, there are no data regarding the prevalence of T. whipplei in a healthy population or in HIV-positive patients, or in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of T. whipplei in stools in those populations. Stools from 21 HIV-negative subjects, 65 HIV-infected, and 12 CFS patients were analysed using real time-PCR. HIV-negative and positive subjects were divided into two groups, depending on the presence/absence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Positive samples were sequenced. The prevalence of T. whipplei was 25.51% in 98 stool samples analysed. Prevalence in HIV-positive patients was significantly higher than in HIV-negative (33.8% vs. 9.09%, p=0.008). Prevalence in the control group with no associated diseases was 20%, whereas no positive samples were observed in HIV-negative patients with MS, or in those diagnosed with CFS. The prevalence observed in HIV-positive patients without MS was 30.35%, and with MS it was 55.5%. The number of positive samples varies depending on the primers used, although no statistically significant differences were observed. There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of T. whipplei among healthy and in HIV-infected people from Spain. The role of T. whipplei in HIV patients with MS is unclear, but the prevalence is higher than in other populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.
Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation.
Nicholson, T T
Sarcoidosis is a common multisystem disease of unknown cause and Ireland is among the countries with the highest reported prevalence of disease worldwide. Despite this, reports on the geographical distribution of disease and differences in mortality due to sarcoidosis within Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) are currently lacking.
Shabani, D.; Tahiri, Z.; Bara, P.; Hudhra, K.; Malaj, L.; Jucja, B.; Bozalia, A.; Burazeri, G.
AIM: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged >/=18 years (mean age: 57.8+/-11.2 y
Shabani, D.; Tahiri, Z.; Bara, P.; Hudhra, K.; Malaj, L.; Jucja, B.; Bozalia, A.; Burazeri, G.
AIM: Our aim was to assess the prevalence and socioeconomic and clinical correlates of drug-drug interactions among the adult population of transitional Kosovo. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including a representative sample of 1921 patients aged >/=18 years (mean age: 57.8+/-11.2
P Yadav, P Joshi, J Gupta, D Joseph, P Sakhi
Full Text Available Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease continue to affect millions of people around the world. Children and adolescents of the developing countries are especially susceptible to this disease. To asses the prevalence of Rheumatic Fever /Rheumatic heart disease in an urban area, we do survey of children aged between 5 to 16 years studying in various government schools in Indore district which were selected randomly. Out of 9879 students enrolled in the study 9526 were examined, the percentage of absentees being ten. Revised Jones criterion (1992 was used for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. Doppler echocardiography is used to confirm the diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. A total of seven cases of definite rheumatic heart disease (out of 13 suspected cases were identified giving overall prevalence rate of 0.73 per 1000. Fifty percent rheumatic heart disease cases gave a history suggestive of rheumatic fever. No case of active rheumatic fever could be identified. The study gave lower result than that reported in earlier studies from developing countries but it is similar to that reported from Indore district in 2009. It is concluded that there is some downward trend in rheumatic fever / rheumatic heart disease prevalence but the low prevalence is also due to the use of Doppler echocardiography which has prevented over diagnosis in the present study.
Igarashi, Toru; Itoh, Yasuhiko; Maeda, Miho; Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka
Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1 ± 0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7 ± 0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4 ± 1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during
Full Text Available We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG, isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT, combined IFG and IGT and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions.Prevalence (95%CI of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, ≥ 8 h overnight fasting and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35-79 years: SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast, 2008-2012 and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south, 2006-2008. Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included.Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9-45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9-8.2% than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4-31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2-4.6%, respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5-28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7-18.6% and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8-12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7-7.5% were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84-3.65 or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70-2.31 was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle.The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors.
Tamayo, Teresa; Schipf, Sabine; Meisinger, Christine; Schunk, Michaela; Maier, Werner; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Background We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions. Methods Prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6–6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge gluose 7.8–11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), ≥8 h overnight fasting) and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35–79 years): SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast), 2008–2012) and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south), 2006–2008). Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included. Results Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI) of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9–45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9–8.2%) than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4–31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2–4.6%), respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5–28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7–18.6%) and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8–12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7–7.5%) were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84–3.65) or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70–2.31) was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle). Conclusions The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors. PMID:25402347
In recent years cyberbullying has become widespread throughout junior high schools around the world, resulting in high numbers of adolescents affected by cybervictimization. Cybervictimization is associated with negative psychological health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact and prevalence of cybervictimization…
Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Almirall, M; Corzo, Patricia; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi
It has been previously reported that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent among SLE patients than in the general population. We sought to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and their related factors, its relationship to SLE symptoms and disease activity on a group of supplemented and non-supplemented female SLE patients from the Mediterranean region. We performed a cross-sectional study including female SLE patients who regularly attended the outpatient Lupus Unit at Parc de Salut Mar-IMAS in Barcelona, from January 2012 to May 2014. Collected data were sociodemographics, vitamin D supplementation, fatigue degree visual analog scale, pharmacological treatment, main SLE serological markers, indexes, scales and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. One hundred and two consecutive female SLE patients were included. Vitamin D overall insufficiency and deficiency were exhibited by 46 and 22.5 % of patients, respectively. Vitamin D insufficiency was found in 50 % of supplemented and 60 % of non-supplemented patients. Among non-supplemented female SLE patients, it was found that patients with vitamin D insufficiency showed more fatigue (p = 0.009) and received more oral corticosteroids (p = 0.02) than those with normal levels. Patients with vitamin D insufficiency (supplemented and non-supplemented) received more oral corticosteroids than those without insufficiency (p = 0.008). Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent among female SLE patients, even in southern regions. Non-supplemented female SLE patients showed more fatigue and received more oral corticosteroids than those with normal levels of vitamin D. These data were not found in supplemented patients although having a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (up to 50 %). Further studies with longer follow-up and larger population are needed to confirm our observations.
Mahteme Haile Workneh
Full Text Available The association between diabetes mellitus (DM and tuberculosis (TB is re-emerging worldwide. Recently, the prevalence of DM is increasing in resource poor countries where TB is of high burden. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and analyze associated factors of TB and DM comorbidity in South-Eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia.This was a facility based cross-sectional study. All newly diagnosed TB patients attending selected health facilities in the study area were consecutively screened for DM. DM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, lifestyles and clinical data. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with TB and DM comorbidity.Among a total of 1314 patients who participated in the study, the prevalence of DM was estimated at 109 (8.3%. Being female [odds ratio (OR 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI (1.10-2.62], patients age [41-64 years (OR 3.35; 95% CI (2.01-5.57, 65-89 years (OR 3.18; 95% CI (1.52-6.64], being a pulmonary TB case [(OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.09-2.63] and having a family history of DM [(OR 4.54; 95% CI (2.36-8.73] were associated factors identified with TB and DM comorbidity.The prevalence of DM among TB patients in South-Eastern Amahra Region is high. Routine screening of TB patients for DM is recommended in the study area.
Caner, Mehmet; Kock, Anders Bredahl
While variable selection and oracle inequalities for the estimation and prediction error have received considerable attention in the literature on high-dimensional models, very little work has been done in the area of testing and construction of confidence bands in high-dimensional models. However...... develop an oracle inequality for the conservative Lasso only assuming the existence of a certain number of moments. This is done by means of the Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund inequality which in our context provides sharper bounds than Nemirovski's inequality. As opposed to van de Geer et al. (2014) we allow...
Antonio David Corrêa Normando
Full Text Available Considerando-se a ausência de dados sobre a prevalência de cárie dental em uma população tipicamente amazônida, foi feito um levantamento epidemiológico em 103 escolares na região da Ilha de Sirituba, no Município de Abaetetuba, Estado do Pará, Brasil. O CPOD médio encontrado foi de 6,5 e o ceo de 5,4. Apesar da primitividade do local, o alto índice de cárie pode estar relacionado a diversos fatores, dentre os quais deve ser incluída a influência urbana na alimentação, principalmente pelo açúcar, criando novos hábitos alimentares que alteraram fundamentalmente a dieta da região.In view of the lack of data as to the prevalence of dental caries among typical amazonian populations, the authors carried out an epidemiological study of 103 schoolchildren from Sirituba Island, Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. The mean values found for DMFT and deft were 6.5 and 5.4 respectively. Although the region is very primitive, this high prevalence may be linked to several factors, among which is the urban influence, mainly through the use of sugar, on food habits in such a way as fundamentally to alter the diet of the amazonian population.
Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to compare the prevalence of HPV infection and high risk HPV genotypes [16, 18] between monogamous and polygamous women, in Zabol, Iran.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Zabol in 2006 - 2007. Two hundred sixty five married women attending the Gynecology Clinic for Cervical Disease Screening entered to this study. One hundred sixty two cases had monogamous, and 103 had polygamous husbands. HPV PCR samples were obtained from scrape of papsmear specimens. The biotinylated primers MY09/MY11, GP5+/GP6+, were utilized to enable amplification and detection of positive PCR products. Confirmation of HPV-16 and -18 were done by type-specific PCR primers HPV-16/F, HPV-16/R and HPV-18/F, HPV-18/R.Results: Prevalence of HPV infection in monogamous and polygamous groups was 29% and 37.9%, respectively. The most HPV infection was found in 15-25 years group. The most prevalence of infection in monogamous group was HPV-18 and HPV- non16, 18 in 15-25 years, and HPV-16 in 26-35 years group. In polygamous group the most prevalent type was HPV-16, 18 in 15-25 years group. The most prevalent HPV-16 was seen in sever inflammation and dysplasia cytology in both groups.Conclusion: Prevalence of HPV infection in Zabol is high, and in women with polygamous husbands group is slightly more than monogamous. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region of Iran.
Esteban, J G; Flores, A; Aguirre, C; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S
Coprological studies of school children from four communities in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano were carried out in order to estimate the prevalences and intensities of Fasciola hepatica infection. Single stool specimens were collected at random from 558 school children (308 boys and 250 girls) aged 5-19 years old. Nineteen different parasite species (13 protozoan and six helminths) were detected. Of the children examined, 98.7% (96.5-100%) presented infection with at least one parasite species. The mean prevalence of 27.6% by Fasciola hepatica (range, 5.9-38.2%) was the highest not only with respect to the helminth species found in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano but also among the fasciolosis prevalences reported in children in other parts of the world to date. Prevalences were significantly different among the communities surveyed and was significantly higher in the 9-12 years age group. There were, however, no significant differences between sexes. Among the 154 children presenting F. hepatica eggs in stools, intensities ranged from 24-5064 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), with arithmetic and geometric means of 474 and 201 epg, respectively. Significant differences in mean egg output were detected between communities, sexes and age groups. Individual fasciolosis infections coexisting with other pathogenic parasite species (Entamoeba histolytica and/or E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli, Dientamoeba fragilis, Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Enterobius vermicularis) were detected. A significant positive association with F. hepatica was only found in the case of G. intestinalis. This coprological study not only verifies the existence of high prevalences of F. hepatica among humans in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano, but also demonstrates the need to expand the Southern boundaries of this high endemic zone to include the Southeastern region of Lake Titicaca.
Cristina Marta Maria Laczynski
the chi-square. RESULTS: 87.5% of children had some skin disease.46 dermatoses were found,the most important:amelanocytic nevi (p <0.001;bacne grade II (p = 0.004;cpityriasis alba (p <0.001;dlivedo reticularis (p = 0.025; epediculosis (p <0.001;fasteatosis (p <0.001;g frictional dermatitis (p = 0.007.Small prevalence of skin diseases was observed in children in public schools (53.14%. CONCLUSIONS: This population sample indicated that 87.5% of children had skin diseases,which prevalence was much higher than those found in the literature(30-50%,showing a lightly enhanced prevalence in public schools.The study showed the neglect of parents and caregivers,indicating the need for interference from public policy,which lack certainly is responsible for high rate and can increase it
Full Text Available Recently, major progress has been made in controlling malaria in Africa. However, in Gabon, little information is available on the role of malaria in childhood febrile syndromes, the use and efficacy of preventive measures, and Plasmodium species distribution. Here, we characterized malaria in febrile children in Franceville, Gabon through a cross-sectional study at the pediatric unit of the Franceville Regional Hospital. We registered 940 febrile children. Their general condition was markedly altered in 11.7% of cases (n = 89/760; among them 19 (21.4% had a severely altered condition. Malaria was the second most frequent etiology (22.0%; n = 162/738, after respiratory tract infections (37.3%; n = 275/738. Children with malaria (63 ± 39 months were older than children without malaria (40 ± 37 months (p = 0.0013. Hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet values were lower in children with malaria than in those without malaria (p < 0.0001. Anemia was the most common feature of severe malaria (70.6%; n = 12/17, followed by neurological involvement (23.5%; n = 4/17. The prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in children older than 60 months than in younger children (40% vs. 15.5%; p < 0.0001. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 97.5% of cases (158/162, followed by Plasmodium malariae (2.5%; n = 4/162. Bed net use was high (74.4%; n = 697/936 and contributed to malaria prevention (p = 0.001. Good basic knowledge of malaria also had a preventive effect (p < 0.0001. The prevalence of malaria in children in Franceville did not decrease significantly from 2009 to 2012, remaining at about 20%, highlighting that preventive measures should be reinforced.
Vicente, Joaquín; Höfle, Ursula; Garrido, Joseba M; Fernández-De-Mera, Isabel G; Juste, Ramón; Barral, Marta; Gortazar, Christian
We describe the distribution of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Spain. Animals with TBL were confirmed in 84.21% of mixed populations (n=57) of red deer and wild boar and in 75% of populations of wild boar alone (n=8) in central and southern Spain (core area). The prevalence of TBL declined towards the periphery of this region. In the core area, the prevalence ranged up to 100% in local populations of wild boar (mean estate prevalence 42.51%) and up to 50% in red deer (mean estate prevalence 13.70%). We carried out exploratory statistical analyses to describe the epidemiology of TBL in both species throughout the core area. Prevalence of TBL increased with age in both species. Wild boar and red deer mean TBL prevalence at the estate level were positively associated, and lesion scores were consistently higher in wild boars than in red deer. The wild boar prevalence of TBL in wild boar did not differ between populations that were or were not cohabiting with red deer. Amongst the wild boars with TBL, 61.19% presented generalized lesions, and the proportion of generalized cases was similar between sex and age classes. In red deer, 57.14% of TBL-positive individuals presented generalized lesions, and the percentage of generalized cases increased with age class, but did not differ between the sexes. These results highlight the potential importance of wild boar and red deer in the maintenance of tuberculosis in south central Spain.
Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence and incidence of N. gonorrhoeae among a prospective cohort of FSWs underscore the urgency for traditional HIV/STIs prevention methods among FSWs, such as condom promotion, screening and treatment of STIs, considering the high prevalence of STIs. Significant attention should focus on FSWs working in higher risk commercial sex venues as they are at higher risk for N. gonorrhoeae and transmission than those in lower risk commercial sex venues.
Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne infections in many countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases of human campylobacteriosis. An European baseline study (Dec. 516/07/UE was carried out in the year 2008 with the aim of determining the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and the contamination level on the broiler carcasses. One hundred broiler flocks were sampled in 4 poultry slaughterhouses in Emilia Romagna and 52% (IC 95%: 41,8%-62,1% were positive for Campylobacter jejuni/coli. The prevalence of thermophylic Campylobacter on carcasses was 26,0% (IC 95%: 17,7%- 35,7% and it was correlated to finding of these bacteria in the broilers’ gut (O.R.: 3,8; I.C. 95%: 1,4-9,9.
Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Addor, Marie-Claude
OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and outcome for fetuses and infants with congenital hydrocephalus. METHODS: Data were taken from four European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). The registries included are based on multiple sources of information and include...... information about livebirths, fetal deaths with GA>/=20weeks and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA). All cases from the four registries diagnosed with congenital hydrocephalus and born in the period 1996-2003 were included in the study. Cases with hydrocephalus associated with neural tube...... defects were not included in the study. RESULTS: Eighty-seven cases with congenital hydrocephalus were identified during the study period giving an overall prevalence of 4.65 per 10,000 births. There were 41 livebirths (47%), four fetal deaths (5%) and 42 TOPFA (48%). Nine percent of all cases were from...
Salman Khan; Priti Singh; Siddiqui, A
Objective: Serum levels of anti-streptolysin O antibodies (ASO) in the routine evaluation of patients with rheumatic conditions. Prevalence of elevated serum ASO titer in patients which were coming in OPD & IPD of Nepalgunj Medical College & teaching hospital with various clinical conditions.Method: This was a retrospective cross sectional study, which was performed in the centrallaboratory of Microbiology at Nepalgunj Medical College and teaching Hospital, Banke, Nepal during the per...
Acosta-González, Rosa I.; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals’ owners. Serum from 1 stalli...
Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease continue to affect millions of people around the world. Children and adolescents of the developing countries are especially susceptible to this disease. To asses the prevalence of Rheumatic Fever /Rheumatic heart disease in an urban area, we do survey of children aged between 5 to 16 years studying in various government schools in Indore district which were selected randomly. Out of 9879 students enrolled in the study 9526 were examined, the percent...
Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.
Full Text Available On the basis cross sectional health and morbidity survey was conducted in 1973, an attempt was made to measure the prevalence of high blood pressure among Qashqai Tribe. Our study showed that hypertension is by no means a rare condition among nomads and it tends to be a little higher in women than in men age gtoUp 35 years and o ver , Our figures showed that the pattern of increase of prevalence of high blood pressure with the increase of age.
Devera, Rodolfo; Blanco, Ytalia; Cabello, Eva
The intestinal coccidioses caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Cyclospora cayetanensis are parasitoses of major medical importance, but many epidemiological aspects of these infections are still unknown in Bolívar State, Venezuela. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and especially of intestinal coccidiosis, an indigenous population in San Antonio de Morichal was evaluated from July 2003 to April 2004. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were preserved in potassium dichromate 2.5% and examined by the formalin-ether concentration method and Kinyoun staining. Of the 160 indigenous people examined, 92.5% (148 cases) were infected. Entamoeba coli (58.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (38.8%), and Giardia lamblia (18.8%) were the most prevalent intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis prevalence was 13.1%, and cyclosporiasis was the most prevalent with 11.9% (19 cases). One subject with C. parvum oocysts and another with I. belli oocysts were diagnosed. There was no difference according to sex (p > 0.05) and age (chi2 = 5.6; f.g. = 6) among individuals infected with C. cayetanensis. Of these, two cases had only diarrhea. In conclusion, a high prevalence of intestinal coccidiosis infection was found among indigenous people from this community, with C. cayetanensis as the most prevalent infection.
Xuequn, Yu; Ke, Liang; Ivers, Rebecca; Du, Wei; Senserrick, Teresa
This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of helmet use, and of correct helmet use (chinstrap firmly fastened) among motorcycle riders and their passengers in Zhongshan, Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey involving direct observation of motorcycle riders was conducted at 20 randomly selected intersections. A total of 13,410 motorcycles were observed during a 10-day period in February 2009. The overall prevalence of helmet use was 72.6% (95% CI: 71.8-73.3%) among drivers and 34.1% (95% CI: 32.7-35.5%) among pillion passengers. The prevalence of correct use was 43.2% (95% CI: 42.4-44.0%) and 20.9% (95% CI: 19.8-22.1%) for drivers and passengers respectively. The helmet wearing rate on city streets was almost 95%, however city riders were more likely than rural riders to wear non-motorcycle helmets while riding. In multivariate analyses, factors associated with increased helmet use included riding on city streets, male gender, being a driver, carrying less passengers and riding a registered motorcycle. The results indicated enforcement and education activities need to be strengthened with respect to both helmet use and helmet quality, especially in rural areas, in order to improve wearing rates.
Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon
Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877
Tsanidou, Eirini; Nena, Evangelia; Rossos, Alexandros; Lendengolts, Zhanna; Nikolaidis, Christos; Tselebonis, Athanasios; Constantinidis, Theodoros C
The aim of this study was to correlate different combinations of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) concentration in drinking water with prevalence of dental caries in both primary and permanent dentition, among school children with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Evros region, in North-Eastern Greece, was divided into four areas, according to combinations of levels of Mn and Fe in drinking water (High Mn-high Fe; High Mn-low Fe; Low Mn-high Fe; Low Mn-low Fe). Children of similar socio-economic background, attending either first or sixth grade (primary or permanent dentition, respectively) of elementary schools, were clinically assessed for caries by three dentists. Caries was defined by the use of dmft/DMFT index. A questionnaire answered by the parents was also analysed. 573 children were included. Caries prevalence was high in both age groups (64.2 % with mean dmft 3.3 ± 3.6 in primary and 60.7 % with mean DMFT 2.3 ± 2.5 in permanent dentition, respectively). Residence in a high Mn-low Fe area was associated with a significant OR for caries in both age groups [OR (95 % CIs) for primary and permanent dentition was, respectively, 3.75 (1.68-8.37), p = 0.001 and 3.09 (1.48-6.44), p = 0.003], independently of factors like sugar consumption or brushing frequency. Prevalence of caries was high in general, and was associated with the combination of high Mn/low Fe levels in drinking water, independently of various socio-demographic factors.
Full Text Available Vivian Etsiapa Boamah,1 Christian Agyare,1 Hayford Odoi,1 Francis Adu,1 Stephen Yao Gbedema,1 Anders Dalsgaard2 1Microbiology Section, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 2Section of Food Safety and Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederisksberg, Denmark Abstract: The use of antibiotics in animal production has been associated with the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant organisms including commensals. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS species, which were until recently considered non-pathogenic, have been associated with opportunistic infections and high resistance to several antibiotics. This study sought to determine the prevalence, identity, and phenotypic resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. isolated from some selected poultry farms and farm workers in the Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Poultry litter samples and oral swabs of poultry farm workers were collected, from which bacterial species were isolated, identified, and analyzed. Various selective media were used for the presumptive identification of the different species. Confirmation of bacterial identity was done using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Zones of growth inhibition were interpreted based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST guidelines. Two hundred and fifty-six coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., comprising S. sciuri (42.97%, S. lentus (35.94%, S. gallinarum (6.64%, S. xylosus (4.30%, S. haemolyticus (3.91%, S. saprophyticus (1.95%, and S. cohnii (0.39% were confirmed by MALDI-TOF. CoNS were isolated from samples
Yazdanparast, S A; Mohseni, S; De Hoog, G S; Aslani, N; Sadeh, A; Badali, H
Environmental isolation of black yeasts potentially causing human disorders is essential for understanding ecology and routes of infection. Several Exophiala species show prevalence for man-made environments rich in monoaromatic compounds, such as creosote-treated or petroleum-stained railway sleepers. Ambient climatic conditions play a role in species composition in suitable habitats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the composition of Exophiala species in railway stations as a potential source of human infections in a subtropical region with evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility profiles. We examined 150 railway samples using cotton swabs moistened with sterile physiological saline. Black yeasts and relatives were selected on theirs colony morphology and identified based on ITS rDNA sequencing. Overall, 36 (24%) of samples were positive for black yeast-like fungi, i.e., Exophiala dermatitidis (n=20, 55.6%) was predominant, followed by E. phaeomuriformis (n=9, 25%), E. heteromorpha (n=5, 13.9%), and E. xenobiotica (n=2, 5.6%). Massive contaminations of E. dermatitidis were seen on railway sleepers on creosoted oak wood at the region close to the sea level, while in cold climates were primarily contaminated with clinically insignificant or rare human opportunists (E. crusticola). It seems that, high temperature and humidity are significant effect on species diversity. Moreover, the MIC results for all E. dermatitidis and E. phaeomuriformis strains revealed the widest range and the highest MICs to caspofungin (range 1-16mg/L, Geometric mean 4.912mg/L), and the lowest MIC for posaconazole (0.016-0.031mg/L, G mean 0.061mg/L). However, their clinical effectiveness in the treatment of Exophiala infections remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
潘雪娇; 郑敏; 涂秋凤; 刘玮
目的:了解江西省育龄妇女对乙肝的认知水平、态度及行为,分析其影响因素,为今后有针对性地开展宣传教育提供科学依据。方法:对江西省乙肝高发地区18～49岁育龄妇女进行乙肝防治知识-态度-行为问卷调查并对结果进行统计分析。结果:1 161名育龄妇女乙肝防治知识知晓率为45.76％,对乙肝的传播途径有一定的了解,但仍存在误区。被调查妇女乙肝防治知识平均得分(11.44±5.10)分,妇女年龄、文化程度、职业得分组间差别有统计学意义(P＜0.01);只有不到1/3的调查对象愿意与乙肝患者/携带者交往;文化程度和是否注射疫苗是影响乙肝防治知识、态度、行为的主要因素。乙肝防治知识、态度及行为三者之间存在相关性。结论:江西省育龄妇女乙肝防治知识知晓率较低,对乙肝患者/携带者有一定的歧视现象,今后应针对低文化、高年龄、农民加强健康教育,提高乙肝防治基本知识和自我防护意识,最终控制乙肝传播。%Objective; To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice ( KAP) of women of childbearing age about hepatitis B in Jiangxi province, analyze the effect factors, provide a scientific basis for further carrying out propaganda and education specifically. Methods; The women of childbearing age (18-49 years old) in a region with high prevalence of hepatitis B in Jiangxi province received questionnaire survey of KAP of prevention knowledge of hepatitis B, and the results were analyzed retrospectively. Results; The awareness rate of prevention knowledge of hepatitis B was 45. 76% among 1 161 women of childbearing age, the women understood the route of transmission of hepatitis B to a certain extent, but the misunderstanding still existed. The average value of prevention knowledge of hepatitis B among investigated women was (11. 44 ±5. 10) , there was significant difference among the women with different ages, different
Truelsen, Thomas Clement
analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20-30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most...... common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated...... published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Serological study of human papillomavirus (HPV-antibodies in order to estimate the HPV-prevalence as risk factor for the development of HPV-associated malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive men. Methods Sera from 168 HIV-positive men and 330 HIV-negative individuals (including 198 controls were tested using a direct HPV-ELISA specific to HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and bovine PV-1 L1-virus-like particles. Serological results were correlated with the presence of HPV-associated lesions, the history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD and HIV classification groups. Results In HIV-negative men low risk HPV-antibodies were prevailing and associated with condylomatous warts (25.4%. Strikingly, HIV-positive men were more likely to have antibodies to the high-risk HPV types -16, -18, -31, and low risk antibodies were not increased in a comparable range. Even those HIV-positive heterosexual individuals without any HPV-associated lesions exhibited preferentially antibody responses to the oncogenic HPV-types (cumulative 31.1%. The highest antibody detection rate (88,8% was observed within the subgroup of nine HIV-positive homosexual men with anogenital warts. Three HIV-positive patients had HPV-associated carcinomas, in all of them HPV-16 antibodies were detected. Drug use and mean CD4-cell counts on the day of serologic testing had no influence on HPV-IgG antibody prevalence, as had prior antiretroviral therapy or clinical category of HIV-disease. Conclusion High risk HPV-antibodies in HIV-infected and homosexual men suggest a continuous exposure to HPV-proteins throughout the course of their HIV infection, reflecting the known increased risk for anogenital malignancies in these populations. The extensive increase of high risk antibodies (compared to low risk antibodies in HIV-positive patients cannot be explained by differences in exposure history alone, but suggests defects of the immunological control of
Tito Del Gaudio
Full Text Available Nosocomial infections, arising from complications during hospital treatment, represent one of the most important cause of disease. The Andria hospital has initiated a prevalence study, as a part of a general program promoted by the “Agenzia Regionale per la Sanità” (Regional Health Board of Regione Puglia. Samples were collected from patients hospitalized in the period 2007 - 2010. Risk factors, ongoing infections, selected antibiotic therapy, site of infection, microorganism types, as well as patient’s clinic and personal data, were all elements taken into account. The study shows that nosocomial infections, due to different health care related risk factors, are most frequently encountered in Intensive Care Units. A poor adhesion to the Regione Puglia antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines was observed in surgery. An insufficient use of cultural methods to confirm/diagnose the presence of bacterial infections was also observed; this fact could lead to underestimate the incidence of nosocomial infections.
Carnelosso, Maria Lúcia; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Porto, Celmo Celeno; Silva, Simonne Almeida e; Carvalho, Magna Maria de; Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Ignácio
Aiming to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population of the Eastern Region of Goiania, Goiás, a transversal study was done involving 3.275 individuals, men and women, aging 15 years and up. Data was collected through home visits for identification and information on living habits, measures blood pressure, anthropometry, and blood collection for identifying dyslipidemias. The variables investigated were: weight, height, blood pressure, physical activity, use of tobacco, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Estimated prevalence at intervals of 95% confidence, differences in proportions assessed using chi-square test and values (p <0,05) considered statistically significant. The study showed that 33,4% of subjects had hypertension, 44.1% overweight/obesity, 16.2% used tobacco regular/occasionally; 72.5% in sedentary leisure and 70% at work, 48.4% with the waist circumference increased; 8.2% hyperglycemia plus impaired glucose tolerance; 44.4% hypercholesterolemia, 13.3% and high triglycerides. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors were observed in the study population suggesting greater attention of the authorities in the actions of promotion and prevention of these diseases.
Barros, Lena Maria Fonseca; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Kramvis, Anna; Mendes-Corrêa, Maria Cássia Jacintho; dos Santos, Alexsandro; Souza, Letícia Alana Barros; Santos, Max Diego Cruz; Carrilho, Flair José; de Jesus Domicini, Arnaldo; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Adalgisa
In this study, we determined the prevalence of HBV subgenotypes in Maranhão state, located in northeastern Brazil, where the population is heterogeneous, with a high proportion of African descendants. HBV was detected in 119 of 133 (89.5%) chronic hepatitis B patients, including 103 (86.5%) who were HBeAg-negative. Using phylogenetic analysis of the S/Polymerase region of HBV DNA, subgenotype A1 was found to be the most prevalent (67%), followed by genotype D (28%; subgenotype D4 was detected in 24%, D3 in 3%, and D2 in 1%). Genotype F, clustering with subgenotype F2a, was found in six (5%) patients. The topology of the phylogenetic tree showed that HBV/A1 sequences did not cluster together, suggesting that more than one strain was introduced into Maranhão. On the other hand, HBV/D4 sequences formed a monophyletic cluster, suggesting a single entry of this strain in this population. This study showed that HBV/A1 was the only subgenotype of HBV/A present in the population from Maranhão and indicated that in this region HBV/A1 was not restricted to an Afro-descendant community where it was previously reported, but is widely distributed among general population of HBV chronic carriers. Unexpectedly, we found a high frequency of HBV subgenotype D4. Together with previously reported data on the distribution of HBV/D4 in the world, these findings suggest that this subgenotype was more prevalent in the African continent in the past and may have been introduced in Maranhão by means of the slave trade during the late XVIII century, when the largest number of African slaves arrived to this region.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess asthma prevalence in children between 13-14 years of age in East Jakarta. This study is a cross sectional study which surveyed 2234 high school students between the ages of 13 and 14 years in East Jakarta in 2001 using the ISAAC questionnaire. Bronchial challenge test was applied by using methacholine substance to 186 students. Reports based on the ISAAC questionnaire indicate that 7.2% of teenage have had wheezing experience, 4.1% have wheezing within the last 12 months, 1.8% have ever suffered severe asthma attack within the last 12 months, 3.3% have suffered wheezing after exercise, and 6.3% have got night cough while they were not suffering from cold. Prevalence of atopy diseases such as rhinitis and eczema were 14.2% and 3.9%, meanwhile rhinitis and eczema prevalence within the last 12 months according to this study were 10.6% and 2.9% respectively. Statistically, there is a significant correlation between wheezing symptom and atopy (p < 0.05. From indepth questionnaire, a significant value of kappa 0.84 related with wheezing within the last 12 months was found. Bronchial challenge test results indicate that sensitivity was 90%, specificity 83.58%, positive predictive value 68.12% and negative predictive value was 95.73%. Asthma prevalence in East Jakarta at 2001 based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8.9%, and cumulative prevalence 11.5%. The ISAAC questionnaire can be used to study asthma prevalence in children at multicenter in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 178-86Keywords: bronchial challenge, high school student, ISAAC questionnaire, East Jakarta, asthma prevalence
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV is a significant global public health problem and a major consideration for anti-HIV-1 treatment. HCV infection among HIV-1 positive people who are eligible for the newly launched nationwide anti-HIV-1 treatment program in China has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY: A nationwide survey of HIV-1 positive injection drug uses (IDU, former paid blood donors (FBD, and sexually transmitted cases from multiple provinces including the four most affected provinces in China was conducted. HCV prevalence and genetic diversity were determined. We found that IDU and FBD have extremely high rates of HCV infection (97% and 93%, respectively. Surprisingly, people who acquired HIV-1 through sexual contact also had a higher rate of HCV infection (20% than the general population. HIV-1 subtype and HCV genotypes were amazingly similar among FBD from multiple provinces stretching from Central to Northeast China. However, although patterns of overland trafficking of heroin and distinct HIV-1 subtypes could be detected among IDU, HCV genotypes of IDU were more diverse and exhibited significant regional differences. CONCLUSION: Emerging HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and possible sexual transmission of HCV in China require urgent prevention measures and should be taken into consideration in the nationwide antiretroviral treatment program.
Bichara, Clea Nazaré Carneiro; Bichara, Carlos David Araújo; Tostes, Camila; Povoa, Marinete Marins; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Xavier, Marília Brasil
Infectious agents can activate self-reactive T cells. In general, infections trigger various mechanisms, including a lack of auto-tolerance, induction of costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells, and molecular simulation, in addition to cross-reactions between microbial antigens and self-antigens. HIV and leprosy coinfections lead to self-immunity with the production of autoantibodies. However, not enough data on the immune behaviour associated with this coinfection are available. Therefore, this study focused on the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens (AACA) in individuals with HIV and leprosy coinfection in the Amazon region. Patients were distributed into four groups according to their infections: (i) coinfection with HIV and leprosy (n = 23), (ii) infection with leprosy (n = 33), (iii) infection with HIV/AIDS (n = 25), and (iv) healthy blood donor controls (n = 100). AACA were identified by indirect immunofluorescence and the samples were tested using a commercial diagnosis kit containing the antinuclear antibody HEp-2. Morphologically, all stages of cell division were assessed in addition to the morphological features associated with the nuclear matrix, nucleolus, mitotic spindle, and cytoplasm. There was a high prevalence of AACA in the coinfection group (47.8%, n = 11) when compared with the control group of healthy blood donors (2.0%). The results showed predominantly cytoplasmic staining in all groups analysed, and no difference was observed between the presence or absence of AACA and the leprosy forms (paucibacillary and multibacillary) in the coinfection group. The results of this study show that despite the tendency of coinfected patients to have higher levels of autoantibodies, no correlation was observed between clinical and laboratorial variables and morbidity associated with HIV and leprosy coinfections or the levels of AACA in the serum of coinfected patients. These data are important to elucidate
Full Text Available Background: Acne is one of the most common skin diseases especially in adolescence. Different studies have reported unequal rates of facial acne prevalence in different countries and populations. Only a few cases of acne in the trunk area (back and chest have been reported in literature. Although our clinical experience shows lower prevalence of truncal acne in comparison with facial acne, a community based study is needed to support this experience. Methods: A total number of 1001 high school students, selected randomly from 5 out of 20 education-ministry subdivisions of Tehran, were included. In each area two high schools (one for boys and one for girls with almost 100 students per high school were selected. Demographic data, family history and clinical findings were recorded in the questionnaires. Consensus Conference on Acne Classification was used for acne grading. Results: One thousand one high school students, 503 girls and 498 boys ,were included. Prevalence of acne was 91.1% for face (95%CI: 83-99%, 93.4% in boys and 88.6% in girls. It was 53.4% for back (95%CI: 46-62.2%, 58.5% in boys and 36.9% in girls. Whereas for chest the prevalence was 36% (95%CI: 27-45%, 34.9% in boys and 36.9% in girls. Mean age of the students with truncal acne was 16.1 years where as 15.9 in others. This difference was significant (P<0.05. Positive family history was higher in students with truncal acne (P<0.001. Conclusion: Truncal acne is less prevalent than facial acne. Acne on the back is significantly higher in boys than girls (P=0.002. Severe forms of acne in back may be more prevalent in boys. Positive family history can increase the risk of truncal acne.
Nelson, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Jensen, Tina Kold
January 1997 to 31st September 1998 in a population-based hypospadias case register (surgeons' register) 731 cases, BP 3.8, (95% confidence interval 3.7-3.9), the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) 645 cases (88% of surgeons' register), BP 3.4, (95% confidence interval 3.29-3.5) and Hospital...... Episode Statistics (HES) 221 cases (30% of the surgeons register), BP 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.2). There were 191,438 male births (National Statistics). We found considerable differences in birth prevalence estimates and ascertainment according to data source. Compared with the Surgeons...
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.
Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald
Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia. Greater efforts are
Pommer, L.; Fick, J.; Andersson, B.
This method was able to separate buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Data from the Northern Swedish Office Illness Study describing the presence and level of chemical compounds in outdoor, supply and room air, respective...
Kinabo, G.; Sprengers, M.; Msuya, L.J.; Shayo, A.M.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Dolmans, W.M.V.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Warris, A.
