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Sample records for high pressure storage

  1. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  2. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  3. Screening of hydrogen storage media applying high pressure thermogravimetry

    Bentzen, J.J.; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, J.

    2001-01-01

    A number of commercially available hydride-forming alloys of the MmNi5–xSnx (Mm=mischmetal, a mixture of lanthanides) type were examined using a high pressure, high temperature microbalance,scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Activation conditions, reversible storage capacity...

  4. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  5. New perspectives on potential hydrogen storage materials using high pressure.

    Song, Yang

    2013-09-21

    In addressing the global demand for clean and renewable energy, hydrogen stands out as the most suitable candidate for many fuel applications that require practical and efficient storage of hydrogen. Supplementary to the traditional hydrogen storage methods and materials, the high-pressure technique has emerged as a novel and unique approach to developing new potential hydrogen storage materials. Static compression of materials may result in significant changes in the structures, properties and performance that are important for hydrogen storage applications, and often lead to the formation of unprecedented phases or complexes that have profound implications for hydrogen storage. In this perspective article, 22 types of representative potential hydrogen storage materials that belong to four major classes--simple hydride, complex hydride, chemical hydride and hydrogen containing materials--were reviewed. In particular, their structures, stabilities, and pressure-induced transformations, which were reported in recent experimental works together with supporting theoretical studies, were provided. The important contextual aspects pertinent to hydrogen storage associated with novel structures and transitions were discussed. Finally, the summary of the recent advances reviewed and the insight into the future research in this direction were given.

  6. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  7. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A.

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  8. Energy Saving High-Capacity Moderate Pressure Carbon Dioxide Storage System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach to high-pressure carbon dioxide storage will directly address the challenges associated with storage of compressed carbon dioxide - the need to reduce...

  9. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  11. Combined Solid State and High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Grube, Elisabeth; Jensen, Torben René

    Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia.......Presented at The First European Early Stage Researcher's Conference on Hydrogen Storage in Belgrade, Serbia....

  12. FINAL REPORT - Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery

    Baldwin, Donald [Hexagon Lincoln LLC, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The “Development of High Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tanks for Storage and Gaseous Truck Delivery” project [DE-FG36-08GO18062] was initiated on 01 July 2008. Hexagon Lincoln (then Lincoln Composites) received grant funding from the U.S. Department of Energy to support the design and development of an improved bulk hauling and storage solution for hydrogen in terms of cost, safety, weight and volumetric efficiency. The development of this capability required parallel development and qualification of large all-composites pressure vessels, a custom ISO container to transport and store said tanks, and performance of trade studies to identify optimal operating pressure for the system. Qualification of the 250 bar TITAN® module was completed in 2009 with supervision from the American Bureau of Shipping [ABS], and the equipment has been used internationally for bulk transportation of fuel gases since 2010. Phase 1 of the project was successfully completed in 2012 with the issuance of USDOT SP 14951, the special permit authorizing the manufacture, marking, sale and use of TITAN® Mobile Pipeline® equipment in the United States. The introduction of tube trailers with light weight composite tankage has meant that 2 to 3 times as much gaseous fuel can be transported with each trip. This increased hauling efficiency offers dramatically reduced operating costs and has enabled a profitable business model for over-the-road compressed natural gas delivery. The economic drivers of this business opportunity vary from country to country and region to region, but in many places gas distribution companies have realized profitable operations. Additional testing was performed in 2015 to characterize hydrogen-specific operating protocols for use of TITAN® systems in CHG service at 250 bar. This program demonstrated that existing compression and decompression methodologies can efficiently and safely fill and unload lightweight bulk hauling systems. Hexagon Lincoln and U.S. DOE agreed

  13. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  15. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Biogenic amine formation and nitrite reactions in meat batter as affected by high-pressure processing and chilled storage.

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Aller-Guiote, P; Carballo, J; Colmenero, F Jiménez

    2006-12-27

    Changes in biogenic amine formation and nitrite depletion in meat batters as affected by pressure-temperature combinations (300 MPa/30 min/7, 20, and 40 degrees C), cooking process (70 degrees C/30 min), and storage (54 days/2 degrees C) were studied. Changes in residual nitrite concentration in raw meat batters were conditioned by the temperature and not by the pressure applied. Cooking process decreased (P nitrite concentration in all samples. High-pressure processing and cooking treatment increased (P nitrite concentration decreased with pressure processing, no effect was observed with the heating process of meat batters. High-pressure processing conditions had no effect on the rate of residual nitrite loss throughout the storage. The application of high pressure decreased (P processing conditions, generally, throughout storage biogenic amine levels did not change or increased, although quantitatively this effect was not very important.

  17. High-pressure, ambient temperature hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks and porous carbon

    Beckner, Matthew; Dailly, Anne

    2014-03-01

    We investigated hydrogen storage in micro-porous adsorbents at ambient temperature and pressures up to 320 bar. We measured three benchmark adsorbents: two metal-organic frameworks, Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2 [Cu3(btc)2; HKUST-1] and Zn4O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate)2 [Zn4O(btb)2; MOF-177], and the activated carbon MSC-30. In this talk, we focus on adsorption enthalpy calculations using a single adsorption isotherm. We use the differential form of the Claussius-Clapeyron equation applied to the Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption model to calculate adsorption enthalpies. Calculation of the adsorption enthalpy in this way gives a temperature independent enthalpy of 5-7 kJ/mol at the lowest coverage for the three materials investigated. Additionally, we discuss the assumptions and corrections that must be made when calculating adsorption isotherms at high-pressure and adsorption enthalpies.

  18. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  19. Effects of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization and Hydrocolloids on Physicochemical and Storage Properties of Soymilk.

    Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C; Zhang, Yin; Mukherjee, Soma

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) in the presence or absence of added hydrocolloids for enhancing a range of physic-chemical properties of soymilk-which are important for extending shelf-life. Soymilk preparations containing different concentrations (0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.05%, w/v) of 2 different hydrocolloids (κ-carrageenan, κ-C, and gum Arabic, GA) were subjected to 3 different levels of UHPH (70, 140, and 210 MPa) and stored in sterilized containers at 4 °C. Emulsion properties of the soymilk preparations were analyzed over a period of 5 weeks. The results showed that soymilk with 0.05% κ-C had markedly improved storage properties, evident by significantly (P homogenization and addition of hydrocolloids to prevent aggregation of soymilk particles and the retention of antioxidant capacity. The results showed enhancement of the quality of soymilk during storage. The techniques developed can be adopted by the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Design of hydroforming processes for metallic liners used in high pressure hydrogen storage

    Gelin, J.C.; Labergere, C.; Thibaud, S.; Boudeau, N.

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of an European project concerning hydrogen storage, one analyze the way to manufacture high pressure tanks (700bars) for hydrogen storage, intended to be embarked for using in motor vehicles. These tanks consist of a metallic liner, which ensure a barrier role compared to the hydrogen atoms as well as a part of the mechanical resistance, and of a composite envelope built by filament rolling up which ensures the complementary part of the mechanical resistance. The paper describes the work completed within this framework, on the basis of the simulation of the hydroforming process thanks to the complete control of the process, in volume of fluid injected. One was thus brought to develop an optimization module based on finite element calculations. This optimization module includes MPI library in order to launch several calculations in parallel on a Linux cluster. It consists in seeking the optimal evolution of the fluid volume injected vs. time to obtain a good quality component. In our case, the optimization criterion is based on the variation thickness of the tube and the possible appearance of necking. It is shown that such a way for controlling the process provide the way to get minimal thickness variation, comparatively to standard optimization approaches where the process parameters are discretized through processing time in a more standard way

  1. Quality and storage-stability of high-pressure preseved green beans

    Krebbers, B.; Matser, A.M.; Koets, M.; Berg, van den R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure technology on naturally present microbial flora, texture, color, ascorbic acid content and peroxidase activity of whole green beans were evaluated and compared to conventional preservation techniques. High-pressure processing (HPP) and two-pulse pressure treatment (pHPP)

  2. Ultrahigh gas storage both at low and high pressures in KOH-activated carbonized porous aromatic frameworks.

    Li, Yanqiang; Ben, Teng; Zhang, Bingyao; Fu, Yao; Qiu, Shilun

    2013-01-01

    The carbonized PAF-1 derivatives formed by high-temperature KOH activation showed a unique bimodal microporous structure located at 0.6 nm and 1.2 nm and high surface area. These robust micropores were confirmed by nitrogen sorption experiment and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sorption experiments indicated that these novel porous carbon materials have significant gas sorption abilities in both low-pressure and high-pressure environments. Moreover the methane storage ability of K-PAF-1-750 is among the best at 35 bars, and its low-pressure gas adsorption abilities are also comparable to the best porous materials in the world. Combined with excellent physicochemical stability, these materials are very promising for industrial applications such as carbon dioxide capture and high-density clean energy storage.

  3. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Lessing, Paul A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  4. High burnup fuel onset conditions in dry storage. Prediction of EOL rod internal pressure

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    During dry storage, cladding resistance to failure can be affected by several degrading mechanisms like creep or hydrides radial reorientation. The driving force of these effects is the stress at which the cladding is submitted. The maximum stress in the cladding is determined by the end-of-reactor-life (EOL) rod internal pressure, PEOL, at the maximum temperature attained during dry storage. Thus, PEOL sets the initial conditions of storage for potential time-dependent changes in the cladding. Based on FRAPCON-3.5 calculations, the aim of this work is to analyse the PEOL of a PWR fuel rod irradiated to burnups greater than 60 GWd/tU, where limited information is available. In order to be conservative, demanding irradiation histories have been used with a peak linear power of 44 kW/m. FRAPCON-3.5 results show an increasing exponential trend of PEOL with burnup, from which a simple correlation has been derived. The comparison with experimental data found in the literature confirms the enveloping nature of the predicted curve. Based on that, a conservative prediction of cladding stress in dry storage has been obtained. The comparison with a critical stress threshold related to hydrides embrittlement seems to point out that this issue should not be a concern at burnups below 65 GWd/tU. (Author)

  5. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP for dark-firm-dry (DFD beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Methods The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33±0.5 months old with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15°C±2°C; the samples were then stored for 9 days at 4°C±1°C and compared with control (0.1 MPa. Results HPP increased meat pH by 0.1 to 0.2 units and the tenderness of cooked DFD beef significantly with no significant effects on meat texture profile. The stability of meat pH was well maintained during refrigerated storage under vacuum. No clear effects were found on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced by high pressure. HPP and storage time resulted in aroma changes and the increasing amount of malondialdehyde and metmyoglobin relative composition. Conclusion Although the increasing amount of malondialdehyde content, metmyoglobin formation and aroma changes in HPP-treated samples could not be avoided, HPP at 200 MPa increased L* and a* values with less discoloration and oxidative deterioration during storage.

  6. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage.

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Chung, Woon Si; Chung, In Ae; Jeon, Jung Tae; Lee, Sung Ki

    2017-03-01

    Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP) for dark-firm-dry (DFD) beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33±0.5 months old) with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15°C±2°C; the samples were then stored for 9 days at 4°C±1°C and compared with control (0.1 MPa). HPP increased meat pH by 0.1 to 0.2 units and the tenderness of cooked DFD beef significantly with no significant effects on meat texture profile. The stability of meat pH was well maintained during refrigerated storage under vacuum. No clear effects were found on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced by high pressure. HPP and storage time resulted in aroma changes and the increasing amount of malondialdehyde and metmyoglobin relative composition. Although the increasing amount of malondialdehyde content, metmyoglobin formation and aroma changes in HPP-treated samples could not be avoided, HPP at 200 MPa increased L* and a* values with less discoloration and oxidative deterioration during storage.

  7. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Appendices; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Appendiks 1

    Bentzen, J.J.; Lystrup, A. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  8. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage

    Dicky Tri Utama; Seung Gyu Lee; Ki Ho Baek; Woon Si Chung; In Ae Chung; Jung Tae Jeon; Sung Ki Lee

    2017-01-01

    Objective Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP) for dark-firm-dry (DFD) beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Methods The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33?0.5 months old) with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15?C?2?C; the...

  9. Energetic evaluation of high pressure PEM electrolyzer systems for intermediate storage of renewable energies

    Bensmann, B.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, R.; Peña Arias, I.K.; Sundmacher, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three pathways for high pressure hydrogen production by means of water electrolysis are energetically compared. Besides the two classic paths, comprising either the pressurization of the product gas (path I) or the mechanical pressurization of the feed water (path II), a third path is discussed. It involves the electrochemical co-compression during the electrolysis. The energetic evaluation is based on a uniform model description of the different hydrogen production pathways. It consists of integral, steady-state balances for energy, entropy and mass as well as a modern equation of state. From this the reversible energy demand is used to identify the inherent thermodynamic drawbacks of the pathways. The additional consideration of irreversibilities allows for the determination of efficiency losses due to device specific characteristics. For hydrogen delivery pressures of up to 40 bar the classical pathways are out-performed by path III. Since the hydrogen is already produced at elevated pressure this eliminates the need for an energy consuming mechanical hydrogen compression and spares the additional energy demand due to the oxygen pressurization. However, with increasing pressure differences the hydrogen back-diffusion strongly decreases the Faradaic efficiency of the asymmetric electrolyzer that has to be compensated by an additional energy supply

  10. Comparison of high pressure and high temperature short time processing on quality of carambola juice during cold storage.

    Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2018-05-01

    This study validated high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) for achieving greater than 5-log reductions of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in carambola juice and determined shelf life of processed juice stored at 4 °C. Carambola juice processed at 600 MPa for 150 s was identified capable of achieving greater than 5.15-log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, and the quality was compared with that of high temperature short time (HTST)-pasteurized juice at 110 °C for 8.6 s. Aerobic, psychrotrophic, E. coli /coliform, and yeasts and moulds in the juice were reduced by HPP or HTST to levels below the minimum detection limit (HTST juices. However, HTST treatment significantly changed the color of juice, while no significant difference was observed between the control and HPP samples. HPP and HTST treatments reduced the total soluble solids in the juice, but maintained higher sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar contents than untreated juice. The total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents were higher in juice treated with HPP than untreated and HTST juice, but there was no significant difference in the flavonoid content. Aroma score analysis showed that HPP had no effect on aroma, maintaining the highest score during cold storage. The results of this study suggest that appropriate HPP conditions can achieve the same microbial safety as HTST, while maintaining the quality and extending the shelf life of carambola juice.

  11. High pressure treatment changes spoilage characteristics and shelf life of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage

    Cao, Rong; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Qi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment on spoilage characteristic and shelf life extension of Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) during refrigerated storage were studied. Results showed that HP treatment of 275 MPa for 3 min or 300 MPa for 2 min could achieve 100% full release of oyster adductor muscle, pressures higher than 350 MPa caused excessive release as the shells of oysters were broken, thus use of higher pressures should be cautious in oyster processing industry because of its adverse impact on the appearance of shells. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) was proper for the shucking of Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in China. This treatment caused no organoleptic disadvantage. Moreover, HP treatment resulted in obvious differences in biochemical spoilage indicators (pH, TVB-N and TBARS) changes and volatile compounds profile determined by electronic nose during storage. HP treatment (300 MPa, 2 min) also led to a reduction of aerobic bacterial count (APC) by 1.27 log cycles. Furthermore, the APC values of oysters treated by HP were always lower than those of the control samples during storage. Based on the organoleptic, biochemical and microbiological indicators, shelf life of 6-8 d for control and 12 d for HP-treated oysters could be expected. HP treatment showed great potential in oyster processing and preservation.

  12. The potential of kiwifruit puree as a clean label ingredient to stabilize high pressure pasteurized cloudy apple juice during storage.

    Yi, Junjie; Kebede, Biniam; Kristiani, Kristiani; Buvé, Carolien; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-07-30

    In the fruit juice industry, high pressure (HP) processing has become a commercial success. However, enzymatic browning, cloud loss, and flavor changes during storage remain challenges. The aim of this study is to combine kiwifruit puree and HP pasteurization (600 MPa/3 min) to stabilize cloudy apple juice during storage at 4 °C. A wide range of targeted and untargeted quality characteristics was evaluated using a multivariate approach. Due to high ascorbic acid content and high viscosity, kiwifruit puree allowed to prevent enzymatic browning and phase separation of an apple-kiwifruit mixed juice. Besides, no clear changes in organic acids, viscosity, and particle size distribution were detected in mixed juice during storage. Sucrose of apple and mixed juices decreased with glucose and fructose increasing during storage. The volatile changes of both juices behaved similar, mainly esters being degraded. Sensory evaluation demonstrated consumer preferred the aroma of mixed juice compared to apple juice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Active latent heat storage with a screw heat exchanger - experimental results for heat transfer and concept for high pressure steam

    Zipf, Verena; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton

    2016-05-01

    An innovative active latent heat storage concept was invented and developed at Fraunhofer ISE. It uses a screw heat exchanger (SHE) for the phase change during the transport of a phase change material (PCM) from a cold to a hot tank or vice versa. This separates heat transfer and storage tank in comparison to existing concepts. A test rig has been built in order to investigate the heat transfer coefficients of the SHE during melting and crystallization of the PCM. The knowledge of these characteristics is crucial in order to assess the performance of the latent heat storage in a thermal system. The test rig contains a double shafted SHE, which is heated or cooled with thermal oil. The overall heat transfer coefficient U and the convective heat transfer coefficient on the PCM side hPCM both for charging and discharging have been calculated based on the measured data. For charging, the overall heat transfer coefficient in the tested SHE was Uch = 308 W/m2K and for discharging Udis = 210 W/m2K. Based on the values for hPCM the overall heat transfer coefficients for a larger SHE with steam as heat transfer fluid and an optimized geometry were calculated with Uch = 320 W/m2K for charging and Udis = 243 W/m2K for discharging. For pressures as high as p = 100 bar, an SHE concept has been developed, which uses an organic fluid inside the flight of the SHE as working media. With this concept, the SHE can also be deployed for very high pressure, e.g. as storage in solar thermal power plants.

