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Sample records for high pressure kinetics

  1. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  2. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbonate mineral dissolution kinetics in high pressure experiments

    Dethlefsen, F.; Dörr, C.; Schäfer, D.; Ebert, M.

    2012-04-01

    The potential CO2 reservoirs in the North German Basin are overlain by a series of Mesozoic barrier rocks and aquifers and finally mostly by Tertiary and Quaternary close-to-surface aquifers. The unexpected rise of stored CO2 from its reservoir into close-to-surface aquifer systems, perhaps through a broken well casing, may pose a threat to groundwater quality because of the acidifying effect of CO2 dissolution in water. The consequences may be further worsening of the groundwater quality due to the mobilization of heavy metals. Buffer mechanisms counteracting the acidification are for instance the dissolution of carbonates. Carbonate dissolution kinetics is comparably fast and carbonates can be abundant in close-to-surface aquifers. The disadvantages of batch experiments compared to column experiments in order to determine rate constants are well known and have for instance been described by v. GRINSVEN and RIEMSDIJK (1992). Therefore, we have designed, developed, tested, and used a high-pressure laboratory column system to simulate aquifer conditions in a flow through setup within the CO2-MoPa project. The calcite dissolution kinetics was determined for CO2-pressures of 6, 10, and 50 bars. The results were evaluated by using the PHREEQC code with a 1-D reactive transport model, applying a LASAGA (1984) -type kinetic dissolution equation (PALANDRI and KHARAKA, 2004; eq. 7). While PALANDRI and KHARAKA (2004) gave calcite dissolution rate constants originating from batch experiments of log kacid = -0.3 and log kneutral = -5.81, the data of the column experiment were best fitted using log kacid = -2.3 and log kneutral = -7.81, so that the rate constants fitted using the lab experiment applying 50 bars pCO2 were approximately 100 times lower than according to the literature data. Rate constants of experiments performed at less CO2 pressure (pCO2 = 6 bars: log kacid = -1.78; log kneutral = -7.29) were only 30 times lower than literature data. These discrepancies in the

  4. Fully kinetic particle simulations of high pressure streamer propagation

    Rose, David; Welch, Dale; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is a dynamic process involving a hierarchy of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. We have performed 2D and 3D fully EM implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation under DC and RF fields. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm [D. R. Welch, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)] that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge. These models are being applied to the analysis of high-pressure gas switches [D. V. Rose, et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 093501 (2011)] and gas-filled RF accelerator cavities [D. V. Rose, et al. Proc. IPAC12, to appear].

  5. Modeling the high pressure inactivation kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes on RTE cooked meat products

    Hereu, A.; Dalgaard, Paw; Garriga, M.

    2012-01-01

    High pressure (HP) inactivation curves of Listeria monocytogenes CTC1034 (ca. 107CFU/g) on sliced RTE cooked meat products (ham and mortadella) were obtained at pressures from 300 to 800MPa. A clear tail shape was observed at pressures above 450MPa and the log-linear with tail primary model...... provided the best fit to the HP-inactivation kinetics. The relationships between the primary kinetic parameters (log kmax and log Nres) and pressure treatments were described by a polynomial secondary model. To estimate HP-inactivation of L. monocytogenes in log (N/N0) over time, a one-step global fitting...

  6. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1987-05-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  7. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  8. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ultra-high pressure and heat ...

    Purpose: To undertake comparative kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with IgG pre-treated with ultra-high pressure (UHP) and moderate heat. Methods: BSA solutions were processed at 100 – 600 MPa and 25 – 40 °C. We applied an optical biosensor based on surface ...

  9. High-pressure processing of apple juice: kinetics of pectin methyl esterase inactivation.

    Riahi, Esmaeil; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure (HP) inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME) in apple juice were evaluated. Commercial PME was dispensed in clarified apple juice, sealed in dual peel sterilizable plastic bags, and subjected to different high-pressure processing conditions (200-400 MPa, 0-180 min). Residual enzyme activity was determined by a titration method estimating the rate of free carboxyl group released by the enzyme acting on pectin substrate at pH 7.5 (30 degrees C). The effects of pressure level and pressure holding time on enzyme inactivation were significant (p < 0.05). PME from the microbial source was found to be more resistant (p < 0.05) to pressure inactivation than PME from the orange peel. Almost a full decimal reduction in the activity of commercial PME was achieved by HP treatment at 400 MPa for 25 min. Inactivation kinetics were evaluated on the basis of a dual effect model involving a pressure pulse effect and a first-order rate model, and the pressure sensitivity of rate constants was modeled by using the z-value concept.

  10. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Methanol Ignition and Oxidation at High Pressure

    Aranda, V.; Christensen, J. M.; Alzueta, Maria

    2013-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of CH3OH at high pressure and intermediate temperatures has been developed and validated experimentally. Ab initio calculations and Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/transition state theory (RRKM/TST) analysis were used to obtain rate coefficients for CH...... the conditions studied, the onset temperature for methanol oxidation was not dependent on the stoichiometry, whereas increasing pressure shifted the ignition temperature toward lower values. Model predictions of the present experimental results, as well as rapid compression machine data from the literature, were...

  11. Data on blueberry peroxidase kinetic characterization and stability towards thermal and high pressure processing

    Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to a research article entitled ‘Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase’ (Terefe et al., 2017 [1]. In this article, we report original data on the activity of partially purified blueberry peroxidase at different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and phenlylenediamine as substrates and the effects of thermal and high pressure processing on the activity of the enzyme. Data on the stability of the enzyme during thermal (at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and combined thermal-high pressure processing (100–690 MPa, 30–90 °C are included in this report. The data are presented in this format in order to facilitate comparison with data from other researchers and allow statistical analyses and modeling by others in the field.

  12. Development of Kinetics for Soot Oxidation at High Pressures Under Fuel-Lean Conditions

    Lighty, JoAnn [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Vander Wal, Randy [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2014-04-21

    The focus of the proposed research was to develop kinetic models for soot oxidation with the hope of developing a validated, predictive, multi-­scale, combustion model to optimize the design and operation of evolving fuels in advanced engines for transportation applications. The work focused on the relatively unstudied area of the fundamental mechanism for soot oxidation. The objectives include understanding of the kinetics of soot oxidation by O2 under high pressure which require: 1) development of intrinsic kinetics for the surface oxidation, which takes into account the dependence of reactivity upon nanostructure and 2) evolution of nanostructure and its impact upon oxidation rate and 3) inclusion of internal surface area development and possible fragmentation resulting from pore development and /or surface oxidation. These objectives were explored for a variety of pure fuel components and surrogate fuels. This project was a joint effort between the University of Utah (UU) and Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). The work at the UU focuses on experimental studies using a two-­stage burner and a high- pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Penn State provided HRTEM images and guidance in the fringe analysis algorithms and parameter quantification for the images. This report focuses on completion done under supplemental funding.

  13. Design of a high-pressure single pulse shock tube for chemical kinetic investigations

    Tranter, R. S.; Brezinsky, K.; Fulle, D.

    2001-01-01

    A single pulse shock tube has been designed and constructed in order to achieve extremely high pressures and temperatures to facilitate gas-phase chemical kinetic experiments. Postshock pressures of greater than 1000 atmospheres have been obtained. Temperatures greater than 1400 K have been achieved and, in principle, temperatures greater than 2000 K are easily attainable. These high temperatures and pressures permit the investigation of hydrocarbon species pyrolysis and oxidation reactions. Since these reactions occur on the time scale of 0.5--2 ms the shock tube has been constructed with an adjustable length driven section that permits variation of reaction viewing times. For any given reaction viewing time, samples can be withdrawn through a specially constructed automated sampling apparatus for subsequent species analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The details of the design and construction that have permitted the successful generation of very high-pressure shocks in this unique apparatus are described. Additional information is provided concerning the diaphragms used in the high-pressure shock tube

  14. High-Pressure Turbulent Flame Speeds and Chemical Kinetics of Syngas Blends with and without Impurities

    Peterson, Eric; Mathieu, Olivier; Morones, Anibal; Ravi, Sankar; Keesee, Charles; Hargis, Joshua; Vivanco, Jose

    2014-12-01

    This Topical Report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2013 through September 30, 2014. Efforts for this project included experiments to characterize the atmospheric-pressure turbulent flame speed vessel over a range of operating conditions (fan speeds and turbulent length scales). To this end, a new LDV system was acquired and set up for the detailed characterization of the turbulence field. Much progress was made in the area of impurity kinetics, which included a numerical study of the effect of impurities such as NO2, NO, H2S, and NH3 on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds of syngas blends at engine conditions. Experiments included a series of laminar flame speed measurements for syngas (CO/H2) blends with various levels of CH4 and C2H6 addition, and the results were compared to the chemical kinetics model of NUI Galway. Also, a final NOx kinetics mechanism including ammonia was assembled, and a journal paper was written and is now in press. Overall, three journal papers and six conference papers related to this project were published this year. Finally, much progress was made on the design of the new high-pressure turbulent flame speed facility. An overall design that includes a venting system was decided upon, and the detailed design is in progress.

  15. Experimental and kinetic modeling study of C2H4 oxidation at high pressure

    Lopez, Jorge Gimenez; Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Alzueta, Maria

    2009-01-01

    of conditions (0.003-100 bar, 200-3000 K). The results indicate that at 60 bar and medium temperatures vinyl peroxide, rather than CH2O and HCO, is the dominant product. The experiments, involving C2H4/O-2 mixtures diluted in N-2, were carried out in a high pressure flow reactor at 600-900 K and 60 bar, varying......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of C2H4 in the intermediate temperature range and high pressure has been developed and validated experimentally. New ab initio calculations and RRKM analysis of the important C2H3 + O-2 reaction was used to obtain rate coefficients over a wide range...

  16. Kinetics of microstructure formation of high-pressure induced gel from a whey protein isolate

    He, Jin-Song; Yang, Hongwei; Zhu, Wanpeng; Mu, Tai-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum Im and the corresponding wavenumber qm could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as Im~fβ and qm~f-α, respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.

  17. Kinetics of microstructure formation of high-pressure induced gel from a whey protein isolate

    He Jinsong; Yang Hongwei; Zhu Wanpeng; Mu Taihua

    2010-01-01

    The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum I m and the corresponding wavenumber q m could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as I m ∼f β and q m ∼f -α , respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.

  18. Kinetics of microstructure formation of high-pressure induced gel from a whey protein isolate

    He Jinsong; Yang Hongwei; Zhu Wanpeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mu Taihua, E-mail: mutaihuacaas@126.co [Institute of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum I{sub m} and the corresponding wavenumber q{sub m} could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as I{sub m}{approx}f{sup {beta}} and q{sub m}{approx}f{sup -}{alpha}, respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.

  19. Kinetic boundaries and phase transformations of ice i at high pressure

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Huichao; Yang, Xue; Jiang, Shuqing; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy in diamond anvil cells has been employed to study phase boundaries and transformation kinetics of H2O ice at high pressures up to 16 GPa and temperatures down to 15 K. Ice i formed at nearly isobaric cooling of liquid water transforms on compression to high-density amorphous (HDA) ice at 1.1-3 GPa at 15-100 K and then crystallizes in ice vii with the frozen-in disorder (ice vii') which remains stable up to 14.1 GPa at 80 K and 15.9 GPa at 100 K. Unexpectedly, on decompression of ice vii', it transforms to ice viii in its domain of metastability, and then it relaxes into low-density amorphous (LDA) ice on a subsequent pressure release and warming up. On compression of ice i at 150-170 K, ice ix is crystallized and no HDA ice is found; further compression of ice ix results in the sequential phase transitions to stable ices vi and viii. Cooling ice i to 210 K at 0.3 GPa transforms it to a stable ice ii. Our extensive investigations provide previously missing information on the phase diagram of water, especially on the kinetic paths that result in formation of phases which otherwise are not accessible; these results are keys for understanding the phase relations including the formation of metastable phases. Our observations inform on the ice modifications that can occur naturally in planetary environments and are not accessible for direct observations.

  20. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of C2H2Oxidation at High Pressure

    Lopez, Jorge Gimenez; Rasmussen, Christian Tihic; Hashemi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    diagram for C2H3 + O2 by Goldsmith et al. and on new ab initio calculations, respectively. The C2H2 + HO2 reaction involves nine pressure- and temperature-dependent product channels, with formation of triplet CHCHO being dominant under most conditions. The barrier to reaction for C2H2 + O2 was found......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of acetylene at intermediate temperatures and high pressure has been developed and evaluated experimentally. The rate coefficients for the reactions of C2H2 with HO2 and O2 were investigated, based on the recent analysis of the potential energy...... to be more than 50 kcal mol−1 and predictions of the initiation temperature were not sensitive to this reaction. Experiments were conducted with C2H2/O2 mixtures highly diluted in N2 in a high-pressure flow reactor at 600–900 K and 60 bar, varying the reaction stoichiometry from very lean to fuel...

  1. High pressure thermal inactivation of Clostridium botulinum type E endospores – kinetic modeling and mechanistic insights

    Christian Andreas Lenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-tolerant, neurotoxigenic, endospore forming Clostridium (C. botulinum type E belongs to the non-proteolytic physiological C. botulinum group II, is primarily associated with aquatic environments, and presents a safety risk for seafood. High pressure thermal (HPT processing exploiting the synergistic effect of pressure and temperature can be used to inactivate bacterial endospores.We investigated the inactivation of C. botulinum type E spores by (near isothermal HPT treatments at 300 – 1200 MPa at 30 – 75 °C for 1 s – 10 min. The occurrence of heat and lysozyme susceptible spore fractions after such treatments was determined. The experimental data were modeled to obtain kinetic parameters and represented graphically by isoeffect lines. In contrast to findings for spores of other species and within the range of treatment parameters applied, zones of spore stabilization (lower inactivation than heat treatments alone, large heat susceptible (HPT-induced germinated or lysozyme-dependently germinable (damaged coat layer spore fractions were not detected. Inactivation followed 1st order kinetics. DPA release kinetics allowed for insights into possible inactivation mechanisms suggesting a (poorly effective physiologic-like (similar to nutrient-induced germination at ≤ 450 MPa/≤ 45 °C and non-physiological germination at >500 MPa/>60 – 70 °C.Results of this study support the existence of some commonalities in the HPT inactivation mechanism of C. botulinum type E spores and Bacillus spores although both organisms have significantly different HPT resistance properties. The information presented here contributes to closing the gap in knowledge regarding the HPT inactivation of spore formers relevant to food safety and may help industrial implementation of HPT processing. The markedly lower HPT resistance of C. botulinum type E spores than spores from other C. botulinum types, could allow for the implementation of milder processes without

  2. Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends

    Agrawal, Pradeep K. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2016-12-20

    The overall objective of the current project was to investigate the high pressure gasification characteristics of a feed containing both coal and biomass. The two feed types differ in their ash contents and ash composition, particularly the alkali content. Gasification of a combined feed of coal and biomass has the potential for considerable synergies that might lead to a dramatic improvement in process economics and flexibility. The proposed study aimed to develop a detailed understanding of the chemistry, kinetics, and transport effects during high pressure gasification of coal-biomass blend feed. Specifically, we studied to develop: (a) an understanding of the catalytic effect of alkali and other inorganic species present in the biomass and coal, (b) an understanding of processing conditions under which synergistic effects of the blending of coal and biomass might be observed. This included the role of particle size, residence time, and proximity of the two feed types, (c) kinetics of high pressure gasification of individual feeds as well as the blends, and (d) development of mathematical models that incorporate kinetics and transport models to enable prediction of gasification rate at a given set of operating conditions, and (e) protocols to extend the results to other feed resources. The goal was to provide a fundamental understanding of the gasification process and guide in optimizing the configurations and design of the next generation of gasifiers. The approach undertaken was centered on two basic premises: (1) the gasification for small particles without internal mass transfer limitations can be treated as the sum of two processes in series (pyrolysis and char gasification) , and (2) the reactivity of the char generated during pyrolysis not only depends on the pressure and temperature but is also affected by the heating rates. Thus low heating rates (10-50 °C/min) typical of PTGA fail to produce char that would typically be formed at high heating rates

  3. Investigation of Kinetic Hydrate Inhibition Using a High Pressure Micro Differential Scanning Calorimeter

    Daraboina, Nagu; Malmos, Christine; von Solms, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    of hydrate growth. Additionally, hydrate formed in the presence of inhibitor decomposed at higher temperatures compared to pure water, indicating that while hydrate formation is initially inhibited; once hydrates form, they are more stable in the presence of inhibitor. Overall, this method proved a viable......Methane hydrate formation and decomposition were investigated in the presence of the kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap EG) and synergist (polyethylene oxide; PEO) using a high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimeter (HP-μDSC) with both temperature ramping and isothermal temperature programs....... These investigations were performed using small samples in four different capillary tubes in the calorimeter cell. When the isothermal method was employed, it was found that Luvicap EG significantly delays the hydrate nucleation time as compared to water. The results obtained from the ramping method demonstrated...