OBJECTIVE: : Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with lipodystrophy (LD) in adults but data are more limited for children. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for LD in Tanzanian children receiving HAART by clinical assessment an
Nur, Naim; Çetinkaya, Selma; Yilmaz, Abdülkerim; Ayvaz, Adnan; Bulut, Mustafa Orhan; Sümer, Haldun
Hypertension may lead to irreversible damages in vital organs, such as heart, brain, and kidney, and may cause death in children if treatments are not given despite early diagnosis. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted during 1 January–31 March 2004 to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among high school students. The study cohort included 1,041 students of six high schools, who were selected from among 14,789 students of 26 high schools in Sivas province of Turkey, using the cluster-sampling method. A questionnaire was used for collecting information from students on age, gender, smoking, and whether they or their families have any diseases. Blood pressure, height, and weight of the participitants were determined by the research group. Students whose repeated systolic or diastolic blood pressures were higher than the 95th percentile were considered to be hypertensive patients. Hypertension was prevalent among 4.4% (n=45) of the students. There was a significant correlation between prevalence of hypertension and body mass index. No significant correlation was found between prevalence of hypertension and other variables, such as smoking, age, gender, and family history of diabetes. The results suggest that hypertension is an important public-health problem among high school students. The results also showed that the body mass index was an important parameter in hypertension in such a study group. Researchers should consider overweight a causative risk factor for development of hypertension in early-onset groups. PMID:18637532
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012.From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants' body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test.The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period.This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In light of the increasing number of high-tech industry workers and the differences in their working conditions compared to those of the general population, the health status of these workers merits serious attention. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlates among Taiwanese high-tech industry workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 4,666 workers who participated in labor health examinations at a hospital in southern Taiwan in 2008. Participants with metabolic syndrome were defined using the criteria proposed by the Taiwan National Department of Health in 2007. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.2%, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women (14.0% vs. 2.3%, p<0.01. Male gender, advanced age, elevated white blood count, and elevated levels of blood biochemistry markers, such as alanine aminotransferase and uric acid, can independently predict metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-tech industry workers is lower than in the general population. Our study's findings may facilitate early health assessments and the provision of proper workplace health promotion programs to reduce the risks faced by high-risk workers.
Hou, Xuhong; Lu, Huijuan; Shen, Yixie; Chen, Ruihua; Fang, Pingyan; Yu, Hong; Li, Ming; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Haibing; Yu, Haoyong; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Fang; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012. Methods From 2002 to 2012, 10043 subjects with known risk factors for diabetes participated in the diabetes-screening project at the Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. All participants were asked to complete a nurse-administered standard questionnaire concerning age, sex, smoking status, and personal and family histories of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension and other diseases. The participants’ body mass index scores, blood pressures and blood glucose levels at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min were measured in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes increased from 27.93% to 34.78% between 2002 and 2012 in high-risk subjects. The study also showed that the prevalence increased much faster in male compared to female subjects. Specifically, an increased rate was seen in middle-aged men, with no change observed in middle-aged females over the eleven-year period. Conclusion This study showed that sex, age, parental diabetic history, and being overweight were associated with an increased risk for diabetes in high-risk people. Therefore, as prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent in people with multiple diabetes risk factors in Shanghai, screening programs targeting these individuals may be beneficial. PMID:25047241
Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao
This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…
Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Sørensen, Søren Johannes;
of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation...
Biel, Frances M; Marshall, Nicole E; Snowden, Jonathan M
There is an evidence gap regarding the use of regional anaesthesia (epidural, spinal, or combined epidural/spinal anaesthesia) and associated complications by maternal body mass index (BMI). We examine associations between regional anaesthesia, mode of delivery, and regional anaesthesia complications by pre-pregnancy BMI categories among term deliveries. Retrospective cohort study of births in California, 2007-2010, utilizing linked birth certificate data and patient discharge data. Outcomes were mode of delivery (among laboured deliveries) and select regional anaesthesia complications. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to adjust for maternal characteristics. In women undergoing labour (i.e. laboured delivery), women with higher BMI categories were more likely to receive regional analgesia in a dose-response fashion (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.11 for primiparous women with category I obesity), and in those receiving regional anaesthesia, were less likely to deliver vaginally (e.g. RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84, 0.85 for the same category of women). Regional anaesthesia complications displayed a complex relationship with maternal BMI, with women in intermediate obesity categories having decreased odds as compared to normal-weight women, and women in the highest BMI category having a twofold increased risk of complications (RR 2.34, 95% CI 1.37, 4.02 for primiparous women). Labouring women in higher BMI categories were more likely to receive regional anaesthesia and more likely to deliver via caesarean compared to normal weight women and women without regional anaesthesia. Rates of anaesthesia complications were highest among women in the highest BMI category. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: HBV Virus is one of the major health problems in India. Hepato cellular carcinoma due to HBV infection is 5th most frequent cancer in world wide. About 30% population has serological evidence of current or past infection with HBV. In the natural history of HBV infection, the most important event is HBeAg, Seroconversion is characterized by loss of HBeAg and development of antibody against HBeAg. AIMS: The aim of the study was to determine sero prevalence of hepatitis B infection among different age, sex groups and to understand the risk factors that define the development of HBsAg. DESIGN - The study design was based on clinical evaluation and serological testing. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital, G.B. Panth Hospital. Agartala, West Tripura during the period over 5 years, 2001 – 2005.In this retrospective study, total 21, 121 numbers of patients serum were examined by ELISA method to detect the Hepatitis B surface antigen in different categories of patient as a marker of infection. out of 21, 121 patients, 1044 number of cases were seropositive showing the prevalence rate 4.94% in compared with hepatitis B virus infection in India is 4%. Details clinical history, age, sex, risk factors were recorded carefully. -
B. W. Narladkar
Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides
Palade, Elena Alina; Demeter, Zoltán; Hornyák, Akos; Nemes, Csaba; Kisary, János; Rusvai, Miklós
Samples collected in 2008 and 2009, from 49 turkey flocks of 6 to 43 days in age and presenting clinical signs of enteric disease and high mortality, were tested by polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of viruses currently associated with enteric disease (ED) syndromes: astrovirus, reovirus, rotavirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus. Turkey astroviruses were found in 83.67% of the cases and turkey astrovirus 2 (TAst-2) in 26.53%. The investigations directly demonstrated the high prevalence of turkey parvovirus (TuPV) in 23 flocks (46.9%) experiencing signs of ED, making this pathogen the second most identified after astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis on a 527 base pair-long region from the NS1 gene revealed two main clusters, a chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and a TuPV group, but also the presence of a divergent branch of tentatively named "TuPV-like ChPV" strains. The 23 Hungarian TuPV strains were separately positioned in two groups from the American origin sequences in the TuPV cluster. An Avail-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay has also been developed for the quick differentiation of TuPV, ChPV, and divergent TuPV-like ChPV strains. As most detected enteric viruses have been directly demonstrated in healthy turkey flocks as well, the epidemiology of this disease complex remains unclear, suggesting that a certain combination of pathogens, environmental factors, or both are necessary for the development of clinical signs.
Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka
The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring dynamics in HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours is important in evaluating, adjusting and scaling up prevention programmes. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural village population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using repeated population-based cross-sectional surveys. Methods Four rounds of HIV-1 sero-epidemiological and behavioural surveys were completed during 1991 to 2005 in the study village. House-to-house registrations of people aged 15–44 years with an address in the village were conducted before each survey. All consenting individuals were then interviewed for pertinent risk behaviours and tested for HIV-1 seropositivity. Results Participation proportions ranged from 73.0% to 79.1%. Overall, age and sex-adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.2% in 1991 to 5.6 % in 2005 (relative increase 75.0%; ptrend trends trend trends trend Conclusion The HIV-1 prevalence seems to have increased among older participants but remained stable among younger participants. Encouraging trends toward safer sex practices were observed among young participants, while only modest behavioural changes were seen among the older participants. Prevention efforts in rural areas need to be intensified and to address people of all ages.
A V Dreval'
Full Text Available Currently in Russia, as well as throughout the world, has been steadily increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and early disorders of carbohydrate metabolism - impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. It is shown that in the first year after diagnosis "prediabetes" in 5-10% of patients becomes type 2 diabetes, in five years - at 20-35%. If impaired glucose tolerance combined with impaired fasting glucose, the type 2 diabetes within 5 years develops in 38-65%. The true prevalence of overt type 2 diabetes several times higher than registered, from time to onset of the disease before its detection can reach 7-12 years. Up to 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes at diagnosis already have those or other complications. In this case, early detection of type 2 diabetes and early disorders of carbohydrate metabolism contributes to the timely initiation of treatment and prevention of complications of diabetes, can lead to disability of the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the results of oral glucose tolerance test the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and early disorders of carbohydrate metabolism among a select group of the adult population of the Moscow region.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.
Nathan John Grills
Full Text Available Background. Nearly one-third of adults in India use tobacco, resulting in 1.2 million deaths. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP related to smoking in the impoverished state of Uttarakhand. Methods. A cross-sectional epidemiological prevalence survey was undertaken. Multistage cluster sampling selected 20 villages and 50 households to survey from which 1853 people were interviewed. Tobacco prevalence and KAP were analyzed by income level, occupation, age, and sex. 95% confidence intervals were calculated using standard formulas and incorporating assumptions in relation to the clustering effect. Results. The overall prevalence of tobacco usage, defined using WHO criteria, was 38.9%. 93% of smokers and 86% of tobacco chewers were male. Prevalence of tobacco use, controlling for other factors, was associated with lower education, older age, and male sex. 97.6% of users and 98.1% of nonusers wanted less tobacco. Except for lung cancer (89% awareness, awareness of diseases caused by tobacco usage was low (cardiac: 67%; infertility: 32.5%; stroke: 40.5%. Conclusion. A dangerous combination of high tobacco usage prevalence, ignorance about its dangers, and few quit attempts being made suggests the need to develop effective and evidence based interventions to prevent a health and development disaster in Uttarakhand.
Bor, Serhat; Kitapcioglu, Gul; Kasap, Elmas
AIM To evaluate the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with additional symptoms, relationship with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) of this country-wide study. METHODS Data from 3214 adults were obtained with validated questionnaire. Eight hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized to be tested for H. pylori via the urea breath test. "Frequent symptoms" were defined heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring at least weekly. RESULTS The prevalence of GERD was 22.8%, frequent and occasional heartburn were 9.3%-12.7%, regurgitation were 16.6%-18.7%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) ≤ 18.5 showed a prevalence of 15%, BMI > 30 was 28.5%. The GERD prevalence was higher in women (26.2%) than men (18.9%) (P Turkey which reflects both Western and Eastern lifestyles with high rate of H. pylori. The presence of H. pylori had no effect on either the prevalence or the symptom profile of GERD. Subjects showing classical symptoms occasionally exhibit more additional symptoms compared with those without classical symptoms. PMID:28210089
Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon
.... We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana...
Conclusions: BA prevalence in the third survey increased 2.1 and 1.4 times respectively compared to the first survey and second survey, indicating an upward trend in all regions and age groups surveyed.
Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes.
Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti
Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.
Abhineet M Sharma
Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.
Dijkstra, S. H.; van Beek, A.; Janssen, J. W.; de Vleeschouwer, L. H. M.; Huysman, W. A.; van den Akker, E. L. T.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infant
Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders
to low field regions. Also, a general way to replace magnet material with a high permeability soft magnetic material where appropriate is discussed. As an example, these schemes are applied to a two dimensional concentric Halbach cylinder design resulting in a reduction of the amount of magnet material......A general scheme for increasing the difference in magnetic flux density between a high and a low magnetic field region by removing unnecessary magnet material is presented. This is important in, e.g., magnetic refrigeration where magnet arrays have to deliver high field regions in close proximity...
Ginindza, Themba G; Dlamini, Xolisile; Almonte, Maribel; Herrero, Rolando; Jolly, Pauline E; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Broutet, Nathalie; Sartorius, Benn
High risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection and the dual burden of HIV remains a huge challenge in some low-income countries (LICs) such as Swaziland with limited or no data. We estimated the prevalence and investigated determinants of hr-HPV, including HIV infection among sexually active women in Swaziland. A total of 655 women aged between 15 and 49 years from five health facilities were randomly enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Cervical cells were tested for hr-HPV types using GeneXpert HPV Assays. The overall weighted hr-HPV prevalence was 46.2% (95%CI: 42.8-49.5). Of hr-HPV infected women, 12.4% (95%CI: 8.6-17.5) were HPV16-positive, 13.8% (95%CI:12.0-15.8) were positive for HPV18/45, 26.7% (95%CI: 24.2-29.3) for HPV31/33/35/52/58, 7.6% (95%CI: 7.6-11.9) for HPV51/59 and 11.0%, (95%CI: 7.9-15.3) for HPV39/56/66/68. Prevalence of hr-HPV decreased with increasing age. Overall HIV prevalence remained high (42.7%; 95%CI: 35.7-46.2). HIV infection was associated with hr-HPV infection (Adjusted OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 3.043-7.8, p<0.001). Overall hr-HPV/HIV co-infection was 24.4% (95%CI: 20.3-29.1) which was significantly higher among younger age groups (p<0.001). Prevalence of multiple group hr-HPV infection was significantly higher in HIV-positive versus -negative women (27.7% and 12.7% respectively, p<0.001). The presence, absence or unknown of history of STI with HIV did not appear to modify the relationship with hr-HPV (OR = 4.2, 95%CI: 2.6-7.1, OR = 4.6, 95%CI: 2.8-7.7, p<0.001, p<0.001 and OR = 4.1, 95%CI: 1.3-13.4, p<0.021 respectively). The prevalence of hr-HPV infection was high and significantly associated with HIV among sexually active women. Furthermore, the study has provided essential information about the HIV link with hr-HPV infections which may explain the high prevalence among HIV infected women. This can contribute to policy development and planning of prevention strategies incorporating HPV infection prevention especially among
Strain superinfection occurs when a second strain infects a host already infected with a primary strain. The incidence of superinfection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of domestic and wild ruminants, has been shown to be higher in tropical versus temperate regions. This ...
M. Dirckx (Maaike); M.W.J. Schreurs (Marco); M. De Mos (Marissa); D.L. Stronks (Dirk); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank)
textabstractAutoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune
Shimizu, Yasuo; Dobashi, Kunio; Kobayashi, Setsuo; Ohki, Ichiro; Tokushima, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kawamura, Osamu; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Mori, Masatomo
It is known that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in asthmatic patients is high. Although an endoscopic diagnosis of GERD based on the established Los Angeles (LA) classification requires the detection of erosive mucosal breaks, there are patients with GERD who have prominent erythema of the esophageal membrane without erosive mucosal breaks. Non-erosive mucosal change denotes the minimal change of the discoloring type of reflux esophagitis. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of GERD in asthmatic patients using the LA classification with the inclusion of minimal change, compared to the prevalence determined using the established LA classification without minimal change. The presence of GERD in asthmatic patients (n = 78), non-asthmatic disease control patients (n = 56), and healthy subjects (n = 150) was evaluated by endoscopic examination. The frequency of GERD in asthmatic patients based on the LA classification with minimal change was higher (54/78, 69.2%) than in asthmatic patients based on the LA classification without minimal change (37/78, 47.4%) (p disease control patients (17/56, 30.4%) and healthy subjects (27/150, 18.0%) based on the LA classification with minimum change. These data indicate that asthmatic patients have a high frequency of GERD. In addition, without the inclusion of minimum change to the diagnosis of GERD, the prevalence of GERD appears to be underestimated in asthmatic patients. Therefore, physicians should carefully observe asthmatic patients with minimal change on endoscopy.
Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Bowers, John C; Benner, Ronald A
Recent developments in detection and enumeration of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) have created powerful molecular-based tools to better understand the presence of spoilage bacteria and conditions, resulting in increased risk of scombrotoxin fish poisoning. We examined 235 scombrotoxin-forming fish from the Gulf of Mexico for the presence of high HPB. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae was the most prevalent HPB (49%), followed by Morganella morganii (14%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), and Raoultella planticola (3%). The growth characteristics and histamine production capabilities of the two most prevalent HPB were further examined. M. morganii and P. damselae had optimum growth at 35°C and 30 to 35°C and 0 to 2% and 1 to 3% NaCl, respectively. P. damselae produced significantly (P production was not significantly different between the two HPB in inoculated tuna, possibly due to differences in muscle composition and salt content. Results in this study showed that P. damselae was the most prevalent high HPB in Gulf of Mexico fish. In addition, previously reported results using the traditional Niven's method may underreport the prevalence of P. damselae. Molecular-based methods should be used in addition to culture-based methods to enhance detection and enumeration of HPB.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of asthma and other respiratory diseases among children and adolescents has been on the rise in recent years and this can affect the quality of life and scholastic performance of school students. Therefore, it is essential to find out the actual prevalence of respiratory morbidity among high school students so that we can plan early interventions against this problem. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the students from classes 8 to 10, from a public school in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, using a modified American Thoracic Society Questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-A to assess respiratory symptoms among general population. Results: The prevalence of cough was 40.8% (95% CI 34.8% to 46.9% and that of wheeze was found to be 19.6% (95% CI 15.1% to 24.9%. Among the possible risk factors for developing respiratory diseases, it was found that only family history of respiratory problems had a significant association with symptoms of respiratory disease (P = 0.002. Conclusion: The very high prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the study may be due to the fact that the study was conducted during the rainy season in which there is a higher incidence of respiratory infections. But these findings point towards the need to conduct more comprehensive and objective studies on the subject. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1149-1152
Rina Girard Kaminsky; Steven K Ault; Phillip Castillo; Kenton Serrano; Guillermo Troya
Objective: To assess prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in school age children of two southern districts as baseline information prior to implement a deworming program against intestinal parasites as part of an integrated country development plan. Methods:Children randomly selected from urban and rural schools in Southern Belize provided one stool sample each, analysed by the Kato-Katz method to assess prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Epi Info software was used for data analysis;Chi-square test and Fischer exact test were applied to compare group proportions;P Results:A total of 500 children from 10 schools participated in the study from May to December 2005. Prevalence of STH ranged between 40%and 82%among schools, with a median of 59.2%;the majority of light intensity, and with 2.2%high intensity infection. Trichuris and Ascaris infections presented similar frequency in children aged from 6 to 9 years old;hookworm infections tended to be more frequent in the older group 10 to 12 years old. Statistical significances (P≤0.01) were found in children in rural schools infected with any species of STH, in moderate Trichuris infections, in hookworm infections in rural areas with strong Mayan presence and in Ascaris infections in children of Mayan origin. Conclusions:High prevalence of STH in Southern Belize provided sound ground for implementing an integrated deworming control program.
van't Hoog, Anna H; Laserson, Kayla F; Githui, Willie A; Meme, Helen K; Agaya, Janet A; Odeny, Lazarus O; Muchiri, Benson G; Marston, Barbara J; DeCock, Kevin M; Borgdorff, Martien W
Limited information exists on the prevalence of tuberculosis and adequacy of case finding in African populations with high rates of HIV. To estimate the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the fraction attributable to HIV, and to evaluate case detection. Residents aged 15 years and older, from 40 randomly sampled clusters, provided two sputum samples for microscopy; those with chest radiograph abnormalities or symptoms suggestive of PTB provided one additional sputum sample for culture. PTB was defined by a culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or two positive smears. Persons with PTB were offered HIV testing and interviewed on care-seeking behavior. We estimated the population-attributable fraction of HIV on prevalent and notified PTB, the patient diagnostic rate, and case detection rate using provincial TB notification data. Among 20,566 participants, 123 had PTB. TB prevalence was 6.0/1,000 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-7.4) for all PTB and 2.5/1,000 (1.6-3.4) for smear-positive PTB. Of 101 prevalent TB cases tested, 52 (51%) were HIV infected, and 58 (64%) of 91 cases who were not on treatment and were interviewed had not sought care. Forty-eight percent of prevalent and 65% of notified PTB cases were attributable to HIV. For smear-positive and smear-negative PTB combined, the patient diagnostic rate was 1.4 cases detected per person-year among HIV-infected persons having PTB and 0.6 for those who were HIV uninfected, corresponding to case detection rates of 56 and 65%, respectively. Undiagnosed PTB is common in this community. TB case finding needs improvement, for instance through intensified case finding with mobile smear microscopy services, rigorous HIV testing, and improved diagnosis of smear-negative TB.