  14. Carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments - dissolution, transport and hydrate formation kinetics from high-pressure experiments

    Bigalke, N. K.; Savy, J. P.; Pansegrau, M.; Aloisi, G.; Kossel, E.; Haeckel, M.

    2009-12-01

    By satisfying thermodynamic framework conditions for CO2 hydrate formation, pressures and temperatures of the deep marine environment are unique assets for sequestering CO2 in clathrates below the seabed. However, feasibility and safety of this storage option require an accurate knowledge of the rate constants governing the speed of physicochemical reactions following the injection of the liquefied gas into the sediments. High-pressure experiments designed to simulate the deep marine environment open the possibility to obtain the required parameters for a wide range of oceanic conditions. In an effort to constrain mass transfer coefficients and transport rates of CO2 in(to) the pore water of marine sediments first experiments were targeted at quantifying the rate of CO2 uptake by de-ionized water and seawater across a two-phase interface. The nature of the interface was controlled by selecting p and T to conditions within and outside the hydrate stability field (HSF) while considering both liquid and gaseous CO2. Concentration increase and hydrate growth were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The experiments revealed anomalously fast transport rates of dissolved CO2 at conditions both inside and outside the HSF. While future experiments will further elucidate kinetics of CO2 transport and hydrate formation, these first results could have major significance to safety-related issues in the discussion of carbon storage in the marine environment.

  15. Research and achievements on carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites for high pressure storage

    Nony, Fabien; Thomas, Cedric; Villalonga, Stephane; Magnier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the extensive use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. However, none of the current technologies satisfies all of the hydrogen storage attributes sought by manufacturers, legislators and end-users. At present, compressed gaseous hydrogen storage (CGH2) is recognized as the most mature technology. This paper reviews recent developments and achievements regarding materials and technologies investigated by CEA to promote the development of a of type IV 70 MPa hydrogen vessel. Particularly, results concerning innovative thermoplastic matrix composite vessel will be presented and discussed. On going developments on dedicated manufacturing process and material characterization will be shared in a first part of the presentation and a second part will be devoted to durability assessment and damage tolerance of such composite structures with respect to their potential applications. (authors)

  16. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    Many challenges have still to be overcome in order to establish a solid ground for significant market penetration of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles. The development of an effective solution for on-board hydrogen storage is one of the main technical tasks that need to be tackled. The present thesis...... deals with the development of a simulation tool to design and compare different vehicular storage options with respect to targets based upon storage and fueling efficiencies. The set targets represent performance improvements with regard to the state-of-the-art technology and are separately defined...... volume. Heat transfer augmentation techniques (e.g. encapsulation) are found to be the reward strategy to achieve the same stored mass and fueling time of the standard technology, while enabling ambient temperature fueling and save the energy cooling demand (4.2 MJ per fueling) at the refueling station....

  17. New nitrogen-containing materials for hydrogen storage and their characterization by high-pressure microbalance

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    Hydrogen storage for practical applications is under intense scrutiny worldwide since hopes are prevalent of being able to use hydrogen as energy vector in a continually difficult time in terms of having access to clean and affordable energy in the world. Hydrogen can be stored in compressed or l...

  18. Effect of added sugar and ascorbic acid on the anthocyanin content of high pressure processed strawberry juices during storage

    Salamon, B.; Farkas, V.; Kenesei, Gy; Dalmadi, I.

    2017-10-01

    Berries have high nutritional value and can be processed in many kinds of ways. Their pigments (anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenoids) have antioxidant properties, effectively neutralize the health-damaging free radicals. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology is a minimal processing technique which is a promising alternative solution instead of traditional preservation technologies. Low molecular weight materials such as colour pigments are well preserved by application of HHP. However, the effect can be influenced by the composition of the treated food matrix. The available scientific information related to the impact of sugar and ascorbic acid content on the preservation of anthocyanins in the samples is controversial. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine the effect of HHP treatment parameters (pressure, treatment time) on the preservation of the anthocyanin content of strawberry juice supplemented by different amounts of sugar and ascorbic acid. 2n type factorial experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of four factors (refraction index, ascorbic acid, pressure, treatment time) on the residual content of total anthocyanins immediately after HHP treatment and after 21 days storage at room temperature.

  19. Development of a high-pressure microbalance for hydrogen storage materials

    Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Pressure-composition isotherms (PCI's) help to determine thermodynamic properties related to hydrogen uptake of materials. PCI's are normally obtained volumetrically with a Sieverts type apparatus or gravimetrically with a microbalance. A potential problem with the gravimetric technique is that t......Pressure-composition isotherms (PCI's) help to determine thermodynamic properties related to hydrogen uptake of materials. PCI's are normally obtained volumetrically with a Sieverts type apparatus or gravimetrically with a microbalance. A potential problem with the gravimetric technique...... of an electromagnetic microbalance, pressure resistant casing for up to 100 bar hydrogen, a flow system for hydrogen and inert gas, heating elements for temperature control, and software for controlling the system. Thermal convection effects are observed and dampened by heating on both the sample and a counterweight...

  20. Synthesis of copolymerized porous organic frameworks with high gas storage capabilities at both high and low pressures

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    A series of copolymerized porous organic frameworks (C-POFs) were synthesized with monomers of tetrakis(4-bromophenyl)methane and tris(4-bromophenyl)amine in different ratios by a Yamamoto-type Ullmann cross-coupling reaction. These C-POFs exhibit high physicochemical stability, large surface areas and excellent H2, CH4 and CO 2 adsorption properties both at low and high pressures. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Numerical analysis of accidental hydrogen releases from high pressure storage at low temperatures

    Markert, Frank; Melideo, Daniele; Baraldi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    . The vessel dynamics are modeled using a simplified engineering and a CFD model to evaluate the performance of various EOS to predict vessel pressures, temperatures mass flow rates and jet flame lengths. It is shown that the chosen EOS and the chosen specific heat capacity correlation are important to model...

  2. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  4. Effects of storage conditions before or after high-hydrostatic pressure on inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters

    The effect of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oyster meat was investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at different conditi...

  5. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  6. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  7. Composite high-pressure vessels for hydrogen storage in mobile application. Pt. 1 / Light weight composite cylinders for compressed hydrogen. Pt. 2 - custom made hydrogen storage tanks and vessels

    Rasche, C. [MCS Cylinder Systems GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments on fuel cell technology demonstrated the feasibility of propelling vehicles by converting fuel directly into electricity. Fuel cells conveniently use either compressed (CGH{sub 2}) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or methanol as the fuel source from a tank. Mobile storage of these fuelling will become an urgent need as this technology will come into series production expected for 2010. Due to the requirements on mobile hydrogen storage and the energy losses in the hydrogen-to-application-chain, a light-weight and energetic qualities and minimise ist bulky nature. Mobile storage of hydrogen can be realised either at high pressure values (> 20 MPa) or at deep temperatures (<-253 C). CGH{sub 2}: In the last few years, the introduction of natural gas driven vehicles has seen the development of compact mobile pressurised gas tanks in principle, this storage technique is also applicable for the compressed storage of hydrogen at filling pressures of > 20 MPa. LH{sub 2} : Storing hydrogen or natural gases in general in the liquid phase is accomplished either by applying a overpressure or keeping it below the phase transition temperature at ambient pressure in super insulated devices. (orig.)

  8. High temperature storage loop :

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  9. Storage of hydrogen in advanced high pressure container. Final report for PSO projekt; Lagring af brint i avancerede hoejtryksbeholdere. Slutrapport for PSO-projekt

    Christiansen, Jens

    2006-04-15

    The objective of the project has been to study barriers for a production of advanced high pressure containers especially suitable for hydrogen, in order to create a basis for a container production in Denmark. The project has primarily focused on future Danish need for hydrogen storage in the MWh area. One task has been to examine requirement specifications for pressure tanks that can be expected in connection with these stores. Six potential storage needs have been identified: (1) Buffer in connection with start-up/regulation on the power grid. (2) Hydrogen and oxygen production. (3) Buffer store in connection with VEnzin vision. (4) Storage tanks on hydrogen filling stations. (5) Hydrogen for the transport sector from 1 TWh surplus power. (6) Tanker transport of hydrogen. Requirements for pressure containers for the above mentioned use have been examined. The connection between stored energy amount, pressure and volume compared to liquid hydrogen and oil has been stated in tables. As starting point for production technological considerations and economic calculations of various container concepts, an estimation of laminate thickness in glass-fibre reinforced containers with different diameters and design print has been made, for a 'pure' fibre composite container and a metal/fibre composite container respectively. (BA)

  10. High pressure processing of Queso Fresco: effects on textural and rheological properties over 12 weeks of storage

    High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal post-packaging process with the potential to improve cheese safety and shelf life because of its lethality to bacteria (spoilage and pathogens) and ability to inactivate many enzymes. Queso Fresco (QF), a high moisture Hispanic-style cheese popular in ...

  11. Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters.

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Gurtler, Joshua B; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph E; Chen, Haiqiang

    2013-05-15

    The effects of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters were investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at varying conditions (i.e., 21 or 35 °C for 5h, 4 or 10 °C for 1 and 2 days and -18 °C for 2 weeks). Oyster meats were then treated at 225-300 MPa for 2 min at 4, 21 or 35 °C. HHP at 300 MPa for 2 min achieved a >5-log MPN/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus, completely inactivating V. vulnificus (negative by enrichment) in oysters. Treatment temperatures of 4, 21 and 35 °C did not significantly affect pressure inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus (P>0.05). Cold storage at -18, 4 and 10 °C, prior to HHP, decreased V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus populations by 1.5-3.0 log MPN/g, but did not increase their sensitivity to subsequent HHP treatments. The effects of cold storage after HHP on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were also determined. Oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and stored at 21 °C for 5h or 4 °C for 1 day. Oyster meats were then treated at 250-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 or 35 °C and stored for 15 days in ice or in a freezer. V. parahaemolyticus populations in HHP-treated oysters gradually decreased during post-HHP ice or frozen storage. A validation study using whole-shell oysters was conducted to determine whether the presence of oyster shells influenced HHP inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus. No appreciable differences in inactivation between shucked oyster meat and whole-shell oysters were observed. HPP at 300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 5-day ice storage or 7-day frozen storage, and HPP at 250 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 10-day ice or 7-day frozen storage, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus in whole-shell oysters (>7 log reductions). The combination of HHP at a relatively low pressure

  12. Significance of grain boundaries and stacking faults on hydrogen storage properties of Mg2Ni intermetallics processed by high-pressure torsion

    Hongo, Toshifumi; Edalati, Kaveh; Arita, Makoto; Matsuda, Junko; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2015-01-01

    Mg 2 Ni intermetallics are processed using three different routes to produce three different microstructural features: annealing at high temperature for coarse grain formation, severe plastic deformation through high-pressure torsion (HPT) for nanograin formation, and HPT processing followed by annealing for the introduction of stacking faults. It is found that both grain boundaries and stacking faults are significantly effective to activate the Mg 2 Ni intermetallics for hydrogen storage at 423 K (150 °C). The hydrogenation kinetics is also considerably enhanced by the introduction of large fractions of grain boundaries and stacking faults while the hydrogenation thermodynamics remains unchanged. This study shows that, similar to grain boundaries and cracks, stacking faults can act as quick pathways for the transportation of hydrogen in the hydrogen storage materials

  13. Effects of high pressure application (400 and 900 MPa) and refrigerated storage time on the oxidative stability of sliced skin vacuum packed dry-cured ham.

    Clariana, Maria; Guerrero, Luis; Sárraga, Carmen; Garcia-Regueiro, José A

    2012-02-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at 400 MPa and 900 MPa on the oxidative stability of sliced and vacuum packaged commercial dry-cured ham was determined by analyzing the antioxidant enzyme activities, TBARS levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), vitamin E content and physicochemical characteristics during refrigerated storage for 50 days in different light conditions. In dry-cured ham pressurized at 400 MPa color changes and sensory analyses were also assessed. The high pressure process at 900 MPa produced a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and increased vitamin E content. In contrast, pressurization at 400 MPa, increased SOD activity, and showed no effect on vitamin E content and GSHPx activity. In general the physicochemical parameters determined (fat, moisture and collagen) were unaffected by pressurization. Treatment at 400 MPa increased the instrumental color measurement of lightness (L* values, CIELAB). This level of pressure also modified the hardness, chewiness, saltiness and color intensity. These changes of the sensory attributes in dry-cured ham were significant, but small. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High Blood Pressure

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  15. High Blood Pressure Facts

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  16. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  17. Effect of high pressure processing and storage on the free amino acids in seedlings of Brussels sprouts

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Poojary, Mahesha Manjunatha; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    The potential of high pressure (HP) to affect the content of free amino acids (FAA) using seedlings of Brussels sprouts as a simple non-chopped vegetable system was examined. Firstly, the effect on FAA composition during growth was assessed and it was found that the composition of total free amino...... acids (TFAA) and individual FAA changed dramatically during growth of the seeds to the seedling at 7 days with the highest content of TFAA. Secondly, 7-day-old seedlings were HP-treated at various pressure levels (200–800 MPa for 3 min at 5 °C). As expected the HP-treatment did not affect the amino...... acids as no changes in TFFA were found immediately after pressurisation. In this line, HP-treatment up to 800 MPa had minor, but significant, effect on the FAA concentrations of 10 FAA (Ala, Asp, Glu, Gly, Leu, Phe, Pro, Ser, Trp and Tyr) and no significant changes were found for 7 of the FAA (Asn, Gln...

  18. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  19. Formation of metastable phases in magnesium–titanium system by high-pressure torsion and their hydrogen storage performance

    Edalati, Kaveh; Emami, Hoda; Staykov, Aleksandar; Smith, David J.; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2015-01-01

    No binary phases exist in the Mg–Ti binary equilibrium phase diagram and the two elements are totally immiscible even in liquid form. This study shows that four metastable phases (two with the bcc and fcc structures and two with the hcp structures) are formed in the Mg–Ti system by severe plastic deformation (SPD) through the process of high-pressure torsion (HPT). Investigation of hydrogenation properties reveals that these metastable phases are decomposed to pure Mg and Ti during heating before they can absorb the hydrogen in the form of ternary Mg–Ti hydrides. First-principles calculations show that the hydrogenation reaction should occur thermodynamically, and ternary Mg–Ti hydrides with the cubic structure should form at low temperature. However, the slow kinetics for this reaction appears to be the limiting step. Calculations show that the binding energy of hydrogen increases and the thermodynamic stability of hydrides undesirably increases by addition of Ti to Mg

  20. HySDeP: a computational platform for on-board hydrogen storage systems – hybrid high-pressure solid-state and gaseous storage

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    A computational platform is developed in the Modelica® language within the DymolaTM environment to provide a tool for the design and performance comparison of on-board hydrogen storage systems. The platform has been coupled with an open source library for hydrogen fueling stations to investigate...

  1. High blood pressure - children

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  2. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  3. High blood pressure - infants

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  4. High blood pressure medications

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  5. High-pressure microbiology

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  6. High pressure experimental water loop

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  7. High-pressure apparatus

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  8. High blood pressure - adults

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  10. High-pressure crystallography

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  11. High Blood Pressure

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  12. High Blood Pressure

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  13. High-pressure tritium

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  14. Contribution of water vapor pressure to pressurization of plutonium dioxide storage containers

    Veirs, D. Kirk; Morris, John S.; Spearing, Dane R.

    2000-07-01

    Pressurization of long-term storage containers filled with materials meeting the US DOE storage standard is of concern.1,2 For example, temperatures within storage containers packaged according to the standard and contained in 9975 shipping packages that are stored in full view of the sun can reach internal temperatures of 250 °C.3 Twenty five grams of water (0.5 wt.%) at 250 °C in the storage container with no other material present would result in a pressure of 412 psia, which is limited by the amount of water. The pressure due to the water can be substantially reduced due to interactions with the stored material. Studies of the adsorption of water by PuO2 and surface interactions of water with PuO2 show that adsorption of 0.5 wt.% of water is feasible under many conditions and probable under high humidity conditions.4,5,6 However, no data are available on the vapor pressure of water over plutonium dioxide containing materials that have been exposed to water.

  15. Deuterium high pressure target

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  16. High density fuel storage rack

    Zezza, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    High storage density for spent nuclear fuel assemblies in a pool achieved by positioning fuel storage cells of high thermal neutron absorption materials in an upright configuration in a rack. The rack holds the cells at required pitch. Each cell carries an internal fuel assembly support, and most cells are vertically movable in the rack so that they rest on the pool bottom. Pool water circulation through the cells and around the fuel assemblies is permitted by circulation openings at the top and bottom of the cells above and below the fuel assemblies

  17. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  18. Fascination at high pressures

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  19. Long-Term Dry Storage of High Burn-Up Spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Fuel in TAD (Transportation, Aging, and Disposal) Containers

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-12-01

    A TAD canister, in conjunction with specially-designed over-packs can accomplish the functions of transportation, aging, and disposal (TAD) in the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Industrial dry cask systems currently available for SNF are licensed for storage-only or for dual-purpose (i.e., storage and transportation). By extending the function to include the indefinite storage and perhaps, eventual geologic disposal, the TAD canister would have to be designed to enhance, among others, corrosion resistance, thermal stability, and criticality-safety control. This investigative paper introduces the use of these advanced iron-based, corrosion-resistant materials for SNF transportation, aging, and disposal.The objective of this investigative project is to explore the interest that KAERI would research and develop its specific SAM coating materials for the TAD canisters to satisfy the requirements of corrosion-resistance, thermal stability, and criticality-controls for long-term dry storage of high burn-up spent PWR fuel

  20. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  1. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Hydrogen storage in insulated pressure vessels

    Aceves, S.M.; Garcia-Villazana, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH{sub 2}). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current analysis and experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

  3. Properties of thermoplastic polymers used for hydrogen storage under pressure

    Jousse, F.; Mazabraud, P.; Icard, B.; Mosdale, R.; Serre-Combe, P.