  4. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. V. Oxidation of Zircaloy in high pressure steam

    Pawel, R.E.; Cathcart, J.V.; Campbell, J.J.; Jury, S.H.

    1977-12-01

    A series of scoping tests to determine the influence of steam pressure on the isothermal oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 PWR tubing was undertaken. The oxidation experiments were conducted in flowing steam at 3.45, 6.90, and 10.34 MPa (500, 1000, and 1500 psi) at 905 0 C (1661 0 F), and at 3.45 and 6.90 MPa at 1101 0 C (2014 0 F). A comparison of the results of these experiments with those obtained for oxidation in steam at atmospheric pressure under similar conditions indicated that measurable enhancement of the oxidation rate occurred with increasing pressure at 905 0 C, but not at 1100 0 C

  5. Kinetics on the reaction of 6-chloroquinoline and p-substituted benzoylchlorides under high pressures

    Kim, Eung Ryul; Lim, Jong Wan; Kim, Se Kyong; Ko, Young Shin

    2002-01-01

    The reactions rates of substituted 6-chloroquinoline, with p-substituted benzoyichlorides (p-CH 3 , p-H, p-NO 2 ) have been measured by conductometry in acetonitrile, and the rate constants are determined at various temperatures (10,15,20,25 .deg. C) and pressures (1, 200, 500, 1000 bar). From the values of rate constants, the activation parameters (Ea, ΔV ≠ , ΔH ≠ , ΔS ≠ , and ΔG ≠ ) and the pressure dependence of Hammett ρ values were determined. The rate constants increased with increasing temperatures and pressures, and are further increased to introduction to the electron donor substituents in substrate (p-NO 2 ) with 6-chloroquinoline. When, the activation volume and the activation entropy are all negative. And the Hammett ρ values are positive for the substrate over the pressure and temperature range studied. The results of kinetic studies for pressure and substituent show that thease reactions proceed in typical S N 2 reaction mechanism and 'associative S N 2' in bond formation favored with increasing pressures

  6. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time....

  7. Hydrogen oxidation at high pressure and intermediate temperatures: experiments and kinetic modeling

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2015-01-01

    was varied from very oxidizing to strongly reducing conditions. The results supplement high-pressure data from RCM (900–1100 K) and shock tubes (900–2200 K). At the reducing conditions ( U = 12), oxidation started at 748–775 K while it was shifted to 798–823 K for stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions ( U...

  8. Combined pressure and cosolvent effects on enzyme activity - a high-pressure stopped-flow kinetic study on α-chymotrypsin.

    Luong, Trung Quan; Winter, Roland

    2015-09-21

    We investigated the combined effects of cosolvents and pressure on the hydrolysis of a model peptide catalysed by α-chymotrypsin. The enzymatic activity was measured in the pressure range from 0.1 to 200 MPa using a high-pressure stopped-flow systems with 10 ms time resolution. A kosmotropic (trimethalymine-N-oxide, TMAO) and chaotropic (urea) cosolvent and mixtures thereof were used as cosolvents. High pressure enhances the hydrolysis rate as a consequence of a negative activation volume, ΔV(#), which, depending on the cosolvent system, amounts to -2 to -4 mL mol(-1). A more negative activation volume can be explained by a smaller compression of the ES complex relative to the transition state. Kinetic constants, such as kcat and the Michaelis constant KM, were determined for all solution conditions as a function of pressure. With increasing pressure, kcat increases by about 35% and its pressure dependence by a factor of 1.9 upon addition of 2 M urea, whereas 1 M TMAO has no significant effect on kcat and its pressure dependence. Similarly, KM increases upon addition of urea 6-fold. Addition of TMAO compensates the urea-effect on kcat and KM to some extent. The maximum rate of the enzymatic reaction increases with increasing pressure in all solutions except in the TMAO : urea 1 : 2 mixture, where, remarkably, pressure is found to have no effect on the rate of the enzymatic reaction anymore. Our data clearly show that compatible solutes can easily override deleterious effects of harsh environmental conditions, such as high hydrostatic pressures in the 100 MPa range, which is the maximum pressure encountered in the deep biosphere on Earth.

  9. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ultra-high pressure and heat ...

    Agriculture/Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Nanjing ... Purpose: To undertake comparative kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the interaction of bovine ..... efficacy evaluation of anti-cancer drugs in apoptosis.

  10. Effects of high-pressure process on kinetics of leaching oil from soybean powder using hexane in batch systems.

    Uhm, Joo Tae; Yoon, Won Byong

    2011-08-01

    Mass transfer models of leaching oil from soybean (Glycine max) flour with hexane after high-pressure process (HPP) treatment were developed. High pressure (450 MPa) was applied to the soybean flour (mean diameter of flour particle: 365 μm) for 30 min before leaching the oil components in the solvent. The ratio of solvent (volume, mL) to soybean flour (mass, g), such as 1:10 and 1:20, was employed to characterize the effect of solvent ratio on the leaching rate in the batch type of extraction process. Ultraviolet absorbance at 300 nm was used to monitor the extraction rate. Saturation solubility (C(AS)) was determined to be 21.73 kg/m³. The mass transfer coefficients (k) were determined based on the 1st- and 2nd-order kinetic models. The 2nd kinetic model showed better fit. The HPP treatment showed a higher extraction rate and yield compared to the control, while the amount of solvent did not affect the extraction rate and yield. The scanning electron microscope showed that HPP-treated soybean particles included more pores than the untreated. The pores observed in the HPP-treated soybean flours might help increase the mass transfer rate of solvent and solute in the solid matrix. High-pressure processing can help increase the extraction rate of oil from the soybean flour operated in batch systems. The conventional solid to solvent ratio (1:20) used to extract oil composition from the plant seed did not help increase the amount of oil extracted from the soybean flour. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Carbon dioxide storage in marine sediments - dissolution, transport and hydrate formation kinetics from high-pressure experiments

    Bigalke, N. K.; Savy, J. P.; Pansegrau, M.; Aloisi, G.; Kossel, E.; Haeckel, M.

    2009-12-01

    By satisfying thermodynamic framework conditions for CO2 hydrate formation, pressures and temperatures of the deep marine environment are unique assets for sequestering CO2 in clathrates below the seabed. However, feasibility and safety of this storage option require an accurate knowledge of the rate constants governing the speed of physicochemical reactions following the injection of the liquefied gas into the sediments. High-pressure experiments designed to simulate the deep marine environment open the possibility to obtain the required parameters for a wide range of oceanic conditions. In an effort to constrain mass transfer coefficients and transport rates of CO2 in(to) the pore water of marine sediments first experiments were targeted at quantifying the rate of CO2 uptake by de-ionized water and seawater across a two-phase interface. The nature of the interface was controlled by selecting p and T to conditions within and outside the hydrate stability field (HSF) while considering both liquid and gaseous CO2. Concentration increase and hydrate growth were monitored by Raman spectroscopy. The experiments revealed anomalously fast transport rates of dissolved CO2 at conditions both inside and outside the HSF. While future experiments will further elucidate kinetics of CO2 transport and hydrate formation, these first results could have major significance to safety-related issues in the discussion of carbon storage in the marine environment.

  12. High-temperature oxidation chemistry of n-butanol--experiments in low-pressure premixed flames and detailed kinetic modeling.

    Hansen, N; Harper, M R; Green, W H

    2011-12-07

    An automated reaction mechanism generator is used to develop a predictive, comprehensive reaction mechanism for the high-temperature oxidation chemistry of n-butanol. This new kinetic model is an advancement of an earlier model, which had been extensively tested against earlier experimental data (Harper et al., Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 16-41). In this study, the model's predictive capabilities are improved by targeting isomer-resolved quantitative mole fraction profiles of flame species in low-pressure flames. To this end, a total of three burner-stabilized premixed flames are isomer-selectively analyzed by flame-sampling molecular-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometry using photoionization by tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. For most species, the newly developed chemical kinetic model is capable of accurately reproducing the experimental trends in these flames. The results clearly indicate that n-butanol is mainly consumed by H-atom abstraction with H, O, and OH, forming predominantly the α-C(4)H(9)O radical (CH(3)CH(2)CH(2)˙CHOH). Fission of C-C bonds in n-butanol is only predicted to be significant in a similar, but hotter flame studied by Oßwald et al. (Combust. Flame, 2011, 158, 2-15). The water-elimination reaction to 1-butene is found to be of no importance under the premixed conditions studied here. The initially formed isomeric C(4)H(9)O radicals are predicted to further oxidize by reacting with H and O(2) or to decompose to smaller fragments via β-scission. Enols are detected experimentally, with their importance being overpredicted by the model.

  13. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  14. CO partial pressure dependence of the kinetics of melting of HbS aggregates studied in high concentration phosphate buffer

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2002-10-01

    Deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) monomers enter the polymer phase either by incorporation into a critical nucleus, through heterogeneous nucleation and or through linear growth of the polymers when the concentration of monomers exceeds the solubility. CO-bound, R-state HbS monomers do not polymerize. Thus, polymer melting is enhanced by binding of carbon monoxide (CO) to HbS polymerized monomers. In our study, the melting of HbS aggregates mediated by dilution and CO binding to polymerized monomers is observed with time-resolved extinction spectroscopy. The CO partial pressure (pCO) dependence of the kinetics of melting is studied for pCO = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 atm with difference progress curves. A phenomenological description with slow and fast relaxation modes reveals a variable relaxation time near the pCO=0.5 due to competition of kinetic mechanisms. The slow component increases with increasing pCO. It has a positive intercept due to the combined action of dilution of the sample and CO-ligation. The pCO dependence is near linear due to non-cooperative CO binding. Significant slowing down of aged samples, most likely due to gelation, is observed. As possible mechanism for variable relaxation time near pCO=0.5atm the fractional percolation threshold is discussed. This work was supported by NIH grant HL58091 (awarded to Daniel. B. Kim-Shapiro).

  15. Reverse spin-crossover and high-pressure kinetics of the heme iron center relevant for the operation of heme proteins under deep-sea conditions.

    Troeppner, Oliver; Lippert, Rainer; Shubina, Tatyana E; Zahl, Achim; Jux, Norbert; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana

    2014-10-20

    By design of a heme model complex with a binding pocket of appropriate size and flexibility, and by elucidating its kinetics and thermodynamics under elevated pressures, some of the pressure effects are demonstrated relevant for operation of heme-proteins under deep-sea conditions. Opposite from classical paradigms of the spin-crossover and reaction kinetics, a pressure increase can cause deceleration of the small-molecule binding to the vacant coordination site of the heme-center in a confined space and stabilize a high-spin state of its Fe center. This reverse high-pressure behavior can be achieved only if the volume changes related to the conformational transformation of the cavity can offset the volume changes caused by the substrate binding. It is speculated that based on these criteria nature could make a selection of structures of heme pockets that assist in reducing metabolic activity and enzymatic side reactions under extreme pressure conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Comparative analysis on inactivation kinetics of between piezotolerant and piezosensitive mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

    Nomura, Kazuki; Kuwabara, Yuki; Kuwabara, Wataru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Kanako; Hayashi, Mayumi; Iguchi, Akinori; Shigematsu, Toru

    2017-12-01

    We previously obtained a pressure-tolerant (piezotolerant) and a pressure sensitive (piezosensitive) mutant strain, under ambient temperature, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KA31a. The inactivation kinetics of these mutants were analyzed at 150 to 250MPa with 4 to 40°C. By a multiple regression analysis, the pressure and temperature dependency of the inactivation rate constants k values of both mutants, as well as the parent strain KA31a, were well approximated with high correlation coefficients (0.92 to 0.95). For both mutants, as well as strain KA31a, the lowest k value was shown at a low pressure levels with around ambient temperature. The k value approximately increased with increase in pressure level, and with increase and decrease in temperature. The piezosensitive mutant strain a924E1 showed piezosensitivity at all pressure and temperature levels, compared with the parent strain KA31a. In contrast, the piezotolerant mutant strain a2568D8 showed piezotolerance at 4 to 20°C, but did not show significant piezotolerance at 40°C. These results of the variable influence of temperature on pressure inactivation of these strains would be important for better understanding of piezosensitive and piezotolerant mechanisms, as well as the pressure inactivation mechanism of S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  18. Ignition of DME and DME/CH4 at High Pressure: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    The pyrolysis and oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) and its mixtures with methane were investigated at high pressures (50 and 100 bar) and intermediate temperatures (450―900 K) in a laminar flow reactor. DME pyrolysis started at 825 K (at 50 bar). The onset of DME reaction was detected at 525―550 K...

  19. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  20. Impact of pH and Total Soluble Solids on Enzyme Inactivation Kinetics during High Pressure Processing of Mango (Mangifera indica) Pulp.

    Kaushik, Neelima; Nadella, Tejaswi; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken with an aim to enhance the enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing (HPP) with pH and total soluble solids (TSS) as additional hurdles. Impact of mango pulp pH (3.5, 4.0, 4.5) and TSS (15, 20, 25 °Brix) variations on the inactivation of pectin methylesterase (PME), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) enzymes were studied during HPP at 400 to 600 MPa pressure (P), 40 to 70 °C temperature (T), and 6- to 20-min pressure-hold time (t). The enzyme inactivation (%) was modeled using second order polynomial equations with a good fit that revealed that all the enzymes were significantly affected by HPP. Response surface and contour models predicted the kinetic behavior of mango pulp enzymes adequately as indicated by the small error between predicted and experimental data. The predicted kinetics indicated that for a fixed P and T, higher pulse pressure effect and increased isobaric inactivation rates were possible at lower levels of pH and TSS. In contrast, at a fixed pH or TSS level, an increase in P or T led to enhanced inactivation rates, irrespective of the type of enzyme. PPO and POD were found to have similar barosensitivity, whereas PME was found to be most resistant to HPP. Furthermore, simultaneous variation in pH and TSS levels of mango pulp resulted in higher enzyme inactivation at lower pH and TSS during HPP, where the effect of pH was found to be predominant than TSS within the experimental domain. Exploration of additional hurdles such as pH, TSS, and temperature for enzyme inactivation during high pressure processing of fruits is useful from industrial point of view, as these parameters play key role in preservation process design. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Corrosion kinetics at high pressure and temperature of Zr-2.5 Nb with different heat treatments

    Jaime Solis, F.; Bordoni, Roberto; Olmedo, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina; Miyagusuku, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tube (PT) specimens, with ageing treatments at 400 and 500 C degrees for different times, was studied. The results were analyzed using the corrosion behavior of Zr-20 Nb and Zr-1 Nb samples heat treated during 1 hour at 850 C degrees, cooled in air and aged at the same temperature and times than the PT specimens. The comparison between the corrosion behaviour of Zr-1 Nb and Zr-20 Nb aged coupons with the aged pressure tube specimens, together with the metal/oxide interface morphology of Zr-2.5 Nb specimens, suggest that the increase in the corrosion resistance in the latter coupons is associated with the decomposition of the β-Zr phase. There is also a contribution of α-Zr phase when the ageing temperatures are high enough or the ageing times are long enough, due to a decrease in the Nb content of this phase. This last contribution is associated with an increase in the corrosion resistance of the central zone of pressure tube in the reactor. (author)

  2. Empirical model based on Weibull distribution describing the destruction kinetics of natural microbiota in pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) puree during high-pressure processing.

    Chakraborty, Snehasis; Rao, Pavuluri Srinivasa; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-10-15

    High pressure inactivation of natural microbiota viz. aerobic mesophiles (AM), psychrotrophs (PC), yeasts and molds (YM), total coliforms (TC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pineapple puree was studied within the experimental domain of 0.1-600 MPa and 30-50 °C with a treatment time up to 20 min. A complete destruction of yeasts and molds was obtained at 500 MPa/50 °C/15 min; whereas no counts were detected for TC and LAB at 300 MPa/30 °C/15 min. A maximum of two log cycle reductions was obtained for YM during pulse pressurization at the severe process intensity of 600 MPa/50 °C/20 min. The Weibull model clearly described the non-linearity of the survival curves during the isobaric period. The tailing effect, as confirmed by the shape parameter (β) of the survival curve, was obtained in case of YM (β1) was observed for the other microbial groups. Analogous to thermal death kinetics, the activation energy (Ea, kJ·mol(-1)) and the activation volume (Va, mL·mol(-1)) values were computed further to describe the temperature and pressure dependencies of the scale parameter (δ, min), respectively. A higher δ value was obtained for each microbe at a lower temperature and it decreased with an increase in pressure. A secondary kinetic model was developed describing the inactivation rate (k, min(-1)) as a function of pressure (P, MPa) and temperature (T, K) including the dependencies of Ea and Va on P and T, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical Kinetic Influences of Alkyl Chain Structure on the High Pressure and Temperature Oxidation of a Representative Unsaturated Biodiesel: Methyl Nonenoate.