Vallès, Xavier; Murga, Gladys Beatriz; Hernández, Gabriela; Sabidó, Meritxell; Chuy, Alejandro; Lloveras, Belén; Alameda, Francesc; de San José, Sílvia; Bosch, Francesc Xavier; Pedroza, Isabel; Castellsagué, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi
The potential introduction of the newly licensed HPV-vaccines at affordable prices could play a central role in preventing cervical cancer in middle and low-income countries, where most of the cases occur. In spite of this, basic epidemiological data about HPV and HPV-related lesions are still scarce. To determine the prevalence of cervical abnormalities, HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and related risk factors, we carried out a cross-sectional study in a population from Guatemala that included 297 women from the general population (GP women) and 297 sex workers (SW). All participating women were interviewed and underwent a complete gynecological examination that included collection of cervical cells for cytological diagnosis, HPV DNA detection and typing by PCR methods. Cervical HPV DNA prevalence among GP women and from SW was 38.1% (95% CI: 32.5-43.8) and 67.3% (95% CI: 61.7-72.6), respectively. The prevalence of abnormal cytology among GP women was 7.7% (ASCUS = 1.4%, LSIL = 4.7%, ASC-H = 0.3% and HSIL = 1.4%) and among SW was 21.6% (ASCUS = 7.5%, LSIL = 10.6%, ASC-H = 1.4% and HSIL = 2.1%). The most prevalent HPV types among women with normal cytology were HPVs 51 (n = 30), 66 (n = 25) and 16 (n = 25), and among women with HSIL or ASC-H (n = 14) HPVs 58 (n = 5) and 16 (n = 5). Determinants associated with HPV DNA detection were having had an occasional partner during the last 6 months and smoking habit among GP women, and being a minor among SW. HPV and abnormal cytology prevalence is high among women in Guatemala. The introduction of a HPV vaccination program would prevent an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden.
de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho,Heráclito Barbosa de
Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were ...
Busnardo, B; Nacamulli, D; Frigato, F; Vianello-Dri, A; De Vido, D; Mian, C; Candiani, F; Tomasella, G; Zambonin, L; Piccolo, M; Girelli, M E
Goiter prevalence in school-age children and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) are the main indicators of iodine deficiency in a population. In areas of mild iodine deficiency, where goiters are small, ultrasound is preferable to physical examination to estimate goiter prevalence. The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted thyroid volume ultrasonography results from a survey of European schoolchildren as an international reference, but these values have recently been questioned. The aims of the study were: a) to determine regional normal echographic reference values of thyroid volume in children aged between 11 and 14 yr in the Veneto Region, in North-East Italy; b) to determine goiter prevalence by physical and ultrasonographic examination; c) to determine UIC in this section of the population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1730 schoolchildren, aged between 11 and 14, living in towns in low-lying areas, in the valleys of the pre-Alps and in the mountains between 600 and 1200 m. Thyroid volume was evaluated by inspection and palpation using the WHO criteria. In 560 children thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound. UIC was measured in 1368 children. On physical examination a grade I goiter was found in 7.5% of children. No goiter grade II or grade III was found. The regional thyroid volume reference values by ultrasonography were similar, or slightly lower (5-20%), to the corresponding WHO reference values. Mean UIC was 148 +/- 110 microg/l, with no difference between lowlands and uplands; UIC values less than 100 microg/l were found in about 30-35% of the children. UIC was higher in children using iodized salt than in non-users. No correlation was found between thyroid volume by ultrasonography and UIC. Thyroid volume was found to be bigger in upland children than in those in low-lying areas, probably because of low iodine intake in people living in the mountains in previous generations. This data show that Veneto is not a iodine
Acosta-González, Rosa I; González-Reyes, Ismael; Flores-Gutiérrez, Gerardo H
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determinate the seroprevalence rate of equine brucellosis in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico. Serum samples from 420 equines were analyzed with the Rose Bengal test at cell concentrations of 3% (RBT-3%) and 8% (RBT-8%), and positive results were confirmed with the Rivanol test (RT). Risk factors were determined with the prevalence ratio (PR) and the use of variables generated from a questionnaire administered to the animals' owners. Serum from 1 stallion had positive results with both the RBT-8% and the RT, for a seroprevalence rate of 0.238%. Drinking of water from a pond that was also used by cattle and dogs was the only associated risk factor for this animal (PR = 0.25). However, the results were considered false-positive, because the results for other horses in the same environmental conditions were negative. Although brucellosis is considered endemic in ruminants in the study area, the results obtained suggest that equines are not a reservoir of brucellosis and do not play an important role in the epidemiologic patterns of this disease in northeastern Mexico.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were
Vikas Chandra Yadav
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Currently, antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations is one of the greatest challenges to the effective management of infectious diseases. The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of salmonella species and its sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care medical college hospital in Bastar, Chhattisgarh. MATERIAL AND METHODS From the clinical samples cultured from Jan 2010 to June 2014. 690 cases of enteric fever were isolated and investigations were carried out for antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi Result: Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S. typhi against various antibiotics tested were chloramphenicol 37%-52%, co-trimoxazole 22-33%, ampicillin 28-46%, ciprofloxacin 14-29%, ofloxacin 80-95%, amikacin 89%-97%, cefotaxime 56%-88%, ceftriaxone 69%-72%, ceftazidime 86-93%, and nalidixic 93-86%. Sensitivity pattern of S. Paratyphi showed 100% resistance to co-trimoxazole, 40% to ciprofloxacin while they were 100% sensitive to ofloxacin and amikacin. DISCUSSION Emergence of MDR Salmonella is the main problem of treating the patient as a consequence of extensive use of antibiotic. Resistance to antibiotic was found with increasing frequency in our study. Hence, there should be a national policy for antibiotic usage.
Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N
A general scheme for increasing the difference in magnetic flux density between a high and a low magnetic field region by removing unnecessary magnet material is presented. This is important in, e.g., magnetic refrigeration where magnet arrays has to deliver high field regions in close proximity to low field regions. Also, a general way to replace magnet material with a high permeability soft magnetic material where appropriate is discussed. As an example these schemes are applied to a two dimensional concentric Halbach cylinder design resulting in a reduction of the amount of magnet material used by 42% while increasing the difference in flux density between a high and a low field region by 45%.
Seyed Mostafa Monzavi
Full Text Available Background: In Asia Pacific (AP region, the exact picture of the alcohol use problems has remained relatively obscure. In this study, the profile of alcohol consumption and alcohol related disorders in AP countries are presented. Methods: Official statistics on average alcohol consumption (alcohol per capita consumption, APC, alcohol related health variables, income group and alcohol policy of countries geographically related to Asia and Oceania continents were extracted from the 2014 edition of World Health Organization report on global status of alcohol and health. Results: The data of 57 AP countries were analyzed. Two-third of the countries did not establish comprehensive national monitoring systems (NMSs. Median of total APC in people aged 15 years and older was 2.4 (1-4.6 L during 2003 to 2005, while this indicator was 2.8 (1-5.5 L during 2008 to 2010 which accounts for about 0.4 L (in median increase in consumption. In 13 countries which were mostly located in South-east Asia and the Pacific region, APC was higher than average global consumption. Comparing the countries with and without total ban policy, the countries with total ban policy had significantly lower APC (P = 0.003, higher rate of abstainers (P = 0.002 and lower rate of alcohol related disorders (P < 0.001. Higher APC and higher rates of alcohol related disorders were observed in higher income countries. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in AP region is comparatively lower than global average. However, the status of some countries in Southeast Asia and Pacific region is alarming and needs serious attention. Moreover, establishment of comprehensive NMSs, proper data registry and holistic harm reduction and rehabilitation programs for users should receive meaningful governmental and public support.
Virgílio Do Rosario
Full Text Available 17 of 20 adult sera from the Amapa region of Brazil were active in the inhibition of P. falciparum sporozoite invasion (ISI assay which has been correlated with protective antibodies. In contrast 11 sera were positive in IFA tests and 6 were positive in CSP tests. These results suggest that the ISI assay will be useful for evaluating naturally acquired protective anti-sporozoite antibodies in endemic areas, particularly during vaccine efficacy studies using sporozoite-based vaccines.
Souii, Amira; Elargoubi, Aida; Fallecker, Catherine; Mastouri, Maha; Drouet, Emmanuel
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It constitutes a major public health around the world. There is no vaccine available against HCV, and current therapies are effective in only small percentage of patients. HCV has wide population-specific genotype variability. Genotype knowledge and viral load assessment are equally important for designing therapeutic strategies. Taking into account that the molecular epidemiology of HCV variants circulating in Tunisia is not yet well elucidated, and that, at present, little is known about the distribution pattern of HCV in Monastir region (Tunisia), we aimed, herein, to evaluate the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Monastir and to identify risk-related factors. For this purpose, 50 anti-HCV antibody-positive cases were diagnosed and subjected to viral RNA extraction, amplification, genotyping, and viral load quantification. Molecular epidemiology was studied by 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) sequencing as compared with the non-structural 5B (NS5B) and core region sequences. Overall concordance between 5' UTR, core, and NS5B sequencing was 100 %. The highest prevalent genotype was 1b (50 %) followed by genotypes 1a (16 %), 4a (12 %), 2a (10 %), 2c (8 %), and 3a (4 %). Interestingly, the subtype 1b had a statistically significant higher viral load than the other genotypes followed by subtype 1a. Based on these data, this study revealed a high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 (subtypes 1b and 1a) compared to other genotypes. A continued monitoring of HCV and knowledge of circulating genotypes could impact on future vaccine formulations.
Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The elderly are particularly susceptible and at increased risk for adverse outcome as a result of C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes in Hesse and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population living outside long-term care facilities (LTCF. We assessed possible risk factors for C. difficile colonization and determined the genotype of circulating strains. C. difficile was isolated from 11/240 (4.6% nursing home residents and 2/249 (0.8% individuals living outside LTCF (p = 0.02. Ten of 11 (90.9% isolates from nursing homes and one of two isolates from the population outside LTCF were toxigenic. The prevalence of C. difficile colonization varied from 0% to 10% between different nursing homes. Facilities with known actual or recent CDI cases were more likely to have colonized residents than facilities without known CDI cases. C. difficile PCR-ribotypes 014 and 001 were the most prevalent genotypes and accounted for 30% and 20% of toxigenic isolates in nursing homes, respectively. Interestingly, no individuals carried the epidemic strain PCR-ribotype 027. Our results suggest that residents of nursing homes in Germany are at high risk for colonization by virulent C. difficile strains. The high prevalence of C. difficile colonization in nursing homes underscores the importance of good adherence to standard infection control precautions even in the absence of a diagnosed infection. They also emphasize the need for specific programs to increase the awareness of healthcare professionals in LTCF for CDI.
Jairam R Lingappa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial ("Partners HSV-2 Study", the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8-31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49% of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.
Melissa A Briggs
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout Africa, many people seek care for malaria in private-sector drug shops where diagnostic testing is often unavailable. Recently, subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs, a first-line medication for uncomplicated malaria, were made available in these drug shops in Tanzania. This study assessed the prevalence of malaria among and purchase of ACTs by drug shop clients in the setting of a national ACT subsidy program and sub-national drug shop accreditation program. METHOD AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey of drug shop clients was performed in two regions in Tanzania, one with a government drug shop accreditation program and one without, from March-May, 2012. Drug shops were randomly sampled from non-urban districts. Shop attendants were interviewed about their education, training, and accreditation status. Clients were interviewed about their symptoms and medication purchases, then underwent a limited physical examination and laboratory testing for malaria. Malaria prevalence and predictors of ACT purchase were assessed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. Amongst 777 clients from 73 drug shops, the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed malaria was 12% (95% CI: 6-18%. Less than a third of clients with malaria had purchased ACTs, and less than a quarter of clients who purchased ACTs tested positive for malaria. Clients were more likely to have purchased ACTs if the participant was 5 years, experience (aOR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.2-6.3. Having malaria was only a predictor of ACT purchase in the region with a drug shop accreditation program (aOR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5-7.4. CONCLUSION: Malaria is common amongst persons presenting to drug shops with a complaint of fever. The low proportion of persons with malaria purchasing ACTs, and the high proportion of ACTs going to persons without malaria demonstrates a need to better target who receives ACTs in these drug shops.
Zhang, Gui-lin; Sun, Xiang; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Xiao-min; Zheng, Zhong; Sun, Yi; Liu, Ran
To study the prevalence of Anaplasmosis among human, domestic sheep and tick population in Heshuo area, southern Xinjiang and to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species. Ticks were captured from wild field and blood samples were collected from healthy residents and their domestic sheep. Indirect fluorescent assay was carried out to determine the presence of Anaplasma specific IgG antibodies in blood sample of human and goats, respectively. Nested PCR and sequence alignment of Anaplasma partial 16S rDNA were used to investigate the diversity of Anaplasma species. 43.31% (55/127) of human beings and 27.50% (55/200) of the goats were found positive for Anaplasma specific IgG. In total, 367 ticks were captured, including 3 genus and 4 species, which mainly consisting of dominate Hyalomma (H.) asiaticum (47.41%) and Rhipicephalus (R.) pumilio (37.60%). 5.00% (18/360) of the questing ticks and 4.49% (7/156) of the goat blood samples were found to have had 16S rDNA, representing Anaplasma sp. by nested PCR, but none was found from human beings. Results from sequential alignment revealed that the positive amplicons were identified to be Anaplasma phagocytophilum (99.2% GU046565, 99.5% GU064897 and 99.5% AB196721) and Anaplasma central (99.2% GU064903). Human and zoonotic anaplasmosis, which were probably transmitted by H. asiaticum and R. pumilio, were co-circulating in the desert landscape of Heshuo area, Xinjiang.
Ihsan Ali; Zara Rafaque; Safia Ahmed; Sajid Malik; Javid Iqbal Dasti
Objective: To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods: Bacterial samples (n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of mini-mum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2012). Genes, qnrA, qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing. Results: The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole (82%) followed by cephalothin (80%), 2nd Gen, 3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins, respectively. Resistance against gentamicin, amikacin remained 29% and 4%. For other drugs including nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%. Altogether, 59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone. Overall, MICs for ciprofloxacin remained (MIC≥256 mg/mL) and for levofloxacin (MIC≥16 mg/mL and 32 mg/mL). No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) and non-ESBL producers. For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 mg/mL. Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusions: Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with uri-nary tract infections. Moreover, the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.
Ihsan Ali; Zara Rafaque; Safia Ahmed; Sajid Malik; Javid Iqbal Dasti
Objective:To scrutinize patterns of multi-drug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli(UPEC) strains and particularly of fluoroquinolone-resistance this is an alternative choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections.Methods:Bacterial samples(n = 250) were collected from out-patients from August 2012 to August 2014 Islamabad.Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were performed according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI,2012).Genes,qnrA,qnrB and qnrS were identified by DNA amplification and sequencing.Results:The highest percentage of UPEC isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole(82%) followed by cephalothin(80%),2nd Gen,3rd Gen and 4th Gen cephalosporins,respectively.Resistance against gentamicin,amikacin remained 29% and 4%.For other drugs including nitrofurantoin,tetracycline,carbapenem and beta-lactam inhibitors remained below 10%.Altogether,59% of the isolates were resistant to at least three antibiotics including one fluoroquinolone.Overall,MICs for ciprofloxacin remained(MIC≥256 μg/mL) and for levofloxacin(MIC≥16 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL).No significant differences were observed regarding MIC values of extended spectrumβ-lactamase(ESBL) and non-ESBL producers.For qnrS and qnrB positive isolates MICs remained above 32 μg/mL.Prevalence of UPEC was significantly higher among females and 40% of the isolates were ESBL producers.Conclusions:Higher percentages of ESBL producing UPEC were associated with urinary tract infections.Moreover,the majority of these isolates were multi-drug resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant.
Boned-Ombuena, Ana; Pérez-Panadés, Jordi; López-Maside, Aurora; Miralles-Espí, Maite; Guardiola Vilarroig, Sandra; Adam Ruiz, Desamparados; Zurriaga, Oscar
To estimate the prevalence of patients with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) in the Region of Valencia and to evaluate the quality of management of OAT with vitaminK antagonists (VKA) carried out in primary healthcare. Observational cross-sectional study conducted through the Health Sentinel Network of the Region of Valencia, which includes a survey and the retrospective analysis of OAT monitoring. Primary healthcare, Region of Valencia, Spain. All patients aged 18years or older on OAT who consulted during the year 2014. The population covered by the 59 doctors of the Health Sentinel Network constitutes 2.2% of the adult population of the Region of Valencia, and it is representative of it. Demographic, socioeconomic and health data as well as information concerning OAT. Quality of OAT management with VKA was assessed by means of the percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR), computed using the Rosendaal method. A total of 1,144 patients were recorded (mean age 74.5±11 years; 49.7% women). Prevalence of OAT in the Region of Valencia is 1.3 cases per 100 population. The characteristic profile of these patients is an old person, with several comorbidities and a low level of education, who lives accompanied. Atrial fibrillation is the most common indication. 82.8% of patients on OAT with VKA were monitored in primary healthcare. The average TTR was 65.0%, and 53.9% of patients had a TTR ≥65%. Among inadequately controlled patients, 74.4% were perceived as well-controlled by their primary care doctor. Prevalence of OAT is high, and it is expected to increase. The degree of control achieved meets the generally accepted quality standard (mean TTR ≥65%), and it is comparable to that observed in other national and international studies. However, there is wide scope for improvement. It is crucial to optimize the management of this therapy in the most effective and cost-effective way. Among other measures, access of physicians to their patients' clinical information
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.
This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.