    2000-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen is one of the points of development of industrial applications of fuel cells of type PEMFC ( Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell). Developing an effective system of storage remains major. Ameliorations concerning the storage density of energy, the cost and facilities and the storage must be considered especially for the mobile applications. Among different approaches possible, the absorption on carbon nanotubes, the production by hydrides in the organic solutions or storage hyperbar in the gas state seem the most promising way. The storage of hydrogen gas at ambient temperature today appears as the simplest technical solution, the most advanced and the most economic solution. However, the energy density of hydrogen being weaker than that of the traditional fuels, of the quantities more important must be stored at equivalent rate. Hyperbar storage (higher pressure has 350 bar) of hydrogen makes it possible to reduce the volume of the tanks and strengthens the argument for their weights and cost

  4. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  5. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  6. The effect of chitosan-based edible film and high hydrostatic pressure process on the microbiological and chemical quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during cold storage (4±1°C)

    Günlü, Ali; Sipahioğlu, Sinem; Alpas, Hami

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the changes in the chemical and microbiological quality of fresh rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fillets during storage at 4±1°C as a result of chitosan-based edible film coating, vacuum packaging and high pressure application processes. Chemical (pH, total volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid index) and microbiological (total mesophilic and total psychrophilic microorganism) shelf life analyses were carried out in 4-day intervals for samples that were vacuum packaged (C), subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging (high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)), vacuum packaged after being wrapped by chitosan-based film (CFW) and subjected to high pressure after vacuum packaging and being wrapped by chitosan-based film (HHP+CFW ). According to the chemical and microbiological shelf life analysis results of rainbow trout fillets, shelf life increases of 4 days in HHP group samples, 8 days in CFW group samples and 24 days in HHP+CFW group samples were provided in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, it was determined that high pressure and wrapping with chitosan-based film had protective effect both chemically and microbiologically and that the most effective protection was obtained when both methods were used together.

  7. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  8. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  9. A thermodynamic and kinetic study of the de- and rehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at high H{sub 2}O partial pressures for thermo-chemical heat storage

    Schaube, F.; Koch, L. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Woerner, A., E-mail: antje.woerner@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction enthalpy of 'Ca(OH){sub 2} {r_reversible} CaO + H{sub 2}O'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the reaction kinetics of the dehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at partial pressures up to 956 mbar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the reaction kinetics of the rehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at partial pressures up to 956 mbar. - Abstract: Heat storage technologies are used to improve energy efficiency of power plants and recovery of process heat. Storing thermal energy by reversible thermo-chemical reactions offers a promising option for high storage capacities especially at high temperatures. Due to its low material cost, the use of the reversible reaction Ca(OH){sub 2} Rightwards-Harpoon-Over-Leftwards-Harpoon CaO + H{sub 2}O has been proposed. This paper reports on the physical properties such as heat capacity, thermodynamic equilibrium, reaction enthalpy and kinetics. To achieve high reaction temperatures, high H{sub 2}O partial pressures are required. Therefore the cycling stability is confirmed for H{sub 2}O partial pressures up to 95.6 kPa and the dehydration and hydration kinetics are studied. Quantitative data are collected and expressions are derived which are in good agreement with the presented measurements. At 1 bar H{sub 2}O partial pressure the expected equilibrium temperature is 505 Degree-Sign C and the reaction enthalpy is 104.4 kJ/mol.

  10. High pressure mechanical seal

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  11. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  12. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  13. High blood pressure and diet

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  14. Controlling your high blood pressure

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  15. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  16. Enzymatic, sensory and microbiological changes in marinated vacuum packedhigh pressure treated pork tenderloins during cold storage

    Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Grossi, Alberto

    Introduction The purpose was to investigate the: • activity of cathepsins • sensory properties • growth of specific spoilage organisms in marinated, vaccumpacked high pressure processed (HPP) tenderloins during 12 weeks of storage at 2 °C. Methods Tenderloins (5% brine-gain containing 10% Na...... storage at 2°C. 500 and 600: HPP in MPa; 3 and 6: holding time in minutes.; 0, 1, 4, 8 and 12: storage time in weeks. Ref: non-HPP treated tenderloin. Discussion The activity of cathepsins B+L was higher after HPP, increasing with pressure (table 1). The holding time had no effect. HPP treated meat...... with higher cathepsin activity was not sensorically perceived more tender as expected (Lawrie, 1998; Sikes et al. 2010), but instead more stringy and meat-structured (figure 1). The textural properties were unchanged during storage. Initial bacteria count was reached after 12 weeks of storage (600 MPa/6 min...

  17. Low pressure storage of natural gas on activated carbon

    Wegrzyn, J.; Wiesmann, H.; Lee, T.

    The introduction of natural gas to the transportation energy sector offers the possibility of displacing imported oil with an indigenous fuel. The barrier to the acceptance of natural gas vehicles (NGV) is the limited driving range due to the technical difficulties of on-board storage of a gaseous fuel. In spite of this barrier, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles are today being successfully introduced into the market place. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate an adsorbent natural gas (ANG) storage system as a viable alternative to CNG storage. It can be argued that low pressure ANG has reached near parity with CNG, since the storage capacity of CNG (2400 psi) is rated at 190 V/V, while low pressure ANG (500 psi) has reached storage capacities of 180 V/V in the laboratory. A program, which extends laboratory results to a full-scale vehicle test, is necessary before ANG technology will receive widespread acceptance. The objective of this program is to field test a 150 V/V ANG vehicle in FY 1994. As a start towards this goal, carbon adsorbents have been screened by Brookhaven for their potential use in a natural gas storage system. This paper reports on one such carbon, trade name Maxsorb, manufactured by Kansai Coke under an Amoco license.

  18. Low Pressure Storage of Natural Gas for Vehicular Applications

    Tim Burchell; Mike Rogers

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas is an attractive fuel for vehicles because it is a relatively clean-burning fuel compared with gasoline. Moreover, methane can be stored in the physically adsorbed state[at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi)] at energy densities comparable to methane compressed at 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Here we report the development of natural gas storage monoliths[1]. The monolith manufacture and activation methods are reported along with pore structure characterization data. The storage capacities of these monoliths are measured gravimetrically at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi) and ambient temperature, and storage capacities of and gt;150 V/V have been demonstrated and are reported

  19. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  20. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  1. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  2. Superconducting magnets for high energy storage rings

    Sampson, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets were developed for the proton-proton intersecting storage accelerator ISABELLE. Full size prototypes of both kinds of magnets were constructed and successfully tested. The coils are fabricated from a single layer of wide braided superconductor and employ a low temperature iron core. This method of construction leads to two significant performance advantages; little or no training, and the ability of the coil to absorb its total magnetic stored energy without damage. A high pressure (15 atm) helium gas system is used for cooling. Measurements of the random field errors are compared with the expected field distribution. Three magnets (two dipoles and one quadrupole) were assembled into a segment of the accelerator ring structure (half cell). The performance of this magnet array, which is coupled in series both electrically and cryogenically, is also summarized

  3. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  4. High pressure shaft seal

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  5. High density energy storage capacitor

    Whitham, K.; Howland, M.M.; Hutzler, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The Nova laser system will use 130 MJ of capacitive energy storage and have a peak power capability of 250,000 MW. This capacitor bank is a significant portion of the laser cost and requires a large portion of the physical facilities. In order to reduce the cost and volume required by the bank, the Laser Fusion Program funded contracts with three energy storage capacitor producers: Aerovox, G.E., and Maxwell Laboratories, to develop higher energy density, lower cost energy storage capacitors. This paper describes the designs which resulted from the Aerovox development contract, and specifically addresses the design and initial life testing of a 12.5 kJ, 22 kV capacitor with a density of 4.2 J/in 3 and a projected cost in the range of 5 cents per joule

  6. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  7. Storage facility for highly radioactive solid waste

    Kitano, Shozo

    1996-01-01

    A heat insulation plate is disposed at an intermediate portion between a ceiling wall of a storage chamber and an upper plate of a storage pit in parallel with them. A large number of highly radioactive solid wastes contained in canisters are contained in the storage pit. Cooling air is introduced from an air suction port, passes a channel on the upper side of the heat insulation plate formed by the ceiling of the storage chamber and the heat insulation plate, and flows from a flow channel on the side of the wall of the storage chamber to the lower portion of the storage pit. Afterheat is removed by the air flown from the lower portion to ventilation tubes at the outer side of container tubes. The air heated to a high temperature through the flow channel on the lower side of the heat insulation plate between the heat insulation plate and the upper plate of the storage pit, and is exhausted to an exhaustion port. Further, a portion of a heat insulation plate as a boundary between the cooling air and a high temperature air formed on the upper portion of the storage pit is formed as a heat transfer plate, so that the heat of the high temperature air is removed by the cooling air flowing the upper flow channel. This can prevent heating of the ceiling wall of the storage chamber. (I.N.)

  8. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

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  9. High density fuel storage racks

    Groves, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the safe and compact storage of nuclear fuel assemblies in an array of discrete open-ended neutron absorbing shields for which the theoretical minimum safe separation distance and cell pitch are known. Open-ended stainless steel end fittings are welded to each end of each shield and the end fittings are welded to each other in side-by-side relation, thereby reducing the cell pitch tolerance due to fabrication uncertainties. In addition, a multiplicity of ridges on the sides of each shield having a height equal to one half the theoretical minimum safe separation distance further reduce shield bowing tolerances. The net tolerance reduction permits a significant increase in the number of fuel assemblies that can be safely contained in a storage area of fixed size

  10. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  11. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  12. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  13. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  14. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  15. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  16. High Blood Pressure and Women

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  17. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  18. High Pressure Research on Materials

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  20. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  1. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  2. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  3. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello; Gerardo González Martínez; Bernadette F. Klotz Ceberio; Dolores Rodrigo; Antonio Martínez López

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non...

  4. Pressure vessel failure at high internal pressure

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A RPV failure due to plastic instability was investigated using the ABAQUS finite element code together with a material model of thermal plasticity for large deformations. Not only rotational symmetric temperature distributions were studied, but also 'hot spots'. Calculations show that merely by the depletion of strength of the material - even at internal wall temperatures well below the melting point of the fuel elements of about 2000/2400 C - the critical internal pressure can decrease to values smaller than the operational pressure of 16 Mpa. (orig.)

  5. Computer simulation at high pressure

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  6. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  7. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  8. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  9. High Tc superconducting energy storage systems

    Werfel, Frank [Adelwitz Technologiezentrum GmbH (ATZ), Arzberg-Adelwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electric energy is basic to heat and light our homes, to power our businesses and to transport people and goods. Powerful storage techniques like SMES, Flywheel, Super Capacitor, and Redox - Flow batteries are needed to increase the overall efficiency, stability and quality of electrical grids. High-Tc superconductors (HTS) possess superior physical and technical properties and can contribute in reducing the dissipation and losses in electric machines as motors and generators, in electric grids and transportation. The renewable energy sources as solar, wind energy and biomass will require energy storage systems even more as a key technology. We survey the physics and the technology status of superconducting flywheel energy storage (FESS) and magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) for their potential of large-scale commercialization. We report about a 10 kWh / 250 kW flywheel with magnetic stabilization of the rotor. The progress of HTS conductor science and technological engineering are basic for larger SMES developments. The performance of superconducting storage systems is reviewed and compared. We conclude that a broad range of intensive research and development in energy storage is urgently needed to produce technological options that can allow both climate stabilization and economic development.

  10. High-pressure sodium lamp

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  11. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  12. High-pressure water facility

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  13. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  14. Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

    Newhouse, Norman L. [Hexagon Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Hexagon Lincoln started this DOE project as part of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) contract on 1 February 2009. The purpose of the HSECoE was the research and development of viable material based hydrogen storage systems for on-board vehicular applications to meet DOE performance and cost targets. A baseline design was established in Phase 1. Studies were then conducted to evaluate potential improvements, such as alternate fiber, resin, and boss materials. The most promising concepts were selected such that potential improvements, compared with the baseline Hexagon Lincoln tank, resulted in a projected weight reduction of 11 percent, volume increase of 4 percent, and cost reduction of 10 percent. The baseline design was updated in Phase 2 to reflect design improvements and changes in operating conditions specified by HSECoE Partners. Evaluation of potential improvements continued during Phase 2. Subscale prototype cylinders were designed and fabricated for HSECoE Partners’ use in demonstrating their components and systems. Risk mitigation studies were conducted in Phase 3 that focused on damage tolerance of the composite reinforcement. Updated subscale prototype cylinders were designed and manufactured to better address the HSECoE Partners’ requirements for system demonstration. Subscale Type 1, Type 3, and Type 4 tanks were designed, fabricated and tested. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate vacuum insulated systems for cooling the tanks during fill, and maintaining low temperatures during service. Full scale designs were prepared based on results from the studies of this program. The operating conditions that developed during the program addressed adsorbent systems operating at cold temperatures. A Type 4 tank would provide the lowest cost and lightest weight, particularly at higher pressures, as long as issues with liner compatibility and damage tolerance could be resolved. A Type 1 tank might be the choice if the

  15. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Torres Bello, Edwin Fabian; González Martínez, Gerardo; Klotz Ceberio, Bernadette F.; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance. PMID:28234332

  16. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  17. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  18. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  19. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  20. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  1. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  2. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  3. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  5. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  6. Small electrostatic storage rings; also for highly charged ions?

    Moeller, S.P.; Pedersen, U.V.

    2001-01-01

    Two years ago, a small electrostatic storage ring ELISA (electrostatic ion storage ring, Aarhus) was put into operation. The design of this small 7 m circumference ring was based on electrostatic deflection plates and quadrupoles. This is in contrast to the larger ion storage rings, which are based on magnetic focusing and deflection. The result is a small, relatively inexpensive, storage ring being able to store ions of any mass and any charge at low energy ( -11 mbar resulting in storage times of several tens of seconds for singly charged ions. The maximum number of singly charged ions that can be stored is a few 10 7 . Several experiments have already been performed in ELISA. These include lifetime studies of metastable ions and studies of fullerenes and metal-cluster ions. Lasers are also used for excitation of the circulating ions. Heating/cooling of the ring is possible. Cooling of the ring leads to significantly lower pressures, and correspondingly longer lifetimes. A change of the temperature of the vacuum chambers surrounding the ion beam also leads to a change of the spectrum of the black-body radiation, which has a significant influence on weakly bound negative ions. At the time of writing, at least two other electrostatic storage rings are being built, and more are planned. In the following, the electrostatic storage ring ELISA will be described, and results from some of the initial experiments demonstrating the performance will be shown. The relative merits of such a ring, as opposed to the larger magnetic rings and the smaller ion traps will be discussed. The potential for highly charged ions will be briefly mentioned. (orig.)

  7. Ultra-High Density Spectral Storage Materials

    Hasan, Zameer U

    2002-01-01

    .... Being atomic scale storage, spectral storage has the potential of providing orders of magnitude denser memories than present day memories that depend on the hulk properties of the storage medium...

  8. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  9. High pressure research at CHESS

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  10. High Capacity Hydrogen Storage on Nanoporous Biocarbon

    Burress, Jacob; Wood, Mikael; Gordon, Michael; Parilla, Phillip; Benham, Michael; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, Fred; Pfeifer, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (http://all-craft.missouri.edu) has been optimizing nanoporous biocarbon for high capacity hydrogen storage. The hydrogen storage was measured gravimetrically and volumetrically (Sievert's apparatus). These measurements have been validated by NREL and Hiden Isochema. Sample S-33/k, our current best performer, stores 73-91 g H2/kg carbon at 77 K and 47 bar, and 1.0-1.6 g H2/kg carbon at 293 K and 47 bar. Hydrogen isotherms run by Hiden Isochema have given experimental binding energies of 8.8 kJ/mol compared to the binding energy of graphite of 5 kJ/mol. Results from a novel boron doping technique will also be presented. The benefits and validity of using boron-doping on carbon will also be discussed.

  11. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.

    2000-01-01

    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed--high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 10 14 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance--fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity

  12. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  14. LASL high-current proton storage rings

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.; Hudgings, D.W.; Spalek, G.; Jason, A.J.; Higgins, E.F.; Gillis, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Proton Storage Ring at LAMPF is a high-current accumulator designed to convert long 800-MeV linac pulses into very short high-intensity proton bunches ideally suited to driving a pulsed polyenergetic neutron source. The Ring, authorized for construction at $19 million, will operate in a short-bunch high-frequency mode for fast neutron physics and a long-bunch low-frequency mode for thermal neutron-scattering programs. Unique features of the project include charge-changing injection with initial conversion from H - to H 0 , a high repetition rate fast-risetime extraction kicker, and high-frequency and first-harmonic bunching system

  15. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  16. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  17. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  18. High blood pressure and eye disease

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  19. Thermochemical heat storage for high temperature applications. A review

    Felderhoff, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Urbanczyk, Robert; Peil, Stefan [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Heat storage for high temperature applications can be performed by several heat storage techniques. Very promising heat storage methods are based on thermochemical gas solid reactions. Most known systems are metal oxide/steam (metal hydroxides), carbon dioxide (metal carbonates), and metal/hydrogen (metal hydrides) systems. These heat storage materials posses high gravimetric and volumetric heat storage densities and because of separation of the reaction products and their storage in different locations heat losses can be avoided. The reported volumetric heat storage densities are 615, 1340 and 1513 [ kWh m{sup -3}] for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH){sub 2}, calcium carbonate CaCO{sub 3} and magnesium iron hydride Mg{sub 2}FeH{sub 6} respectively. Additional demands for gas storage decrease the heat storage density, but metal hydride systems can use available hydrogen storage possibilities for example caverns, pipelines and chemical plants. (orig.)

  20. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  1. Storage system software solutions for high-end user needs

    Hogan, Carole B.

    1992-01-01

    Today's high-end storage user is one that requires rapid access to a reliable terabyte-capacity storage system running in a distributed environment. This paper discusses conventional storage system software and concludes that this software, designed for other purposes, cannot meet high-end storage requirements. The paper also reviews the philosophy and design of evolving storage system software. It concludes that this new software, designed with high-end requirements in mind, provides the potential for solving not only the storage needs of today but those of the foreseeable future as well.