    Fridlyand, Aleksandr; Goldsborough, S Scott; Brezinsky, Kenneth

    2015-07-16

    The high pressure and temperature oxidation of methyl trans-2-nonenoate, methyl trans-3-nonenoate, 1-octene, and trans-2-octene are investigated experimentally to probe the influence of the double bond position on the chemical kinetics of long esters and alkenes. Single pulse shock tube experiments are performed in the ranges p = 3.8-6.2 MPa and T = 850-1500 K, with an average reaction time of 2 ms. Gas chromatographic measurements indicate increased reactivity for trans-2-octene compared to 1-octene, whereas both methyl nonenoate isomers have reactivities similar to that of 1-octene. A difference in the yield of stable intermediates is observed for the octenes when compared to the methyl nonenoates. Chemical kinetic models are developed with the aid of the Reaction Mechanism Generator to interpret the experimental results. The models are created using two different base chemistry submodels to investigate the influence of the foundational chemistry (i.e., C0-C4), whereas Monte Carlo simulations are performed to examine the quality of agreement with the experimental results. Significant uncertainties are found in the chemistry of unsaturated esters with the double bonds located close to the ester groups. This work highlights the importance of the foundational chemistry in predictive chemical kinetics of biodiesel combustion at engine relevant conditions.

  4. High temperature reaction kinetics

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  5. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges

    Guerra, Vasco; Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Ozone kinetics is quite well established at atmospheric pressure, due to the importance of ozone in atmospheric chemistry and to the development of industrial ozone reactors. However, as the pressure is decreased and the dominant three-body reactions lose importance, the main mechanisms involved in the creation and destruction of ozone are still surrounded by important uncertainties. In this work we develop a self-consistent model for a pulsed discharge and its afterglow operating in a Pyrex reactor with inner radius 1 cm, at pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents of 40-120 mA. The model couples the electron Boltzmann equation with a system of equations for the time evolution of the heavy particles. The calculations are compared with time-dependent measurements of ozone and atomic oxygen. Parametric studies are performed in order to clarify the role of vibrationally excited ozone in the overall kinetics and to establish the conditions where ozone production on the surface may become important. It is shown that vibrationally excited ozone does play a significant role, by increasing the time constants of ozone formation. Moreover, an upper limit for the ozone formation at the wall in these conditions is set at 10(-4).

  6. OH kinetic in high-pressure plasmas of atmospheric gases containing C2H6 studied by absolute measurement of the radical density in a pulsed homogeneous discharge

    Magne, L; Pasquiers, S; Gadonna, K; Jeanney, P; Blin-Simiand, N; Jorand, F; Postel, C

    2009-01-01

    The absolute value of the hydroxyl radical was measured in the afterglow of an homogeneous photo-triggered discharge generated in N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O/C 2 H 6 mixtures, using a UV absorption diagnostic synchronized with the discharge current pulse. Measurements show that OH is efficiently produced even in the absence of water vapour in the mixture, and that the radical production is closely linked to the degradation kinetic of the hydrocarbon. Experimental results for dry mixtures, both for OH and for the removal of ethane in the discharge volume, are compared with predictions of a self-consistent 0D discharge and the kinetic model. It appears that the oxidation reaction of the ethane molecule by O( 3 P) atoms plays a minor role. Dissociation of the hydrocarbon through quenching collisions of the nitrogen metastable states are of great importance for a low oxygen concentration value. Also, the oxidation of ethane by O( 1 D) cannot be neglected at high oxygen concentration. The most probable exit channel for N 2 states quenching collisions by ethane is the production of ethene and hydrogen molecules. Afterwards C 2 H 4 should be dissociated to produce H and H 2 . As previously suggested from the study of the OH density time evolution in relative value, the recombination of H and O atoms appears as a main process for the production of OH in transient low temperature plasmas generated in atmospheric gases at high pressure. Another important reaction is the reduction of the HO 2 radical by O, this radical coming from the addition of H on the oxygen molecule. H atoms come from numerous kinetic processes, amongst which is the dissociation of ethene.

  7. High Blood Pressure

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  8. High Blood Pressure Facts

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  9. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  10. Characteristic and kinetics of corn stalk pyrolysis in a high pressure reactor and steam gasification of its char

    Zhang, Guojie; Sun, Yinghui; Shi, Yuliang; Jia, Yong; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Peiyu; Zhang, Yongfa

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of the corn stalk were investigated at different temperatures and pressures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of gas. The results show that a higher pressure was conducive to the yield of H2 and CH4, and was not conducive to the generation of CO. Combustible gas components increase with the increase temperature. H2 concentration was affected significantly by temperature, was mainly released at higher temperatures (>500 °C). At 700 °C,...

  11. Kinetics of reactions of oxidation of carbon by carbon dioxide and water steam at high temperatures and low pressures

    Boulangier, Francois

    1956-01-01

    The first objective of this research thesis was to obtain new and reliable experimental results about the reaction kinetics of the oxidation of carbon by carbon dioxide and water steam, and to avoid some disturbing phenomena, for example and more particularly the appearance of electric discharges beyond 1900 K initiated by the filament thermoelectric emission. The author tried to identify the mechanism of the accelerating effect. It appears that previous experiments had been performed only in these disturbed conditions. At the lowest temperatures, the author highlighted the existence of a surface contamination by the desorption products from the apparatus [fr

  12. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  13. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  14. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  15. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-01-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF 6 .

  16. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-09-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF6.

  17. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF{sub 6}.

  18. Effects of high pressure homogenization on the activity, stability, kinetics and three-dimensional conformation of a glucose oxidase produced by Aspergillus niger.

    Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst

    Full Text Available High pressure homogenization (HPH is a non-thermal method, which has been employed to change the activity and stability of biotechnologically relevant enzymes. This work investigated how HPH affects the structural and functional characteristics of a glucose oxidase (GO from Aspergillus niger. The enzyme was homogenized at 75 and 150 MPa and the effects were evaluated with respect to the enzyme activity, stability, kinetic parameters and molecular structure. The enzyme showed a pH-dependent response to the HPH treatment, with reduction or maintenance of activity at pH 4.5-6.0 and a remarkable activity increase (30-300% at pH 6.5 in all tested temperatures (15, 50 and 75°C. The enzyme thermal tolerance was reduced due to HPH treatment and the storage for 24 h at high temperatures (50 and 75°C also caused a reduction of activity. Interestingly, at lower temperatures (15°C the activity levels were slightly higher than that observed for native enzyme or at least maintained. These effects of HPH treatment on function and stability of GO were further investigated by spectroscopic methods. Both fluorescence and circular dichroism revealed conformational changes in the molecular structure of the enzyme that might be associated with the distinct functional and stability behavior of GO.

  19. High-Pressure Catalytic Reactions of C6 Hydrocarbons on PlatinumSingle-Crystals and nanoparticles: A Sum Frequency Generation VibrationalSpectroscopic and Kinetic Study

    Bratlie, Kaitlin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic reactions of cyclohexene, benzene, n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene on platinum catalysts were monitored in situ via sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC). SFG is a surface specific vibrational spectroscopic tool capable of monitoring submonolayer coverages under reaction conditions without gas-phase interference. SFG was used to identify the surface intermediates present during catalytic processes on Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystals and on cubic and cuboctahedra Pt nanoparticles in the Torr pressure regime and at high temperatures (300K-450K). At low pressures (<10-6 Torr), cyclohexene hydrogenated and dehydrogenates to form cyclohexyl (C6H11) and π-allyl C6H9, respectively, on Pt(100). Increasing pressures to 1.5 Torr form cyclohexyl, π-allyl C6H9, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene, illustrating the necessity to investigate catalytic reactions at high-pressures. Simultaneously, GC was used to acquire turnover rates that were correlated to reactive intermediates observed spectroscopically. Benzene hydrogenation on Pt(111) and Pt(100) illustrated structure sensitivity via both vibrational spectroscopy and kinetics. Both cyclohexane and cyclohexene were produced on Pt(111), while only cyclohexane was formed on Pt(100). Additionally, π-allyl c-C6H9 was found only on Pt(100), indicating that cyclohexene rapidly dehydrogenates on the (100) surface. The structure insensitive production of cyclohexane was found to exhibit a compensation effect and was analyzed using the selective energy transfer (SET) model. The SET model suggests that the Pt-H system donates energy to the E2u mode of free benzene, which leads to catalysis. Linear C6 (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, and 1-hexene) hydrocarbons were also investigated in the presence and absence of excess hydrogen on Pt

  20. High blood pressure - children

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  1. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  3. High blood pressure medications

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  4. High-pressure microbiology

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  5. High-pressure apparatus

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  6. High blood pressure - adults

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  7. Testing antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle Rhagium mordax as a kinetic gas hydrate inhibitor using a high-pressure micro differential scanning calorimeter

    Daraboina, Nagu; Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Low dosage kinetic hydrate inhibitors are employed as alternatives to expensive thermodynamic inhibitors to manage the risk of hydrate formation inside oil and gas pipelines. These chemicals need to be tested at appropriate conditions in the laboratory before deployment in the field. A high press...

  8. A thermodynamic and kinetic study of the de- and rehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at high H{sub 2}O partial pressures for thermo-chemical heat storage

    Schaube, F.; Koch, L. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Woerner, A., E-mail: antje.woerner@dlr.de [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the thermodynamic equilibrium and reaction enthalpy of 'Ca(OH){sub 2} {r_reversible} CaO + H{sub 2}O'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the reaction kinetics of the dehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at partial pressures up to 956 mbar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the reaction kinetics of the rehydration of Ca(OH){sub 2} at partial pressures up to 956 mbar. - Abstract: Heat storage technologies are used to improve energy efficiency of power plants and recovery of process heat. Storing thermal energy by reversible thermo-chemical reactions offers a promising option for high storage capacities especially at high temperatures. Due to its low material cost, the use of the reversible reaction Ca(OH){sub 2} Rightwards-Harpoon-Over-Leftwards-Harpoon CaO + H{sub 2}O has been proposed. This paper reports on the physical properties such as heat capacity, thermodynamic equilibrium, reaction enthalpy and kinetics. To achieve high reaction temperatures, high H{sub 2}O partial pressures are required. Therefore the cycling stability is confirmed for H{sub 2}O partial pressures up to 95.6 kPa and the dehydration and hydration kinetics are studied. Quantitative data are collected and expressions are derived which are in good agreement with the presented measurements. At 1 bar H{sub 2}O partial pressure the expected equilibrium temperature is 505 Degree-Sign C and the reaction enthalpy is 104.4 kJ/mol.

  9. Kinetics of Inorganic Calcite Dissolution in Seawater under Pressure

    Dong, S.; Subhas, A.; Rollins, N.; Berelson, W.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    While understanding calcium carbonate dissolution is vital in constructing global carbon cycles and predicting the effect of seawater acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2, there is still a major debate over the basic formulation of a dissolution rate law. The kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution are typically described by the equation: Rate=k(1-Ω)n, while Ω=[Ca2+][CO32-]/Ksp. In this study, 13C-labeled calcite is dissolved in unlabeled seawater and the evolving d13C composition of the fluid is traced over time to establish dissolution rate. Instead of changing ion concentration to obtain varying Ω (as in our previous study; Subhas et al. 2015), we changed Ksp by conducting experiments under different pressures (described in theory as ∂lnKsp/∂P=-ΔV/RT, where ΔV is partial molal volume). This involved the construction of a pressure vessel that could hold our sample bag and provide aliquots while remaining pressurized. Pressure experiments were conducted between 0-2000PSI. Results support the conclusion in our previous study that near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, but give a disparate relationship between undersaturation and dissolution rate if Ω is calculated assuming the specific ΔV embedded in CO2SYS. A revised ΔV from -37cm3 to -65cm3 would make the dissolution formulation equation agree, but clearly appears unreasonable. Our results are explained by a pressure effect on carbonate dissolution kinetics over and above the influence of pressure on Ω. If this is a phenomenon that occurs in nature, then we would predict that dissolution should be occurring shallower in the water column (as sometimes observed) than indicated by standard Ω calculations.

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  11. High-pressure crystallography

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  12. Pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the kinetic magnetorotational instability

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Kunz, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence. Our goal is to better understand how the saturation of the MRI in a low-collisionality plasma might differ from that in the collisional regime. We focus on two key effects: (i) the direct impact of self-induced pressure-anisotropy nonlinearities on the evolution of an MRI mode, and (ii) the influence of pressure anisotropy on the `parasitic instabilities' that are suspected to cause the mode to break up into turbulence. Our main conclusions are: (i) The mirror instability regulates the pressure anisotropy in such a way that the linear MRI in a collisionless plasma is an approximate nonlinear solution once the mode amplitude becomes larger than the background field (just as in magnetohyrodynamics). This implies that differences between the collisionless and collisional MRI become unimportant at large amplitudes. (ii) The break up of large-amplitude MRI modes into turbulence via parasitic instabilities is similar in collisionless and collisional plasmas. Together, these conclusions suggest that the route to magnetorotational turbulence in a collisionless plasma may well be similar to that in a collisional plasma, as suggested by recent kinetic simulations. As a supplement to these findings, we offer guidance for the design of future kinetic simulations of magnetorotational turbulence.

  13. Gas-solids kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 as an oxygen carrier for high-pressure chemical looping processes : the influence of the total pressure

    San Pio Bordeje, M.A.; Gallucci, F.; Roghair, I.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    2017-01-01

    Copper oxide on alumina is often used as oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion owing to its very high reduction rates at lower temperatures and its very good mechanical and chemical stability at not too high temperatures. In this work, the redox kinetics of CuO/Al2O3 have been studied at

  14. High Blood Pressure

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  16. High-pressure tritium

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  17. Tantalum high-temperature oxidation kinetics

    Grigor'ev, Yu.M.; Sarkisyan, A.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetics of heat release and scale growth during tantalum oxidation within 650-1300 deg C temperature range in oxygen-containing media is investigated. Kinetic equations and temperature and pressure dependences of constants are ound Applicability of the kinetic Lorie mechanism for the description of the tantalum oxidation kinetics applicably to rapid-passing processes is shown. It is stated that the process rate (reaction ability) is determined by adsorption desorption factors on the external surface of the ''protective'' oxide for the ''linear'' oxidation stage [ru

  18. Deuterium high pressure target

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  19. Fascination at high pressures

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Turbulent kinetic energy balance measurements in the wake of a low-pressure turbine blade

    Sideridis, A.; Yakinthos, K.; Goulas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent kinetic energy budget in the wake generated by a high lift, low-pressure two-dimensional blade cascade of the T106 profile was investigated experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The purpose of this study is to examine the transport mechanism of the turbulent kinetic energy and provide validation data for turbulence modeling. Point measurements were conducted on a high spatial resolution, two-dimensional grid that allowed precise derivative calculations. Positioning of the probe was achieved using a high accuracy traversing mechanism. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) convection, production, viscous diffusion and turbulent diffusion were all obtained directly from experimental measurements. Dissipation and pressure diffusion were calculated indirectly using techniques presented and validated by previous investigators. Results for all terms of the turbulent kinetic energy budget are presented and discussed in detail in the present work.

  1. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  2. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  3. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  4. Pressure Dependent Decomposition Kinetics of the Energetic Material HMX up to 3.6 GPa

    Glascoe, E A; Zaug, J M; Burnham, A K

    2009-05-29

    The effect of pressure on the thermal decomposition rate of the energetic material HMX was studied. HMX was precompressed in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and heated at various rates. The parent species population was monitored as a function of time and temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Decomposition rates were determined by fitting the fraction reacted to the extended-Prout-Tompkins nucleation-growth model and the Friedman isoconversional method. The results of these experiments and analysis indicate that pressure accelerates the decomposition at low to moderate pressures (i.e. between ambient pressure and 1 GPa) and decelerates the decomposition at higher pressures. The decomposition acceleration is attributed to pressure enhanced autocatalysis whereas the deceleration at high pressures is attributed pressure inhibiting bond homolysis step(s), which would result in an increase in volume. These results indicate that both {beta} and {delta} phase HMX are sensitive to pressure in the thermally induced decomposition kinetics.