Silao, Catherine Lynn; Fabella, Terence Diane; Yuson, Ernesto; Naranjo, Maria Liza; Padilla, Carmencita
Background The thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are groups of autosomal recessive inherited blood disorders affecting the quantity and quality of hemoglobin. Patients with the disease can vary from clinically asymptomatic to transfusion dependent individuals. It is considered prevalent in many parts of the world particularly in Southeast Asia. Thus, screening and prevalence determination of these diseases are important in the Filipino population. The study aims to determine the prevalence of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in the Philippines using high performance liquid chromatography. Methods Referred patients by hematologists from different parts of the country from October 2008 to December 2014 were included. Peripheral blood extracted from the subjects, were hemolyzed and screened for thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies using VariantTM HPLC. Data interpretations were based on levels of the HbA2 Fetal Hb and HbA detected. Results Majority of the patients were beta thalassemics followed by alpha-thalassemics. Hemoglobin E was found in 1% of the population tested while 2% of the patients have beta thalassemia with HbE interaction. Conclusions A significant proportion of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies were determined from the 6-year screening of Filipinos using VariantTM HPLC. The results of this study provide not only confirmation of the occurrence and prevalence of these growing and diverse groups of genetic blood diseases but also suggest that the use of HPLC is a useful screening tool.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: In malaria endemic areas, continuous exposure to Plasmodium parasites leads to asymptomatic carriers that provide a reservoir, contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission. Thus, a study of the degree of prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemias will help in assessing the level of reservoir of infection. Methods: All the consented participants without any signs and symptoms, suggestive of malaria were interviewed and thick blood smears were made to detect malaria parasites. The children presenting with malaria or any other severe illness, and those declining to give consent were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 118 (59.6% children out of 198 apparently healthy children were positive for malaria parasites while 80 (40.4% children were negative for malaria parasites. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was higher in males 75 (63.6% compared to females 43 (36.4%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Incidence of asymptomatic malaria was highest with 76.1% in the children aged 6– 10 yr. There was statistically significant association of the use of bednet on prevalence of asymptomatic malaria. Interpretation & conclusion: High prevalence of asymptomatic malaria detected in this study is a big challenge and can be a threat to the present malaria control programme. Thus, it should be considered in assessing and reorganising more effective malaria elimination strategies to achieve the desired goal of malaria control.
Lee, Bong-Gun; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Dam; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Hunchul; Kim, Yeesuk
The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture using bone scans in patients with hip fracture and to determine the risk factors associated with simultaneous fracture. One hundred eighty two patients with hip fracture were reviewed for this study. Clinical parameters and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra and femoral neck were investigated. To identify acute simultaneous fracture, a bone scan was performed at 15.4±4.1days after hip fracture. The prevalence and location of simultaneous fracture were evaluated, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk factors. Simultaneous fracture was observed in 102 of 182 patients, a prevalence of 56.0%. Rib fracture was the most common type of simultaneous fracture followed by rib with vertebral fracture. The BMD of the lumbar vertebra was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture (p=0.044) and was identified as an independent risk factor (odds ratio: OR 0.05, 95% confidence interval: CI 0.01-0.57). The prevalence of simultaneous fracture was relatively high among patients with hip fracture, and BMD was significantly lower in patients with simultaneous fracture than in patients without it. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of simultaneous fracture in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goswami, Ravinder; Sharma, Brij; Sharma, Neetu; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Singh, Gajendra; Sareen, Neha; Sati, Hem Chandra; Gupta, Aakriti; Sofi, Nighat Yaseen
Introduction: Vitamin D is important for bone development in children. A high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been documented from different parts of India. However, limited data are available on VDD among children residing at high altitude region of country. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of VDD and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 6–18 years in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2014–2015. A total of 626 children in the age group of 6–18 years were enrolled from 30 clusters which were identified using population proportionate to size sampling method. A minimum of 20 children in the age group of 6–18 years per cluster were selected using random number tables. The data on socioeconomic status, physical activity, sunlight exposure, and biochemical parameters of bone and mineral metabolism were assessed. Results: Ninety-three percent of school-age children were found Vitamin D deficient as per serum 25(OH) D levels of <20 ng/ml. The prevalence was significantly higher among females. Conclusion: A high prevalence of VDD was found in children residing in high altitude region. PMID:28217519
Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan
The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The firstname.lastname@example.org study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level.
The high prevalence neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) exhibit a global disease burden that exceeds malaria, tuberculosis, and other better known global health conditions; they also represent a potent force in trapping the world's poorest people in poverty. Through extremely low cost national programs of disease mapping and mass drug administration (MDA) for the seven most common NTDs, integrated NTD control and elimination efforts are now in place in more than 14 countries through the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the British Department for International Development (DFID), and the Global Network for NTDs and its partners. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that in 2008 some 670 million people in 75 countries received NTD treatments through these and other sponsored programs. With continued successes the next decade could witness the global elimination of blinding trachoma, human Africa trypanosomiasis (HAT), lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, trachoma, and leprosy as public health problems, in addition to the eradication of dracunculiasis. For other high prevalence NTDs, including hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, new drugs and vaccines may still be required. Increasingly it is recognized that the high prevalence NTDs exhibit extensive geographic overlap and polyparasitism is commonly found throughout the world's low income countries. Therefore, global elimination will also require integrated packages of drugs together with vaccine-linked chemotherapy. Ultimately, the global elimination of the high prevalence NTDs will require continued large-scale support from the U.S. Government and selected European governments, however, the emerging market economies, such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Nigeria, and wealthy countries in the Middle East will also have to substantially contribute. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Molla Mesele Wassie
"Background: Nutritional status of elderly is an important determinant of their health and quality of life. Elderly people are more vulnerable for nutritional insults as compared to adults. Undernutrition among elderly people is becoming significantly high regardless of the progress on health care system. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of under nutrition among elderly people in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional st...
Wensing Michel; Stegenga Boudewijn; Dommerholt Jan; Bron Carel; Oostendorp Rob AB
Abstract Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment target...
Andrés Torrealba Bustos
Full Text Available This study tries to determine the statistical relation between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal carcinoma in the Metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For it there were obtained clinical samples of different laboratories of Pathological Anatomy of the Metropolitan region corresponding to the south and east sector of Santiago, gathering a total of 348 cases, which were diagnosed by means of endoscopic biopsy, using as parameters the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic tissue evaluated by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin dye. The obtained information was submitted to a model of logistic multiple regression, in order to determine the associations between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, topographic location compromised to the moment of the diagnosis, age and sex of the patients in study. The proportion between the histological types of cancer of esophagus did not present significant differences, which contrasts with the results of international publications. The analyses demonstrated that the low third is the only parameter that is subject to variation, which relates to the metaplasia of Barrett and the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Erismann, Séverine; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Diagbouga, Serge; Odermatt, Peter; Gerold, Jana; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Savadogo, Boubacar; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
Multiple factors determine children's nutritional status, including energy and nutrient intake, recurrent infectious diseases, access (or lack thereof) to clean water and improved sanitation, and hygiene practices, among others. The "Vegetables go to School: improving nutrition through agricultural diversification" (VgtS) project implements an integrated school garden programme in five countries, including Burkina Faso. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undernutrition and its risk factors among schoolchildren in Burkina Faso before the start of the project. In February 2015, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among 455 randomly selected children, aged 8-14 years, in eight schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Nutritional status was determined by anthropometric assessment. Helminth and intestinal protozoa infections were assessed using the Kato-Katz and a formalin-ether concentration method. A urine filtration technique was used to identify Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Prevalence of anaemia was determined by measuring haemoglobin levels in finger-prick blood samples. Questionnaires were administered to children to determine their knowledge of nutrition and health and their related attitudes and practices (KAP). Questionnaires were also administered to the children's caregivers to identify basic household socio-demographic and economic characteristics, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions. To determine the factors associated with schoolchildren's nutritional status, mixed logistic regression models were used. Differences and associations were considered statistically significant if P-values were below 0.05. Complete datasets were available for 385 children. The prevalence of undernutrition, stunting and thinness were 35.1%, 29.4% and 11.2%, respectively. The multivariable analysis revealed that undernutrition was associated with older age (i.e. 12-14 years compared to risk factors among
Full Text Available The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a ‘host-associated’ clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups’ seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3 were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class’ prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.
To evaluate the prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity in the Spanish adult population and its changes between 2006 and 2012. Data from 47,905 participants obtained from the National Health Surveys in 2006 and 2012 were used. Mental health status was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire score. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity was 20.5% in 2012 and 21.3% in 2006. Using 2006 as the reference, the odds ratio (OR) for these problems in 2012 was 0.84 (0.79-0.89) in women and 1.10 (1.02-1.18) in men. In women, it decreased for all ages. In men, these ORs were 1.15 (1.04-1.27) in the aged 16-44 group, 1.23 (1.08-1.40) in the aged 45-64 group and 0.81 (0.68-0.96) in the aged ≥ 65 group. The prevalence of high risk of psychiatric morbidity decreased except in males <65 years of age, who are more sensitive to the economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Gan, Sophie S; Zhong, Connie; Das, Shreya; Gan, Julia S; Willis, Stephanie; Tully, Eileen
Bullying is common among young students, and cyberbullying has increased due to the use of technology. This study investigates the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying among high school students and the emotional effects of bullying on students. Students at East Chapel Hill High School, Chapel Hill, North Carolina completed the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the Peer Relations Questionnaire. They answered questions regarding how often they had experienced certain types of bullying in school and the emotional effects the bullying had on them. The combined results from both surveys indicated that the prevalence of bullying was 55% with 18% of respondents reporting cyberbullying. Teasing and name-calling were the most common types of bullying, as 40% of students reported having been teased or called names. The most serious type of bullying, being threatened with harm, hit, or kicked, occurred in 20% of boys and 8% of girls, with 25% of respondents reported "quite upset" by the experience. The majority (79%) of students who had been bullied did not share with anyone about being bullied, and of those who did, only 50% were taken seriously. Bullying is still prevalent among high school students, and cyberbullying is becoming more widespread. Most victims do not share their bullying experience, and if they did, only half believe they are taken seriously. Both bullying among students in school and cyberbullying deserve attention due to their potentially devastating effects on victims.
Tsai, Tzung-Yi; Cheng, Jung-Feng; Lai, Yu-Min
In light of the increasing number of high-tech industry workers and the differences in their working conditions compared to those of the general population, the health status of these workers merits serious attention. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlates among Taiwanese high-tech industry workers. This cross-sectional study included 4,666 workers who participated in labor health examinations at a hospital in southern Taiwan in 2008. Participants with metabolic syndrome were defined using the criteria proposed by the Taiwan National Department of Health in 2007. Factors associated with metabolic syndrome were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 8.2%, and the prevalence was higher in men than in women (14.0% vs. 2.3%, phigh-tech industry workers is lower than in the general population. Our study's findings may facilitate early health assessments and the provision of proper workplace health promotion programs to reduce the risks faced by high-risk workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has been used to name a range of chronic conditions characterized by extreme fatigue and other disabling symptoms. Attempts to estimate the burden of disease have been limited by selection bias, and by lack of diagnostic biomarkers and of agreed reproducible case definitions. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS in three regions in England, and discussed the implications of frequency statistics and the use of different case definitions for health and social care planning and for research. Methods We compared the clinical presentation, prevalence and incidence of ME/CFS based on a sample of 143,000 individuals aged 18 to 64 years, covered by primary care services in three regions of England. Case ascertainment involved: 1 electronic search for chronic fatigue cases; 2 direct questioning of general practitioners (GPs on cases not previously identified by the search; and 3 clinical review of identified cases according to CDC-1994, Canadian and Epidemiological Case (ECD Definitions. This enabled the identification of cases with high validity. Results The estimated minimum prevalence rate of ME/CFS was 0.2% for cases meeting any of the study case definitions, 0.19% for the CDC-1994 definition, 0.11% for the Canadian definition and 0.03% for the ECD. The overall estimated minimal yearly incidence was 0.015%. The highest rates were found in London and the lowest in East Yorkshire. All but one of the cases conforming to the Canadian criteria also met the CDC-1994 criteria, however presented higher prevalence and severity of symptoms. Conclusions ME/CFS is not uncommon in England and represents a significant burden to patients and society. The number of people with chronic fatigue who do not meet specific criteria for ME/CFS is higher still. Both groups have high levels of need for service provision, including health and social
Yuriy Ivanovich Suntsov
Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among the population of Moscow Region, as well as the actual prevalence of diabetes complications in individuals already diagnosed with DM.Materials and Methods. 2403 inhabitants of Stupinksy and Domodedovsky areas aged 30 to 70 years were selected by means of random sampling for the estimation of T2DM prevalence. Another 600 individuals inhabiting Pushkinsky and Serpukhovsky areas were randomly selected for the estimation of the prevalence of DM complications (including patients with T2DM. Clinical screening was performed by the mobile diagnostic team.Results. HbA1c level was tested in all participants. The cut-off point for the diagnosis of DM was set for HbA1c>6.5% according to the WHO guidelines (2011. 204 individuals (8.49% met this criterion and were selected for further evaluation by OGTT with the following results: 28.04% were positive for glycemic disorders, including T2DM (8.53%, IGT (17.07%, IFG (2.44%. The highest prevalence of T2DM was found in the elder group (60–70 years old. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was estimated at 26.06%, being 2 times higher among T2DM patients than previously calculated for Moscow Region by the Russian State Diabetes Register (13.2%. The microalbuminuria stage of diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed in 46.1% of diabetes patients, being 5 times more prevalent than previously estimated for Moscow Region by the Russian State Diabetes Register (5.84%.Conclusion. The actual prevalence of T2DM in Moscow Region is markedly higher than the registered. The prevalence of diabetes complications is also significantly underestimated. Most patients do not achieve HbA1c targets (<6.5%.
Memish, Ziad A; Owaidah, Tariq M; Saeedi, Mohamad Y
Hemoglobinopathies represent a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia (SA). Reports suggest that their higher prevalence is not evenly distributed in SA. Regional differences were studied in sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia and their at-risk marriages using national data. The carrier and case status of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia were determined in couples approaching marriage between 2004 and 2009 using standard blood tests. Prevalence of both diseases and at-risk marriages in different SA administrative and geographical regions were calculated and compared. A total of 15,72,140 men and women were examined over 6 years. This represented 0.06% of the entire population of Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of couples who tested positive for sickle cell was 45.1 (42.4 for carriers and 2.7 for cases) per 1000 persons examined. The prevalence was highest in the Eastern region (134.1 per 1000), followed by Southern and Western regions (55.6 and 28.5 per 1000, respectively) and lowest in Central and Northern regions (13.7 and 13.5 per 1000, respectively). The prevalence of couples testing positive for β-thalassemia was 18.5 (18.0 for carriers and 0.5 for cases) per 1000 persons examined. The prevalence was highest in the Eastern region (59.0), moderate in the Southern, Western and Central regions (14.2, 10.2, and 10.1 per 1000, respectively) and lowest in the Northern region (3.9). Vast regional differences in hemoglobinopathies among adult Saudis are being reported that may help policy makers better allocate resources of available preventive programs. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mazziotti, G; Dordoni, C; Doga, M; Galderisi, F; Venturini, M; Calzavara-Pinton, P; Maroldi, R; Giustina, A; Colombi, M
Previous studies have reported an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), but these were limited by a small number of patients and lack of information on fragility fractures. In this crosssectional study, we evaluated the prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures (by quantitative morphometry) and bone mineral density (BMD, at lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 52 consecutive patientswith EDS (10 males, 42 females; median age 41 years, range: 21–71; 12with EDS classic type, 37 with EDS hypermobility type, 1 with classic vascular-like EDS, and 2 without specific classification) and 197 control subjects (163 females and 34 males; median age 49 years, range: 26–83) attending an outpatient bone clinic. EDS patients were also evaluated for back pain by numeric pain rating scale (NRS- 11).Vertebral fractures were significantly more prevalent in EDS as compared to the control subjects (38.5% vs. 5.1%; p b 0.001) without significant differences in BMD at either skeletal sites. In EDS patients, the prevalence of vertebral fractures was not significantly (p = 0.72) different between classic and hypermobility types. BMD was not significantly different between fractured and non-fractured EDS patients either at lumbar spine (p = 0.14), total hip (p=0.08), or femoral neck (p=0.21). Severe back pain(≥7 NRS)was more frequent in EDS patients with vertebral fractures as compared to thosewithout fractures (60% vs. 28%; p=0.04). Inconclusion, this is the first study showing high prevalence of vertebral fractures in a relatively large population of EDS patients. Vertebral fractures were associated with more severe back pain suggesting a potential involvement of skeletal fragility in determining poor quality of life. The lack of correlation between vertebral fractures and BMD is consistent with the hypothesis that bone quality may be impaired in EDS.
Al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T A; Al-Maatouq, M A
Attendees of 15 health centers in urban and rural areas in the Riyadh region were screened for obesity during May and June 1994. Systemic selection yielded 1580 Saudi males for analysis. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2). Only 36.6% of subjects were their ideal weight (BMI 40 kg/m(2)). Middle age, lower education and joblessness predicted a higher risk for obesity. Patients living in a rural areas had greater BMIs than those living in urban areas (P diabetis mellitus, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, sleep apnea syndrome and osteoarthritis of the knees. Young parents who are at risk of developing obesity and who play a central role in perpetuating it in their offspring should be the target of obesity-prevention programs.
Joykrishna Sarkar, MSc
Full Text Available IntroductionWe investigated ethnic and geographic variations in major chronic diseases and risk factors in northern Canada, an area that is undergoing rapid changes in its social, cultural, and physical environments.MethodsSelf-report data were obtained from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey in 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents from the 3 regions of northern Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Crude prevalence estimates, adjusted odds ratios (AORs, and confidence intervals were calculated for multiple chronic diseases and risk factors.ResultsThe percentage of Aboriginal respondents who reported having any chronic health condition increased between the 2 cycles of data collection, but did not change for non-Aboriginal respondents. AORs for heart disease, arthritis, and asthma varied by ethnicity or region. AORs for overweight, obesity, daily smoking, regular and binge drinking, and infrequent physical/leisure activity were also substantially different for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal respondents or among respondents from the 3 northern regions.ConclusionThe changing profile of health in northern Canada suggests a need for action on health policy about the delivery of community-based primary prevention interventions and further research about the determinants of health and health care use.
Giacobino, Agostina; Pacini, Adriana; Molineri, Ana; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Signorini, M
Varroa destructor is one of the major threats to honey bee colonies. The mite abundance in the colonies is affected by environmental conditions as well as by beekeeping management. The aim of this study was to recognize the main drivers associated with autumn V. destructor infestation in honey bee colonies when different regions from Argentina are compared. A total of 361 colonies distributed in five Argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate Varroa mite infestation rate during autumn and Nosema sp. presence. Regions were different regarding annual temperature, precipitation and especially vegetation landscape. In addition, beekeeping management practices were obtained from a checklist questionnaire answered by the beekeepers. The prevalence of colonies with high infestation level was lower in semi-arid Chaco followed by humid and transition Chaco regions. Also, colonies that were positive for Nosema sp. showed a higher Varroa infestation rate. The "environmental" effect was stronger compared with the influence of secondary drivers associated with beekeeping activities. As well, a significant association between V. destructor infestation rates and Nosema presence was identified. Under contrasting natural conditions, environment seems a predominant driver on Varroa destructor infestation level in honey bee colonies.
Vanessa Y Hashimoto
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and the risk factors for Leptospira spp. infection in breeding cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state. It was based on the statistic delineation/serological samples and information regarding the selected farms employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Paraná state in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. A total of 1.880 females aged >24 months from 274 non vaccinated herds were studied. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. using microscopic agglutination test (MAT with 22 Leptospira serovars. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred eighty one of 274 herds were positive for Leptospira spp./presenting prevalence of positive herds of 66.06% (IC95%=60.12-71,65%. Presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.120; IC=1.418-6.867/animal purchase (OR=2.010; IC=1.154-3.500/rent of pastures (OR=2.925; IC=1.060-8.068 and presence of maternity paddock (OR=1.981; IC=1,068-3,676 were identified as risk factors for leptospirosis due to any serovar in the multivariate logistic regression. Risk factors for leptospirosis due to serovar Hardjo were presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.622; IC=1.512-8,677/animal purchase (OR=3.143; IC=1.557-6.342/rent of pastures (OR=4.070; IC=1.370-12.087 and presence of horses (OR=2.981; IC=1.321-6.726. These results indicate that Leptospira spp. infection is widespread in the south central region of Paraná state and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.