  2. High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling

    Johnson, R P

    2004-01-01

    High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.

  3. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  4. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  5. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  6. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  7. Four-channel high speed synchronized acquisition multiple trigger storage measurement system

    Guo Jian; Wang Wenlian; Zhang Zhijie

    2010-01-01

    A new storage measurement system based on the CPLD, MCU and FLASH (large-capacity flash memory) is proposed. The large capacity storage characteristic of the FLASH MEMORY is used to realize multi channel synchronized acquisition and the function of multiple records and read once. The function of multi channel synchronization, high speed data acquisition, the triggering several times, and the adjustability of working parameters expands the application of storage measurement system. The storage measurement system can be used in a variety of pressure and temperature test in explosion field. (authors)

  8. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  9. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  10. High pressure effect for high-Tc superconductors

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tomita, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity and to enhance T c . High-pressure techniques have played a very important role for these studies. In this paper, the high-pressure techniques and physical properties of high-T c superconductor under high pressure are presented. (author)

  11. Investigation of cryogenic hydrogen storage on high surface area activated carbon. Equilibrium and dynamics

    Paggiaro, Ricardo Gaspar

    2008-11-29

    This thesis investigates cryo-adsorptive systems for hydrogen storage for mobile applications. By means of macroscopic and microscopic balance models, an extensive analysis is carried out, including among others the investigation of the thermal effects during high-pressure system filling, venting losses during normal operation and inactivity, time-course of system pressure and temperature and gas delivery under various operating conditions. Model results were compared with experimental data, good agreement was obtained. The analysis also includes a comparison to other storage technologies such as cryo-compressed gas and liquefaction storage. The results show that cryo-adsorptive systems have storage characteristics comparable to compressed gas systems, but at a much lower pressure. They are also energetically more efficient than liquid hydrogen systems. However, the necessity of cryotemperatures and thermal management during operation and filling might limit their application. (orig.)

  12. Retrievable surface storage: interim storage of solidified high-level waste

    LaRiviere, J.R.; Nelson, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on retrievable-surface-storage concepts for the interim storage of solidified high-level wastes. These studies have been reviewed by the Panel on Engineered Storage, convened by the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council-National Academy of Sciences. The Panel has concluded that ''retrievable surface storage is an acceptable interim stage in a comprehensive system for managing high-level radioactive wastes.'' The scaled storage cask concept, which was recommended by the Panel on Engineered Storage, consists of placing a canister of waste inside a carbon-steel cask, which in turn is placed inside a thick concrete cylinder. The waste is cooled by natural convection air flow through an annulus between the cask and the inner wall of the concrete cylinder. The complete assembly is placed above ground in an outdoor storage area

  13. Pressure pressure-balanced pH sensing system for high temperature and high pressure water

    Tachibana, Koji

    1995-01-01

    As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  15. Modeling photo-desorption in high current storage rings

    Barletta, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    High luminosity flavor factories are characterized by high fluxes of synchrotron radiation that lead to thermal management difficulties. The associated photo-desorption from the vacuum chamber walls presents an additional design challenge, providing a vacuum system suitable for maintaining acceptable beam-gas lifetimes and low background levels of scattered radiation in the detector. Achieving acceptable operating pressures (1-10 nTorr) with practical pumping schemes requires the use of materials with low photodesorption efficiency operating in a radiation environment beyond that of existing storage rings. Extrapolating the existing photo-desorption data base to the design requirements of high luminosity colliders requires a physical model of the differential cleaning in the vacuum chamber. The authors present a simple phenomenological model of photodesorption that includes effects of dose dependence and diffuse photon reflection to compute the leveling of gas loads in beamlines of high current storage rings that typify heavy flavor factories. This model is also used to estimate chamber commissioning times

  16. Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock

    Streit, J.E.; Hillis, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Geomechanical modelling of fault stability is an integral part of Australia's GEODISC research program to ensure the safe storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface reservoirs. Storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs requires estimates of sustainable fluid pressures that will not induce fracturing or create fault permeability that could lead to CO 2 escape. Analyses of fault stability require the determination of fault orientations, ambient pore fluid pressures and in situ stresses in a potential storage site. The calculation of effective stresses that act on faults and reservoir rocks lead then to estimates of fault slip tendency and fluid pressures sustainable during CO 2 storage. These parameters can be visualized on 3D images of fault surfaces or in 2D projections. Faults that are unfavourably oriented for reactivation can be identified from failure plots. In depleted oil and gas fields, modelling of fault and rock stability needs to incorporate changes of the pre-production stresses that were induced by hydrocarbon production and associated pore pressure depletion. Such induced stress changes influence the maximum sustainable formation pressures and CO 2 storage volumes. Hence, determination of in situ stresses and modelling of fault stability are essential prerequisites for the safe engineering of subsurface CO 2 injection and the modelling of storage capacity. (author)

  17. In situ NMR studies of hydrogen storage kinetics and molecular diffusion in clathrate hydrate at elevated hydrogen pressures

    Okuchi, T. [Okayama Univ., Misasa, Tottori (Japan); Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of storing high-density hydrogen into compact host media was investigated. The conventional storage scheme where an aqueous solution is frozen with hydrogen gas is too slow for practical use in a hydrogen-based society. Therefore, the authors developed a faster method whereby hydrogen was stored into gas hydrates. The hydrogen gas was directly charged into hydrogen-free, crystalline hydrate powders with partly empty lattices. The storage kinetics and hydrogen diffusion into the hydrate was observed in situ by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a pressurized tube cell. At pressures up to 20 MPa, the storage was complete within 80 minutes, as observed by growth of stored-hydrogen peak into the hydrate. Hydrogen diffusion within the crystalline hydrate media is the rate-determining step of current storage scheme. Therefore, the authors measured the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen molecules using the pulsed field gradient NMR method. The results show that the stored hydrogen is very mobile at temperatures down to 250 K. As such, the powdered hydrate media should work well even in cold environments. Compared with more prevailing hydrogen storage media such as metal hydrides, clathrate hydrates have the advantage of being free from hydrogen embrittlement, more chemically durable, more environmentally sound, and economically affordable. It was concluded that the powdered clathrate hydrate is suitable as a hydrogen storage media. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  18. High pressure gas reinjection unit

    1976-03-01

    Nuovo Pignone has built for gas reinjection at Ekofisk the highest pressure injection unit to date: suction pressure 246 bar, discharge 647 bar, for 5.7 million cu m/day of natural gas, and driven by a GE MS 5001 gas turbine of 24,000 hp. The barrel-type compressor has been used already in Algeria at Hassi Messaoud. Full scale tests have shown that the unit is satisfactory; special attention being paid to the stability of the rotor. Air cooled heat exchangers were used in the test loop to cool the discharge gas; at Ekofisk, heat exchangers with sea water will be used. The valves in the test loop were of a special, low- noise type. Vibrations of the rotor system and changes in gas pressure monitored, showing that a pressure of 680 bars can be achieved without instability. Economic considerations lead to preference for rotary compressors driven by gas turbines for similar applications in the exploitation of oil fields. A graph of the characteristics of the unit is given.

  19. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery- Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage.

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H(2)) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used.

  20. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery– Part 2: Cells with Metal Hydride Storage

    Purushothaman, B. K.; Wainright, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A sub-atmospheric pressure nickel hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery with metal hydride for hydrogen storage is developed for implantable neuroprosthetic devices. Pressure variations during charge and discharge of the cell are analyzed at different states of charge and are found to follow the desorption curve of the pressure composition isotherm (PCI) of the metal hydride. The measured pressure agreed well with the calculated theoretical pressure based on the PCI and is used to predict the state of charge of the battery. Hydrogen equilibration with the metal hydride during charge/discharge cycling is fast when the pressure is in the range from 8 to 13 psia and slower in the range from 6 to 8 psia. The time constant for the slower hydrogen equilibration, 1.37h, is similar to the time constant for oxygen recombination and therefore pressure changes due to different mechanisms are difficult to estimate. The self-discharge rate of the cell with metal hydride is two times lower in comparison to the cell with gaseous hydrogen storage alone and is a result of the lower pressure in the cell when the metal hydride is used. PMID:22711974

  1. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  2. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  3. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  4. High Density Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Composites with Air Cooling

    Dieterich, Mila; Bürger, Inga; Linder, Marc

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In order to combine fluctuating renewable energy sources with the actual demand of electrical energy, storages are essential. The surplus energy can be stored as hydrogen to be used either for mobile use, chemical synthesis or reconversion when needed. One possibility to store the hydrogen gas at high volumetric densities, moderate temperatures and low pressures is based on a chemical reaction with metal hydrides. Such storages must be able to absorb and desorb the hydrogen qu...

  5. High pressure X-ray studies

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  6. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. Effect of interfacial turbulence and accommodation coefficient on CFD predictions of pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tank

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Pressurization and pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks are to a large extent affected by heat and mass transport across the liquid-vapor interface. These mechanisms are, in turn, controlled by the kinetics of the phase change process and the dynamics of the turbulent recirculating flows in the liquid and vapor phases. In this paper, the effects of accommodation coefficient and interfacial turbulence on tank pressurization and pressure control simulations are examined. Comparison between numerical predictions and ground-based measurements in two large liquid hydrogen tank experiments, performed in the K-site facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Multi-purpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) facility at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are used to show the impact of accommodation coefficient and interfacial and vapor phase turbulence on evolution of pressure and temperatures in the cryogenic storage tanks. In particular, the self-pressurization comparisons indicate that: (1) numerical predictions are essentially independent of the magnitude of the accommodation coefficient; and (2) surprisingly, laminar models sometimes provide results that are in better agreement with experimental self-pressurization rates, even in parametric ranges where the bulk flow is deemed fully turbulent. In this light, shortcomings of the present CFD models, especially, numerical treatments of interfacial mass transfer and turbulence, as coupled to the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) interface capturing scheme, are underscored and discussed.

  8. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S.

    2017-12-12

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  9. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  10. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME (Dimenthyl Ether) using a standard diesel pump with pintle and hole nozzles. Fundamental spray behavior was characterized by determining fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and evaporation. The influences of opening pressure, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure above and below the critical pressure of the fuel on the spray behavior were investigated. The influence of opening pressures on the spray characteristics for the hole nozzle was investigated. The results showed that for opening pressures of 120 bar and 180 bar the spray has a similar appearance. For the higher opening pressure (200 bar and 240 bar), the initial spray breaks up very rapidly giving a high initial spray angle. The opening pressure had little influence on spray penetration. The spray angle later in the injection increased as the opening pressure was decreased. Above the critical pressure, the spray from the hole nozzle had a more irregular shape. Penetration decreased and the spray angle increased above the critical pressure. Three pintle nozzles with different geometries and opening pressures were tested. The appearance of the three sprays were very similar. The sprays seemed to be more sharply pointed as the nozzle hole angle decreased. The nozzle with the 4 deg. hole nozzle angle and an opening pressure of 280 bar had the highest penetration and highest initial spray angle. The pintle nozzle with the 12 deg. hole nozzle angle and opening pressure of approx. 450 bar was tested above the critical ambient pressure. Penetration was very similar for injection above and below the critical ambient pressure, while the spray angle decreased for the spray above the critical ambient pressure. (au)

  11. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  12. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  13. Ignition during hydrogen release from high pressure into the atmosphere

    Oleszczak, P.; Wolanski, P.

    2010-12-01

    The first investigations concerned with a problem of hydrogen jet ignition, during outflow from a high-pressure vessel were carried out nearly 40 years ago by Wolanski and Wojcicki. The research resulted from a dramatic accident in the Chorzow Chemical Plant Azoty, where the explosion of a synthesis gas made up of a mixture composed of three moles of hydrogen per mole of nitrogen, at 300°C and 30 MPa killed four people. Initial investigation had excluded potential external ignition sources and the main aim of the research was to determine the cause of ignition. Hydrogen is currently considered as a potential fuel for various vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, etc. Crucial safety issues are of potential concern, associated with the storage of hydrogen at a very high pressure. Indeed, the evidence obtained nearly 40 years ago shows that sudden rupture of a high-pressure hydrogen storage tank or other component can result in ignition and potentially explosion. The aim of the present research is identification of the conditions under which hydrogen ignition occurs as a result of compression and heating of the air by the shock wave generated by discharge of high-pressure hydrogen. Experiments have been conducted using a facility constructed in the Combustion Laboratory of the Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology. Tests under various configurations have been performed to determine critical conditions for occurrence of high-pressure hydrogen ignition. The results show that a critical pressure exists, leading to ignition, which depends mainly on the geometric configuration of the outflow system, such as tube diameter, and on the presence of obstacles.

  14. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  15. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Bents, David J.

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  16. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  17. A Novel Constant-Pressure Pumped Hydro Combined with Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Erren Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As intermittent renewable energy is receiving increasing attention, the combination of intermittent renewable energy with large-scale energy storage technology is considered as an important technological approach for the wider application of wind power and solar energy. Pumped hydro combined with compressed air energy storage system (PHCA is one of the energy storage systems that not only integrates the advantages but also overcomes the disadvantages of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems and pumped hydro energy storage systems to solve the problem of energy storage in China’s arid regions. Aiming at the variable working conditions of PHCA system technology, this study proposes a new constant-pressure PHCA. The most significant characteristics of this system were that the water pump and hydroturbine work under stable conditions and this improves the working efficiency of the equipment without incurring an energy loss. In addition, the constant-pressure PHCA system was subjected to energy and exergy analysis, in expectation of exploring an attractive solution for the large-scale storage of existing intermittent renewable energy.

  18. Study of the influence of high hydrostatic pressure on wine chemical and sensorial characteristics

    Santos, Mickael da Costa

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, the use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal technology for preservation or aging of wine has increased substantially in the academic community. However, HHP treated wine has been only analysed after the pressure treatment, with no knowledge available on the effects of HHP during subsequent storage. The results presented in this thesis showed that HHP treatments influence the chemical and sensorial properties of wine during storage. The application of ...

  19. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  20. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  1. Energy Storage of Polyarylene Ether Nitriles at High Temperature

    Tang, Xiaohe; You, Yong; Mao, Hua; Li, Kui; Wei, Renbo; Liu, Xiaobo

    2018-03-01

    Polyarylene ether nitrile (PEN) was synthesized and used as film capacitors for energy storage at high temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that the films of PEN have pinholes at nanoscales which restricted the energy storage properties of the material. The pinhole shadowing effect through which the energy storage properties of PEN were effectively improved to be 2.3 J/cm3 was observed by using the overlapped film of PEN. The high glass transition temperature (T g) of PEN was as high as 216 °C and PEN film showed stable dielectric constant, breakdown strength and energy storage density before the T g. The PEN films will be a potential candidate as high performance electronic storage materials used at high temperature.

  2. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  3. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  4. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  5. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  6. High pressure processing of meat

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  7. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  8. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  9. A Low-Pressure Oxygen Storage System for Oxygen Supply in Low-Resource Settings.

    Rassool, Roger P; Sobott, Bryn A; Peake, David J; Mutetire, Bagayana S; Moschovis, Peter P; Black, Jim Fp

    2017-12-01

    Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  11. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  12. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  13. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  14. Pumped storage in systems with very high wind penetration

    Tuohy, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the operation of the Irish power system with very high levels of wind energy, with and without pumped storage. A unit commitment model which accounts for the uncertainty in wind power is used. It is shown that as wind penetration increases, the optimal operation of storage depends on wind output as well as load. The main benefit from storage is shown to be a decrease in wind curtailment. The economics of the system are examined to find the level at which storage justifies its capital costs and inefficiencies. It is shown that the uncertainty of wind makes the option of storage more attractive. The size of the energy store has an impact on results. At lower levels of installed wind (up to approximately 50% of energy from wind in Ireland), the reduction in curtailment is insufficient to justify building storage. At greater levels of wind, storage reduces curtailment sufficiently to justify the additional capital costs. It can be seen that if storage replaces OCGTs in the plant mix instead of CCGTs, then the level at which it justifies itself is lower. Storage increases the level of carbon emissions at wind penetration below 60%. - Research highlights: → Examines operation of pumped storage unit in a system with levels of wind from 34%-68% of energy. → High capital cost of storage is not justified until system has high (approx. 45%) wind penetration. → Results are driven by the amount of wind curtailment avoided and plant mix of system. → Other flexible options (e.g. interconnection) offer many of the same benefits as storage.

  15. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  16. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Effects on Cryogenic Storage Tank Boil-Off

    Sass, J. P.; Frontier, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) routinely utilizes cryostat test hardware to evaluate comparative and absolute thermal conductivities of a wide array of insulation systems. The test method is based on measurement of the flow rate of gas evolved due to evaporative boil-off of a cryogenic liquid. The gas flow rate typically stabilizes after a period of a couple of hours to a couple of days, depending upon the test setup. The stable flow rate value is then used to calculate the thermal conductivity for the insulation system being tested. The latest set of identical cryostats, 1,000-L spherical tanks, exhibited different behavior. On a macro level, the flow rate did stabilize after a couple of days; however the stable flow rate was oscillatory with peak to peak amplitude of up to 25 percent of the nominal value. The period of the oscillation was consistently 12 hours. The source of the oscillation has been traced to variations in atmospheric pressure due to atmospheric tides similar to oceanic tides. This paper will present analysis of this phenomenon, including a calculation that explains why other cryostats are not affected by it.

  18. Holographic interferometry of high pressure

    McIlwain, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods. Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma. Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry, and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained. This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented

  19. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  20. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  1. Methane Storage in Nanoporous Media as Observed via High-Field NMR Relaxometry

    Papaioannou, A.; Kausik, R.