  5. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  6. Investigations on the determination of corrosion kinetics and the structure of corrosion products on high-temperature alloys under low oxygen partial pressures

    Poestges, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1979-04-01

    On three nickel-base-alloys (NIMONIC 80A, INCONNEL 617 and ALLOY 713LC), which are planned as materials for components of the primary cooling circuit of high-temperature reactors, studies for the determination of the oxidation behaviour under reactor relevant conditions were performed. The test conditions were fixed at an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -16 bars with a total pressure of 0,2 bars and a temperature of 1080 0 C. The use of the X-ray diffraction analysis on the oxidised samples of type NIMONIC 80A showed the corrosion products Cr 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating as well as Al 2 O 3 in the inner oxide zone. The samples of the alloy type INCOEL 617 showed the oxides Cr 2 O 3 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating. Samples of the alloy ALLOY 713LC showed Cr 2 O 3 and CrNbO 4 in the outer oxide coating and Al 2 O 3 in the zone of inner oxidation. Sufficient detection certainty was only ascertained by investigating samples with plane surface. For both alloys first mentioned, it was possible to prove the validity of the paralinear relationship W = k x t -1 / 2 - a x t for the increase in weight for the explanation of the time law of the oxidation. For the non-destructive determination of the oxide coating thickness on the alloys samples, the X-ray fluorescence analysis gave reproducible results of good precision. (orig.) [de

  7. Synergistic effect of high hydrostatic pressure and natural antimicrobials on inactivation kinetics of Bacillus cereus in a liquid whole egg and skim milk mixed beverage.

    Pina-Pérez, Maria Consuelo; Silva-Angulo, Angela B; Muguerza-Marquínez, Begoña; Aliaga, D Rodrigo; López, Antonio Martínez

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted in order to extend the storage life of a liquid whole egg-skim milk (LWE-SM) mixed beverage to enhance its safety and the safety of related beverages. Bacillus cereus vegetative cells (1 x 10(8) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were inoculated in LWE-SM beverages with or without natural antimicrobial supplements: flavonol rich-cocoa powder (cocoanOX 12%, CCX) (700 ppm), vanillin (700 ppm), anise (700 ppm), and cinnamon (700 ppm). B. cereus cells were maintained at 10 degrees C for 10 days in the different beverages to test the bacteriostatic or inhibitory effect of the aforementioned ingredients. Beverages were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology and stored at 10 degrees C for 15 days after treatment. All natural antimicrobials reduced the micro(max) values and increased the lag phase time of B. cereus, and Gompertz growth curves showed different inhibitory effects depending on the substance. The maximum inhibitory effect (1.330 log cycle reduction) was achieved in LWE-SM-cinnamon-supplemented beverage. The maximum inactivation achieved by HHP in LWE-SM beverage was a reduction of around 3.89 +/- 0.25 log cycles at 300 MPa for 12 minutes. When supplemented beverages were treated under the same conditions, enhanced inactivation levels were achieved. This increased inactivation can be attributed to a synergistic effect when the LWE-SM was supplemented with flavonol-rich cocoa powder, cinnamon, and vanillin. The maximum synergistic effect was observed in LWE-SM-CCX-supplemented beverage. During the refrigerated storage of B. cereus HHP-treated cells in beverages to which antimicrobials had been added, the inhibitory effect was dependent on the previously applied pressure level.

  8. Kinetic analysis of volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal treatments.

    Vazquez-Landaverde, P A; Qian, M C; Torres, J A

    2007-09-01

    Volatile formation in milk subjected to pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) was investigated from a reaction kinetic analysis point of view to illustrate the advantages of this technology. The concentration of 27 volatiles of different chemical class in milk subjected to pressure, temperature, and time treatments was fitted to zero-, 1st-, and 2nd-order chemical reaction models. Temperature and pressure effects on rate constants were analyzed to obtain activation energy (E(a)) and activation volume (deltaV*) values. Hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal followed 1st-order kinetics with rate constants characterized by E(a) values decreasing with pressure reflecting negative deltaV* values. Formation of 2-methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, and hydrogen sulfide followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants increasing with temperature but with unclear pressure effects. E(a) values for 2-methylpropanal and 2,3-butanedione increased with pressure, that is, deltaV* > 0, whereas values for hydrogen sulfide remained constant, that is, deltaV* = 0. The concentration of all other volatiles, including methanethiol, remained unchanged in pressure-treated samples, suggesting large negative deltaV* values. The concentration of methyl ketones, including 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-decanone, and 2-undecanone, was independent of pressure and pressure-holding time. PATP promoted the formation of few compounds, had no effect on some, and inhibited the formation of volatiles reported to be factors of the consumer rejection of "cooked" milk flavor. The kinetic behavior observed suggested that new reaction formation mechanisms were not likely involved in volatile formation in PATP milk. The application of the Le Chatelier principle frequently used to explain the high quality of pressure-treated foods, often with no supporting experimental evidence, was not necessary.

  9. High pressure mechanical seal

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  10. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  11. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  12. High blood pressure and diet

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  13. Controlling your high blood pressure

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  14. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  15. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  16. Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure

    Lin Feng; Meyer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A hydration kinetics model for Portland cement is formulated based on thermodynamics of multiphase porous media. The mechanism of cement hydration is discussed based on literature review. The model is then developed considering the effects of chemical composition and fineness of cement, water-cement ratio, curing temperature and applied pressure. The ultimate degree of hydration of Portland cement is also analyzed and a corresponding formula is established. The model is calibrated against the experimental data for eight different Portland cements. Simple relations between the model parameters and cement composition are obtained and used to predict hydration kinetics. The model is used to reproduce experimental results on hydration kinetics, adiabatic temperature rise, and chemical shrinkage of different cement pastes. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the different experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, especially for cement hydration at elevated temperature and high pressure.

  17. The nonlocal electron kinetics for a low-pressure glow discharge dusty plasma

    Liang, Yonggan; Wang, Ying; Li, Hui; Tian, Ruihuan; Yuan, Chengxun; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Rabadanov, K. M.; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Tian, Hao

    2018-05-01

    The nonlocal electron kinetic model based on the Boltzmann equation is developed in low-pressure argon glow discharge dusty plasmas. The additional electron-dust elastic and inelastic collision processes are considered when solving the kinetic equation numerically. The orbital motion limited theory and collision enhanced collection approximation are employed to calculate the dust surface potential. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF), effective electron temperature Teff, and dust surface potential are investigated under different plasma and dust conditions by solving the Boltzmann and the dust charging current balance equations self-consistently. A comparison of the calculation results obtained from nonlocal and local kinetic models is made. It is shown that the appearance of dust particles leads to a deviation of the EEDF from its original profile for both nonlocal and local kinetic models. With the increase in dust density and size, the effective electron temperature and dust surface potential decrease due to the high-energy electron loss on the dust surface. Meanwhile, the nonlocal and local results differ much from each other under the same calculation condition. It is concluded that, for low-pressure (PR ≤ 1 cm*Torr) glow discharge dusty plasmas, the existence of dust particles will amplify the difference of local and nonlocal EEDFs, which makes the local kinetic model more improper to determine the main parameters of the positive column. The nonlocal kinetic model should be used for the calculation of the EEDFs and dusty plasma parameters.

  18. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  19. Drift-kinetic Alfven modes in high performance tokamaks

    Jaun, A.; Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of fast-particle driven Alfven eigenmodes is modeled in high performance tokamaks, successively with a conventional shear, an optimized shear and a tight aspect ratio plasma. A large bulk pressure yields global kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are stabilized by mode conversion in the presence of a divertor. This suggests how conventional reactor scenarii could withstand significant pressure gradients from the fusion products. A large safety factor in the core q 0 >2.5 in deeply shear reversed configurations and a relatively large bulk ion Larmor radius in a low magnetic field can trigger global drift-kinetic Alfven eigenmodes that are unstable in high performance JET, NSTX and ITER plasmas. (author)

  20. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  1. High pressure shaft seal

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  2. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  3. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  4. High pressure experimental water loop

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  5. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  6. High Blood Pressure and Women

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  7. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  8. High Pressure Research on Materials

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  9. Kinetics of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hot or Cold Moderators

    Norinder, O

    1960-11-15

    The set of neutron kinetic equations developed in this report permits the use of long integration steps during stepwise integration. Thermal relations which describe the transfer of heat from fuel to coolant are derived. The influence upon the kinetic behavior of the reactor of a number of parameters is studied. A comparison of the kinetic properties of the hot and cold moderators is given.

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  11. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  12. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello; Gerardo González Martínez; Bernadette F. Klotz Ceberio; Dolores Rodrigo; Antonio Martínez López

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non...

  13. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Rauch, N.

    2005-05-15

    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  14. High temperature oxidation kinetics of dysprosium particles

    Jaques, Brian J.; Butt, Darryl P., E-mail: DarrylButt@BoiseState.edu

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • The oxidation behavior of dysprosium particles was studied from 500 to 1000 °C. • Activation energy in initial region found as 8–25 kJ/mol, depending on atmosphere. • Activation energy in intermediate region found as 80–95 kJ/mol. • The oxide grows at the metal–oxide interface. • Generally, the formed oxide behaved as a p-type semiconductor. - Abstract: Rare earth elements have been recognized as critical materials for the advancement of many strategic and green technologies. Recently, the United States Department of Energy has invested many millions of dollars to enhance, protect, and forecast their production and management. The work presented here attempts to clarify the limited and contradictory literature on the oxidation behavior of the rare earth metal, dysprosium. Dysprosium particles were isothermally oxidized from 500 to 1000 °C in N{sub 2}–(2%, 20%, and 50%) O{sub 2} and Ar–20% O{sub 2} using simultaneous thermal analysis techniques. Two distinct oxidation regions were identified at each isothermal temperature in each oxidizing atmosphere. Initially, the oxidation kinetics are very fast until the reaction enters a slower, intermediate region of oxidation. The two regions are defined and the kinetics of each are assessed to show an apparent activation energy of 8–25 kJ/mol in the initial region and 80–95 kJ/mol in the intermediate oxidation reaction region. The effects of varying the oxygen partial pressure on the reaction rate constant are used to show that dysprosium oxide (Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}) generally acts as a p-type semiconductor in both regions of oxidation (with an exception above 750 °C in the intermediate region)

  15. Pressure vessel failure at high internal pressure

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A RPV failure due to plastic instability was investigated using the ABAQUS finite element code together with a material model of thermal plasticity for large deformations. Not only rotational symmetric temperature distributions were studied, but also 'hot spots'. Calculations show that merely by the depletion of strength of the material - even at internal wall temperatures well below the melting point of the fuel elements of about 2000/2400 C - the critical internal pressure can decrease to values smaller than the operational pressure of 16 Mpa. (orig.)

  16. Computer simulation at high pressure

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  17. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  18. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  19. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  20. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  1. High-pressure sodium lamp

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  2. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  3. High-pressure water facility

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  4. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  5. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Torres Bello, Edwin Fabian; González Martínez, Gerardo; Klotz Ceberio, Bernadette F.; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance. PMID:28234332

  6. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  7. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  8. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  9. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  10. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  11. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  12. Pressure effect on crystallization kinetics in Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Xu, Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of a Zr46.8Ti8.2Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 bulk glass in the supercooled liquid region have been investigated by performing in situ high-temperature and high-pressure x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. A pressure-time-temperature-transformation diagram......, describing the onset of crystallization as a function of time during isothermal annealing under pressure, is presented. Different pressure dependences of crystallization kinetics in the temperature range for the glass have been observed and further be explained by a model of competing processes...

  13. Pressure-dependent kinetics of initial reactions in iso-octane pyrolysis.

    Ning, HongBo; Gong, ChunMing; Li, ZeRong; Li, XiangYuan

    2015-05-07

    This study focuses on the studies of the main pressure-dependent reaction types of iso-octane (iso-C8H18) pyrolysis, including initial C-C bond fission of iso-octane, isomerization, and β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals produced by the C-C bond fission of iso-octane. For the C-C bond fission of iso-octane, the minimum energy potentials are calculated at the CASPT2(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p)//CAS(2e,2o)/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. For the isomerization and the β-scission reactions of the alkyl radicals, the optimization of the geometries and the vibrational frequencies of the reactants, transition states, and products are performed at the B3LYP/CBSB7 level, and their single point energies are calculated by using the composite CBS-QB3 method. Variable reaction coordinate transition state theory (VRC-TST) is used for the high-pressure limit rate constant calculation and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus/master equation (RRKM/ME) is used to calculate the pressure-dependent rate constants of these channels with pressure varying from 0.01-100 atm. The rate constants obtained in this work are in good agreement with those available from literatures. We have updated the rate constants and thermodynamic parameters for species involved in these reactions into a current chemical kinetic mechanism and also have improved the concentration profiles of main products such as C3H6 and C4H6 in the shock tube pyrolysis of iso-octane. The results of this study provide insight into the pyrolysis of iso-octane and will be helpful in the future development of branched paraffin kinetic mechanisms.

  14. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  15. High pressure research at CHESS

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  16. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Santoro, Robers [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ju, Yiguang [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  17. Influence of the product gases on the kinetics of water vapour gasification as a function of pressure and temperature

    Muehlen, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of coal gasification by using the process heat is investigated. Pressure, temperature and composition of the gasifying agent are varied. Starting from other models, a kinetic model is derived and tested for its applicability. (PW) [de

  18. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  20. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  1. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  2. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  3. High blood pressure and eye disease

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  4. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  5. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of premixed nitroethane flames at low pressure

    Zhang, Kuiwen; Zhang, Lidong; Xie, Mingfeng

    2013-01-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling study is reported on three premixed nitroethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with the equivalence ratios (Φ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Over 30 flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrome......An experimental and kinetic modeling study is reported on three premixed nitroethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with the equivalence ratios (Φ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Over 30 flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass...

  6. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  7. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  8. Foam glass obtained through high-pressure sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Foam glasses are usually prepared through a chemical approach, that is, by mixing glass powder with foaming agents, and heating the mixture to a temperature above the softening point (106.6 Pa s) of the glass. The foaming agents release gas, enabling expansion of the sintered glass. Here, we use...... a physical foaming approach to prepare foam glass. First, closed pores filled with inert gases (He, Ar, or N2) are physically introduced into a glass body by sintering cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass powder at high gas pressure (5‐25 MPa) at 640°C and, then cooled to room temperature. The sintered bodies...... are subjected to a second heat treatment above the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure. This heat treatment causes expansion of the pores due to high internal gas pressure. We found that the foaming ability strongly depends on the gas pressure applied during sintering, and on the kinetic...

  9. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects.