Ardhaoui, Monia; Ennaifer, Emna; Letaief, Hajer; Salsabil, Rejaibi; Lassili, Thalja; Chahed, Karim; Bougatef, Souha; Bahrini, Asma; El Fehri, Emna; Ouerhani, Kaouther; Paez Jimenez, Adela; Guizani, Ikram; Boubaker, Med Samir; Ben Alaya, Nissaf Bouafif Ép
Implementation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be considered a key cervical cancer prevention strategy in Tunisia, where Pap smear screening is not efficient. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with HPV infection among women from Grand Tunis, Tunisia. We conducted a cross-sectional study, between December 2012 and May 2013. Eligible women for this study were those aged 18-65 years, sexually active, who sought medical attention at their primary health care centre or clinic in Grand Tunis, Tunisia and who gave written consent. A liquid-based Pap smear sample was obtained from all women using a cervical brush. Only women with betaglobin positive test were further analysed for HPV detection and typing. A nested-PCR of the L1 region was performed followed by reverse line blot hybridization to facilitate the specific detection of 31 HPV genotypes. Multiple logistic regression modeling was used for the analysis of associations between variables with some considered possible confounders after checking for interactions. A total of 391 women were enrolled in this study and 325 out of the 391 cervical samples were positive for the betaglobin test. Overall HPV prevalence was 13.2% [9.8%-17.5%], with the following most prevalent HPV genotypes: HPV6 (40%), HPV40 (14%), HPV16 (12%), HPV52 (9%), HPV31 and HPV59 (7%), followed by HPV68 (4%). Mean age of HPV positive women was 40.7±0.92 years. Independently associated risk factors of HPV infection were smoking (OR:2.8 [0.8-9.6]), low income (OR:9.6 [1.4-63.4), bad housing type (OR:2.5 [1-6.8]), partner with multiple sexual relationship (OR:4.5 [0.9-22.9]) and single women (widowed, divorced, separated, never married) (OR:6.9 [1.1-42.2]). This study provides the first national-based estimate of HPV prevalence in Tunisia. Our findings contribute to the evidence on the current burden of HPV infection, the critical role of sexual behaviour and socioeconomic status and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1986, northern Uganda has been severely affected by civil strife with most of its population currently living internally displaced in protected camps. This study aims at estimating the HIV-1 prevalence among this population and the factors associated with infection. Methods In June-December 2005, a total of 3051 antenatal clinics attendees in Gulu, Kitgum and Pader districts were anonymously tested for HIV-1 infection as part of routine sentinel surveillance. Factors associated with the infection were evaluated using logistic regression models. Results The age-standardised HIV-1 prevalence was 10.3%, 9.1% and 4.3% in the Gulu, Kitgum and Pader district, respectively. The overall prevalence in the area comprised of these districts was 8.2% when data was weighted according to the districts' population size. Data from all sites combined show that, besides older women [20–24 years: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.29–2.97; 25–29 years: AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; ≥ 30 years: AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.23–2.97], unmarried women (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.06–2.04, and those with a partner with a non-traditional occupation (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.18–2.21, women living outside of protected camps for internally displaced persons have a higher risk of being HIV-1 infected than internally displaced women (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15–2.08. Conclusion Although published data from Gulu district show a declining HIV-1 prevalence trend that is consistent with that observed at the national level since 1993, the prevalence in North Uganda is still high. Internally displaced women have a lower risk of being infected probably because of their reduced mobility and accessibility, and increased access to health prevention services.
Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi-Yong
We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov.
Raul D. Bernabe-Dones
Full Text Available The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in colorectal carcinogenesis remains elusive. Based on the high incidence of HPV-associated malignancies among Puerto Rican Hispanics, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and viral integration in colorectal tissues in order to evaluate its putative role in colorectal cancer (CRC. In this case-control study, the prevalence of HPV infection in CRC (cases n = 45 and normal colon mucosa from cancer-free subjects (controls n = 36 was assessed by a nested PCR strategy. HPV-16 genotyping was performed in HPV-positive tissues and the physical status of the HPV-16 genome was determined by E2 detection. HPV was detected in 19 of 45 (42.2% CRC cases (mean age 61.1 ± 10.7 years, 24 males and in 1 of 36 (2.8% controls (mean age 60.9 ± 9.6 years, 24 males with an OR = 25.58 (95% CI 3.21 to 203.49. HPV-16 was detected in 63.2% of the HPV-positive colorectal tumors; genome integration was observed in all HPV-16 positive cases. This is the first report showing the high prevalence of HPV infections in Caribbean Hispanic colorectal tumors. Despite evidence of HPV integration into the host genome, further mechanistic analysis examining HPV oncoprotein expression and the putative role of these oncoproteins in colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.
Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.
Grace A. Chitra
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of usage, unsafe practices and risk perception regarding household pesticides in a rural community of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional survey we used a pre-tested questionnaire and trained interviewers to collect information on household pesticide use for the past 6 months from any adult member of randomly selected households. Results: Out of 143 households, 95% used at least one household pesticide (95% CI: 93.5-99.5 and 94% used at least one household pesticide specifically for mosquito control. The most commonly used pesticides were mosquito coils (75%, mosquito liquid vaporizers (36%, ant-killing powder (24% and moth/naphthalene balls (18%. The major non-chemical methods of pest control were rat traps (12% and mosquito bed nets (7.5%. Out of the mosquito coil users, 61% kept the windows and doors closed while the coil was burning. Out of the moth ball users, 88% left them in the place of use till they fully vaporized. Nearly half of the users did not know that household pesticides were harmful to their health and the health of their children. Conclusions: The use of household pesticides was highly prevalent in this rural community. The prevalence of unsafe practices while handling them was also high. We recommend that the users of household pesticides be educated about the health hazards and about safe practices and non-chemical methods of pest control be promoted.
Wahdan, Maha M; Sayed, Amany M; Abd Elaziz, Khaled M; El-Hoseiny, Mostafa M; Al-Gwaily, Mohamed M
Injury is the leading cause of death and long term disability and a significant contributor to healthcare costs among children worldwide especially those aged 15-19 years. To determine the prevalence of injuries among secondary school students in Cairo, Egypt and to explore the associated risk factors for sustaining injury. A Cross-sectional study was conducted on secondary school students in eastern and western part of Cairo; self-administered questionnaire was used for assessing injuries sustained in previous 12 months and the associated risk factors for injury. The overall prevalence of injuries was 68.5%. Unintentional injuries were the most common injuries falls (50%) and burns (38.6%). Significant factors associated with sustaining injury were truancy, smoking, alcohol use, quarreling behavior, carrying weapon, threatened by weapon and verbal bullying. This study showed a high prevalence of injuries among high school students in Egypt which necessitates raising public awareness about the magnitude and burden of injuries among adolescents. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gallstone is one of the major gastrointestinal problems. There are many factors which leads to gallstone formation, like age, sex, obesity etc. Many factors are still under study. In our study we have tried to analyse our data of gallstone patients with the factors which have already been studied in past elsewhere but not in Jharkhand. In a data survey in Jharkhand region of India, we have tried to study different risk factors of gallstone formation. It was analysed that cholesterol rich diet especially nonvegetarian consumption (68% of patients were nonvegetarian and age are the major influencing factors. Gallstones are found more frequently in women than men. The ratio of male to female gallstone patients is about 1: 3. It was seen that 72.6% of the cases were in the age of 21-50. This means that with growing age incidence of gallstone increases. In our study we found out that genetics, diabetes and smoking are not much related to gallstone formation.
Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona
High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.
Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu
This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.
Gao, Xiang; Qin, Hongyu; Xiao, Jianhua; Wang, Hongbin
Bluetongue is a major disease of economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. It is transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region is one of the main pastoral areas for farmed sheep in Mainland China and, because of its large area, represents an ideal candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence characteristics. The present study conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial patterns of BTV transmission in sheep in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and assessed the inter-relationships between meteorological factors, land cover and the transmission of the virus was conducted. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the determination of BTV infection in the surveyed animals. Between June 2013 and February 2015, 6199 sheep were subjected to virus detection and 2199 sheep (35.47%) were determined to be positive for BTV. Subsequently, a maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) was used to investigate the relationship between land cover, meteorological factors and the prevalence of BTV infection. Jackknife analysis revealed that the mean monthly temperature, rainfall and average wind speed were associated with the occurrence of BTV infection and that BTV infection positivity was significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland and forest area. Our findings indicate that meteorological factors and land cover may be important variables affecting transmission of BTV and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance programmes for BTV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hargreaves, J. K.; Collis, P. N.; Korth, A.
The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.
Hargreaves, J.K.; Collis, P.N.; Korth, A.
The fluxes of energetic electrons entering the high-latitude atmosphere during auroral radio absorption events and their effect on the electron density in the auroral D region are discussed. An attempt was made to calculate the radio absorption during precipitation events from the fluxes of energetic electrons measured at geosynchronous orbit, and then to consider the use of absorption measurements to indicate the magnetospheric particle fluxes, the production rates, and electron densities in the D region.
Dlamini, Xolisile; Almonte, Maribel; Herrero, Rolando; Jolly, Pauline E.; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Broutet, Nathalie; Sartorius, Benn
Background High risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection and the dual burden of HIV remains a huge challenge in some low-income countries (LICs) such as Swaziland with limited or no data. We estimated the prevalence and investigated determinants of hr-HPV, including HIV infection among sexually active women in Swaziland. Methods A total of 655 women aged between 15 and 49 years from five health facilities were randomly enrolled using a cross-sectional study design. Cervical cells were tested for hr-HPV types using GeneXpert HPV Assays. Results The overall weighted hr-HPV prevalence was 46.2% (95%CI: 42.8–49.5). Of hr-HPV infected women, 12.4% (95%CI: 8.6–17.5) were HPV16-positive, 13.8% (95%CI:12.0–15.8) were positive for HPV18/45, 26.7% (95%CI: 24.2–29.3) for HPV31/33/35/52/58, 7.6% (95%CI: 7.6–11.9) for HPV51/59 and 11.0%, (95%CI: 7.9–15.3) for HPV39/56/66/68. Prevalence of hr-HPV decreased with increasing age. Overall HIV prevalence remained high (42.7%; 95%CI: 35.7–46.2). HIV infection was associated with hr-HPV infection (Adjusted OR = 4.9, 95%CI: 3.043–7.8, ppolicy development and planning of prevention strategies incorporating HPV infection prevention especially among youth and HIV infected people. PMID:28114325
Labat, Laurence; Fontaine, Bernard; Delzenne, Chantal; Doublet, Anne; Marek, Marie Christine; Tellier, Dominique; Tonneau, Murielle; Lhermitte, Michel; Frimat, Paul
A previous study conducted in 1995 showed that psychoactive drug use by workers was higher in safety/security workstations than in the rest of the labour force. In order to verify this finding, we conducted a new study in 2003-2004 in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, restricted to truck drivers. The aim of this study was to allow harmonizing the professional practice of the occupational physicians, proposing drug prevention and drug testing policies, validating the analytical methods and the guidelines in case of positive testing results. One thousand truck drivers were studied. Urines were tested for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine and methadone by immunoassay. Urine ethanol determinations were performed by an ADH method. Positive urines for drugs of abuse, methadone or buprenorphine were then tested by gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Out of the 1000 drivers, cannabinoids were detected in 85 cases, opiates in 41 cases, amphetamines in 3 cases and cocaine in only one case. Buprenorphine was detected in 18 cases, methadone in 5 cases and benzodiazepines in 4 cases. Urine ethanol was positive in 50 cases. We found only one case with 6-monoacetylmorphine. Other positive opiates were metabolites of antitussives. The relatively low number of benzodiazepine positive urines could be explained by the lack of sensitivity of the test we used. All these results confirm those of the previous study for cannabinoids and ethanol in safety/security workstations. Positive results for methadone and buprenorphine are eight times higher than in the general population. In conclusion, the authors think that it will be of a great interest to test urine of truck drivers for other classes of psychoactive drugs, using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.
Kulinkina, Alexandra V.; Tybor, David; Osabutey, Dickson; Bosompem, Kwabena M.; Naumova, Elena N.
Few studies assess agreement among Schistosoma haematobium eggs, measured hematuria, and self-reported metrics. We assessed agreement among four metrics at a single time point and analyzed the stability of infection across two time points with a single metric. We used data from the Eastern Region of Ghana and constructed logistic regression models. Girls reporting macrohematuria were 4.1 times more likely to have measured hematuria than girls not reporting macrohematuria (CI95%: 2.1–7.9); girls who swim were 3.6 times more likely to have measured hematuria than nonswimmers (CI95%: 1.6–7.9). For boys, neither self-reported metric was predictive. Girls with measured hematuria in 2010 were 3.3 times more likely to be positive in 2012 (CI95%: 1.01–10.5), but boys showed no association. Boys with measured hematuria in 2008 were 6.0 times more likely to have measured hematuria in 2009 (CI95%: 1.5–23.9) and those with eggs in urine in 2008 were 4.8 times more likely to have eggs in urine in 2009 (CI95%: 1.2–18.8). For girls, measured hematuria in 2008 predicted a positive test in 2009 (OR = 2.8; CI95%: 1.1–6.8), but egg status did not. Agreement between dipstick results and eggs suggests continued dipstick used is appropriate. Self-reported swimming should be further examined. For effective disease monitoring, we recommend annual dipstick testing. PMID:28078300
Sahli, Jihene; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Ben Fredj, Sihem; Dendana, Emna; Ghannem, Hassen
High blood pressure is preventable and is directly related to lifestyle habits such as an unbalanced diet, low levels of physical activity, and tobacco use. This quasiexperimental study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a 3-year community intervention targeting healthy lifestyle promotion in reducing hypertension prevalence among adults. A quasiexperimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-year intervention for healthy lifestyle that was implemented between 2010 and 2013 in a community of adults in the region of Sousse in Tunisia. The population study was randomly selected in both intervention and control groups at pre-assessment and post-assessment. After considering a type 1 error α of 5%, a type 2 error β of 20%, and a change in the prevalence of various risk factors of 6% between pre-intervention and post-intervention, the sample size was fixed to 2,000 adults in intervention and control areas. The intervention group was composed of 940 and 1,001 adults, and the control group was composed of 940 and 976, respectively, at pre-assessment and post-assessment. The prevalence of hypertension decreased in the intervention group globally from 37.3% to 33.7% but not significantly (p = 0.1). In the control group, this proportion increased from 31.1% to 33.4% without significant difference (p = 0.28). In the intervention group, after stratification for age, a significant decrease (p = 0.007) in the prevalence of hypertension was observed for participants younger than 40 years old: it decreased from 22.8% to 16.2%. In the control group, it increased from 14% to 15.4% (p = 0.52). In intervention group, a significant decrease of the hypertension from 31.4% to 26% (p = 0.03) was observed among nonobese participants after stratification for weight status. No significant change was observed in the control group. This study showed the feasibility and effectiveness of a community-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of hypertension in the context
High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers(VCSEKLs) with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structures, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the ca...
Full Text Available Gizachew Tilahun Belete,1 Dereje Hayilu Anbesse,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Mohammed Seid Hussen1 1Department of Optometry, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Introduction: Myopia is an important cause of correctable visual impairment and preventable blindness worldwide. Prevalence rates are approximately 20%–35% among the older teenage population globally. It has a medical burden of pathologic complications such as maculopathy and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. High school students experience high-performance and study pressures in the preparation for the final national examination. As a result they are exposed to excessive near work and indoor activities. They are also ignored for regular screening. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of myopia among high school students in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 high school students with systematic random sampling method from April 18 to April 29, 2016, in three full-cycle high schools (9th–12th grades. A standardized structured questionnaire, Snellen acuity chart, pinhole, retinoscope, trial case lenses, pen torch, and direct ophthalmoscope were used to collect data. Results: A total of 495 study participants were included, and they had a mean age of 17.48±1.59 years. The prevalence of myopia was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2, 17.9. Family history of myopia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=8.08 [95% CI: 4.30, 15.16], school being private (AOR=2.88 [95% CI: 1.02, 8.11], longer time spent for near work (AOR=2.89 [95% CI: 1.12, 7.43], longer time spent partaking in indoor activities (AOR=4.32 [95% CI: 1.69, 10.99], shorter near working distance (AOR=3.06 [95% CI: 1.33, 7.06], lack of outdoor sport activities (AOR=2.27 [95% CI: 1.05, 4.90], use of visual display units (AOR=2.81 [95% CI
Salman-Monte, Tarek Carlos; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Muñoz-Ortego, Juan; Mojal, Sergi; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi
Studies have found an increase in bone loss and fracture in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared with general population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fragility fractures and to find potential predictors of bone loss in our cohort of SLE patients. We performed a cross-sectional study and collected 67 bone density measurements (BMD) of our SLE patients. We also collected sociodemographic data, 25-OH-vitamin D levels, serological markers, activity index, SLE cumulative damage index, and pharmacologic treatment. Sixty-seven consecutive BMD from SLE patients were assessed. Osteopenia was found in 28-46% of SLE patients. Osteoporosis ranged from 3 to 6%[corrected]. The only statistically significant correlation we found was between weight and height with total hip and femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05). The most frequent BMD-affected site was at the femoral neck, showing osteopenia in 40.3% [corrected] of SLE patients. Osteoporosis was found in up to 6% [corrected] of SLE patients. We found no predictors of bone loss in relation to the disease activity or its treatment. Fragility fractures were seen in 4.4% of SLE patients. All patients with fragility fractures showed osteopenia at BMD. There is a high prevalence of bone loss in SLE patients, since up to 40% [corrected] of SLE patients showed low BMD. Total hip and femoral neck osteopenia were the most frequent findings correlated with low BMI. We found a lower prevalence of fragility fractures compared with other series.