    2015-08-01

    The storage properties of methane gas in Vycor porous glass (5.7 nm) are characterized in a wide pressure range from 0.7 to 89.7 MPa using nuclear magnetic resonance. We demonstrate the capability of high-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxometry for the determination of the methane-gas storage capacity and the measurement of the hydrogen index, to a high degree of accuracy. This helps determine the excess gas in the pore space which can be identified to exhibit Langmuir properties in the low pressure regime of 0.7 to 39.6 MPa. The Langmuir model enables us to determine the equilibrium density of the monolayer of adsorbed gas to be 8.5% lower than that of liquid methane. We also identify the signatures of multilayer adsorption at the high pressure regime from 39.6 to 89.7 MPa and use the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller theory to determine the number of adsorbed layers of methane gas. We show how these measurements help us differentiate the gas stored in the Vycor pore space into free and adsorbed fractions for the entire pressure range paving way for similar applications such as studying natural-gas storage in gas shale rock or hydrogen storage in carbon nanotubes.

  2. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  3. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10 days at 4 degrees C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5 g) was pressure tr...

  4. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  5. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Monitoring of injected CO2 at two commercial geologic storage sites with significant pressure depletion and/or re-pressurization histories: A case study

    Dayanand Saini

    2017-03-01

    The monitoring technologies that have been used/deployed/tested at both the normally pressured West Hastings and the subnormally pressured Bell Creek storage sites appear to adequately address any of the potential “out of zone migration” of injected CO2 at these sites. It would be interesting to see if any of the collected monitoring data at the West Hastings and the Bell Creek storage sites could also be used in future to better understand the viability of initially subnormally pressured and subsequently depleted and re-pressurized oil fields as secure geologic CO2 storage sites with relatively large storage CO2 capacities compared to the depleted and re-pressurized oil fields that were initially discovered as normally pressured.

  7. Impact of pressure on the dynamic behavior of CO2 hydrate slurry in a stirred tank reactor applied to cold thermal energy storage

    Dufour, Thomas; Hoang, Hong Minh; Oignet, Jérémy; Osswald, Véronique; Clain, Pascal; Fournaison, Laurence; Delahaye, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •CO 2 hydrate storage was studied in a stirred tank reactor under pressure. •CO 2 hydrates can store three times more energy than water during the same time. •Increasing CO 2 hydrate pressure decreases charge time for the same stored energy. •CO 2 hydrate storage allow average power exchange to be maintained along the process. -- Abstract: Phase change material (PCM) slurries are considered as high-performance fluids for secondary refrigeration and cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems thanks to their high energy density. Nevertheless, the efficiency of such system is limited by storage dynamic. In fact, PCM charging or discharging rate is governed by system design (storage tank, heat exchanger), heat transfer fluid temperature and flow rate (cold or hot source), and PCM temperature. However, with classical PCM (ice, paraffin…), phase change temperature depends only on material/fluid nature and composition. In the case of gas hydrates, phase change temperature is also controlled by pressure. In the current work, the influence of pressure on cold storage with gas hydrates was studied experimentally using a stirred tank reactor equipped with a cooling jacket. A tank reactor model was also developed to assess the efficiency of this storage process. The results showed that pressure can be used to adjust phase change temperature of CO 2 hydrates, and consequently charging/discharging time. For the same operating conditions and during the same charging time, the amount of stored energy using CO 2 hydrates can be three times higher than that using water. By increasing the initial pressure from 2.45 to 3.2 MPa (at 282.15 K), it is also possible to decrease the charging time by a factor of 3. Finally, it appears that the capacity of pressure to increase CO 2 -hydrate phase-change temperature can also improve system efficiency by decreasing thermal losses.

  8. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  9. Performance of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors developed for storage-ring decay experiments

    Yamaguchi, T.; Suzaki, F.; Izumikawa, T.; Miyazawa, S.; Morimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.; Tokanai, F.; Furuki, H.; Ichihashi, N.; Ichikawa, C.; Kitagawa, A.; Kuboki, T.; Momota, S.; Nagae, D.; Nagashima, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishikiori, R.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Ozawa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Position-sensitive detectors were developed for storage-ring decay spectroscopy. • Fiber scintillation and silicon strip detectors were tested with heavy ion beams. • A new fiber scintillation detector showed an excellent position resolution. • Position and energy detection by silicon strip detectors enable full identification. -- Abstract: As next generation spectroscopic tools, heavy-ion cooler storage rings will be a unique application of highly charged RI beam experiments. Decay spectroscopy of highly charged rare isotopes provides us important information relevant to the stellar conditions, such as for the s- and r-process nucleosynthesis. In-ring decay products of highly charged RI will be momentum-analyzed and reach a position-sensitive detector set-up located outside of the storage orbit. To realize such in-ring decay experiments, we have developed and tested two types of high-resolution position-sensitive detectors: silicon strips and scintillating fibers. The beam test experiments resulted in excellent position resolutions for both detectors, which will be available for future storage-ring experiments

  10. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  11. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  12. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  13. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  14. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  15. A Computer Controlled Precision High Pressure Measuring System

    Sadana, S.; Yadav, S.; Jha, N.; Gupta, V. K.; Agarwal, R.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Saxena, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller (AT89C51) based electronics has been designed and developed for high precision calibrator based on Digiquartz pressure transducer (DQPT) for the measurement of high hydrostatic pressure up to 275 MPa. The input signal from DQPT is converted into a square wave form and multiplied through frequency multiplier circuit over 10 times to input frequency. This input frequency is multiplied by a factor of ten using phased lock loop. Octal buffer is used to store the calculated frequency, which in turn is fed to microcontroller AT89C51 interfaced with a liquid crystal display for the display of frequency as well as corresponding pressure in user friendly units. The electronics developed is interfaced with a computer using RS232 for automatic data acquisition, computation and storage. The data is acquired by programming in Visual Basic 6.0. This system is interfaced with the PC to make it a computer controlled system. The system is capable of measuring the frequency up to 4 MHz with a resolution of 0.01 Hz and the pressure up to 275 MPa with a resolution of 0.001 MPa within measurement uncertainty of 0.025%. The details on the hardware of the pressure measuring system, associated electronics, software and calibration are discussed in this paper.

  16. Development test procedure High Pressure Water Jet System

    Crystal, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Development testing will be performed on the water jet cleaning fixture to determine the most effective arrangement of water jet nozzles to remove contamination from the surfaces of canisters and other debris. The following debris may be stained with dye to simulate surface contaminates: Mark O, Mark I, and Mark II Fuel Storage Canisters (both stainless steel and aluminum), pipe of various size, (steel, stainless, carbon steel and aluminum). Carbon steel and stainless steel plate, channel, angle, I-beam and other surfaces, specifically based on the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) inventory and observations of debris within the basin. Test procedure for developmental testing of High Pressure Water Jet System

  17. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  18. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  19. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  20. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  1. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  2. Storage in pressurized cylinders of Kr adsorbed on activated carbon. Fundamental principles

    Henrion, P.N.; Greff, J.F. de; Claes, W.; Leurs, A.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure of a few kg/cm 2 cause considerable adsorption of krypton on charcoal. In presence of this adsorbent, the aspects of krypton storage in a pressurized cylinder are modified in such a way that, eventually, a simplified engineered storage can be based on this procedure. As fission krypton generates heat and since the amount adsorbed is a function of temperature and pressure, there is no easy way of assessing the value of this concept. The purpose of this study was therefore to review the types of charcoal commercially available to examine their properties as adsorbents, as well as the thermal conductivity and the packing efficiency obtainable in beds made of these materials. The ways in which data are measured or estimated are explained in some detail. Heat transfer was evaluated by a simple mathematical model and, by means of selected values from the above data, realistic examples were treated, leading to explicit relationships between wall temperature, pressure and useful krypton load. Influence of krypton specific activity ( 85 Kr dilution) was also examined. The pressure vessels diameter is however of fundamental importance. The authors strongly recommend the use of specially designed, light-weight, relatively narrow pressure cylinders

  3. High-Tc superconductors under very high pressure

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Scholtz, J.J.; Eenige, E.N. van; Griessen, R.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure has played a crucial role in the short history of high T c superconductors. Soon after the discovery of superconductivity by Bednorz and Muller in La-Ba-Cu-O, Chu et al. showed that the critical temperature T c could be significantly increased by pressure. This observation led to the discovery of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 by Wu et al. with a T c above 90 K. Incidentally, this high T c is probably also due to the fact that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has two CuO 2 layers per unit cell instead of a single one in La-Ba-Cu-O. The authors discuss the high pressure dependence of the oxide superconductors, particularly at pressures above 10 GPa, and the nonmonotonic dependence of transition temperature on pressure

  4. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  5. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  6. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  7. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  8. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive

  9. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  10. HISTRAP [Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics] vacuum test stand for pressures of 10-12 Torr

    Johnson, J.W.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed synchrotron/cooler/storage ring accelerator optimized for advanced atomic physics research. The ring has a circumference of 46.8 m, a bore diameter of about 15 cm, and requires a vacuum of 10 -12 Torr in order to decelerate highly-charged very-heavy ions down to low energies. To be able to test components and procedures to achieve this pressure, a test stand approximately modeling one-sixteenth of the ring vacuum chamber has been built. The 3.5-m-long test stand has been fabricated from 10-cm-diameter components, with 316LN stainless steel flanges. Prior to assembly, these components were vacuum fired at 950/degree/C at a pressure of 10 -4 Torr. The test stand is bakeable in situ at 300/degree/C. Pumping is achieved with two 750-L/s titanium sublimator pumps and one 60-L/s ion pump. Pressure is measured with two extractor ion gauges and a 10 -14 PP RGA. The roughing for the test stand consists of cryosorption pumps followed by a cryopump. A pressure of 4 x 10 -12 Torr has been achieved. 7 refs., 5 figs

  11. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  12. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  13. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  14. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  15. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  16. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  17. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V. [Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería, “Ing. H. Fernández Long,” Av. Paseo Colón 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Institut Universitari de Ciència dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, c/ Doctor Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  18. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  19. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  20. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  1. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  2. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  3. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  4. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  5. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  6. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  7. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  8. Numerical simulation on stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank

    Lu Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank was simulation object. Gas, liquid and solid were air, sodium nitrate liquor and titanium whitening, respectively. The mathematic model based on three-fluid model and the kinetic theory of particles was established for the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. The CFD commercial software was used for solving this model. The detail flow parameters as three phase velocity, pressure and phase loadings were gained. The calculated results agree with the experimental results, so they can well define the flow behavior in the tank. And this offers a basic method for the scale-up and optimization design of the stir system of jet ballast in high level liquid waste storage tank. (author)

  9. Methane Storage in Biosilica-Supported Semiclathrates at Ambient Temperature and Pressure

    Li, Liang; Wang, Suying; Wang, Weixing

    2018-01-01

    Two key issues regarding the use of clathrates and semiclathrates for practical gas storage and transport is the pressure-temperature stability of the material and very low formation kinetics. For many practical applications, the avoidance of cooling, gas overpressure, and mechanical mixing would be very desirable. Here, we show that biosilica supports from rice husks greatly enhance gases uptake kinetics in tetra-iso-amyl ammonium bromide semiclathrates without introducing complex mixing technologies. These systems show excellent thermal stability and good recyclability.

  10. Small magnetic energy storage systems using high temperature superconductors

    Kumar, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on magnetic energy storage for power systems that has been considered for commercial utility power, air and ground mobile power sources, and spacecraft applications. Even at the current technology limits of energy storage (100 KJ/Kg*), superconducting magnetic energy storage inductors do not offer a strong advantage over state-of-the-art batteries. The commercial utility application does not have a weight and volume limitation, and is under intense study in several countries for diurnal cycle energy storage and high power delivery. The advent of high temperature superconductors has reduced one of the penalties of superconducting magnetic energy storage in that refrigeration and cryocontainers become greatly simplified. Still, structural and current density issues that limit the energy density and size of superconducting inductors do not change. Cold weather starting of aircraft engines is an application where these limitations are not as significant, and where current systems lack performance. The very cold environments make it difficult to achieve high power densities in state-of-the-art batteries and hydraulically activated starters. The same cold environments make it possible to cool superconducting systems for weeks using a single charge of liquid nitrogen. At the same, the ground carts can handle the size and weight of superconducting magnetic storage (SMES) devices

  11. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  12. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  13. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  14. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperature on the Ductility of High-Burnup PWR Cladding

    Billone, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burtseva, T. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures (PCT) and hoop stresses. Extensive precipitation of radial hydrides could lower the failure hoop stresses and strains, relative to limits established for as-irradiated cladding from discharged fuel rods stored in pools, at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT).

  15. The methods of hydrogen storage

    Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen may be an excellent energy vector owing to its high specific energy. Its low density is however a serious drawback for its storage. Three techniques exist to store hydrogen. Storage under pressure is now performed in composite tanks under pressures around 700 bar. Liquid storage is achieved at cryogenic temperatures. Solid storage is possible in reversible metal hydrides or on high surface area materials. The three storage means are compared in terms of performance, energetic losses and risk. (authors)

  16. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  17. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  18. Suggestion on the safety classification of spent fuel dry storage in China’s pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

    Liu, Ting; Qu, Yunhuan; Meng, De; Zhang, Qiaoer; Lu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    China’s spent fuel storage in the pressurized water reactors(PWR) is stored with wet storage way. With the rapid development of nuclear power industry, China’s NPPs(NPPs) will not be able to meet the problem of the production of spent fuel. Currently the world’s major nuclear power countries use dry storage as a way of spent fuel storage, so in recent years, China study on additional spent fuel dry storage system mainly. Part of the PWR NPP is ready to apply for additional spent fuel dry storage system. It also need to safety classificate to spent fuel dry storage facilities in PWR, but there is no standard for safety classification of spent fuel dry storage facilities in China. Because the storage facilities of the spent fuel dry storage are not part of the NPP, the classification standard of China’s NPPs is not applicable. This paper proposes the safety classification suggestion of the spent fuel dry storage for China’s PWR NPP, through to the study on China’s safety classification principles of PWR NPP in “Classification for the items of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants (GB/T 17569-2013)”, and safety classification about spent fuel dry storage system in NUREG/CR - 6407 in the United States.

  19. High-pressure powder X-ray diffraction at the turn of the century

    Paszkowicz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Studies at extreme pressures and temperatures are helpful for understanding the physical properties of the solid state, including such classes of materials as semiconductors, superconductors or minerals. This is connected with the opportunity of tuning the pressure by many orders of magnitude. Diamond-anvil and large-anvil pressure cells installed at dedicated synchrotron beamlines are efficient tools for examination of crystal structure, equation of state, compressibility and phase transitions. One of basic methods in such studies is powder diffraction. This review is devoted to methods of powder X-ray diffraction at high-pressures generated by devices installed at synchrotron radiation sources, in particular to the principles of operation of high-pressure-high-temperature cells. General information on high-pressure diffraction facilities installed at 11 synchrotron storage rings in the world is provided. Measurement aspects are considered, including (i) pressure generation and calibration, (ii) strain in the sample, the pressure marker and the pressure-transmitting medium and (iii) pressure and temperature distributions within the cells. Sources of interest in high-pressure diffraction studies (design of new materials, observation of new phenomena, confrontation of theory with experiment) are briefly discussed. Recent developments of high-pressure methods make that pressure becomes a variable playing a key role in investigation of condensed matter. The paper ends with some remarks on the possible future developments of the technique

  20. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  1. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  2. High Throughput WAN Data Transfer with Hadoop-based Storage

    Amin, A.; Bockelman, B.; Letts, J.; Levshina, T.; Martin, T.; Pi, H.; Sfiligoi, I.; Thomas, M.; Wüerthwein, F.

    2011-12-01

    Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is becoming more popular in recent years as a key building block of integrated grid storage solution in the field of scientific computing. Wide Area Network (WAN) data transfer is one of the important data operations for large high energy physics experiments to manage, share and process datasets of PetaBytes scale in a highly distributed grid computing environment. In this paper, we present the experience of high throughput WAN data transfer with HDFS-based Storage Element. Two protocols, GridFTP and fast data transfer (FDT), are used to characterize the network performance of WAN data transfer.

  3. High Throughput WAN Data Transfer with Hadoop-based Storage

    Amin, A; Thomas, M; Bockelman, B; Letts, J; Martin, T; Pi, H; Sfiligoi, I; Wüerthwein, F; Levshina, T

    2011-01-01

    Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is becoming more popular in recent years as a key building block of integrated grid storage solution in the field of scientific computing. Wide Area Network (WAN) data transfer is one of the important data operations for large high energy physics experiments to manage, share and process datasets of PetaBytes scale in a highly distributed grid computing environment. In this paper, we present the experience of high throughput WAN data transfer with HDFS-based Storage Element. Two protocols, GridFTP and fast data transfer (FDT), are used to characterize the network performance of WAN data transfer.

  4. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  5. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  6. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The high...

  7. Interdiffusion of krypton and xenon in high-pressure helium

    Campana, R.J.; Jensen, D.D.; Epstein, B.D.; Hudson, R.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    The interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in high-pressure helium is an important factor in the control of radioactivity in gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (GCFRs). As presently conceived, GCFRs use pressure-equalized and vented fuel in which fission gases released from the solid matrix oxide fuel are transported through the fuel rod interstices and internal fission product traps to the fuel assembly vents, where they are swept away to external traps and storage. Since the predominant transport process under steady-state operating conditions is interdiffusion of gaseous fission products in helium, the diffusion properties of krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples have been measured over the range of GCFR temperature and pressure conditions ( -1 ) and expected temperature dependence to the 1.66 power (Tsup(1.66)) at lower pressures and temperatures. Additional work is in progress to measure the behaviour of the krypton-helium and xenon-helium couples in GCFR fuel rod charcoal delay traps. (author)

  8. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues...... and fuel that can also fulfill a storage function....

  9. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, temperature (T, and treatment time (t at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min. In order to investigate the effect of storage (S, half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order. Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  10. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage

    Trigerman, S.