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H; Plaga, Lucie J; Stern, Josef N; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-21

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  10. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H.; Plaga, Lucie J.; Stern, Josef N.; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W.; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  11. Comparison of BWR-6 pressurization transients with one-dimensional and point kinetics

    Serra, J.M.; Mata, P.; Cronin, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the differences between the results of core reload licensing calculations for the BWR-6 plant when performed with a one-dimensional (1-D) versus a point kinetics model. More specifically, the improvement in critical power ratio which would be expected from a change in methods from a point to a 1-D kinetics core wide transient calculation for pressurization transients is investigated. To qualitatively assess critical power ratio (CPR) improvement, core wide transient and hot channel calculations of a generator load rejection with failure of the steam by-pass system and a feedwater controller failure of maximum demand are performed with both, point and 1-D kinetics models in the core wide simulation. Additionally, a sensitivity study on the frequency of power shape function updating in the 1-D kinetics calculation is performed

  12. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  13. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  14. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  15. High pressure effect for high-Tc superconductors

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tomita, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity and to enhance T c . High-pressure techniques have played a very important role for these studies. In this paper, the high-pressure techniques and physical properties of high-T c superconductor under high pressure are presented. (author)

  16. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  17. Kinetics of annealing of irradiated surveillance pressure vessel steel

    Harvey, D.J.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Indentation hardness measurements as a function of annealing were made on broken halves of Charpy impact surveillance samples. The samples had been irradiated in commercial power reactors to a neutron fluence of approximately 1 x 10 18 neutrons per cm 2 , E > 1 MeV, at a temperature of about 300 0 C (570 0 F). Results are reported for the weld metal, which showed greater radiation hardening than the base plate or heat-affected zone material. Isochronal and isothermal anneals were conducted on the irradiated surveillance samples and on unirradiated control samples. No hardness changes upon annealing occurred for the control samples. The recovery in hardness for the irradiated samples took place mostly between 400 and 500 0 C. Based on the Meechan-Brinkman method of analysis, the activation energy for annealing was found to be 0.60 +- 0.06 eV. According to computer simulation calculations of Beeler, the activation energy for migration of vacancies in alpha iron is about 0.67 eV. Therefore, the results of this preliminary study appear to be consistent with a mechanism of annealing of radiation damage in pressure vessel steels based on the migration of radiation-produced lattice vacancies

  18. Pressure pressure-balanced pH sensing system for high temperature and high pressure water

    Tachibana, Koji

    1995-01-01

    As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)

  19. High fidelity kinetic modeling of magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasma

    Stanier, A.; Daughton, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, a great deal of progress has been made towards understanding the physics of magnetic reconnection in weakly collisional regimes of relevance to both fusion devices, and to space and astrophysical plasmas. However, there remain some outstanding unsolved problems in reconnection physics, such as the generation and influence of plasmoids (flux ropes) within reconnection layers, the development of magnetic turbulence, the role of current driven and streaming instabilities, and the influence of electron pressure anisotropy on the layer structure. Due to the importance of these questions, new laboratory reconnection experiments are being built to allow controlled and reproducible study of such questions with the simultaneous acquisition of high time resolution measurements at a large number of spatial points. These experiments include the FLARE facility at Princeton University and the T-REX experiment at the University of Wisconsin. To guide and interpret these new experiments, and to extrapolate the results to space applications, new investments in kinetic modeling tools are required. We have recently developed a cylindrical version of the VPIC Particle-In-Cell code with the capability to perform first-principles kinetic simulations that approach experimental device size with more realistic geometry and drive coils. This cylindrical version inherits much of the optimization work that has been done recently for the next generation many-cores architectures with wider vector registers, and achieves comparable conservation properties as the Cartesian code. Namely it features exact discrete charge conservation, and a so-called "energy-conserving" scheme where the energy is conserved in the limit of continuous time, i.e. without contribution from spatial discretization (Lewis, 1970). We will present initial results of modeling magnetic reconnection in the experiments mentioned above. Since the VPIC code is open source (https

  20. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail: wphsieh@stanford.edu; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  1. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s -1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling

  2. High pressure gas reinjection unit

    1976-03-01

    Nuovo Pignone has built for gas reinjection at Ekofisk the highest pressure injection unit to date: suction pressure 246 bar, discharge 647 bar, for 5.7 million cu m/day of natural gas, and driven by a GE MS 5001 gas turbine of 24,000 hp. The barrel-type compressor has been used already in Algeria at Hassi Messaoud. Full scale tests have shown that the unit is satisfactory; special attention being paid to the stability of the rotor. Air cooled heat exchangers were used in the test loop to cool the discharge gas; at Ekofisk, heat exchangers with sea water will be used. The valves in the test loop were of a special, low- noise type. Vibrations of the rotor system and changes in gas pressure monitored, showing that a pressure of 680 bars can be achieved without instability. Economic considerations lead to preference for rotary compressors driven by gas turbines for similar applications in the exploitation of oil fields. A graph of the characteristics of the unit is given.

  3. From simple to complex and backwards. Chemical reactions under very high pressure

    Bini, Roberto; Ceppatelli, Matteo; Citroni, Margherita; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► High pressure reactivity of several molecular systems. ► Reaction kinetics and dynamics in high density conditions. ► Key role of optical pumping and electronic excitation. ► Perspectives for the synthesis of hydrogen. - Abstract: High pressure chemical reactions of molecular systems are discussed considering the various factors that can affect the reactivity. These include steric hindrance and geometrical constraints in the confined environment of crystals at high pressure, changes of the free energy landscape with pressure, photoactivation by two-photon absorption, local and collective effects. A classification of the chemical reactions at high pressure is attempted on the basis of the prevailing factors.

  4. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Kinetic energy definition in velocity Verlet integration for accurate pressure evaluation

    Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Sugita, Yuji

    2018-04-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a proper definition of kinetic energy is essential for controlling pressure as well as temperature in the isothermal-isobaric condition. The virial theorem provides an equation that connects the average kinetic energy with the product of particle coordinate and force. In this paper, we show that the theorem is satisfied in MD simulations with a larger time step and holonomic constraints of bonds, only when a proper definition of kinetic energy is used. We provide a novel definition of kinetic energy, which is calculated from velocities at the half-time steps (t - Δt/2 and t + Δt/2) in the velocity Verlet integration method. MD simulations of a 1,2-dispalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer and a water box using the kinetic energy definition could reproduce the physical properties in the isothermal-isobaric condition properly. We also develop a multiple time step (MTS) integration scheme with the kinetic energy definition. MD simulations with the MTS integration for the DPPC and water box systems provided the same quantities as the velocity Verlet integration method, even when the thermostat and barostat are updated less frequently.

  6. Kinetic energy definition in velocity Verlet integration for accurate pressure evaluation.

    Jung, Jaewoon; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Sugita, Yuji

    2018-04-28

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a proper definition of kinetic energy is essential for controlling pressure as well as temperature in the isothermal-isobaric condition. The virial theorem provides an equation that connects the average kinetic energy with the product of particle coordinate and force. In this paper, we show that the theorem is satisfied in MD simulations with a larger time step and holonomic constraints of bonds, only when a proper definition of kinetic energy is used. We provide a novel definition of kinetic energy, which is calculated from velocities at the half-time steps (t - Δt/2 and t + Δt/2) in the velocity Verlet integration method. MD simulations of a 1,2-dispalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer and a water box using the kinetic energy definition could reproduce the physical properties in the isothermal-isobaric condition properly. We also develop a multiple time step (MTS) integration scheme with the kinetic energy definition. MD simulations with the MTS integration for the DPPC and water box systems provided the same quantities as the velocity Verlet integration method, even when the thermostat and barostat are updated less frequently.

  7. Nanostructure evolution of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels: Revised Object kinetic Monte Carlo model

    Chiapetto, M., E-mail: mchiapet@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Messina, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-114 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Olsson, P. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullsbacken 21, SE-114 21 Stockholm (Sweden); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    This work presents a revised set of parameters to be used in an Object kinetic Monte Carlo model to simulate the microstructure evolution under neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steels at the operational temperature of light water reactors (∼300 °C). Within a “grey-alloy” approach, a more physical description than in a previous work is used to translate the effect of Mn and Ni solute atoms on the defect cluster diffusivity reduction. The slowing down of self-interstitial clusters, due to the interaction between solutes and crowdions in Fe is now parameterized using binding energies from the latest DFT calculations and the solute concentration in the matrix from atom-probe experiments. The mobility of vacancy clusters in the presence of Mn and Ni solute atoms was also modified on the basis of recent DFT results, thereby removing some previous approximations. The same set of parameters was seen to predict the correct microstructure evolution for two different types of alloys, under very different irradiation conditions: an Fe-C-MnNi model alloy, neutron irradiated at a relatively high flux, and a high-Mn, high-Ni RPV steel from the Swedish Ringhals reactor surveillance program. In both cases, the predicted self-interstitial loop density matches the experimental solute cluster density, further corroborating the surmise that the MnNi-rich nanofeatures form by solute enrichment of immobilized small interstitial loops, which are invisible to the electron microscope.

  8. Static and kinetic friction of granite at high normal stress

    Byerlee, J.D.

    1970-01-01

    Frictional sliding on ground surfaces of granite, angle of sliding planes 30?? and 45??, was investigated as a function of confining pressure. Over the normal stress range of 2-12 kb, the static frictional shear stress ??s follows the relationship ??s = 0??5 + 0?? ??n and the kinetic frictional shear stress ??k was calculated to be ??k = 0??25 + 0??47 ??n. ?? 1970.

  9. Soluble and immobilized catalase. Effect of pressure and inhibition on kinetics and deactivation.

    Vasudevan, P T; Thakur, D S

    1994-12-01

    This article examines the effect of pressure on the steady-state kinetics and long-term deactivation of the enzyme catalase supported on porous alumina. The reaction studied is the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The results of studies carried out in a continuous stirred-tank reactor under isothermal conditions are presented and compared with results obtained for soluble catalase. For soluble catalase, it is found that in the range of pressures studied, the oxygen flow rate increases with increase in pressure up to a certain value and then decreases. Hydrogen peroxide concentration appears to have a strong influence on pressure effects. With immobilized catalase, the pressure effects are not as prominent. Fluorescent microscopy studies of the immobilized enzyme suggest that this is probably because of pore diffusional limitations.

  10. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  11. Photoconductivity studies of the ferrocyanide ion under high pressure

    Finston, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The photoaquation of the ferrocyanide ion was studied using a high-pressure photoconductivity apparatus and a steady-state high-pressure mercury lamp. The first-order photocurrent rise-time could be related to the relative quantum efficiency of the photoaquation process, while the dark decay of the photocurrent yielded a relative value of the bimolecular rate-constant for the reverse reaction. Kinetic measurements were carried out on dilute solutions of potassium ferrocyanide in pure water, and in 20% ethanol. The photocurrent yield in aqueous solution was dependent upon secondary chemical equilibria which were sensitive to pressure in a predictable way. In ethanolic solution, the dependence of photocurrent yield on pressure followed the variation of the reciprocal solvent vicosity. In both aqueous and alcoholic solution, the photoaquation quantum efficiency decreased exponentially with pressure, as did the biomolecular rate-constant for the dark reaction in aqueous solution. The pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate-constant in the alcoholic solution indicated a diffusion-limited process. The pressure dependence of the photoaquation quantum yield, and of the bimolecular rate-constant in aqueous solution, was interpreted in terms of an activation volume model. The photoaquation data for both the aqueous and the alcoholic solutions agreed with a hypothetical mechanism whereby ligand-to-metal bond-breaking, and solvent-to-metal bond-formation, are effectively simultaneous. The results for the aqueous dark reaction strongly indicated breaking of the solvent-to-metal bond as the rate-limiting step.

  12. High pressure X-ray studies

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  13. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  15. Compressed-tube pressure cell for optical studies at ocean pressures: Application to glucose mutarotation kinetics.

    Lamelas, F J

    2016-12-01

    A self-contained compressed-tube pressure cell is tested to 25 MPa. The cell is very simple to construct and offers stable pressure control with optical access to fluid samples. The physical path length of light through the cell is large enough to measure optical activity. The entire system is relatively small and portable, and it is vibration-free, since a compressor is not used. Operation of the cell is demonstrated by measuring the mutarotation rate of aqueous glucose solutions at 25 °C. A logarithmic plot of the rate constant vs. pressure yields an activation volume for mutarotation of -22 cm 3 /mol, approximately twice the value measured previously at higher pressures.

  16. High-pressure torsion for new hydrogen storage materials.

    Edalati, Kaveh; Akiba, Etsuo; Horita, Zenji

    2018-01-01

    High-pressure torsion (HPT) is widely used as a severe plastic deformation technique to create ultrafine-grained structures with promising mechanical and functional properties. Since 2007, the method has been employed to enhance the hydrogenation kinetics in different Mg-based hydrogen storage materials. Recent studies showed that the method is effective not only for increasing the hydrogenation kinetics but also for improving the hydrogenation activity, for enhancing the air resistivity and more importantly for synthesizing new nanostructured hydrogen storage materials with high densities of lattice defects. This manuscript reviews some major findings on the impact of HPT process on the hydrogen storage performance of different titanium-based and magnesium-based materials.

  17. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME (Dimenthyl Ether) using a standard diesel pump with pintle and hole nozzles. Fundamental spray behavior was characterized by determining fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and evaporation. The influences of opening pressure, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure above and below the critical pressure of the fuel on the spray behavior were investigated. The influence of opening pressures on the spray characteristics for the hole nozzle was investigated. The results showed that for opening pressures of 120 bar and 180 bar the spray has a similar appearance. For the higher opening pressure (200 bar and 240 bar), the initial spray breaks up very rapidly giving a high initial spray angle. The opening pressure had little influence on spray penetration. The spray angle later in the injection increased as the opening pressure was decreased. Above the critical pressure, the spray from the hole nozzle had a more irregular shape. Penetration decreased and the spray angle increased above the critical pressure. Three pintle nozzles with different geometries and opening pressures were tested. The appearance of the three sprays were very similar. The sprays seemed to be more sharply pointed as the nozzle hole angle decreased. The nozzle with the 4 deg. hole nozzle angle and an opening pressure of 280 bar had the highest penetration and highest initial spray angle. The pintle nozzle with the 12 deg. hole nozzle angle and opening pressure of approx. 450 bar was tested above the critical ambient pressure. Penetration was very similar for injection above and below the critical ambient pressure, while the spray angle decreased for the spray above the critical ambient pressure. (au)

  18. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  19. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  20. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

    1988-01-01

    A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

  1. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  2. The impact of mobile point defect clusters in a kinetic model of pressure vessel embrittlement

    Stoller, R.E.

    1998-05-01

    The results of recent molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in iron indicate that small interstitial clusters may have a very low activation energy for migration, and that their migration is 1-dimensional, rather than 3-dimensional. The mobility of these clusters can have a significant impact on the predictions of radiation damage models, particularly at the relatively low temperatures typical of commercial, light water reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and other out-of-core components. A previously-developed kinetic model used to investigate RPV embrittlement has been modified to permit an evaluation of the mobile interstitial clusters. Sink strengths appropriate to both 1- and 3-dimensional motion of the clusters were evaluated. High cluster mobility leads to a reduction in the amount of predicted embrittlement due to interstitial clusters since they are lost to sinks rather than building up in the microstructure. The sensitivity of the predictions to displacement rate also increases. The magnitude of this effect is somewhat reduced if the migration is 1-dimensional since the corresponding sink strengths are lower than those for 3-dimensional diffusion. The cluster mobility can also affect the evolution of copper-rich precipitates in the model since the radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient increases due to the lower interstitial cluster sink strength. The overall impact of the modifications to the model is discussed in terms of the major irradiation variables and material parameter uncertainties

  3. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  4. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  5. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Machet, A. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)]|[Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Jolivet, P.; Scott, P. [Framatome ANP, Tour AREVA, F-92084 Paris-la-Defense (France); Foucault, M.; Combrade, P. [Framatome ANP, Centre Technique, F-71205 Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  6. Kinetics of passivation of a nickel-base alloy in high temperature water

    Machet, A.; Galtayries, A.; Zanna, S.; Marcus, P.; Jolivet, P.; Scott, P.; Foucault, M.; Combrade, P.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of passivation and the composition of the surface oxide layer, in high temperature and high pressure water, of a nickel-chromium-iron alloy (Alloy 600) have been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The samples have been exposed for short (0.4 - 8.2 min) and longer (0 - 400 hours) time periods to high temperature (325 deg. C) and high pressure water (containing boron and lithium) under controlled hydrogen pressure. The experiments were performed in two types of autoclaves: a novel autoclave dedicated to short time periods and a classic static autoclave for the longer exposures. In the initial stage of passivation, a continuous ultra-thin layer of chromium oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ) is rapidly formed on the surface with an external layer of chromium hydroxide. For longer times of passivation, the oxide layer is in a duplex form with an internal chromium oxide layer and an external layer of nickel hydroxide. The growth of the internal Cr 2 O 3 oxide layer has been fitted by three classical models (parabolic, logarithmic and inverse logarithmic laws) for the short passivation times, and the growth curves have been extrapolated to longer passivation periods. The comparison with the experimental results reveals that the kinetics of passivation of Alloy 600 in high temperature and high pressure water, for passivation times up to 400 hours, is well fitted by a logarithmic growth law. (authors)

  7. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  8. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  9. High pressure processing of meat

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  10. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  11. An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.

    Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

    2014-09-08

    The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83 MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2 MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30 °C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2 MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    Verscharen, Daniel [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Chen, Christopher H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wicks, Robert T., E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu, E-mail: christopher.chen@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: r.wicks@ucl.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-10

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  13. On Kinetic Slow Modes, Fluid Slow Modes, and Pressure-balanced Structures in the Solar Wind

    Verscharen, Daniel; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Wicks, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Observations in the solar wind suggest that the compressive component of inertial-range solar-wind turbulence is dominated by slow modes. The low collisionality of the solar wind allows for nonthermal features to survive, which suggests the requirement of a kinetic plasma description. The least-damped kinetic slow mode is associated with the ion-acoustic (IA) wave and a nonpropagating (NP) mode. We derive analytical expressions for the IA-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic plasma in the framework of gyrokinetics and then compare them to fully kinetic numerical calculations, results from two-fluid theory, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). This comparison shows major discrepancies in the predicted wave phase speeds from MHD and kinetic theory at moderate to high β . MHD and kinetic theory also dictate that all plasma normal modes exhibit a unique signature in terms of their polarization. We quantify the relative amplitude of fluctuations in the three lowest particle velocity moments associated with IA and NP modes in the gyrokinetic limit and compare these predictions with MHD results and in situ observations of the solar-wind turbulence. The agreement between the observations of the wave polarization and our MHD predictions is better than the kinetic predictions, which suggests that the plasma behaves more like a fluid in the solar wind than expected.