Ilus, T; Kaukinen, K; Virta, L J; Huhtala, H; Mäki, M; Kurppa, K; Heikkinen, M; Heikura, M; Hirsi, E; Jantunen, K; Moilanen, V; Nielsen, C; Puhto, M; Pölkki, H; Vihriälä, I; Collin, P
Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is thought to be a rare disorder, but the accurate prevalence is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and the risk factors for developing RCD in a Finnish population where the clinical detection rate of coeliac disease is high. The study involved 11 hospital districts in Finland where the number of treated RCD patients (n = 44), clinically diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 12 243) and adult inhabitants (n = 1.7 million) was known. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of coeliac disease between the RCD patients and patients with uncomplicated disease were compared. The prevalence of RCD was 0.31% among diagnosed coeliac disease patients and 0.002% in the general population. Of the enrolled 44 RCD patients, 68% had type I and 23% type II; in 9% the type was undetermined. Comparing 886 patients with uncomplicated coeliac disease with these 44 patients that developed RCD later in life, the latter were significantly older (median 56 vs 44 years, P coeliac disease. Patients with evolving RCD had more severe symptoms at the diagnosis of coeliac disease, including weight loss in 36% (vs. 16%, P = 0.001) and diarrhoea in 54% (vs. 38%, P = 0.050). Refractory coeliac disease is very rare in the general population. Patients of male gender, older age, severe symptoms or seronegativity at the diagnosis of coeliac disease are at risk of future refractory coeliac disease and should be followed up carefully. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and predictive factors of osteoporosis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma after gastrectomy.METHODS: The study included 133 patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma but who did not undergo prior diagnostic work-up for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and vertebral deformity was assessed by plain X-rays. We evaluated the effects of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), anemia, back pain,vertebral deformity, tumor staging, reconstruction type,and past medical history to determine predictive factors of osteoporosis in these patients.RESULTS: The prevalence of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine was 38.3% (male, 28.9%; female, 54.0%), and 15.0% in the femoral neck (male, 10.8%; female,22.0%). The vertebral deformity rate was 46.6% (male,43.4%; female, 52.0%). Age, BMI and hemoglobin correlated with BMD (P ＜ 0.01). In males, anemia and age ＞ 64 years were independent predictive factors of osteoporosis in multivariate analysis. In females, back pain was an independent factor for osteoporosis.CONCLUSION: The results of this study revealed that prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral bone deformity rate were high in gastric cancer patients, regardless of post-gastrectomy duration and operation type. Early diagnosis and a proper management plan must be established in these patients.
Full Text Available Objectives. The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (−13910 C/C genotype among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design. The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods. Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results. The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (−13910 C/C among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis.
Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros; Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Marques, Heloisa Helena de Sousa
To assess the prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS, as well as associated factors. Ninety-one adolescents (from 10 to 19 years old) with HIV/AIDS who are patients at a university follow-up service were interviewed. Anthropometric data (weight, height, and waist circumference) were measured twice; clinical information was obtained from medical records, and habitual physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire proposed by Florindo et al. The cutoff point for sedentariness was 300minutes/week. The prevalence of inadequate height for age, malnutrition, and overweight/obesity was 15.4%, 9.9% and 12.1%, respectively. The most common physical activities were soccer (44.4%), volleyball (14.4%) and cycling (7.8%). The median times spent with physical activity and walking/bicycling to school were 141minutes and 39minutes, respectively. Most adolescents (71.4%) were sedentary and this proportion was higher among girls (p=0.046). A high prevalence of physical inactivity among adolescents with HIV/AIDS was observed, similarly to the general population. Promoting physical activity among adolescents, especially among girls with HIV/AIDS, as well as monitoring it should be part of the follow-up routine of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kazama, Mie; Maruyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Kazutoshi
Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual disorder experienced by adolescents, and its major symptoms, including pain, adversely affect daily life and school performance. However, little epidemiologic evidence on dysmenorrhea in Japanese adolescents exists. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with dysmenorrhea in Japanese female junior high school students. Among 1,167 girls aged between 12 and 15 years, 1,018 participants completed a questionnaire that solicited information on age at menarche, menstruation, and lifestyle, as well as demographic characteristics. Dysmenorrhea was defined based on menstrual pain using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), with moderate or severe (moderate-severe) dysmenorrhea, which adversely affects daily life, defined as VAS ≥ 4, and severe dysmenorrhea defined as VAS ≥ 7. The prevalence of moderate-severe dysmenorrhea was 476/1,018 (46.8%), and that of severe dysmenorrhea was 180/1,018 (17.7%). Higher chronological and gynecological ages (years after menarche) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of dysmenorrhea regardless of severity (P for trend students. Health education teachers should be made aware of these facts, and appropriately care for those suffering from dysmenorrhea symptoms, absentees, and those experiencing difficulties in school life due to dysmenorrhea symptoms.
Thummeepak, Rapee; Leerach, Nontapat; Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Tangchaisuriya, Udomsak; Thanwisai, Aunchalee; Sitthisak, Sutthirat
Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is an emerging health problem worldwide. The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae is increasing, and nasal colonization of S. pneumoniae in children increases the risk of pneumococcal infection. In this study, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was studied in Thai children from three different districts. S. pneumoniae nasal colonization was found in 38 of 237 subjects (16.0%). The carriage rate indicated higher rates in two rural districts (18.2% and 29.8%) than in the urban district (2.8%). The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using the disk diffusion method. Prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae (MDR-SP) was 31.6%. Resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was found for ampicillin (5.3%), azithromycin (26.3%), cefepime (2.6%), chloramphenicol (18.4%), clindamycin (18.4%), erythromycin (21.1%), oxacillin (44.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (78.9%) and tetracycline (15.8%). All isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was used to compare genetic diversity of the S. pneumoniae isolates. PFGE demonstrated the variation in genotypes of S. pneumoniae from different areas. High prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. pneumoniae nasal colonization in healthy Thai children was indicated. Effective strategies for appropriate use of antibiotics are therefore needed in the community.
Risgaard, B; Jabbari, R; Refsgaard, L;
, when exome data from the NHLI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) was published. In this study, we aimed to report the prevalence of previously BrS-associated variants in the ESP population. We performed a search in ESP for variants previously associated with BrS. In addition, four variants in ESP were...... genotyped in a second Danish control population (n = 536) with available electrocardiograms. In ESP, we identified 38 of 355 (10%) variants, distributed on 272 heterozygote carriers and two homozygote carriers. The genes investigated were on average screened in 6258 individuals. This corresponds...... to a surprisingly high genotype prevalence of 1:23 (274:6258). Genotyping the four common ESP-derived variants CACNA2D1 S709N, SCN5A F2004L, CACNB2 S143F, and CACNB2 T450I in the Danish controls, we found a genotype prevalence comparable with that found in ESP. We suggest that exome data are used in research...
Lucia Mariano da Rocha Silla
Full Text Available This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years and women (14 to 30 years tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.
Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of infertility in women with Graves’ disease (GD or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT and associated factors. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases, with 193 women aged 18–50 years with GD and 66 women aged 18–60 years with HT. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their gynecological and obstetric history and family history of autoimmune diseases. Their medical records were reviewed to determine the characteristics of the disease and to confirm association with other autoimmune diseases. Infertility was defined as 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse without conception. Results. The prevalence of infertility was 52.3% in GD and 47.0% in HT. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years and 39.2 years, in GD and HT, respectively. The mean number of pregnancies was lower in women who were 35 years old or younger at diagnosis and was always lower following diagnosis of the disease, irrespective of age. The only variable associated with infertility was a shorter time of the disease in HT. Conclusions. The prevalence of infertility was high in women with GD and HT and affected the number of pregnancies in young women.
Quintino-Moro, Alessandra; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise E; Tambascia, Marcos; Machado, Helymar da Costa; Fernandes, Arlete
Objectives. To evaluate the prevalence of infertility in women with Graves' disease (GD) or Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and associated factors. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Endocrinology Clinic for Thyroid Autoimmune Diseases, with 193 women aged 18-50 years with GD and 66 women aged 18-60 years with HT. The women were interviewed to obtain data on their gynecological and obstetric history and family history of autoimmune diseases. Their medical records were reviewed to determine the characteristics of the disease and to confirm association with other autoimmune diseases. Infertility was defined as 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse without conception. Results. The prevalence of infertility was 52.3% in GD and 47.0% in HT. Mean age at diagnosis was 36.5 years and 39.2 years, in GD and HT, respectively. The mean number of pregnancies was lower in women who were 35 years old or younger at diagnosis and was always lower following diagnosis of the disease, irrespective of age. The only variable associated with infertility was a shorter time of the disease in HT. Conclusions. The prevalence of infertility was high in women with GD and HT and affected the number of pregnancies in young women.
Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.
Cornwell, Emily R.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Bowser, Paul R.
Since the first reports of mortalities due to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin during 2005 (Lake St. Clair, USA and Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada), many groups have conducted surveillance efforts for the virus, primarily in nearshore areas. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) has been identified as a key species to target for surveillance, because they have a very high probability of infection at a given site. Our objective in this study was to document and quantify VHSV in round gobies in offshore waters of Lake Ontario using molecular techniques. We collected 139 round gobies from depths ranging from 55 to 150 m using bottom trawls during the early spring of 2011 and detected VHSV in 4 individuals (1/26 fish at 95 m, 2/12 fish at 105 m, and 1/24 fish at 135 m). These results expand the known depth range of VHSV in the Great Lakes. They also have implications on the management of the spread of VHSV within infected bodies of water related to the mixing of populations of fish that would remain distinct in their breeding habitats, but then have the opportunity to mix in their overwintering habitats, as well as to increase overlap of predator and prey species in overwintering habitats.
Evert van den Broek
Full Text Available Cancer is caused by somatic DNA alterations such as gene point mutations, DNA copy number aberrations (CNA and structural variants (SVs. Genome-wide analyses of SVs in large sample series with well-documented clinical information are still scarce. Consequently, the impact of SVs on carcinogenesis and patient outcome remains poorly understood. This study aimed to perform a systematic analysis of genes that are affected by CNA-associated chromosomal breaks in colorectal cancer (CRC and to determine the clinical relevance of recurrent breakpoint genes.Primary CRC samples of patients with metastatic disease from CAIRO and CAIRO2 clinical trials were previously characterized by array-comparative genomic hybridization. These data were now used to determine the prevalence of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes across 352 CRC samples. In addition, mutation status of the commonly affected APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, SMAD4, BRAF and NRAS genes was determined for 204 CRC samples by targeted massive parallel sequencing. Clinical relevance was assessed upon stratification of patients based on gene mutations and gene breakpoints that were observed in >3% of CRC cases.In total, 748 genes were identified that were recurrently affected by chromosomal breaks (FDR 3% of cases, indicating that prevalence of gene breakpoints is comparable to the prevalence of well-known gene point mutations. Patient stratification based on gene breakpoints and point mutations revealed one CRC subtype with very poor prognosis.We conclude that CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes represent a highly prevalent and clinically relevant subset of SVs in CRC.
Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan
Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.
Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72) for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active MTrPs) and 4 (latent MTr
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is reported to be highly prevalent and tends to be recurrent or persistent despite medical treatment. The pathophysiological mechanisms of shoulder pain are poorly understood. Furthermore, there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of current treatment protocols. Although myofascial trigger points (MTrPs are rarely mentioned in relation to shoulder pain, they may present an alternative underlying mechanism, which would provide new treatment targets through MTrP inactivation. While previous research has demonstrated that trained physiotherapists can reliably identify MTrPs in patients with shoulder pain, the percentage of patients who actually have MTrPs remains unclear. The aim of this observational study was to assess the prevalence of muscles with MTrPs and the association between MTrPs and the severity of pain and functioning in patients with chronic non-traumatic unilateral shoulder pain. Methods An observational study was conducted. Subjects were recruited from patients participating in a controlled trial studying the effectiveness of physical therapy on patients with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain. Sociodemographic and patient-reported symptom scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scales for Pain were compared with other studies. To test for differences in age, gender distribution, and education level between the current study population and the populations from Dutch shoulder studies, the one sample T-test was used. One observer examined all subjects (n = 72 for the presence of MTrPs. Frequency distributions, means, medians, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for descriptive purposes. The Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ was used to test for association between variables. Results MTrPs were identified in all subjects. The median number of muscles with MTrPs per subject was 6 (active
Nugraha, Andri; Shiddiqi, Hasbi; Widiyantoro, Sri; Ramdhan, Mohamad; Wandono, Wandono
As a complex tectonic region, Indonesia has a high seismicity rate which is related to subduction and collision as well as strike-slip fault. High-precision earthquake locations with adequate relocation method and proper velocity model are necessary for seismicity analysis. We used nearly 25,000 earthquakes that were relocated using double-difference method. In our relocation process, we employed teleseismic, regional, and local P-wave arrival times. Furthermore, we employed regional-global nested velocity models that take into account the subduction slab in the study region by using a 3D model for area inside and a 1D model for area outside Indonesia. Relocation results show shifted hypocenters that are generally perpendicular to the trench. Beneath western Sunda arc, the Wadati-Benioff Zone (WBZ) extents to a depth of about 300 km and depicts a gently dipping slab. The WBZ beneath eastern Sunda arc extends deeper to about 500 km and depicts a steep slab geometry. In the Sunda-Banda transition zone, we found anomalously low seismicity beneath the oceanic-continental transition region. The WBZ of the severely curved Banda arc extends to a depth of about 600 km and depicts a two-slab model. In the Molucca collision zone, seismicity clearly depicts two opposing slabs of the Molucca sea plate, i.e. to the east and to the west. Around Sulawesi region, most earthquakes are related to the north Sulawesi trench and depict subducted slab beneath the northern part of the island. In Sumatra region, we identified a seismic gap in the WBZ between 70 km and 150 km. Seismicity gaps are also detected beneath particular regions, e.g. Mentawai region, and several parts along the subducted slab. Similar to the Sumatra region, beneath eastern Sunda arc, seismic gap in WBZ is also detected but deeper, i.e. at depths of 150 km to 250 km. Furthermore, we used global centroid moment tensor catalog data available for earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 or greater. In general, focal mechanism
Leyna Germana H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in stages of the HIV-1 epidemic and hence HIV-1 prevalence exists in different areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude of HIV-1 infection and identify HIV-1 risk factors that may help to develop preventive strategies in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May of 2005 involving all individuals aged between 15–44 years having an address in Oria Village. All eligible individuals were registered and invited to participate. Participants were interviewed regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, and medical history. Following a pre-test counseling, participants were offered an HIV test. Results Of the 2 093 eligible individuals, 1 528 (73.0% participated. The overall age and sex adjusted HIV-1 prevalence was 5.6%. Women had 2.5 times higher prevalence (8.0% vs. 3.2% as compared to men. The age group 25–44 years, marriage, separation and low education were associated with higher risk of HIV-1 infection for both sexes. HIV-1 infection was significantly associated with >2 sexual partners in the past 12 months (women: Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.5 (95%CI: 1.3–4.7, and past 5 years, [(men: AOR, 2.2 (95%CI:1.2–5.6; women: AOR, 2.5 (95%CI: 1.4–4.0], unprotected casual sex (men: AOR,1.8 95%CI: 1.2–5.8, bottled alcohol (Men: AOR, 5.9 (95%CI:1.7–20.1 and local brew (men: AOR, 3.7 (95%CI: 1.5–9.2. Other factors included treatment for genital ulcers and genital discharge in the past 1 month. Health-related complaints were more common among HIV-1 seropositive as compared to seronegative participants and predicted the presence of HIV-1 infection. Conclusion HIV-1 infection was highly prevalent in this population. As compared to our previous findings, a shift of the epidemic from a younger to an older age group and from educated to uneducated individuals was observed. Women and married or
Puebla, Luis Jerez; Núñez, Fidel A; García, Alexey Brito; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Millán, Irais Atencio; Prado, Raúl Cordoví
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most frequent intestinal parasitic infections in children worldwide. To date, eight main assemblages of G. duodenalis have been described, but only A and B genetic groups are known to infect humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia duodenalis infection in 417 preschool children from the Fomento municipality in the central region of Cuba between January and June 2013. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 10.79 %. Assemblage identification was carried out by the amplification of a fragment of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. DNA from 36 of 45 (80 %) samples was successfully amplified by PCR-tpi. Assemblage B and mixed assemblages A + B represented 52.78 and 36.11 % respectively, of genotyped samples. Assemblage A accounts for only 11.11 %. Children who were cared for at home were associated with diarrhea caused by assemblage B. No associations were found between other clinical variables with infecting assemblage of Giardia. Univariate analysis identified the use of unsafe water resources (OR 2.9; CI 1.2-6.8) and-even more interestingly-keeping dogs indoor (OR 2.5; CI 1.2-5.4) were significant risk factors associated with Giardia infection among children. Multivariate analysis using introduction test logistic regression ratified the association of these two risk factors: kept dogs indoor (OR 2.8, CI 1.1-5.3), and untreated water (OR 1.4, CI 1.4-4.9) with Giardia infection. This information may be useful for an effective prevention and control programme of giardiasis in this population.
Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.
Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.
Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901
Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E; Frew, Paula M; Haley, Danielle F
Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n = 1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR = 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), partner age >35 years (OR = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR = 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches.
A. Farhadi Nasab
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is considered as a mood disorders that 30 to 80 percent of women have at least mild symptoms and that 2 to 10 percent have severe symptoms of this disorder. The exact cause of this disorder is not clear, but according to one of the most common theories, it seems to be the higher level of estrogen to progesterone in affected women. The symptoms of this disorder include: hopelessness, agitation, emotional disturbance, anger and physical complaints (headache, breast tenderness and edema. The symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational or interpersonal functioning. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Hamadan high school girls, in 2003.Materials & Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study. Maximum sampling error was considered to be as 5% and confidence interval was 95%. 384 educating high school girls from Hamadan were selected randomly and were asked by questionnaires that were designed on the basis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder criteria, according to psychiatric references. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 10 using 2 test.Results: From 384 studied girls, 172 subjects (44.5% were diagnosed with premenstrual dysphoric disorder which 18 cases of them were suspicious to have other disorder such as depression. 102 patients among affected girls (59.3% were diagnosed during the first year of beginning menstruation. Duration of symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder was more than three days in 20% of cases. Mood, behavioral and physical symptoms were coexisted in 71.5%, 61% and 73.2% of the girls with premenstrual dysphoric disorder respectively, and these associations were statistically significant (p<0.01.Conclusion: Prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in Hamadan high school girls was near to its prevalence in general population (40%. More than two thirds
Maselli, A; Ferrara, A; Choudhury, T R
We investigate the possibility of constraining the ionization state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) close to the end of reionization (z ~ 6) by measuring the size of the HII regions in high-z quasars spectra. We perform a combination of multiphase SPH and 3D radiative transfer (RT) simulations to reliably predict the properties of typical high-z quasar HII regions, embedded in a partly neutral IGM. From the analysis of mock spectra along lines of sight through the simulated QSO environment we find that the HII region size derived from quasar spectra is on average 30 % smaller than the physical one. Additional maximum likelihood analysis shows that this offset induces an overestimate of the neutral hydrogen fraction, x_HI, by a factor ~ 3. By applying the same statistical method to a sample of observed QSOs our study favors a mostly ionized (x_HI < 0.06) universe at z=6.1.
Full Text Available HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM. Anal HPV infection (HPV+ was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+ and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV- MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM, bisexual men (BM, and transgender women (TGW.From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200 GM, 30 (15% BM, and 85 (42.5% TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping.Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%. Prevalence was 89% (76/85 in GM, 48% (14/29 in BM, and 81% (67/83 in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197, HPV58 (23%, and HPV51 (18%. Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70 had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95 with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111 for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126 for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection.We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM.