    1988-06-01

    The subject of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage, is bibliographically reviewed. The review shows that in the majority of the countries, spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes are planned to be stored for tens of years. Sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have not yet been found. A first final disposal facility is expected to come into operation in the United States of America by the year 2010. Other final disposal facilities are expected to come into operation in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Japan by the year 2020. Meanwhile , stress is placed upon the 'dry storage' method which is carried out successfully in a number of countries (Britain and France). In the United States of America spent fuels are stored in water pools while the 'dry storage' method is still being investigated. (Author)

  11. General requirements applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of high activity wastes packed in glass form and resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in pressurized light water reactors

    1982-11-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This rule is intended to define the general provisions applicable to the production, inspection, processing, packaging and storage of wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of fuels irradiated in a PWR, packaged in the form of glass

  12. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  13. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  14. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  15. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume; Duret, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete structures; - GALATEE

  16. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume [CEA/Valrho, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Duret, Bernard [CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete

  17. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  18. Adaptive management for subsurface pressure and plume control in application to geological CO2 storage

    Gonzalez-Nicolas, A.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Petrusak, R.; Zhou, Q.; Riestenberg, D. E.; Trautz, R. C.; Godec, M.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial-scale injection of CO2 into the subsurface can cause reservoir pressure increases that must be properly controlled to prevent any potential environmental impact. Excessive pressure buildup in reservoir may result in ground water contamination stemming from leakage through conductive pathways, such as improperly plugged abandoned wells or distant faults, and the potential for fault reactivation and possibly seal breaching. Brine extraction is a viable approach for managing formation pressure, effective stress, and plume movement during industrial-scale CO2 injection projects. The main objectives of this study are to investigate suitable different pressure management strategies involving active brine extraction and passive pressure relief wells. Adaptive optimized management of CO2 storage projects utilizes the advanced automated optimization algorithms and suitable process models. The adaptive management integrates monitoring, forward modeling, inversion modeling and optimization through an iterative process. In this study, we employ an adaptive framework to understand primarily the effects of initial site characterization and frequency of the model update (calibration) and optimization calculations for controlling extraction rates based on the monitoring data on the accuracy and the success of the management without violating pressure buildup constraints in the subsurface reservoir system. We will present results of applying the adaptive framework to test appropriateness of different management strategies for a realistic field injection project.

  19. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  20. High pressure phase transitions in Europous oxide

    Kremser, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure-volume relationship for EuO was investigated to 630 kilobars at room temperature with a diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell. Volumes were determined by x-ray diffraction; pressures were determined by the ruby R 1 fluorescence method. The preferred interpretation involves normal compression behavior for EuO, initially in the B1 (NaCl-type) structure, to about 280 kilobars. Between approx. =280 and approx. =350 kilobars a region of anomalous compressibility in which the volume drops continuously by approximately 2% is observed. A second-order electronic transition is proposed with the 6s band overlapping with the 4f levels, thereby reducing the volume of EuO without changing the structure. This is not a semiconductor-to-metal transition. In reflected light, this transition is correlated with a subtle and continuous change in color from brown-black to a light brown. The collapsed B1 phase (postelectronic transition) is stable between approx. =350 and approx. =400 kilobars. At about 400 kilobars the collapsed B1 structure transforms to the B2 (CsCl-type) structure, with a zero pressure-volume change of approximately 12 +/- 1.5%

  1. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  2. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  3. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  4. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  5. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  6. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist

  7. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  8. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  9. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells...... and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures...

  10. SrWO4 at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  12. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T c superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T c cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.55 samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 . A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T c as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B 1g -like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group Imm2). The structural transition is clearly reflected in the high pressure

  13. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  14. Behavior of high-density spent-fuel storage racks

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-08-01

    Included in this report is a summary of information on neutron-absorbing materials such as B 4 C in an aluminum matrix or organic binder material, stainless steel-boron and aluminum-boron alloys, and stainless steetl-clad cadmium that are used in high-density spent fuel storage racks. A list of the types of neutron-absorbing materials being used in spent fuel storage racks at domestic commercial plants is provided. Recent cases at several domestic plants where swelling of rack side plates (where the B 4 C in an aluminum matrix and B 4 C in an organic binder material were located) occurred are reviewed

  15. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch...

  16. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  17. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  18. Highly enriched uranium (HEU) storage and disposition program plan

    Arms, W.M.; Everitt, D.A.; O'Dell, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in international relations and other changes in national priorities have profoundly affected the management of weapons-usable fissile materials within the United States (US). The nuclear weapon stockpile reductions agreed to by the US and Russia have reduced the national security requirements for these fissile materials. National policies outlined by the US President seek to prevent the accumulation of nuclear weapon stockpiles of plutonium (Pu) and HEU, and to ensure that these materials are subjected to the highest standards of safety, security and international accountability. The purpose of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Storage and Disposition Program Plan is to define and establish a planned approach for storage of all HEU and disposition of surplus HEU in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Material Disposition Program. Elements Of this Plan, which are specific to HEU storage and disposition, include program requirements, roles and responsibilities, program activities (action plans), milestone schedules, and deliverables

  19. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless...

  20. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  1. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Commentary on differential-pressure measurements at high reference pressures

    Hasbrouck, R.T.; Noyes, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some practical approaches to the difficult problems in calibrating and implementing differential-pressure measurements are discussed. The data presented were gathered several years ago in separate investigations. An attempt is made to compare the results of these investigations to the common mode concept as described by Peter K. Stein in his publication, The Measurement of Differential Quantities - Problems and Approaches. Although one of these investigations involed a 10,000- to 20,000-psi reference-pressure gas measured at an ambient temperature and the other a classic /sup Δ/P flow measurement of cryogenic temperature, the problems encountered were the same

  3. Safety implications associated with in-plant pressurized gas storage and distribution systems

    Guymon, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Storage and handling of compressed gases at nuclear power plants were studied to identify any potential safety hazards. Gases investigated were air, acetylene, carbon dioxide, chlorine, Halon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, propane, and sulfur hexafluoride. Physical properties of gases were reviewed, as were applicable industrial codes and standards. Incidents involving pressurized gases in general industry and in the nuclear industry were studied. In this report general hazards, such as missiles from ruptures, rocketing of cylinders, fires, explosions, asphyxiation, and toxicity, are discussed. Even though some serious injuries and deaths have occurred over the years in industries handling and using pressurized gases, the industrial codes, standards, practices, and procedures are very comprehensive. The most important step one can take to ensure the safe handling of gases is to enforce these well-known and established methods

  4. Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09

    Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

    2009-11-25

    This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common

  5. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  6. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Possible Lead Free Nanocomposite Dielectrics for High Energy Storage Applications

    Srinivas Kurpati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve the energy density of dielectric capacitors for satisfying the next generation material systems. One effective approach is to embed high dielectric constant inclusions such as lead zirconia titanate in polymer matrix. However, with the increasing concerns on environmental safety and biocompatibility, the need to expel lead (Pb from modern electronics has been receiving more attention. Using high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires could lead to further enhancement of energy density. Therefore, the present brief review work focuses on the feasibility of development of a lead-free nanowire reinforced polymer matrix capacitor for energy storage application. It is expected that Lead-free sodium Niobate nanowires (NaNbO3 and Boron nitride will be a future candidate to be synthesized using simple hydrothermal method, followed by mixing them with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/ divinyl tetramethyl disiloxanebis (benzocyclobutene matrix using a solution-casting method for Nanocomposites fabrication. The energy density of NaNbO3 and BN based composites are also be compared with that of lead-containing (PbTiO3/PVDF Nano composites to show the feasibility of replacing lead-containing materials from high-energy density dielectric capacitors. Further, this paper explores the feasibility of these materials for space applications because of high energy storage capacity, more flexibility and high operating temperatures. This paper is very much useful researchers who would like to work on polymer nanocomposites for high energy storage applications.

  8. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry.

    Balasubramaniam, V M Bala; Martínez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Gupta, Rockendra

    2015-01-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends shelf life. Pressure treatment at ambient or chilled temperatures has minimal impact on product chemistry. The product quality and shelf life are often influenced more by storage conditions and packaging material barrier properties than the treatment itself. Application of pressure reduces the thermal exposure of the food during processing, thereby protecting a variety of bioactive compounds. This review discusses recent scientific advances of high pressure technology for food processing and preservation applications such as pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, freezing, and thawing. We highlight the importance of in situ engineering and thermodynamic properties of food and packaging materials in process design. Current and potential future promising applications of pressure technology are summarized.

  9. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  10. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  11. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  12. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  13. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A.; Jankowska, A.; Wiśniewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4°C and 20°C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20°C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4°C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  14. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  15. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K

    2008-01-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4 0 C and 20 0 C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20 0 C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4 0 C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

  16. High temperature electrical energy storage: advances, challenges, and frontiers.

    Lin, Xinrong; Salari, Maryam; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-10-24

    With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e.g., capacity, energy and power density) for safe power output and long lifespan. Consequently, significant efforts are underway to design, fabricate, and evaluate EES devices along with characterization of device performance limitations such as thermal runaway and aging. Energy storage under extreme conditions is limited by the material properties of electrolytes, electrodes, and their synergetic interactions, and thus significant opportunities exist for chemical advancements and technological improvements. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of different applications associated with high temperature use (40-200 °C), recent advances in the development of reformulated or novel materials (including ionic liquids, solid polymer electrolytes, ceramics, and Si, LiFePO 4 , and LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes) with high thermal stability, and their demonstrative use in EES devices. Finally, we present a critical overview of the limitations of current high temperature systems and evaluate the future outlook of high temperature batteries with well-controlled safety, high energy/power density, and operation over a wide temperature range.

  17. Safety Evaluation Report: Development of Improved Composite Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage, Lincoln Composites, Lincoln, NE, May 25, 2010

    Fort, III, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kallman, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maes, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skolnik, Edward G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiner, Steven C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-12-22

    Lincoln Composites operates a facility for designing, testing, and manufacturing composite pressure vessels. Lincoln Composites also has a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to develop composite tanks for high-pressure hydrogen storage. The initial stage of this project involves testing the permeation of high-pressure hydrogen through polymer liners. The company recently moved and is constructing a dedicated research/testing laboratory at their new location. In the meantime, permeation tests are being performed in a corner of a large manufacturing facility. The safety review team visited the Lincoln Composites site on May 25, 2010. The project team presented an overview of the company and project and took the safety review team on a tour of the facility. The safety review team saw the entire process of winding a carbon fiber/resin tank on a liner, installing the boss and valves, and curing and painting the tank. The review team also saw the new laboratory that is being built for the DOE project and the temporary arrangement for the hydrogen permeation tests.

  18. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  19. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  1. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  2. Computer simulations of high pressure systems

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given

  3. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  4. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  6. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  7. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  8. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  9. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  10. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  11. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Heweliusza 1, 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  12. High-Pressure Biotechnology in Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science

    Patrick Masson

    2001-01-01

    inactivation of biological agents is expected to be applicable to sterilization of fragile biopharmaceuticals, or medical compounds. The enhanced immunogenicity of some pressure-killed bacteria and viruses could be applied for making new vaccines. Finally, storage at subzero temperatures without freezing is another potential application of HP for cells, animal tissues, blood cells, organs for transplant, and so forth.

  13. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  14. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  15. High pressure apparatus transport properties study in high magnetic field

    Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.; Mikulina, O.; Kamarád, Jiří; Alsmadi, A. M.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, 20, 21 & 22 (2002), s. 3330-3333 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D045; GA ČR GA202/00/1217; GA MŠk ME 165 Grant - others:NSF(XX) DMR-0094241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : high-pressure apparatus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2002

  16. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  17. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure...

  18. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2011-07-01

    ... imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of high pressure steel cylinders... contained in USITC Publication 4241 (July 2011), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China...

  19. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2012-06-22

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of high pressure steel... preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China were... Publication 4328 (June 2012), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480...

  20. Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) as a candidate phase change material for high temperature thermal energy storage

    Kuecuekaltun, Engin [Advansa Sasa Polyester San, A.S., Adana (Turkey); Paksoy, Halime; Bilgin, Ramazan; Yuecebilgic, Guezide [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Evliya, Hunay [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey). Center for Environmental Research

    2010-07-01

    Thermal energy storage at elevated temperatures, particularly in the range of 120-250 C is of interest with a significant potential for industrial applications that use process steam at low or intermediate pressures. At given temperature range there are few studies on thermal energy storage materials and most of them are dedicated to sensible heat. In this study, Dimethyl Terephthalate - DMT (CAS No: 120-61-6) is investigated as a candidate phase change material (PCM) for high temperature thermal energy storage. DMT is a monomer commonly used in Polyethylene terephtalate industry and has reasonable cost and availability. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and heating cooling curves show that DMT melts at 140-146 C within a narrow window. Supercooling that was detected in DSC results was not observed in the cooling curve measurements made with a larger sample. With a latent heat of 193 J/g, DMT is a candidate PCM for high temperature storage. Potential limitations such as, low thermal conductivity and sublimation needs further investigation. (orig.)

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Regulated Low Pressure High Flow Pneumatic Panel AFT Arrow Analysis

    Jones, Kelley, M.

    2013-01-01

    Project Definition: Design a high flow pneumatic regulation panel to be used with helium and hydrogen. The panel will have two circuits, one for gaseous helium (GHe) supplied from the GHe Movable Storage Units (MSUs) and one for gaseous hydrogen (GH2) supplied from an existing GH2 Fill Panel. The helium will supply three legs; to existing panels and on the higher pressure leg and Simulated Flight Tanks (SFTs) for the lower pressure legs. The hydrogen line will pressurize a 33,000 gallon vacuum jacketed vessel.

  2. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Yuqiu Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA, a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  3. Lie construction affects information storage under high memory load condition.

    Liu, Yuqiu; Wang, Chunjie; Jiang, Haibo; He, Hongjian; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that lying consumes cognitive resources, especially working memory (WM) resources. Considering the dual functions that WM might play in lying: holding the truth-related information and turning the truth into lies, the present study examined the relationship between the information storage and processing in the lie construction. To achieve that goal, a deception task based on the old/new recognition paradigm was designed, which could manipulate two levels of WM load (low-load task using 4 items and high-load task using 6 items) during the deception process. The analyses based on the amplitude of the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a proved index of the number of representations being held in WM, showed that the CDA amplitude was lower in the deception process than that in the truth telling process under the high-load condition. In contrast, under the low-load condition, no CDA difference was found between the deception and truth telling processes. Therefore, we deduced that the lie construction and information storage compete for WM resources; when the available WM resources cannot meet this cognitive demand, the WM resources occupied by the information storage would be consumed by the lie construction.

  4. High duty factor structures for e+e- storage rings

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    The next generation e + e - storage rings will need rf systems similar to those required for a continuous-duty linac of over 50 MeV. For the PEP Storage Ring at 18 GeV, it is presently planned to provide a peak accelerating voltage of 77 MV in 18 aluminum accelerating structures, each structure consisting of five slot-coupled cells operating in the π mode. Operating experience with the SPEAR five-cell structure is discussed. Power to each structure is provided by a 125-kW high-efficiency four-cavity klystron. No isolation has been used and the resulting interaction between the accelerating structures, klystrons and the stored beams is discussed

  5. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...

  6. Survey of Digital Feedback Systems in High Current Storage Rings

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade demand for brightness in synchrotron light sources and luminosity in circular colliders led to construction of multiple high current storage rings. Many of these new machines require feedback systems to achieve design stored beam currents. In the same time frame the rapid advances in the technology of digital signal processing allowed the implementation of these complex feedback systems. In this paper I concentrate on three applications of feedback to storage rings: orbit control in light sources, coupled-bunch instability control, and low-level RF control. Each of these applications is challenging in areas of processing bandwidth, algorithm complexity, and control of time-varying beam and system dynamics. I will review existing implementations as well as comment on promising future directions

  7. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  8. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  9. The origin of stellar winds: Subatmospheric nonthermal storage modes versus radiation pressure

    Cannon, C.J.; Thomas, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Most current models of matter-flux in hot stars place its origin in radiation pressure, and then model the flow explicitly to produce no chromosphere-corona. Our model of the stellar atmosphere as a transition zone between stellar interior and interstellar medium places the origin of matter-flux, chromosphere-corona, and spectral ''emission classes'' in subatmospheric nonthermal kinetic energy storage, equally for all stars, hot or cold. Current observations of both hot and cold stars suggest chromospheres to be a universal phenomenon, correlated with matter-fluxes, and enhanced in ''emission-class'' stars. To clarify the difference between the two kinds of models above, we reformulate the wind-tunnel analogy to stellar winds, suggesting that stars satisfy and ''imperfect,'' such model;i.e., transsonic shocks occur before the throat, corresponding to an imposed outward velocity in the storage section, or subatmosphere. We then investigate the stability of an arbitrary stellar atmosphere, hot or cold, to suggest a cause for such an outward subatmospheric velocity

  10. Development of a high-pressure compaction system for non-combustible solid waste

    Yogo, S.; Hata, T.; Torita, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Karita, Y.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, nuclear power plants in Japan have been in search of a means to reduce the volume of non-combustible solid wastes and therefore the application of a high-pressure compaction system has been in demand. Most non-combustible solid wastes have been packed in 200-litre drums for storage and the situation requires a high-pressure compaction system designed exclusively for 200-litre drums. The authors have developed a high-pressure compaction system which compresses 200-litre drums filled with non-combustible solid wastes and packs them into new woo-litre drums efficiently. This paper reports the outline of this high-pressure compaction system and the results of the full-scale verification tests

  11. Laboratory simulation of high-level liquid waste evaporation and storage

    Anderson, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel generates high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) which require interim storage pending solidification. Interim storage facilities are most efficient if the HLLW is evaporated prior to or during the storage period. Laboratory evaporation and storage studies with simulated waste slurries have yielded data which are applicable to the efficient design and economical operation of actual process equipment

  12. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient high throughput computing

    Accion, E; Bria, A; Bernabeu, G; Caubet, M; Delfino, M; Espinal, X; Merino, G; Lopez, F; Martinez, F; Planas, E

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and the size of their datasets and total volume of data continues increasing. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of scientific data centers has shifted from efficiently coping with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful data storage and processing service in an intensive HTC environment.