  14. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  15. Kinetic properties of solid yttrium at high temperatures

    Ivliev, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of results of experimental investigation into temperature-diffusivity, specific electroresistance and heat conductivity of yttrium is carried out. Peculiarities of variation of its kinetic characteristics under high temperatures are shown to result from two-band character of energy spectrum of collectivized electrons. In particular, growth of heat conductivity results from reduction of density of heavy electron states under heating. The suggested model describes kinetic characteristics of lutetium, as well. Usage of this model for the rest heavy rare-earth metals enables to make conclusion about reduction of magnetic scattering effcieincy in the rare-earth metals in proportion to approximation to melting temperature

  16. Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures

    Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

  17. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  18. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  19. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  20. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  1. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  2. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  3. Holographic interferometry of high pressure

    McIlwain, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods. Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma. Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry, and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained. This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented

  4. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  5. Kinetics on the reaction of substituted quinolines and p-substituted benzoylchlorides under various pressures

    Kim, Young Cheul; Lim, Jong Wan; Choi, Sung Yong; Kim, Se Kyong

    1999-01-01

    The reaction rates of substituted quinolines(6-CH 3 C 9 H 7 N, C 9 H 7 N) with p-substituted benzoylchlorides(p-CH 3 , p-H, p-NO 2 ) have been measured by conductometry in acetonitrile, and the rate constants are determined at various temperatures (10,15, 20, 25 .deg. C) and pressures(1, 200, 500, 1000bar). From the values of rate constants, the activation parameters(Ea, ΔV ≠ , ΔS ≠ , and ΔG ≠ ) and the pressure dependence of Hammett ρ values were determined. The rate constants increase as a function of temperatures and pressures, and are further increase by introduction the electron donor substituents in nucleophile(p-CH 3 ) or electron acceptor(p-NO 2 ) substituents in substrate. The activation volume, and the activation entropy are all negative. Hammett ρ values are also negative for nucleophile (ρ X ) and positive for the substrate (ρ Y ) over the pressure range studied. The results of kinetic studies for pressure and substituent show that these reactions proceed in typical S N 2 reaction mechanism and 'associative S N 2' in which bond formation favored with increasing pressures

  6. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  7. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  8. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  9. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  10. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  11. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  12. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  13. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  14. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  15. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  16. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Marinov, Daniil; Guerra, Vasco; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1-5 Torr and discharge currents ˜40-120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O_3^{*} , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O_3^{*} is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O2(a 1Δg) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established.

  17. Ozone kinetics in low-pressure discharges: vibrationally excited ozone and molecule formation on surfaces

    Marinov, Daniil; Guaitella, Olivier; Booth, Jean-Paul; Rousseau, Antoine; Guerra, Vasco

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and modeling investigation of the ozone kinetics in the afterglow of pulsed direct current discharges in oxygen is carried out. The discharge is generated in a cylindrical silica tube of radius 1 cm, with short pulse durations between 0.5 and 2 ms, pressures in the range 1–5 Torr and discharge currents ∼40–120 mA. Time-resolved absolute concentrations of ground-state atoms and ozone molecules were measured simultaneously in situ, by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption, respectively. The experiments were complemented by a self-consistent model developed to interpret the results and, in particular, to evaluate the roles of vibrationally excited ozone and of ozone formation on surfaces. It is found that vibrationally excited ozone, O 3 * , plays an important role in the ozone kinetics, leading to a decrease in the ozone concentration and an increase in its formation time. In turn, the kinetics of O 3 * is strongly coupled with those of atomic oxygen and O 2 (a 1 Δ g ) metastables. Ozone formation at the wall does not contribute significantly to the total ozone production under the present conditions. Upper limits for the effective heterogeneous recombination probability of O atoms into ozone are established. (paper)

  18. Kinetic modeling of ethane pyrolysis at high conversion.

    Xu, Chen; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed Sultan; Wang, Chenguang; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Dean, Anthony M

    2011-09-29

    The primary objective of this study is to develop an improved first-principle-based mechanism that describes the molecular weight growth kinetics observed during ethane pyrolysis. A proper characterization of the kinetics of ethane pyrolysis is a prerequisite for any analysis of hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation. Flow reactor experiments were performed with ~50/50 ethane/nitrogen mixtures with temperatures ranging from 550 to 850 °C at an absolute pressure of ~0.8 atm and a residence time of ~5 s. These conditions result in ethane conversions ranging from virtually no reaction to ~90%. Comparisons of predictions using our original mechanism to these data yielded very satisfactory results in terms of the temperature dependence of ethane conversion and prediction of the major products ethylene and hydrogen. However, there were discrepancies in some of the minor species concentrations that are involved in the molecular weight growth kinetics. We performed a series of CBS-QB3 analyses for the C(3)H(7), C(4)H(7), and C(4)H(9) potential energy surfaces to better characterize the radical addition reactions that lead to molecular weight growth. We also extended a published C(6)H(9) PES to include addition of vinyl to butadiene. The results were then used to calculate pressure-dependent rate constants for the multiple reaction pathways of these addition reactions. Inclusion of the unadjusted rate constants resulting from these analyses in the mechanism significantly improved the description of several of the species involved in molecular weight growth kinetics. We compare the predictions of this improved model to those obtained with a consensus model recently published as well as to ethane steam cracking data. We find that a particularly important reaction is that of vinyl addition to butadiene. Another important observation is that several radical addition reactions are partially equilibrated. Not only does this mean that reliable thermodynamic parameters are essential

  19. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  20. High-Tc superconductors under very high pressure

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Scholtz, J.J.; Eenige, E.N. van; Griessen, R.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure has played a crucial role in the short history of high T c superconductors. Soon after the discovery of superconductivity by Bednorz and Muller in La-Ba-Cu-O, Chu et al. showed that the critical temperature T c could be significantly increased by pressure. This observation led to the discovery of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 by Wu et al. with a T c above 90 K. Incidentally, this high T c is probably also due to the fact that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has two CuO 2 layers per unit cell instead of a single one in La-Ba-Cu-O. The authors discuss the high pressure dependence of the oxide superconductors, particularly at pressures above 10 GPa, and the nonmonotonic dependence of transition temperature on pressure

  1. Kinematic and Kinetic Evaluation of High Speed Backward Running

    1999-06-30

    Designed using Perform Pro , WHS/DIOR, Oct 94 KINEMATIC AND KINETIC EVALUATION OF HIGH SPEED BACKWARD RUNNING by ALAN WAYNE ARATA A DISSERTATION...Project Manager, Engineering Division, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, 1983-86 AWARDS AND HONORS: All-American, 50yd Freestyle , 1979 Winner, Rocky...redirection #include <stdlib.h> // for exit #include <iomanip.h> // for set precision #include <string.h> // for string copy const int NUMPOINTS

  2. Chemical kinetics studies at high temperatures using shock tubes

    Rajakumar, B; Anandraj, D; Reddy, KPJ; Arunan, E

    2002-01-01

    Shock tube is an unique facility to create temperature gradients exceeding million degrees Kelvin per second. We have established two shock tubes for measuring the kinetic reaction rates at high temperatures with two different but complementary detection techniques. The first one is a single pulse shock tube, in which the reflected shock is used to heat the molecules. The equilibrated products are analyzed by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrometer. The second one uses laser-schlieren sys...

  3. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  4. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  5. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  6. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Peterson, Eric

    2011-09-30

    This progress report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 of 7:1 to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) presented in this study include 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and

  7. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  8. A highly accurate benchmark for reactor point kinetics with feedback

    Ganapol, B. D.; Picca, P.

    2010-10-01

    This work apply the concept of convergence acceleration, also known as extrapolation, to find the solution to the reactor kinetics equations describing nuclear reactor transients. The method features simplicity in that an approximate finite difference formulation is constructed and converged to high accuracy from knowledge of how the error term behaves. Through Rom berg extrapolation, we demonstrate its high accuracy for a variety of imposed reactivity insertions found in the literature as well as nonlinear temperature and fission product feedback. A unique feature of the proposed method, called RKE/R(om berg) algorithm, is interval bisection to ensure high accuracy. (Author)

  9. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  10. Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics.

    Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (pfoot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  12. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  13. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V. [Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería, “Ing. H. Fernández Long,” Av. Paseo Colón 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Institut Universitari de Ciència dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, c/ Doctor Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  14. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  15. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  16. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  17. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  18. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  19. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  20. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  1. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  2. High Pressure Reduction of Selenite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Testemale, D.; Letard, I.; Bleuet, P.; Cardon, H.; Oger, P.

    2007-12-01

    High-pressure biotopes comprise cold deep-sea environments, hydrothermal vents, and deep subsurface or deep-sea sediments. The latter are less studied, due to the technical difficulties to sample at great depths without contamination. Nevertheless, microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis have been found to be spatially distributed in deep deep-sea sediments (1), and sulfate reduction has been shown to be actually more efficient under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in some sediments (2). Sulfate-reducing bacteria obtained from the Japan Sea are characterized by an increased sulfide production under pressure (3,4). Unfortunately, investigations of microbial metabolic activity as a function of pressure are extremely scarce due to the experimental difficulty of such measurements at high hydrostatic pressure. We were able to measure the reduction of selenite Se(IV) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a function of pressure, to 150 MPa using two different high-pressure reactors that allow in situ X-ray spectroscopy measurements on a synchrotron source. A first series of measurements was carried out in a low-pressure Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) of our own design (5) at ID22 beamline at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); a second one was performed in an autoclave (6) at the BM30B beamline at ESRF. Selenite reduction by strain MR-17 was monitored from ambient pressure to 150 MPa over 25 hours at 30 deg C by XANES spectroscopy (X-ray Analysis of Near Edge Structure). Spectra were recorded hourly in order to quantify the evolution of the oxidation state of selenium with time. Stationary-phase bacteria were inoculated at a high concentration into fresh growth medium containing 5 or 10 M of sodium selenite and 20 mM sodium lactate. Kinetic parameters of the Se (IV) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 could be extracted from the data, as a function of pressure. They show 1) that the rate constant k of the reaction is decreased by a half at high pressure

  3. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  4. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  5. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  6. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  7. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  8. Combined osmodehydration and high pressure processing on the enzyme stability and antioxidant capacity of a grapefruit jam

    A combined osmodehydration process and high pressure treatment (OD-HHP) was developed for grapefruit jam preservation. The inactivation kinetics of pectinmethylesterase (PME) and peroxidase (POD) in the osmodehydrated (OD) jam treated by combined thermal (45-75°C) and high pressure (550–700 MPa) pro...

  9. Combustion characteristics and kinetic analysis of pulverized coal under different pressure grades

    Qiwei ZUO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By using thermo gravimetric balance, experimental research on combustion characteristics and dynamics parameters of the typical coal injection from some domestic steelworks are conducted with non-isothermal method. The combustion characteristic parameters of the sample pulverized coal such as ignition temperature, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate, burnout temperature, general burn exponent(S, and maximum combustion rate are studied under pressure grades of 0.1, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 MPa, the activation energy (E and pre-exponential factor in the combustion process are calculated. The results show that when the pressure increases from 0.1 to 4.1 MPa, ignition temperature decreases by 85.7 K at most, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate decreases by 249.3 K at most, burnout temperature decreases by 375 K at most, maximum weight loss rate increases by 10 times, and S increases by 33.6 times at most. It is also shown that there exists a kinetic complementation between E and ln A from the view point of dynamics, and the critical pressure of pulverized coal reaction control requirement and combustion mode transform is 3.1 MPa for the pulverized coal.

  10. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  11. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  12. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The high...

  13. Luminescent decay and spectra of impurity-activated alkali halides under high pressure

    Klick, D.I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of high pressure on the luminescence of alkali halides doped with the transition-metal ions Cu + and Ag + and the heavy-metal ions In + and Tl + was investigated to 140 kbar. Measurement of spectra allowed the prediction of kinetic properties, and the predictions agree with lifetime data

  14. Study on copper kinetics in processing sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc with sulfuric acid leaching under pressure

    Wen-bo, LUO; Ji-kun, WANG; Yin, GAN

    2018-01-01

    Sulphide ore mixed with copper and zinc is processed with pressure acid leaching. Research is conducted on the copper kinetic. The stirring rate is set at 600 rpm which could eliminate the influence of external diffusions. Research is conducted on the factors affecting the copper leaching kinetic are temperature, pressure, concentration of sulfuric acid, particle size. The result shows that the apparent activity energy is 50.7 KJ/mol. We could determine that the copper leaching process is shrinking core model of chemical reaction control and work out the leaching equation.

  15. A model for plasticity kinetics and its role in simulating the dynamic behavior of Fe at high strain rates

    Colvin, J D; Minich, R W; Kalantar, D H

    2007-03-29

    The recent diagnostic capability of the Omega laser to study solid-solid phase transitions at pressures greater than 10 GPa and at strain rates exceeding 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} has also provided valuable information on the dynamic elastic-plastic behavior of materials. We have found, for example, that plasticity kinetics modifies the effective loading and thermodynamic paths of the material. In this paper we derive a kinetics equation for the time-dependent plastic response of the material to dynamic loading, and describe the model's implementation in a radiation-hydrodynamics computer code. This model for plasticity kinetics incorporates the Gilman model for dislocation multiplication and saturation. We discuss the application of this model to the simulation of experimental velocity interferometry data for experiments on Omega in which Fe was shock compressed to pressures beyond the {alpha}-to-{var_epsilon} phase transition pressure. The kinetics model is shown to fit the data reasonably well in this high strain rate regime and further allows quantification of the relative contributions of dislocation multiplication and drag. The sensitivity of the observed signatures to the kinetics model parameters is presented.

  16. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  17. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  18. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  19. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  20. High pressure phase transitions in Europous oxide

    Kremser, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure-volume relationship for EuO was investigated to 630 kilobars at room temperature with a diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell. Volumes were determined by x-ray diffraction; pressures were determined by the ruby R 1 fluorescence method. The preferred interpretation involves normal compression behavior for EuO, initially in the B1 (NaCl-type) structure, to about 280 kilobars. Between approx. =280 and approx. =350 kilobars a region of anomalous compressibility in which the volume drops continuously by approximately 2% is observed. A second-order electronic transition is proposed with the 6s band overlapping with the 4f levels, thereby reducing the volume of EuO without changing the structure. This is not a semiconductor-to-metal transition. In reflected light, this transition is correlated with a subtle and continuous change in color from brown-black to a light brown. The collapsed B1 phase (postelectronic transition) is stable between approx. =350 and approx. =400 kilobars. At about 400 kilobars the collapsed B1 structure transforms to the B2 (CsCl-type) structure, with a zero pressure-volume change of approximately 12 +/- 1.5%

  1. Vacuum surface flashover and high pressure gas streamers

    Elizondo, J.M.; Krogh, M.L.; Smith, D.; Stolz, D.; Wright, S.N.

    1997-07-01

    Pre-breakdown current traces obtained during high pressure gas breakdown and vacuum surface flashover show similar signatures. The initial pre-breakdown current spike, a flat constant current phase, and the breakdown phase with voltage collapse and current surge differ mostly in magnitude. Given these similarities, a model, consisting of the initial current spike corresponding to a fast precursor streamer (ionization wave led by a photoionizing front), the flat current stage as the heating or glow phase, and the terminal avalanche and gap closure, is applied to vacuum surface flashover. A simple analytical approximation based on the resistivity changes induced in the vacuum and dielectric surface is presented. The approximation yields an excellent fit to pre-breakdown time delay vs applied field for previously published experimental data. A detailed kinetics model that includes surface and gas contributions is being developed based in the initial approximation

  2. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  3. High pressure dielectric studies on the structural and orientational glass.