Hu, Yueqing; Liang, Jingyao; Yu, Shengyuan
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) in population studies, but no case has been reported in a large HD family. We report a case of a five-generation Chinese family who is afflicted by both HD and DM. The prevalence of DM in HD of this family was high (72.7%). The diagnosis of HD in 11 family members was confirmed by the genetic test of the proband who had 42 CAG repeats. Furthermore, the proband's daughter had abnormal locus at G3460T in MT-ND1 among mtDNA genome. Our case report suggests a genetic link between HD and DM.
Nagy, Zsofia; Van der Tak, Floris; Ossenkopf, Volker; Bergin, Edwin; Black, John; Faure, Alexandre; Fuller, Gary; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier; Joblin, Christine; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Makai, Zoltan; Plume, Rene; Roellig, Markus; Spaans, Marco; Tolls, Volker
High-mass stars influence their environment in different ways including feedback via their FUV radiation. The penetration of FUV photons into molecular clouds creates Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) with different chemical layers where the mainly ionized medium changes into mainly molecular. Differe
Tietjen, G E; Brandes, J L; Digre, K B; Baggaley, S; Martin, V; Recober, A; Geweke, L O; Hafeez, F; Aurora, S K; Herial, N A; Utley, C; Khuder, S A
To better define, in women with headache, the relationship of depression and somatic symptoms to headache, characterized by diagnoses, frequency, and disability. At six headache specialty clinics, women with headache were classified using ICHD-II criteria, and frequency was recorded. A questionnaire addressing demographics, age at onset of headache, headache-related disability, somatic symptom, and depression severity was completed. Logistic regression was performed to measure the associations of headache frequency and headache-related disability with somatic symptom and depression severity. A total of 1,032 women with headache completed the survey, 593 with episodic (96% with migraine) and 439 with chronic headache (87% with migraine). Low education and household income was more common in chronic headache sufferers and in persons with severe headache disability. Somatic symptom prevalence and severity was greater in persons with chronic headache and with severe headache-related disability. Significant correlation was observed between PHQ-9 and PHQ-15 scores (r = 0.62). Chronic headache, severe disability, and high somatic symptom severity were associated with major depressive disorder (OR = 25.1, 95% CI: 10.9 to 57.9), and this relationship was stronger in the subgroup with a diagnosis of migraine (OR = 31.8, 95% CI: 12.9 to 78.5). High somatic symptom severity is prevalent in women with chronic and severely disabling headaches. Synergistic relationship to major depression exists for high somatic symptom severity, chronic headache, and disabling headache, suggesting a psychobiological underpinning of these associations.
Villanueva, Pía; de Barbieri, Zulema; Palomino, Hernán M; Palomino, Hernán
Specific language impairment (SLI) occurs in 2% to 8% of preschool children. Major and candidate genes are probably involved. Genetic drift is a cause for the presence of high frequencies of deleterious alíeles of a specific disease and the founder effect is one of its forms. Robinson Crusoe Island has 633 inhabitants and its actual population began with 8 families that repopulated the island at the end of XIXth century. To assess the frequency of specific language impairment among children living in Robinson Crusoe Island. All 66 children aged between 3 and 9 years living in the island, were studied. Parents were interviewed and in children, non verbal intelligence, audiometric parameters, comprehension and expression of oral language were assessed. Extended genealogies were also performed. Forty children had at least one parent that was descending of founder families. Among these, 35% had SLI. Eighth five percent of SLI affected children came from the same colonizer family. The prevalence of SLI in Robinson Crusoe Island is higher than that reported in mainland Chile and abroad. This high prevalence, associated to a high frequency of consanguinity, supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in SLI transmission, based on a founder effect.
Gottstein, B; Saucy, F; Deplazes, P; Reichen, J; Demierre, G; Busato, A; Zuercher, C; Pugin, P
We investigated a focus of highly endemic Echinococcus multilocularis infection to assess persistence of high endemicity in rural rodents, explore potential for parasite transmission to domestic carnivores, and assess (serologically) putative exposure versus infection frequency in inhabitants of the region. From spring 1993 to spring 1998, the prevalence of E. multilocularis in rodents was 9% to 39% for Arvicola terrestris and 10% to 21% for Microtus arvalis. From June 1996 to October 1997, 6 (7%) of 86 feral dogs and 1 of 33 cats living close to the region tested positive for intestinal E. multilocularis infection. Testing included egg detection by coproscopy, antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and specific parasite DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Thus, the presence of infected domestic carnivores can increase E. multilocularis exposure risk in humans. A seroepidemiologic survey of 2,943 blood donors in the area used specific Em2-ELISA. Comparative statistical analyses of seroprevalence and clinical incidence showed an increase in Em2-seroprevalence from 1986 and 1996-97 but no increase in clinical incidence of alveolar hydatid disease.
Nayak, Satheesha B; Deepthinath, R; Prasad, A M; Shetty, Surekha D; Aithal, Ashwini P
Surgical procedures in the pelvic region are very challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region. "Corona mortis" is a term used to describe retro-pubic anastomosis between the obturator and external iliac vessels. It is considered as a key structure as significant haemorrhage may occur if the vessels are cut accidentally during pelvic surgeries. Earlier studies have documented a high frequency of venous anastomosis compared to its arterial counterpart. The objective of our study was to document the prevalence of venous corona mortis in South Indian human adult cadaveric pelvises. We conducted this study on 73 cadaveric pelvic halves. Out of the 73 hemi pelvises, 36 were normal without any variations of the obturator vessels while 37 hemi pelvises (51%) showed the presence of abnormal obturator vessels which proves to be a very high incidence in terms of variations. Out of the 37 hemi pelvises, 25 (68%) showed the presence of 2 obturator veins, out of which 1 was normal and the other was an abnormal obturator vein. 8 hemi pelvises (22%) had only abnormal obturator vein. Most of the abnormal obturator veins drained into the external iliac vein, while two veins drained into inferior epigastric veins. Venous corona mortis is said to be frequently encountered during surgery and is considered to be as important as arterial corona mortis in its clinical implications. Individual evaluation of this risky anatomical structure should be done prior to any surgical interventions.
Valerian L Kiggundu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on malaria among hospitalized children in malaria endemic areas. We determined the prevalence, presentation and treatment outcomes of malaria and anemia among children in two hospitals in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: Children under five years hospitalized in Kalisizo hospital or Bikira health center in Rakai district, Uganda between May 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled and followed-up until discharge, death or referral. Data were collected on social-demographic characteristics, current and past illnesses and clinical signs and symptoms. Blood smears, hemoglobin (Hgb levels and HIV testing were performed from finger/heel prick blood. The associations between malaria infection and other factors were estimated using log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (aPRR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs, controlling for clustering at health facilities. RESULTS: 2471 children were enrolled. The most common medical presentations were fever (96.2%, cough (61.7%, vomiting (44.2%, diarrhea (20.8%, and seizures (16.0%. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 54.6%. Children with malaria were more likely to present with a history of fever (aPRR 2.23; CI 1.18-4.24 and seizures (aPRR 1.12; CI 1.09-1.16. Confirmed malaria was significantly lower among girls than boys (aPRR 0.92; CI 0.91-0.93, HIV infected children (aPRR 0.60 CI 0.52-0.71, and children with diarrhea (aPRR 0.76; CI 0.65-0.90. The overall prevalence of anemia (Hgb<10 g/dl was 56.3% and severe anemia (Hgb<6 g/dL was 17.8%. Among children with severe anemia 76.8% had malaria parasitemia, of whom 93.1% received blood transfusion. Malaria associated mortality was 0.6%. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia among inpatient children under five years. Malaria prevention is a priority in this population.
Zheng, Xue-yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Shao-wei; Xiao, Jian-peng; Ma, Li-zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-hua; Zhang, Qiong-hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Chen, Hui-fang; Jiang, Li-na; Xiong, Yi-quan; Ma, Shu-juan; Zhong, Xue-shan; Huo, Shu-ting; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-wen; Chen, Qing
Several studies have reported the detection of herpesviruses (HVs) in bats. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of HVs in bats are still poorly understood. To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of bat HVs in southern China, 520 fecal samples from eight bat species were collected in four geographic regions of southern China. Of these samples, 73 (14.0 %) tested positive for HVs using nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of molecular diversity of HVs in bats of different species from different geographic regions. Our study provides evidence for co-evolution of bats and HVs.
Dabrera, Thushani Marie Elizabeth; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Fernando, M S Nilanthi; Kasturiaratchi, S T Kaushlya; Østbye, Truls
Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions. Patients with suspected leprosy were referred to a dermatology clinic for clinical or pathological confirmation. The prevalence of leprosy was high (511 per 10 000 population). Household contact with another patient with leprosy increased the risk of leprosy (odds ratio = 6.69; P leprosy at bay in high-risk communities.
Saquib, Nazmus; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Saquib, Juliann; Anand, Shuchi; Chertow, Glenn M; Barry, Michele; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Cullen, Mark R
The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing in the developing world; we assessed their prevalence among the urban middle class in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional survey (n = 402), we randomly selected consenting adults (≥ 30 years) from a middle-income neighborhood in Dhaka. We assessed demography, lifestyle, and health status, measured physical indices and blood pressure and obtained blood samples. We evaluated two primary outcomes: (1) type-2 diabetes (fasting blood glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or hemoglobin A1C ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or diabetes medication use) and (2) insulin resistance (type-2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation criteria). Mean age and Quételet's (body mass) index were 49.4 ± 12.6 years and 27.0 ± 5.1 kg/m²; 83% were married, 41% had ≥12 years of education, 47% were employed, 47% had a family history of diabetes. Thirty-five percent had type-2 diabetes and 45% had metabolic syndrome. In multivariate models older age and family history of diabetes were significantly associated with type-2 diabetes. Older age, female sex, overweight or obese, high wealth index and positive family history of diabetes were significantly associated with insulin resistance. Participants with type-2 diabetes or insulin resistance had significantly poorer physical health only if they had associated cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome among the middle class in Dhaka is alarmingly high. Screening services should be implemented while researchers focus on strategies to lessen the incidence and morbidity associated with these conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Commensal bacteria represent an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Few community-based studies of antibiotic resistance in commensal bacteria have been conducted in Southeast Asia. We investigated the prevalence of resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in preschool children in rural Vietnam, and factors associated with carriage of resistant bacteria. Methods We tested isolates of E. coli from faecal samples of 818 children aged 6-60 months living in FilaBavi, a demographic surveillance site near Hanoi. Daily antibiotic use data was collected for participating children for three weeks prior to sampling and analysed with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics extracted from FilaBavi's re-census survey 2007. Descriptive statistics were generated, and a logistic regression model was used to identify contributions of the examined factors. Results High prevalences of resistance were found to tetracycline (74%, co-trimoxazole (68%, ampicillin (65%, chloramphenicol (40%, and nalidixic acid (27%. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Sixty percent of isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Recent sulphonamide use was associated with co-trimoxazole resistance [OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7], and beta-lactam use with ampicillin resistance [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4]. Isolates from children aged 6-23 months were more likely to be resistant to ampicillin [OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.4] and co-trimoxazole [OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0]. Associations were identified between geographical areas and tetracycline and ampicillin resistance. Conclusions We present high prevalence of carriage of commensal E. coli resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The identified associations with recent antibiotic use, age, and geographical location might contribute to our understanding of carriage of antibiotic resistant commensal bacteria.
Ahmad, Tahir; Arshad, Najma; Adnan, Fazal; Sadaf Zaidi, Najam-Us-Sahar; Shahid, Muhammad Talha; Zahoor, Usman; Afzal, Muhammad S; Anjum, Sadia
Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38.94% for HAdV, 48.42% for EV and 12.63% for HAV. The presence of these viruses in water was directly correlated with meteorological data. High prevalence of EV and HAdV was detected frequently in the wet season from May - September, which can be the potential cause of spreading of gastroenteritis in the population. Environmental surveillance is an additional tool to evaluate the epidemiology of enteric viruses circulating in a given community.
Cui, Yan; Baldwin, Susie B; Lightstone, Amy S; Shih, Margaret; Yu, Hongjian; Teutsch, Steven
Los Angeles County has among the lowest smoking rates of large urban counties in the USA. Nevertheless, concerning disparities persist as high smoking prevalence is found among certain subgroups. We calculated adult smoking prevalence in the incorporated cities of Los Angeles County in order to identify cities with high smoking prevalence. The prevalence was estimated by a model-based small area estimation method with utilization of three data sources, including the 2007 Los Angeles County Health Survey, the 2000 Census, and the 2007 Los Angeles County Population Estimates and Projection System. Smoking prevalence varied considerably across cities, with a more than fourfold difference between the lowest (5.3%) and the highest prevalence (21.7%). Higher smoking prevalence was generally found in socioeconomically disadvantaged cities. The disparities identified here add another layer of data to our knowledge of the health inequities experienced by low-income urban communities and provide much sought data for local tobacco control. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of providing credible local estimates of smoking prevalence using the model-based small area estimation method.
Shikha Srivastava; Sadhana Gupta; Jagat Kumar Roy
In developing countries like India, occurrence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer as well as in the asymptomatic population was observed to be very high. Studies on HPV prevalence have been conducted in different parts of the country but no data were available from the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh (UP). The present study aimed to determine the status of HPV prevalence and its association with different socio-demographic factors in this population. Prevalence of HPV was investigated in a total of 2424 cervical scrape samples of asymptomatic women. Primer sets from L1 consensus region of viral genome were used to detect the presence of HPV, and the positive samples were genotyped by sequencing. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate association of socio-demographic factors with HPV. 9.9% of the clinically asymptomatic women were found to be infected with HPV comprising 26 different genotypes. Among HPV-positive women, 80.8% showed single infection, while 15.4% harboured multiple infections. HPV-16 (63.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HPV-31 (6.7%), HPV-6 (5.4%), HPV-81 (4.6%) and HPV-33 (4.2%). Significant association of HPV with non-vegetarian diet ( < 0.05) and rural residential areas ( < 0.01) were observed. High prevalence of HPV-16 in asymptomatic women of this population, a frequency comparable to invasive cervical cancers, highlights an urgent need for a therapeutic HPV vaccine covering HPV-16 and other high-risk types to provide protection against the disease.
Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q; Galván-Madrid, R; Liu, H-Y B
Context. To further understand the processes involved in the formation of massive stars, we have undertaken a study of the gas dynamics surrounding three massive star forming regions. By observing the large scale structures at high resolution, we are able to determine properties such as driving source, and spatially resolve the bulk dynamical properties of the gas such as infall and outflow. Aims. With high resolution observations, we are able to determine which of the cores in a cluster forming massive stars is responsible for the large scale structures. Methods. We present CO observations of three massive star forming regions with known HII regions and show how the CO traces both infall and outflow. By combining data taken in two SMA configurations with JCMT observations, we are able to see large scale structures at high resolution. Results. We find large (0.26-0.40 pc), massive (2-3 M_sun) and energetic (13-17 \\times 10^44 erg) outflows emanating from the edges of two HII regions suggesting they are being ...
Galatas, Beatriz; Mabote, Lurdes; Simone, Wilson; Matambisso, Gloria; Nhamussua, Lidia; Mañú-Pereira, María Del Mar; Menéndez, Clara; Saute, Francisco; Macete, Eusebio; Bassat, Quique; Alonso, Pedro; Aide, Pedro
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked hereditary enzymatic abnormality that affects more than 400 million people worldwide. Most deficient individuals do not manifest any symptoms; however, several precipitant agents-such as fava intake, infections, or several drugs-may trigger acute haemolytic anaemia. Countries should be informed of the prevalence of this enzymatic anomaly within their borders, in order to make safe and appropriate national decisions regarding the use of potentially unsafe drugs for G6PD deficient individuals. A school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts in Mozambique, namely Manhiça, located in the south; Mocuba in the centre; and Pemba in the northern tip of the country. G6PD deficiency was evaluated using the CareStart™ diagnostic test, and enzyme activity levels were measured through fluorescence spectrophotometry in deficient individuals. Chi squared and ANOVA tests were used to assess prevalence and mean enzyme activity differences, and logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated to the deficiency. G6PD deficiency prevalence estimates were lowest in the northern city of Pemba (8.3%) and among Emakhuwas and Shimakondes, and higher in the centre and southern regions of the country (16.8 and 14.6%, respectively), particularly among Elomwes and Xichanganas. G6PD deficiency was significantly more prevalent among male students than females (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.02), although enzyme activity levels were not different among deficient individuals from either gender group. Finally, median deficiency levels were found to be more severe among the deficient students from the north (0.7 U/gHg [0.2-0.7] p < 0.001) and south (0.7 U/gHg [0.5-2.5]), compared to those from the centre (1.4 U/gHg [0.6-2.1]). These findings suggest that Mozambique, as a historically high malaria-endemic country has considerable levels of G6PD deficiency, that vary significantly
Catherine A Gordon
Full Text Available The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis have, historically, been considered unimportant reservoirs. We therefore revisited the possible role of bovines in schistosome transmission in the Philippines, using the recently described formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD technique and a qPCR assay to examine fecal samples from 153 bovines (both carabao and cattle from six barangays in Northern Samar. A high prevalence of S. japonicum was found using qPCR and FEA-SD in both cattle (87.50% and 77.08%, respectively and carabao (80.00% and 55.24%, respectively. The average daily egg output for each bovine was calculated at 195,000. High prevalence and infection intensity of F. gigantica was also found in the bovines by qPCR and FEA-SD (95.33% and 96.00%, respectively. The identification of bovines as major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum transmission suggests that bovine treatment and/or vaccination, as one becomes available, should be included in any future control program that aims to reduce the disease burden due to schistosomiasis in the Philippines.
Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infection. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to prospectively detect the prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis (CT, neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, and syphilis in a population of asymptomatic sexually active MSM. Methods: Rectal, pharyngeal, and urine samples for CT, NG, MG, and HR-HPV were analyzed in 116 MSM patients attending the clinic for their routine follow-up during the period the study was conducted: 99 patients were issued from the clinic routine follow-up for their HIV infection, and 17 attended the clinic because they were sexual partners of an HIV infected male. Results: An STI was found in 16% of the patients (19/116, with at least one bacterial strain (CT, NG, or MG found in one site (the pharynx, rectum, or urine. Conclusions: In this study, 16% of the MSM reporting recent RAI were asymptomatic carriers of rectal CT, NG, or MG. According to the high prevalence of asymptomatic STIs found in our MSM population and in other studies, prevention efforts in the form of counseling about the risk of STI need to be done in the population of MSM.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among high school students in Qazvin, Iran. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and eighty randomly selected high school students participated in this study. There wer 315 (40.38% boys and 465 (59.62% girls of the ages of 15 and 16 years. They were examined for dental caries using World Health Organization (WHO diagnostic criteria. The data were obtained from the epidemiological study of oral health carried out. Results: Of the total sample, only 24.5% were caries free, i.e.,the caries prevalence was 75.5%. The mean DMFT value for the total sample was 2.71 (± 0.86. Male students had a higher mean DMFT value (2.88 ± 0.61 than female students (2.54 ± 0.71 (P > 0.05. The mean DMFT value for the 15-year-old children was 2.66 (± 0.85 and for the 16-year-old children it was 2.76 (± 0.92. No statistically significant difference was found between male and female students. Also, no significant differences were seen.
Philibert, Patrick; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Gu