  13. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  14. Recombination times in germanium under high pressure

    Kuyt, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of pressure on a well defined recombination process was studied. The centres were introduced by γirradiation and the lifetime determined by the decay time of photoconductivity. An optical pressure vessel is described which allows for a hydrostatic variation of 3000 bars. The diffusion constant and lifetime measurements are presented and analysed. (V.J.C.)

  15. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  16. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  17. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  18. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  19. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  20. Analysis of operational methane emissions from pressure relief valves from biogas storages of biogas plants.

    Reinelt, Torsten; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The study presents the development of a method for the long term monitoring of methane emissions from pressure relief valves (PRV(1)) of biogas storages, which has been verified during test series at two PRVs of two agricultural biogas plants located in Germany. The determined methane emission factors are 0.12gCH4kWhel(-1) (0.06% CH4-loss, within 106days, 161 triggering events, winter season) from biogas plant A and 6.80/7.44gCH4kWhel(-1) (3.60/3.88% CH4-loss, within 66days, 452 triggering events, summer season) from biogas plant B. Besides the operational state of the biogas plant (e.g. malfunction of the combined heat and power unit), the mode of operation of the biogas flare, which can be manually or automatically operated as well as the atmospheric conditions (e.g. drop of the atmospheric pressure) can also affect the biogas emission from PRVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  3. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  4. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-04

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods.

  5. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  6. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  7. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  8. Optically Addressed Nanostructures for High Density Data Storage

    2005-10-14

    beam to sub-wavelength resolutions. X. Refereed Journal Publications I. M. D. Stenner , D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a...profiles for high-density optical data storage," Optics Communications, Vol.253, pp.56-69, 2005. 5. M. D. Stenner , D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "Fast...causal information transmission in a medium with a slow group velocity," Physical Review Letters, Vol.94, February 2005. 6. M. D. Stenner , M. A

  9. SPARC experiments at the high-energy storage ring

    Stöhlker, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri A; Bagnoud, Vincent; Dimopoulou, Christina; Dolinskii, Alexei; Geppert, Christopher; Hagmann, Siegbert; Katayama, Takeshi; Kühl, Thomas; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Steck, Markus; Bechstedt, Ulf; Maier, Rudolf; Prasuhn, Dieter; Stockhorst, Hans; Schuch, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    The physics program of the SPARC collaboration at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) focuses on the study of collision phenomena in strong and even extreme electromagnetic fields and on the fundamental interactions between electrons and heavy nuclei up to bare uranium. Here we give a short overview on the challenging physics opportunities of the high-energy storage ring at FAIR for future experiments with heavy-ion beams at relativistic energies with particular emphasis on the basic beam properties to be expected. (paper)

  10. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  11. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G

    2001-01-01

    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  12. Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices

    Hu, L.

    2009-12-07

    Paper, invented more than 2,000 years ago and widely used today in our everyday lives, is explored in this study as a platform for energy-storage devices by integration with 1D nanomaterials. Here, we show that commercially available paper can be made highly conductive with a sheet resistance as low as 1 ohm per square (Omega/sq) by using simple solution processes to achieve conformal coating of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver nanowire films. Compared with plastics, paper substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance of 200 F/g, a specific energy of 30-47 Watt-hour/kilogram (Wh/kg), a specific power of 200,000 W/kg, and a stable cycling life over 40,000 cycles are achieved. These values are much better than those of devices on other flat substrates, such as plastics. Even in a case in which the weight of all of the dead components is considered, a specific energy of 7.5 Wh/kg is achieved. In addition, this conductive paper can be used as an excellent lightweight current collector in lithium-ion batteries to replace the existing metallic counterparts. This work suggests that our conductive paper can be a highly scalable and low-cost solution for high-performance energy storage devices.

  13. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  14. Effect of low-pressure plasma treatment on the color and oxidative stability of raw pork during refrigerated storage.

    Ulbin-Figlewicz, Natalia; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The effect of low-pressure plasma on quality attributes of meat is an important aspect, which must be considered before application in food. The aim of this study was to determine the color, fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total antioxidant capacity of raw pork samples exposed to helium low-pressure plasma treatment (20 kPa) for 0, 2, 5, and 10 min during the storage period. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations of all plasma-treated samples during storage were in the range from 0.26 to 0.61 mg malondialdehyde/kg. Exposure time caused significant changes only in total color difference, hue angle, and chroma after 10 min of treatment. Ferric reducing ability of plasma values of meat samples decreased from 1.93 to 1.40 mmol Trolox Eq/kg after 14 days of storage. The storage period significantly affected proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, with an increase about 3% after 14 days of refrigeration storage while the content of saturated fatty acids was at the same level. Helium low-pressure plasma does not induce oxidative processes. Application of this decontamination technique while maintaining product quality is possible in food industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  16. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  17. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  19. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  20. Storage of platelets: effects associated with high platelet content in platelet storage containers.

    Gulliksson, Hans; Sandgren, Per; Sjödin, Agneta; Hultenby, Kjell

    2012-04-01

    A major problem associated with platelet storage containers is that some platelet units show a dramatic fall in pH, especially above certain platelet contents. The aim of this study was a detailed investigation of the different in vitro effects occurring when the maximum storage capacity of a platelet container is exceeded as compared to normal storage. Buffy coats were combined in large-volume containers to create primary pools to be split into two equal aliquots for the preparation of platelets (450-520×10(9) platelets/unit) in SSP+ for 7-day storage in two containers (test and reference) with different platelet storage capacity (n=8). Exceeding the maximum storage capacity of the test platelet storage container resulted in immediate negative effects on platelet metabolism and energy supply, but also delayed effects on platelet function, activation and disintegration. Our study gives a very clear indication of the effects in different phases associated with exceeding the maximum storage capacity of platelet containers but throw little additional light on the mechanism initiating those negative effects. The problem appears to be complex and further studies in different media using different storage containers will be needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  1. Pressure effects on high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4

    Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Kwangpyo; Ryu, Taegeun

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effects on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding in high temperature steam have been analyzed. A double layer autoclave was made for the high pressure, high temperature oxidation tests. The experimental test temperature range was 700 - 900 deg C, and pressures were 0.1 - 15 MPa. Steam partial pressure turns out to be an important one rather than total pressure. Steam pressure enhances the oxidation rate of Zry-4 exponentially. The enhancement depends on the temperature, and the maximum exists between 750 - 800 deg C. Pre-existing oxide layer decreases the enhancement about 40 - 60%. The acceleration of oxidation rate by high pressure team seems to be originated from the formation of cracks by abrupt transformation of tetragonal phase in oxide, where the un-stability of tetragonal phase comes from the reduction of surface energy by steam. (author)

  2. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  3. Cavitation-induced reactions in high-pressure carbon dioxide

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; van Eck, D.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of ultrasound-induced in situ radical formation in liquid carbon dioxide was demonstrated. The required threshold pressure for cavitation could be exceeded at a relatively low acoustic intensity, as the high vapor pressure of CO2 counteracts the hydrostatic pressure. With the use of

  4. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  5. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses.

  6. Storage of High Level Nuclear Waste in Germany

    Dietmar P. F. Möller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is very often used to generate electricity. But first the energy must be released from atoms what can be done in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. Nuclear power plants use nuclear fission to produce electrical energy. The electrical energy generated in nuclear power plants does not produce polluting combustion gases but a renewable energy, an important fact that could play a key role helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and tackling global warming especially as the electricity energy demand rises in the years ahead. This could be assumed as an ideal win-win situation, but the reverse site of the medal is that the production of high-level nuclear waste outweighs this advantage. Hence the paper attempt to highlight the possible state-of-art concepts for the safe and sustaining storage of high-level nuclear waste in Germany.

  7. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  8. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  9. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  10. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    Kamimura, N; Sotome, S; Shimizu, A; Nakajima, K; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4 0 C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4 0 C.

  11. Magnetic structures of erbium under high pressure

    Kawano, S.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic structures of erbium metal at 4.5 K and 11.5 kbar hydrostatic pressure have revealed that the transition to a conical structure at low temperatures is suppressed and that the cycloidal structure, with modulation vector Q congruent-to (2/7 2pi/c)c persists...

  12. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  13. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  14. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  15. Magnetization at high pressure in CeP

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okayama, Y.; Môri, N.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence of magnetization below 60 K up to 1.6 GPa in the low-carrier concentration system CeP showing two step transitions at T = TL and TH under high pressure. At high pressure, M( P, T) exhibits a maximum at around the lower transition temperature TL. This behavior implies that the magnetic state changes at TL. The pressure dependence of isothermal magnetization M( P) is different above and below TL. In fact, M( P) below TL exhibits a maximum at around 1.4 GPa, whereas M( P) above TL increases steeply with pressure up to 1.6 GPa.

  16. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  17. Managing high-bandwidth real-time data storage

    Bigelow, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-23

    There exist certain systems which generate real-time data at high bandwidth, but do not necessarily require the long-term retention of that data in normal conditions. In some cases, the data may not actually be useful, and in others, there may be too much data to permanently retain in long-term storage whether it is useful or not. However, certain portions of the data may be identified as being vitally important from time to time, and must therefore be retained for further analysis or permanent storage without interrupting the ongoing collection of new data. We have developed a system, Mahanaxar, intended to address this problem. It provides quality of service guarantees for incoming real-time data streams and simultaneous access to already-recorded data on a best-effort basis utilizing any spare bandwidth. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale upwards to meet increasing bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. We will show that a prototype version of this system provides better performance than a flat file (traditional filesystem) based version, particularly with regard to quality of service guarantees and hard real-time requirements.

  18. Proposed dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS

    Ruoff, A.L.; Vohra, Y.K.; Bassett, W.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An instrumentation proposal for dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS is described. It is the purpose of this proposed program to provide researchers in high pressure science with beam lines for X-ray diffraction studies in the megabar regime. This will involve radiation from a bending magnet as well as from a wiggler. Examples of the high pressure results up to 2.16 Mbar are shown. Diffraction patterns from bending magnet and wiggler beams are shown and compared. The need for this facility by the high pressure community is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  20. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on different matrices of food supplements.

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; García-González, Antonio; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing demand for food supplements containing high amounts of vitamins, phenolic compounds and mineral content that provide health benefits. Those functional compounds have different solubility properties, and the maintenance of their compounds and the guarantee of their homogenic properties need the application of novel technologies. The quality of different drinkable functional foods after thermal processing (0.1 MPa) or high-pressure homogenization under two different conditions (80 MPa, 33 ℃ and 120 MPa, 43 ℃) was studied. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities were evaluated throughout the six months of accelerated storage at 40 ℃ and 75% relative humidity (RH). Aroma and color were better maintained in high-pressure homogenization-treated samples than the thermally treated ones, which contributed significantly to extending their shelf life. The small particle size obtained after high-pressure homogenization treatments caused differences in turbidity and viscosity with respect to heat-treated samples. The use of high-pressure homogenization, more specifically, 120 MPa, provided active ingredient homogeneity to ensure uniform content in functional food supplements. Although the effect of high-pressure homogenization can be affected by the food matrix, high-pressure homogenization can be implemented as an alternative to conventional heat treatments in a commercial setting within the functional food supplement or pharmaceutical industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. High pressure argon detector of high energy neutrinos

    Vishnevskii, A.V.; Golutvin, I.A.; Sarantsev, V.L.; Sviridov, V.A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskii, A.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Chernyatin, V.K.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovanskii, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an electron neutrino detector of a new type where track information is available for all charged particles. As a working medium we use Argon compressed up to a pressure of 100 to 150 atm (approximately 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 ). The spatial reconstruction of tracks are accomplished with an accuracy not inferior to that of bubble chambers. The detector has a high sensitivity in ionization measurements. An assembly with a working medium mass of approximately 100 tons seem to be realisable. This makes it possible to perform tasks with cross-sections of (10 -5 + 10 -3 ) x delty tot at an intensity of the neutrino beam which is available in present-day accelerators. (orig.)

  2. Comparing equivalent thermal, high pressure and pulsed electric field processes for mild pasteurization of orange juice. Part I: Impact on overall quality attributes

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Mastwijk, H.C.; Knol, J.J.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Vervoort, L.; Plancken, van der I.; Hendrickx, M.E.; Matser, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mild heat pasteurization, high pressure processing (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of freshly squeezed orange juice were comparatively evaluated examining their impact on microbial load and quality parameters immediately after processing and during two months of storage. Microbial

  3. Ab-initio study of the dielectric response of high-permittivity perovskites for energy storage

    Do-Amaral-De-Andrade-Sophia, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Many of materials based on transition metals have a wide range of applications, such as the storage of energy, due to their peculiar properties (high-dielectric constants, ferro-electricity,...). The knowledge of their bulk properties is essential in designing targeted devices with high performance. For instance, ABO 3 perovskites are peculiarly interesting for their atomic structural flexibility, allowing high number of atoms substitution and giving them specific chemical and electrical properties compared to the pure compounds. In this context, first principles calculations can be useful to understand the structural and electronic properties of these materials. The pressure-induced giant dielectric anomaly of ABO 3 perovskites has been investigated at the ab initio level. Its mechanism has been analyzed in terms of thermodynamic phase stability, structural and phonon contributions and Born effective charges. It is shown that the IR-active soft phonon is responsible for the anomaly. This mode always involves a displacement and a deformation of the oxygen octahedra, while the roles of A and B ions vary among the materials and between high- and low-pressure phase transitions. A sharp increase in the phonon amplitude near the phase transition gives rise to the dielectric anomaly. The use of hybrid functionals is required for agreement with experimental data. The calculations show that the dielectric anomaly in the pressure-induced phase transitions of these perovskites is a property of the bulk material. (author)

  4. Inductive energy storage using high voltage vacuum circuit breakers

    McCann, R.B.; Woodson, H.H.; Mukutmoni, T.

    1976-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion experiments currently being planned require large amounts of pulsed energy. Inductive energy storage systems (IES) appear to be attractive for at least two applications in the fusion research program: high beta devices and those employing turbulent heating. The well-known roadblock to successful implementation of IES is the development of a reliable and cost-effective off-switch capable of handling high currents and withstanding high recovery voltages. The University of Texas at Austin has a program to explore the application of conventional vacuum circuit breakers designed for use in AC systems, in conjunction with appropriate counter pulse circuits, as off-switches in inductive energy storage systems. The present paper describes the IES employing vacuum circuit breakers as off-switches. Since the deionization property of these circuit breakers is of great importance to the design and the cost of the counter-pulse circuit, a synthetic test installation to test these breakers has been conceived, designed and is being installed in the Fusion Research Center, University of Texas at Austin. Some design aspects of the facility will be discussed here. Finally, the results of the study on a mathematical model developed and optimized to determine the least cost system which meets both the requirements of an off-switch for IES Systems and the ratings of circuit breakers used in power systems has been discussed. This analysis indicates that the most important factor with respect to the system cost is the derating of the circuit breakers to obtain satisfactory lifetimes

  5. Effect of high-hydrostatic pressure and moderate-intensity pulsed electric field on plum.

    García-Parra, J; González-Cebrino, F; Delgado-Adámez, J; Cava, R; Martín-Belloso, O; Élez-Martínez, P; Ramírez, R

    2018-03-01

    Moderate intensity pulse electric fields were applied in plum with the aim to increase bioactive compounds content of the fruit, while high-hydrostatic pressure was applied to preserve the purées. High-hydrostatic pressure treatment was compared with an equivalent thermal treatment. The addition of ascorbic acid during purée manufacture was also evaluated. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects on microorganisms, polyphenoloxidase, color and bioactive compounds of high-hydrostatic pressure, or thermal-processed plum purées made of moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated or no-moderate intensity pulse electric field-treated plums, after processing during storage. The application of moderate intensity pulse electric field to plums slightly increased the levels of anthocyanins and the antioxidant activity of purées. The application of Hydrostatic-high pressure (HHP) increased the levels of bioactive compounds in purées, while the thermal treatment preserved better the color during storage. The addition of ascorbic acid during the manufacture of plum purée was an important factor for the final quality of purées. The color and the bioactive compounds content were better preserved in purées with ascorbic acid. The no inactivation of polyphenoloxidase enzyme with treatments applied in this study affected the stability purées. Probably more intense treatments conditions (high-hydrostatic pressure and thermal treatment) would be necessary to reach better quality and shelf life during storage.

  6. Update on ASME rules for spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste storage containments

    Ralph S. Hill III; Foster, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, a new Code Case, N-717, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) was published. The Code Case provides rules for construction of containments used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste. The Code Case has been incorporated into Section III of the Code as Division 3, Subsection WC, Class SC Storage Containments, and will be published in the 2005 Addenda. This paper provides an informative background and insight for these rules to provide Owners, regulators, designers, and fabricators with a more comprehensive understanding of the technical basis for these rules. (authors)

  7. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  8. High pressure behaviour of uranium mono pnictides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, Poonam; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2006-01-01

    The pressure induced structural phase transition of three actinide mono pnictides AX (A=U and X=As, Sb, Bi), have been studied theoretically using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 5f electrons of the actinide (uranium) ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves are compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 17GPa, 9.5GPa and 5.3 GPa respectively. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. (author)

  9. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  10. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  11. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  12. Radiative polarization in high-energy storage rings

    Mane, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Electron and positron beams circulating in high-energy storage rings become spontaneously polarized by the emission of synchrotron radiation. The asymptotic degree of polarization that can be attained is strongly affected by so-called depolarizing resonances. Detailed experimental measurements of the polarization were made SPEAR about ten years ago, but due to lack of a suitable theory only a limited theoretical fit to the data has so far been achieved. The author presents a general formalism for calculating depolarizing resonances, which has been coded into a computer program called SMILE, and use it to fit the SPEAR data. By the use of suitable approximations, the author is able to fit both higher order and nonlinear resonances, and thereby to interpret many hitherto unexplained features in the data, and to resolve a puzzle concerning the asymmetry of certain resonance widths seen in the data. 18 refs., 2 figs

  13. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  14. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    Kamigaki, Kazuo; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  15. Pressurizer pump reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    During a prolonged outage from November 1986 to May 1990, numerous changes were made at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Some of these changes involved the pressurizer pumps. An analysis was performed to calculate the impact of these changes on the pressurizer system availability. The analysis showed that the availability of the pressurizer system dropped from essentially 100% to approximately 96%. The primary reason for the decrease in availability comes because off-site power grid disturbances sometimes result in a reactor trip with the present pressurizer pump configuration. Changes are being made to the present pressurizer pump configuration to regain some of the lost availability

  16. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  17. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    Allebrod, Frank

    against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, such as natural gas reforming, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. A reduction of the investment costs may be achieved by increasing the operational pressure and temperature of the electrolyzer, as this will result in: 1.......3 A cm-2 combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production. One of the produced electrolysis cells was operated for 350 h. Based on the successful results a patent application covering this novel cell was filed...