    Kaminska, E; Tarnacka, M; Jurkiewicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2016-02-07

    High pressure dielectric studies on the H-bonded liquid D-glucose and Orientationally Disordered Crystal (ODIC) 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose (levoglucosan) were carried out. It was shown that in both compounds, the structural relaxation is weakly sensitive to compression. It is well reflected in the low pressure coefficient of the glass transition and orientational glass transition temperatures which is equal to 60 K/GPa for both D-glucose and 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose. Although it should be noted that ∂Tg(0)/∂p evaluated for the latter compound seems to be enormously high with respect to other systems forming ODIC phase. We also found that the shape of the α-loss peak stays constant for the given relaxation time independently on the thermodynamic condition. Consequently, the Time Temperature Pressure (TTP) rule is satisfied. This experimental finding seems to be quite intriguing since the TTP rule was shown to work well in the van der Waals liquids, while in the strongly associating compounds, it is very often violated. We have also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the structural relaxation process to the temperature change measured by the steepness index (mp) drops with pressure. Interestingly, this change is much more significant in the case of D-glucose with respect to levoglucosan, where the fragility changes only slightly with compression. Finally, kinetics of ODIC-crystal phase transition was studied at high compression. It is worth mentioning that in the recent paper, Tombari and Johari [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 104501 (2015)] have shown that ODIC phase in 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose is stable in the wide range of temperatures and there is no tendency to form more ordered phase at ambient pressure. On the other hand, our isochronal measurements performed at varying thermodynamic conditions indicated unquestionably that the application of pressure favors solid (ODIC)-solid (crystal) transition in 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose. This result mimics the impact of pressure on the

  4. Bainite formation kinetics in high carbon alloyed steel

    Luzginova, N.V.; Zhao, L.; Sietsma, J.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, many investigations have been carried out on the modeling of the bainite formation. In the present work, a physical approach proposed in the literature is implemented to model the formation of lower bainite in high carbon steels (1 wt.% C). In this model, the carbon diffusion is assumed to control the kinetics of the bainite formation. Both the nucleation and the growth rates are considered in an Avrami type analysis. The effect of alloying elements is taken into account considering only the thermodynamics of the system. The results and the physical meaning of the model parameters are discussed. It is shown that the diffusional approach gives a reasonable description of bainite formation kinetics in high carbon steel. Only two fitting parameters are used: the first accounts for carbon grain-boundary diffusion and the second is the initial nucleation-site density. The model satisfactorily accounts for the effect of transformation temperature, but does not take into account the carbide precipitation during bainite formation and the effect of alloying elements on the diffusion coefficient of carbon

  5. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  6. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    Barari, Ghazal

    2017-03-10

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  7. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    Barari, Ghazal; Pryor, Owen; Koroglu, Batikan; Sarathy, Mani; Masunov, Artë m E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2017-01-01

    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  8. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  9. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  10. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells...... and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures...

  11. SrWO4 at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  13. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T c superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T c cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.55 samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 . A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T c as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B 1g -like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group Imm2). The structural transition is clearly reflected in the high pressure

  14. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch...

  15. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  16. NO kinetics in pulsed low-pressure nitrogen plasmas studied by time resolved quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy

    Welzel, S.; Guaitella, O.; Lazzaroni, C.; Pintassilgo, C.; Rousseau, A.; Röpcke, J.

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy at 1897 cm-1 (5.27 µm) has been applied to study the NO(X) kinetics on the micro- and millisecond time scale in pulsed low-pressure N2/NO dc discharges. Experiments have been performed under flowing and static gas conditions to infer the

  17. Friction and wear studies of nuclear power plant components in pressurized high temperature water environments

    Ko, P.L.; Zbinden, M.; Taponat, M.C.; Robertson, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is part of a series of papers aiming to present the friction and wear results of a collaborative study on nuclear power plant components tested in pressurized high temperature water. The high temperature test facilities and the methodology in presenting the kinetics and wear results are described in detail. The results of the same material combinations obtained from two very different high temperature test facilities (NRCC and EDF) are presented and discussed. (K.A.)

  18. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless...

  19. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  20. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  1. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Commentary on differential-pressure measurements at high reference pressures

    Hasbrouck, R.T.; Noyes, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some practical approaches to the difficult problems in calibrating and implementing differential-pressure measurements are discussed. The data presented were gathered several years ago in separate investigations. An attempt is made to compare the results of these investigations to the common mode concept as described by Peter K. Stein in his publication, The Measurement of Differential Quantities - Problems and Approaches. Although one of these investigations involed a 10,000- to 20,000-psi reference-pressure gas measured at an ambient temperature and the other a classic /sup Δ/P flow measurement of cryogenic temperature, the problems encountered were the same

  3. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  4. In situ NMR studies of hydrogen storage kinetics and molecular diffusion in clathrate hydrate at elevated hydrogen pressures

    Okuchi, T. [Okayama Univ., Misasa, Tottori (Japan); Moudrakovski, I.L.; Ripmeester, J.A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Steacie Inst. for Molecular Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of storing high-density hydrogen into compact host media was investigated. The conventional storage scheme where an aqueous solution is frozen with hydrogen gas is too slow for practical use in a hydrogen-based society. Therefore, the authors developed a faster method whereby hydrogen was stored into gas hydrates. The hydrogen gas was directly charged into hydrogen-free, crystalline hydrate powders with partly empty lattices. The storage kinetics and hydrogen diffusion into the hydrate was observed in situ by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a pressurized tube cell. At pressures up to 20 MPa, the storage was complete within 80 minutes, as observed by growth of stored-hydrogen peak into the hydrate. Hydrogen diffusion within the crystalline hydrate media is the rate-determining step of current storage scheme. Therefore, the authors measured the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen molecules using the pulsed field gradient NMR method. The results show that the stored hydrogen is very mobile at temperatures down to 250 K. As such, the powdered hydrate media should work well even in cold environments. Compared with more prevailing hydrogen storage media such as metal hydrides, clathrate hydrates have the advantage of being free from hydrogen embrittlement, more chemically durable, more environmentally sound, and economically affordable. It was concluded that the powdered clathrate hydrate is suitable as a hydrogen storage media. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Full characterization of multiphase, multimorphological kinetics in flow-induced crystallization of IPP at elevated pressure

    Troisi, E.M.; Caelers, H.J.M.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the complex crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in conditions comparable to those found in polymer processing, where the polymer melt experiences a combination of high shear rates and elevated pressures, is key for modeling and therefore predicting the final

  6. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  7. The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... such as spoilage microorganisms, food pathogens, enzymes and food ... heavily preserved (e.g. less acid, salt, sugar) and less ... concerned with the mechanism and kinetics of pressure- .... training, food plant personnel can learn to safely operate ..... Milk was found to provide the microorganisms protection.

  8. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  10. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  11. High pressure oxidation of C2H4/NO mixtures

    Giménez-López, J.; Alzueta, M.U.; Rasmussen, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and kinetic modeling study of the interaction between C2H4 and NO has been performed under flow reactor conditions in the intermediate temperature range (600–900K), high pressure (60bar), and for stoichiometries ranging from reducing to oxidizing conditions. The main reaction...... pathways of the C2H4/O2/NOx conversion, the capacity of C2H4 to remove NO, and the influence of the presence of NOx on the C2H4 oxidation are analyzed. Compared to the C2H4/O2 system, the presence of NOx shifts the onset of reaction 75–150K to lower temperatures. The mechanism of sensitization involves...... the reaction HOCH2CH2OO+NO→CH2OH+CH2O+NO2, which pushes a complex system of partial equilibria towards products. This is a confirmation of the findings of Doughty et al. [3] for a similar system at atmospheric pressure. Under reducing conditions and temperatures above 700K, a significant fraction of the NOx...

  12. Evaluation of the rod ejection accident in Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors using spatial kinetics methods

    Risher, D.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of a rod ejection accident are investigated in relation to the latest, high power density Westinghouse reactors. Limiting criteria are presented, based on experimental evidence, and if not exceeded these criteria will ensure that there will be no interference with core cooling capability, and radiation releases, if any, will be within the guidelines of 10CFR100. A basis is presented for the conservative selection of plant parameters to be used in the analysis, such that the analysis is applicable to a wide range of past, present, and future reactors. The calculational method employs a one-dimensional spatial kinetics computer code and a transient fuel heat transfer computer code to determine the hot spot fuel temperature versus time following a rod ejection. Using these computer codes, the most limiting hot channel factor (which does not cause the fuel damage limit criteria to be exceeded) has been determined as a function of the ejected rod worth. By this means, the limit criteria have been translated into ejected rod worths and hot channel factors which can be used effectively by the nuclear designer and safety analyst. The calculational method is shown to be conservative, compared to the results of a three-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis

  13. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Magnetic resonance measurement of turbulent kinetic energy for the estimation of irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis.

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Hope, Michael D; Tseng, Elaine E; Saloner, David

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to measure the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the ascending aorta of patients with aortic stenosis and to assess its relationship to irreversible pressure loss. Irreversible pressure loss caused by energy dissipation in post-stenotic flow is an important determinant of the hemodynamic significance of aortic stenosis. The simplified Bernoulli equation used to estimate pressure gradients often misclassifies the ventricular overload caused by aortic stenosis. The current gold standard for estimation of irreversible pressure loss is catheterization, but this method is rarely used due to its invasiveness. Post-stenotic pressure loss is largely caused by dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy into heat. Recent developments in magnetic resonance flow imaging permit noninvasive estimation of TKE. The study was approved by the local ethics review board and all subjects gave written informed consent. Three-dimensional cine magnetic resonance flow imaging was used to measure TKE in 18 subjects (4 normal volunteers, 14 patients with aortic stenosis with and without dilation). For each subject, the peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was compared with a pressure loss index. The pressure loss index was based on a previously validated theory relating pressure loss to measures obtainable by echocardiography. The total TKE did not appear to be related to global flow patterns visualized based on magnetic resonance-measured velocity fields. The TKE was significantly higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in normal volunteers (p < 0.001). The peak total TKE in the ascending aorta was strongly correlated to index pressure loss (R(2) = 0.91). Peak total TKE in the ascending aorta correlated strongly with irreversible pressure loss estimated by a well-established method. Direct measurement of TKE by magnetic resonance flow imaging may, with further validation, be used to estimate irreversible pressure loss in aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2013 American

  15. Sensitizing effects of NOx on CH4 oxidation at high pressure

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Rasmussen, Anja Egede; Glarborg, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The CH4/O2/NOx system is investigated in a laboratory-scale high pressure laminar flow reactor with the purpose of elucidating the sensitizing effects of NOx on CH4 oxidation at high pressures and medium temperatures. Experiments are conducted at 100, 50, and 20 bar, 600-900 K, and stoichiometric...... ratios ranging from highly reducing to oxidizing conditions. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of a detailed kinetic model drawn from previous work of the authors, including an updated reaction subset for the direct interactions of NOx and C1-2 hydrocarbon species relevant...

  16. Ab initio chemical kinetics for the ClOO + NO reaction: Effects of temperature and pressure on product branching formation

    Raghunath, P.; Lin, M. C.

    2012-07-01

    The kinetics and mechanism for the reaction of ClOO with NO have been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory calculations based on the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df)//PW91PW91/6-311+G(3df) method, employed to evaluate the energetics for the construction of potential energy surfaces and prediction of reaction rate constants. The results show that the reaction can produce two key low energy products ClNO + 3O2 via the direct triplet abstraction path and ClO + NO2 via the association and decomposition mechanism through long-lived singlet pc-ClOONO and ClONO2 intermediates. The yield of ClNO + O2 (1△) from any of the singlet intermediates was found to be negligible because of their high barriers and tight transition states. As both key reactions initially occur barrierlessly, their rate constants were evaluated with a canonical variational approach in our transition state theory and Rice-Ramspergen-Kassel-Marcus/master equation calculations. The rate constants for ClNO + 3O2 and ClO + NO2 production from ClOO + NO can be given by 2.66 × 10-16 T1.91 exp(341/T) (200-700 K) and 1.48 × 10-24 T3.99 exp(1711/T) (200-600 K), respectively, independent of pressure below atmospheric pressure. The predicted total rate constant and the yields of ClNO and NO2 in the temperature range of 200-700 K at 10-760 Torr pressure are in close agreement with available experimental results.

  17. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  18. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  20. Computer simulations of high pressure systems

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given

  1. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  2. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  3. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  5. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  6. Dehydration Kinetics of Chlorite at High Temperatures and Geophysical Implications

    Shen, K.; Wang, D.; Liu, T.

    2017-12-01

    A significant amount of water is released from hydrous phases in subduction zones and the brought into the earth's interior. The resulting flux may trigger earthquakes and arc magmatism. Chlorite is one of the most important hydrous minerals with a high water content of 13.0 wt.% in the deep subduction zones, and the dehydration of chlorites are thought to be associated with many anomalies geophysical observations. To understand the nature of the geology and geophysical phenomenon, further research on the dehydration of chlorite should be carried out. Here we report the new results on dehydration kinetics of chlorite at high temperatures. We investigated the dehydration kinetics of chlorite using thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The dehydration experiments were conducted with heating rates of 15, 20, 25 K/min up to 1466K. The fitted TGA data results indicate that the probable dehydroxylation mechanism of chlorite is a three-dimensional diffusion reaction with the Fick's second law. The results reveal that the dehydroxylation reaction can be divided into two stages corresponding to the hydroxyls in the two different layers: the first stage between 853 K and 973 K is related to the dehydroxylation of the interlayer hydroxide with the activation energy (Ea) of 159 kJ/ mol and pre-exponential factor (D0) value of 1.53x10-5 m2/s; the second stage between 973 K and 1093 K with an Ea value of 189 kJ/mol and D0 of 2.1x10-5 m2/s is due to the dehydroxylation of the `talc' layer. The mineral reactions and products were observed by high-temperature X-ray diffraction. There are metastable phases during reactions and product phases exhibited a topotactic relationship. The dehydroxylation reaction of chlorite is controlled by an inhomogeneous mechanism. We determine that the fluid production rates of chlorite are 2.7x10-4s-1, 4.5x10-4s-1, 7.3x10-4s-1, 1.2x10-3s-1, 1.7x10-4s-1, at 863 K, 883 K, 903 K, 923 K, 943 K for isothermal dehydration reaction. Our

  7. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  8. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  9. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  10. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  11. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Heweliusza 1, 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  12. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  13. High pressure apparatus transport properties study in high magnetic field

    Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.; Mikulina, O.; Kamarád, Jiří; Alsmadi, A. M.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, 20, 21 & 22 (2002), s. 3330-3333 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D045; GA ČR GA202/00/1217; GA MŠk ME 165 Grant - others:NSF(XX) DMR-0094241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : high-pressure apparatus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2002

  14. Shock tube/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for high temperature kinetic studies

    Tranter, Robert S.; Giri, Binod R.; Kiefer, John H.

    2007-01-01

    A shock tube (ST) with online, time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been constructed for the study of elementary reactions at high temperature. The ST and TOF-MS are coupled by a differentially pumped molecular beam sampling interface, which ensures that the samples entering the TOF-MS are not contaminated by gases drawn from the cold end wall thermal boundary layer in the ST. Additionally, the interface allows a large range of postshock pressures to be used in the shock tube while maintaining high vacuum in the TOF-MS. The apparatus and the details of the sampling system are described along with an analysis in which cooling of the sampled gases and minimization of thermal boundary layer effects are discussed. The accuracy of kinetic measurements made with the apparatus has been tested by investigating the thermal unimolecular dissociation of cyclohexene to ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, a well characterized reaction for which considerable literature data that are in good agreement exist. The experiments were performed at nominal reflected shock wave pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr, and temperatures ranging from 1260 to 1430 K. The rate coefficients obtained are compared with the earlier shock tube studies and are found to be in very good agreement. As expected no significant difference is observed in the rate constant between pressures of 600 and 1300 Torr

  15. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure...

  16. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2011-07-01

    ... imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of high pressure steel cylinders... contained in USITC Publication 4241 (July 2011), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China...

  17. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2012-06-22

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of high pressure steel... preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China were... Publication 4328 (June 2012), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480...

  18. Effects of pressure, temperature and atomic exchanges on phase separation dynamics in Au/Ni(111) surface alloy: Kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Zvejnieks, G. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Ibenskas, A., E-mail: ibenskas@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Tornau, E.E. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2015-11-15

    Instability of the Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is studied in different CO gas pressure, p, and temperature limits using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze the reaction front dynamics and formation of Au clusters using the model which takes into account surface adatom pair and three-body interactions, CO adsorption and desorption, catalytic carbonyl formation reaction, Au and Ni adatom diffusion and their concerted exchange. Variation of interaction parameters allows us to identify three possible reaction front propagation limits with different pressure dependencies: (i) slow channel-like flow in agreement with experimental data [1] (step flow rate, R, increases with p), (ii) intermediate regime (weak p–dependence), and (iii) fast homogeneous flow (R decreases with p). We find that only Au–Ni exchange, contrary to both Ni–CO and Au–CO exchanges, significantly reduces the number of screened Ni atoms inside the Au clusters and stimulates the occurrence of Ni-free Au clusters. The size of Au islands depends on both pressure and temperature. At a fixed temperature it decreases with pressure due to an increased step flow rate. In the high temperature limit, despite the step flow rate exponential increase with temperature, the cluster size increases due to an enhanced Au mobility. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo study of Au–Ni surface alloy instability to CO pressure and temperature. • Three reaction front propagation regimes. • In channel-like regime, the step flow rate increases with CO pressure as in experiment. • Ni-free Au islands are obtained when Au-Ni adatom exchange mechanism is considered. • The size of Au islands decreases with pressure and increases with temperature.