  18. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  19. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  1. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  3. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Impurity trapped excitons under high hydrostatic pressure

    Grinberg, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Paper summarizes the results on pressure effect on energies of the 4fn → 4fn and 4fn-15d1 → 4fn transitions as well as influence of pressure on anomalous luminescence in Lnα+ doped oxides and fluorides. A model of impurity trapped exciton (ITE) was developed. Two types of ITE were considered. The first where a hole is localized at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α+1)+) and an electron is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states and the second where an electron captured at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α-1)+) and a hole is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states. Paper presents detailed analysis of nonlinear changes of energy of anomalous luminescence of BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+ (x > 0.3) and LiBaF3:Eu2+, and relate them to ITE-4f65d1 states mixing.

  5. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  6. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  7. High duty factor structures for e+e- storage rings

    Allen, M.A.; Karvonen, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    The next generation of e + e - storage rings will need rf systems similar to those required for a continuous-duty linac of over 50 MeV. For the PEP Storage Ring at 18 GeV, it is presently planned to provide a peak accelerating voltage of 77 MV in 18 aluminum accelerating structures, each structure consisting of five slot-coupled cells operating in the π mode. The power dissipation will be 100 kW per cell for a total of 500 kW per five-cell structure at 353 MHz. A two-cell model was designed and built to dissipate 100 kW per cell or a total of 200 kW. This structure was powered (cw) to over 100 kW per cell, and detailed calorimetric data were taken and compared with the original heat transfer calculations. The power level achieved corresponds to a peak accelerating field (transit-time factor included) in the two-cell model of 0.8 MV per cell or 1.9 MV/meter. Operating experience with the SPEAR five-cell structure is discussed. The four SPEAR structures are each designed to operate with wall losses of 75 kW and up to 50 kW into the stored beam. Power to each structure is provided by a 125-kW high-efficiency four-cavity klystron. No isolation has been used and the resulting interaction between the accelerating structures, klystrons, and the stored beams is discussed

  8. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  9. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  10. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures. [. gamma. rays

    Milinchuk, V; KIRJUKHIN, V; KLINSHPONT, E

    1977-06-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibers were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene, 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures.

  11. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  12. High hydrostatic pressure as a method to preserve fresh-cut Hachiya persimmons: A structural approach.

    Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Quiles, Amparo; Vonasek, Erica; Jernstedt, Judith A; Hernando, Isabel; Nitin, Nitin; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-12-01

    The "Hachiya" persimmon is the most common astringent cultivar grown in California and it is rich in tannins and carotenoids. Changes in the microstructure and some physicochemical properties during high hydrostatic pressure processing (200-400 MPa, 3 min, 25 ℃) and subsequent refrigerated storage were analyzed in this study in order to evaluate the suitability of this non-thermal technology for preservation of fresh-cut Hachiya persimmons. The effects of high-hydrostatic pressure treatment on the integrity and location of carotenoids and tannins during storage were also analyzed. Significant changes, in particular diffusion of soluble compounds which were released as a result of cell wall and membrane damage, were followed using confocal microscopy. The high-hydrostatic pressure process also induced changes in physicochemical properties, e.g. electrolyte leakage, texture, total soluble solids, pH and color, which were a function of the amount of applied hydrostatic pressure and may affect the consumer acceptance of the product. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the application of 200 MPa could be a suitable preservation treatment for Hachiya persimmon. This treatment seems to improve carotenoid extractability and tannin polymerization, which could improve functionality and remove astringency of the fruit, respectively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Reproducibility of wrist home blood pressure measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage

    Nickenig Georg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wrist blood pressure (BP devices have physiological limits with regards to accuracy, therefore they were not preferred for home BP monitoring. However some wrist devices have been successfully validated using etablished validation protocols. Therefore this study assessed the reproducibility of wrist home BP measurement with position sensor and automatic data storage. Methods To compare the reproducibility of three different(BP measurement methods: 1 office BP, 2 home BP (Omron wrist device HEM- 637 IT with position sensor, 3 24-hour ambulatory BP(24-h ABPM (ABPM-04, Meditech, Hunconventional sphygmomanometric office BP was measured on study days 1 and 7, 24-h ABPM on study days 7 and 14 and home BP between study days 1 and 7 and between study days 8 and 14 in 69 hypertensive and 28 normotensive subjects. The correlation coeffcient of each BP measurement method with echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was analyzed. The schedule of home readings was performed according to recently published European Society of Hypertension (ESH- guidelines. Results The reproducibility of home BP measurement analyzed by the standard deviation as well as the squared differeces of mean individual differences between the respective BP measurements was significantly higher than the reproducibility of office BP (p Conclusion The short-term reproducibility of home BP measurement with the Omron HEM-637 IT wrist device was superior to the reproducibility of office BP and 24- h ABPM measurement. Furthermore, home BP with the wrist device showed similar correlations to targed organ damage as recently reported for upper arm devices. Although wrist devices have to be used cautious and with defined limitations, the use of validated devices with position sensor according to recently recommended measurement schedules might have the potential to be used for therapy monitoring.

  14. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  15. Development of high pressure pipe scanners

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes an automatic ultrasonic scanning system for pressure pipe welds, which was developed in this project using recent advanced technologies on mobile robot and computer. The system consists of two modules: a robot scanner module which navigates and manipulates scanning devices, and a data acquisition module which generates ultrasonic signal and processes the data from the scanner. The robot has 4 magnetic wheels and 2 -axis manipulator on which ultrasonic transducer attached. The wheeled robot can navigate curved surface such as outer wall of circular pipes. Magnetic wheels were optimally designed through magnetic field analysis. Free surface sensing and line tracking control algorithm were developed and implemented, and the control devices and software can be used in practical inspection works. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results

  16. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  17. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository

  18. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  19. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C [Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2004-04-14

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  20. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C

    2004-01-01

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic

  1. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s -1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling

  2. A novel SOI pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Li Sainan; Liang Ting; Wang Wei; Hong Yingping; Zheng Tingli; Xiong Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) high temperature pressure sensor is a novel pressure sensor with high-performance and high-quality. A structure of a SOI high-temperature pressure sensor is presented in this paper. The key factors including doping concentration and power are analyzed. The process of the sensor is designed with the critical process parameters set appropriately. The test result at room temperature and high temperature shows that nonlinear error below is 0.1%, and hysteresis is less than 0.5%. High temperature measuring results show that the sensor can be used for from room temperature to 350 °C in harsh environments. It offers a reference for the development of high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  3. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  4. High pressure processing reaches the U.S. market

    Mermelstein, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first food product commercially produced by a U.S. company using high-pressure processing has had successful test market results. High-pressure processing permits food to be preserved by subjecting it to pressures in the range of 60,000-100,000 psi for a short time instead of exposing the food to heat, freezing, chemicals, or irradiation. To produce Classic Guacamole, Avomex of Keller, Texas, uses a batch isostatic press to deactivate the enzymes in the avocado and to kill bacteria, obtaining a refrigerated shelf life of over 30 days. The guacamole is then vacuum packed and processed again. The product undergoes no heat treatment and does not contain preservatives, and the high pressure does not affect its texture, color, or taste. Meanwhile, a continuous system for high-pressure processing of pumpable foods is currently being developed by Flow International of Kent, Washington, and will be used for testing and applications work at Oregon State University

  5. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  6. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  7. Fluorinert as a pressure-transmitting medium for high-pressure diffraction studies

    Varga, Tamas; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Angel, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorinert is a liquid pressure-transmitting medium that is widely used in high-pressure diffraction work. A systematic study of five different fluorinerts was carried out using single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell in order to determine the pressure range over which they provide a hydrostatic stress state to the sample. It was found that none of the fluorinerts studied can be considered hydrostatic above 1.2 GPa, a lower pressure than reported previously

  8. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  9. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on the background microbial loads and quality of cantaloupe puree.

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) applied to cantaloupe puree (CP) on microbial loads and product quality during storage for 10days at 4°C. Freshly prepared, double sealed and double bagged CP (ca. 5g) was pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Microflora populations, soluble solid content, pH, color, antioxidant activity, appearance and aroma were measured at 1, 6, and 10d of storage. Results showed that high pressure treatment of 300MPa (8°C and 15°C) resulted in reduction of total aerobic plate count from 3.3 to 1.8logCFU/g. The treatment reduced the populations of native aerobic plate count to non-detectable levels (detection limit 1logCFU/g) at 400MPa and 500MPa pressures at 15°C. Pressure treatment completely inactivated mold and yeast in puree below the limits of detection at day 1 and no regrowth was observed during 10days of storage at 4°C while mold and yeast in untreated puree survived during the storage. High pressure treatment did not show any adverse impact on physical properties as soluble solid content (SSC, 11.2°Brix) and acidity (pH, 6.9). The instrumental color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were affected due to HHP treatment creating a slightly lighter product, compared to control, as indicated by higher L.* and lower a* values. However the change was not detected by the sensory panel while evaluating appearance scores. Pressure treatment did not affect the antioxidant capacity of puree product compared to control. Visual appearance and sniffing aroma test by panel revealed no adverse changes in the sensory parameters as a result of HHP treatment. HHP method described in this study appears to be a promising way to inactivate spoilage microorganisms in the cantaloupe puree and maintain quality. This study provides a viable option for preservation and marketing this product. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  14. Pressure Build-up and Decay in Acid Gas Injection Operations in Reefs in the Zama Field, Canada, and Implications for CO2 Storage

    Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hong, H.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Bachu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine reasons for pressure rise in the Zama X2X pool in northwestern Alberta, Canada, that was used for acid gas disposal, and whether subsequent pressure decay was a result of pressure dissipation into a larger aquifer. The Zama X2X pool, approximately 1 km 2 in size, is connected to four other nearby pools through a common underlying aquifer. Pressure analysis for all the pools indicates that they are in good hydraulic communication. Initial pressure in the Zama X2X pool was approximately 15 MPa. Pressure declined first during oil production, stabilizing at around 10 MPa in the early 1970's, after which started to increase such that it reached 26 MPa in 1986. Subsequently, pressure declined reaching 22 MPa by 1995 just prior to starting injection of acid gas (80% CO 2 and 20% H 2 S). The operator injected acid gas at lower rates and wellhead pressures than those licensed by the regulatory agency. Despite significant production of water and hydrocarbons, the pressure in the Zama X2X pool continued to be higher than the initial reservoir pressure by more than 5 MPa, such that disposal operations were suspended in late 1998. Oil production continued all this time until 2002. Numerical simulations using CMG-IMEM and corresponding sensitivity studies reported in this paper show that disposal of more than 1 million m 3 of water between 1970 and 1988 and again in 1992-1993 in the adjacent Zama YY pool, which is in good hydrodynamic communication with the Zama X2X pool through the aquifer below the oil column, is the main reason for the high pressures observed in the Zama X2X pool. Sensitivity studies indicate that pressure decay in the X2X pool was due to fluid production. The study indicates that while pressure rise has been caused by hydraulic communication between the X2X and YY pools through the common aquifer, the aquifer was not of large volume to allow dissipation of the pressure. In addition to the case study, the implications

  15. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures.

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-04-14

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures--while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  16. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  17. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  18. High-pressure phase transition in Ho2O3

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Ravindran, T.R.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on holmium sesquioxide (Ho 2 O 3 ) have been carried out up to a pressure of ∼17 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Holmium oxide, which has a cubic or bixbyite structure under ambient conditions, undergoes an irreversible structural phase transition at around 9.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase has been identified to be low symmetry monoclinic type. The two phases coexist to up to about 16 GPa, above which the parent phase disappears. The high-pressure laser-Raman studies have revealed that the prominent Raman band ∼370 cm -1 disappears around the similar transition pressure. The bulk modulus of the parent phase is reported.

  19. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  20. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  1. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  2. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Yahya TÜLEK; Gökçe FİLİZAY

    2006-01-01

    Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decont...

  3. Reversible hydrogen storage using CO2 and a proton-switchable iridium catalyst in aqueous media under mild temperatures and pressures.

    Hull, Jonathan F; Himeda, Yuichiro; Wang, Wan-Hui; Hashiguchi, Brian; Periana, Roy; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2012-03-18

    Green plants convert CO(2) to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO(2) and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO(2), formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong π-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

  4. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  5. Color changes in pork in relation to high pressure treatment

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard

    treatment and during a six-day storage period was investigated via surface reflectance. Spectroscopic studies (in the form of surface reflectance, UV-vis, and circular dichroism) on the effect of HP treatment on the soluble protein fraction of porcine LD were conducted attempting to explain the color......-denatured ferric myoglobin species was not similar to the heat-denatured pigment, ferrihemochrome, but instead a closely related species sharing features of denatured gobin, ferric iron, and brown color. The reversibility of the pressure-induced changes often observed for various myoglobin forms in solution were...

  6. High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from ...

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials.

  7. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide ...

    Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single ... tance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify .... The optical band gaps of the as-grown crystals were obtained by optical ab-.

  8. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    Marshall, William G.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low...

  9. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  10. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  12. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  13. High speed superconducting flywheel system for energy storage

    Bornemann, H. J.; Urban, C.; Boegler, P.; Ritter, T.; Zaitsev, O.; Weber, K.; Rietschel, H.

    1994-12-01

    A prototype of a flywheel system with auto stable high temperature superconducting bearings was built and tested. The bearings offered good vertical and lateral stability. A metallic flywheel disk, ø 190 mm x 30 mm, was safely rotated at speeds up to 15000 rpm. The disk was driven by a 3 phase synchronous homopolar motor/generator. Maximum energy capacity was 3.8 Wh, maximum power was 1.5 KW. The dynamic behavior of the prototype was tested, characterized and evaluated with respect to axial and lateral stiffness, decay torques (bearing drag), vibrational modes and critical speeds. The bearings supports a maximum weight of 65 N at zero gap, axial and lateral stiffness at 1 mm gap were 440 N/cm and 130 N/cm, respectively. Spin down experiments were performed to investigate the energy efficiency of the system. The decay rate was found to depend upon background pressure in the vacuum chamber and upon the gap width in the bearing. At a background pressure of 5x10 -4 Torr, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be 0.000009 at low speeds for 6 mm gap width in the bearing. Our results indicate that further refinement of this technology will allow operation of higly efficient superconducting flywheels in the kWh range.

  14. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  15. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  16. High-pressure structural behaviour of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H; Liu, J F; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jiang, J Z; Olsen, J Staun; Gerward, L

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transition remains constant. Simplified models for the high-pressure structural behaviour are presented, based on the assumption that a large fraction of the atoms reside in grain boundary regions of the nanocrystalline material. The interface structure plays a significant role in affecting the transition pressure and the bulk modulus

  17. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  18. High-pressure behavior of CaMo O4

    Panchal, V.; Garg, N.; Poswal, H. K.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Cavalli, E.

    2017-09-01

    We report a high-pressure study of tetragonal scheelite-type CaMo O4 up to 29 GPa. In order to characterize its high-pressure behavior, we have combined Raman and optical-absorption measurements with density functional theory calculations. We have found evidence of a pressure-induced phase transition near 15 GPa. Experiments and calculations agree in assigning the high-pressure phase to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure. The reported results are consistent with previous powder x-ray-diffraction experiments, but are in contradiction with the conclusions obtained from earlier Raman measurements, which support the existence of more than one phase transition in the pressure range covered by our studies. The observed scheelite-fergusonite transition induces significant changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of CaMo O4 . We have determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependencies of the Raman-active and infrared-active modes. In addition, based on calculations of the phonon dispersion of the scheelite phase, carried out at a pressure higher than the transition pressure, we propose a possible mechanism for the reported phase transition. Furthermore, from the calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters and atomic positions of the different phases and their room-temperature equations of state. These results are compared with previous experiments showing a very good agreement. Finally, information on bond compressibility is reported and correlated with the macroscopic compressibility of CaMo O4 . The reported results are of interest for the many technological applications of this oxide.

  19. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  20. Electron spin polarization in high-energy storage rings

    Mane, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    In a high energy storage ring, a single photon emission has relatively little effect on the orbital motion, but it can produce a relatively large change in the electron spin state. Hence the unperturbed orbital motion can be satisfactorily described using classical mechanics, but the spin must be treated quantum mechanically. The electron motion is therefore treated semi-classically in this thesis. It is explained how to diagonalize the unperturbed Hamiltonian to the leading order in Planck's constant. The effects of perturbations are then included, and the relevant time-scales and ensemble averages are elucidated. The Derbenev-Kondratenko formula for the equilibrium degree of polarization is rederived. Mathematical details of the rederivation are given. Since the original authors used a different formalism, a proof is offered of the equivalence between their method and the one used in this thesis. An algorithm is also presented to evaluate the equilibrium polarization. It has a number of new features, which enable the polarization to be calculated to a higher degree of approximation than has hitherto been possible. This facilitates the calculation of so-called spin resonances, which are points at which the polarization almost vanishes. A computer program has been written to implement the above algorithm, in the approximation of linear orbital dynamics, and sample results are presented