  19. Effects of pressure, temperature and atomic exchanges on phase separation dynamics in Au/Ni(111) surface alloy: Kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Zvejnieks, G.; Ibenskas, A.; Tornau, E.E.

    2015-01-01

    Instability of the Au/Ni(111) surface alloy is studied in different CO gas pressure, p, and temperature limits using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze the reaction front dynamics and formation of Au clusters using the model which takes into account surface adatom pair and three-body interactions, CO adsorption and desorption, catalytic carbonyl formation reaction, Au and Ni adatom diffusion and their concerted exchange. Variation of interaction parameters allows us to identify three possible reaction front propagation limits with different pressure dependencies: (i) slow channel-like flow in agreement with experimental data [1] (step flow rate, R, increases with p), (ii) intermediate regime (weak p–dependence), and (iii) fast homogeneous flow (R decreases with p). We find that only Au–Ni exchange, contrary to both Ni–CO and Au–CO exchanges, significantly reduces the number of screened Ni atoms inside the Au clusters and stimulates the occurrence of Ni-free Au clusters. The size of Au islands depends on both pressure and temperature. At a fixed temperature it decreases with pressure due to an increased step flow rate. In the high temperature limit, despite the step flow rate exponential increase with temperature, the cluster size increases due to an enhanced Au mobility. - Highlights: • Kinetic Monte Carlo study of Au–Ni surface alloy instability to CO pressure and temperature. • Three reaction front propagation regimes. • In channel-like regime, the step flow rate increases with CO pressure as in experiment. • Ni-free Au islands are obtained when Au-Ni adatom exchange mechanism is considered. • The size of Au islands decreases with pressure and increases with temperature

  20. Improving hot-spot pressure for ignition in high-adiabat Inertial Confinement Fusion implosion

    Kang, Dongguo; Zhu, Shaoping; Pei, Wenbing; Zou, Shiyang; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel capsule target design to improve the hot-spot pressure in the high-adiabat implosion for inertial confinement fusion is proposed, where a layer of comparatively high-density material is used as a pusher between the fuel and the ablator. This design is based on our theoretical finding of the stagnation scaling laws, which indicates that the hot spot pressure can be improved by increasing the kinetic energy density $\\rho_d V_{imp}^2/2$ ($\\rho_d$ is the shell density when the maximum she...

  1. The Effect of pH and High-Pressure Homogenization on Droplet Size

    Ah Pis Yong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to revisit the effect of high pressure on homogenization and the influence of pH on the emulsion droplet sizes. The high-pressure homogenization (HPH involves two stages of processing, where the first stage involves in blending the coarse emulsion by a blender, and the second stage requires disruption of the coarse emulsion into smaller droplets by a high-pressure homogenizer. The pressure range in this review is in between 10-500 MPa. The homogenised droplet sizes can be reduced by increasing the homogenization recirculation, and there is a threshold point beyond that by applying pressure only, the size cannot be further reduced. Normally, homogenised emulsions are classified by their degree of kinetic stability. Dispersed phase present in the form of droplets while continuous phase also known as suspended droplets. With a proper homogenization recirculation and pressure, a more kinetically stable emulsion can be produced. The side effects of increasing homogenization pressure are that it can cause overprocessing of the emulsion droplets where the droplet sizes become larger rather than the expected smaller size. This can cause kinetic instability in the emulsion. The droplet size is usually measured by dynamic light scattering or by laser light scattering technique. The type of samples used in this reviews are such as chocolate and vanilla based powders; mean droplet sizes samples; basil oil; tomato; lupin protein; oil; skim milk, soymilk; coconut milk; tomato homogenate; corn; egg-yolk, rapeseed and sunflower; Poly(4-vinylpyridine/silica; and Complex 1 until complex 4 approaches from author case study. A relationship is developed between emulsion size and pH. Results clearly show that lower pH offers smaller droplet of emulsion and the opposite occurs when the pH is increased.

  2. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  3. Operational High Resolution Chemical Kinetics Simulation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerical simulations of chemical kinetics are critical to addressing urgent issues in both the developed and developing world. Ongoing demand for higher resolution...

  4. Improved Kinetic Models for High-Speed Combustion Simulation

    Montgomery, C. J; Tang, Q; Sarofim, A. F; Bockelie, M. J; Gritton, J. K; Bozzelli, J. W; Gouldin, F. C; Fisher, E. M; Chakravarthy, S

    2008-01-01

    Report developed under an STTR contract. The overall goal of this STTR project has been to improve the realism of chemical kinetics in computational fluid dynamics modeling of hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet combustors...

  5. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  6. Recombination times in germanium under high pressure

    Kuyt, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of pressure on a well defined recombination process was studied. The centres were introduced by γirradiation and the lifetime determined by the decay time of photoconductivity. An optical pressure vessel is described which allows for a hydrostatic variation of 3000 bars. The diffusion constant and lifetime measurements are presented and analysed. (V.J.C.)

  7. Surface kinetics for catalytic combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures on platinum at atmospheric pressure in stagnation flows

    Ikeda, H.; Sato, J.; Williams, F. A.

    1995-03-01

    Experimental studies of the combustion of premixed hydrogen-air mixtures impinging on the surface of a heated platinum plate at normal atmospheric pressure were performed and employed to draw inferences concerning surface reaction mechanisms and rate parameters applicable under practical conditions of catalytic combustion. Plate and gas temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and concentration profiles of major stable species in the gas were measured by gas-chromatographic analyses of samples withdrawn by quartz probes. In addition, ignition and extinction phenomena were recorded and interpreted with the aid of a heat balance at the surface and a previous flow-field analysis of the stagnation-point boundary layer. From the experimental and theoretical results, conclusions were drawn concerning the surface chemical-kinetic mechanisms and values of the elementary rate parameters that are consistent with the observations. In particular, the activation energy for the surface oxidation step H + OH → H 2O is found to be appreciably less at these high surface coverages than in the low-coverage limit.

  8. The investigation of degradation reaction of various saccharides in high temperature and high pressure water

    Saito, T.; Noguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.

    2008-07-01

    Recently, conversions of polysaccharides included in biomass resources have been studied in order to recover valuable chemicals. Degradation of polysaccharides has been attracted by many researchers, whereas by-products from secondary reactions of the materials have not been studied very well. For the purpose of understanding reaction behavior of various monosaccharides in high-temperature and high-pressure water regions, we investigated reaction pathway and kinetics through reaction experiments of degradation of saccharides in subcritical water. The experiment was conducted by using continuous flow-type micro-reactors. Glucose was used as the starting material. From the experimental results, the conversion of glucose increased with increasing the residence time. The yields of fructose and 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose decreased with increasing the residence time. The yields of organic acids and some aldehydes increased with increasing the residence time.

  9. The investigation of degradation reaction of various saccharides in high temperature and high pressure water

    Saito, T; Noguchi, S; Matsumoto, T; Sasaki, M; Goto, M

    2008-01-01

    Recently, conversions of polysaccharides included in biomass resources have been studied in order to recover valuable chemicals. Degradation of polysaccharides has been attracted by many researchers, whereas by-products from secondary reactions of the materials have not been studied very well. For the purpose of understanding reaction behavior of various monosaccharides in high-temperature and high-pressure water regions, we investigated reaction pathway and kinetics through reaction experiments of degradation of saccharides in subcritical water. The experiment was conducted by using continuous flow-type micro-reactors. Glucose was used as the starting material. From the experimental results, the conversion of glucose increased with increasing the residence time. The yields of fructose and 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose decreased with increasing the residence time. The yields of organic acids and some aldehydes increased with increasing the residence time

  10. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  11. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  12. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  13. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  14. Nonmonotonic Temperature Dependence of the Pressure-Dependent Reaction Rate Constant and Kinetic Isotope Effect of Hydrogen Radical Reaction with Benzene Calculated by Variational Transition-State Theory.

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xin; Truhlar, Donald G; Xu, Xuefei

    2017-11-30

    The reaction between H and benzene is a prototype for reactions of radicals with aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we report calculations of the reaction rate constants and the branching ratios of the two channels of the reaction (H addition and H abstraction) over a wide temperature and pressure range. Our calculations, obtained with an accurate potential energy surface, are based on variational transition-state theory for the high-pressure limit of the addition reaction and for the abstraction reaction and on system-specific quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory calibrated by variational transition-state theory for pressure effects on the addition reaction. The latter is a very convenient way to include variational effects, corner-cutting tunneling, and anharmonicity in falloff calculations. Our results are in very good agreement with the limited experimental data and show the importance of including pressure effects in the temperature interval where the mechanism changes from addition to abstraction. We found a negative temperature effect of the total reaction rate constants at 1 atm pressure in the temperature region where experimental data are missing and accurate theoretical data were previously missing as well. We also calculated the H + C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 and D + C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 kinetic isotope effects, and we compared our H + C 6 H 6 results to previous theoretical data for H + toluene. We report a very novel nonmonotonic dependence of the kinetic isotope effect on temperature. A particularly striking effect is the prediction of a negative temperature dependence of the total rate constant over 300-500 K wide temperature ranges, depending on the pressure but generally in the range from 600 to 1700 K, which includes the temperature range of ignition in gasoline engines, which is important because aromatics are important components of common fuels.

  15. Oxidation Kinetics of Ferritic Alloys in High-Temperature Steam Environments

    Parker, Stephen S.; White, Josh; Hosemann, Peter; Nelson, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    High-temperature isothermal steam oxidation kinetic parameters of several ferritic alloys were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation kinetic constant ( k) was measured as a function of temperature from 900°C to 1200°C. The results show a marked increase in oxidation resistance compared to reference Zircaloy-2, with kinetic constants 3-5 orders of magnitude lower across the experimental temperature range. The results of this investigation supplement previous findings on the properties of ferritic alloys for use as candidate cladding materials and extend kinetic parameter measurements to high-temperature steam environments suitable for assessing accident tolerance for light water reactor applications.

  16. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model.

    Hunault, C.C.; van Eijkeren, J.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; de Vries, I.; Leenders, M.E.C.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods

  17. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  19. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  20. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  1. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  2. Combustion and gasification of coal and straw under pressurized conditions. Task 2: Determination of kinetic parameters in PTGA

    Rathmann, O; Hald, P; Bak, J; Boll Illerup, J; Gjernes, E; Fjellerup, J; Olsen, A

    1995-10-01

    The reactivities of pulverized coal and straw fuels were investigated regarding pyrolysis, combustion and gasification with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O by thermogravimetric analysis under pressurized conditions. The fuels were a Colombian coal, pulverized to 45-90 {mu}m particles, and wheat straw pulverized to 0-200 {mu}m particles. The pyrolysis studies were performed at 150-1000 deg. C in pure N{sub 2} at 1.5 to 40 bar. The combustion studies were performed at 300-550 deg. C, 1.5-40 bar total pressure with 0.08-0.8 bar of O{sub 2} partial pressure. The CO{sub 2} gasification studies were performed at 850-1200 deg. C, 4-40 bar of total pressure with 0.7-4 bar of CO{sub 2} partial pressure, also including studies with CO in combination with CO{sub 2}. A minor H{sub 2}O gasification study with straw was performed at 900-1050 deg. C at 1.5-2.0 bar of total pressure in an atmosphere containing partial pressures up to 0.32 bar of H{sub 2}O, o.2 bar of CO{sub 2}, 0.28 bar of CO and 0.12 bar of H{sub 2}. For combustion and CO{sub 2} gasification the results were analyzed with regard to reaction kinetics, and kinetic parameters that represent the experimental results were found. (AU) 11 tabs., 26 ills., 10 refs.

  3. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G

    2001-01-01

    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  4. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Response of Microbial Reactions to High CO2.

    Jin, Qusheng; Kirk, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration captures CO 2 from industrial sources and stores the CO 2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO 2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO 2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO 2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO 2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO 2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO 2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  5. Thermodynamic and kinetic response of microbial reactions to high CO2

    Qusheng Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Geological carbon sequestration captures CO2 from industrial sources and stores the CO2 in subsurface reservoirs, a viable strategy for mitigating global climate change. In assessing the environmental impact of the strategy, a key question is how microbial reactions respond to the elevated CO2 concentration. This study uses biogeochemical modeling to explore the influence of CO2 on the thermodynamics and kinetics of common microbial reactions in subsurface environments, including syntrophic oxidation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The results show that increasing CO2 levels decreases groundwater pH and modulates chemical speciation of weak acids in groundwater, which in turn affect microbial reactions in different ways and to different extents. Specifically, a thermodynamic analysis shows that increasing CO2 partial pressure lowers the energy available from syntrophic oxidation and acetoclastic methanogenesis, but raises the available energy of microbial iron reduction, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Kinetic modeling suggests that high CO2 has the potential of inhibiting microbial sulfate reduction while promoting iron reduction. These results are consistent with the observations of previous laboratory and field studies, and highlight the complexity in microbiological responses to elevated CO2 abundance, and the potential power of biogeochemical modeling in evaluating and quantifying these responses.

  6. Characterising multi-level effects of acute pressure exposure on a shallow-water invertebrate: insights into the kinetics and hierarchy of the stress response.

    Morris, James P; Thatje, Sven; Ravaux, Juliette; Shillito, Bruce; Hauton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is an important, ubiquitous, environmental variable of particular relevance in the marine environment. However, it is widely overlooked despite recent evidence that some marine ectotherms may be demonstrating climate-driven bathymetric range shifts. Wide-ranging effects of increased hydrostatic pressure have been observed from the molecular through to the behavioural level. Still, no study has simultaneously examined these multiple levels of organisation in a single experiment in order to understand the kinetics, hierarchy and interconnected nature of such responses during an acute exposure, and over a subsequent recovery period. Here, we quantify the transcription of a set of previously characterised genes during and after acute pressure exposure in adults of the shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Further, we perform respiratory rate and behavioural analysis over the same period. Increases in expression of genes associated with stress and metabolism were observed during and after high-pressure exposure. Respiratory rate increased during exposure and into the recovery period. Finally, differential behaviour was observed under elevated hydrostatic pressure in comparison to ambient pressure. Characterising generalised responses to acute elevated pressure is a vital precursor to longer-term, acclimation-based pressure studies. Results provide a novel insight into what we term the overall stress response (OSR) to elevated pressure; a concept that we suggest to be applicable to other environmental stressors. We highlight the importance of considering more than a single component of the stress response in physiological studies, particularly in an era where environmental multi-stressor studies are proliferating. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an Al–Mg alloy solidified under high pressures

    Jie, J.C.; Zou, C.M.; Brosh, E.; Wang, H.W.; Wei, Z.J.; Li, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al–42.2Mg alloy was solidified under pressures of 1, 2, and 3 GPa and the microstructure analyzed. •A thermodynamic calculation of the Al–Mg phase diagram at high pressures was performed. •The phase content changes from predominantly γ-Al 12 Mg 17 at 1 GPa to FCC solid solution at 3 GPa. •The β-Al 3 Mg 2 is predicted to remain stable at low temperatures but is not observed. •The alloy solidified at high pressure has remarkably enhanced ultimate tensile strength. -- Abstract: Phase formation, the microstructure and its evolution, and the mechanical properties of an Al–42.2 at.% Mg alloy solidified under high pressures were investigated. After solidification at pressures of 1 GPa and 2 GPa, the main phase is the γ phase, richer in Al than in equilibrium condition. When the pressure is further increased to 3 GPa, the main phase is the supersaturated Al(Mg) solid solution with Mg solubility up to 41.6 at.%. Unlike in similar alloys solidified at ambient pressure, the β phase does not appear. Calculated high-pressure phase diagrams of the Al–Mg system show that although the stability range of the β phase is diminished with pressure, it is still thermodynamically stable at room temperature. Hence, the disappearance of the β phase is interpreted as kinetic suppression, due to the slow diffusion rate at high pressures, which inhibits solid–solid reactions. The Al–42.2 at.% Mg alloy solidified under 3 GPa has remarkably enhanced ultimate tensile strength compared to the alloy solidified under normal atmospheric pressure

  9. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  10. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  11. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  13. Highly efficient and selective pressure-assisted photon-induced polymerization of styrene

    Guan, Jiwen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Song, Yang, E-mail: yang.song@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2016-06-07

    The polymerization process of condensed styrene to produce polystyrene as an industrially important polymeric material was investigated using a novel approach by combining external compression with ultraviolet radiation. The reaction evolution was monitored as a function of time and the reaction products were characterized by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By optimizing the loading pressures, we observed highly efficient and selective production of polystyrene of different tacticities. Specifically, at relatively low loading pressures, infrared spectra suggest that styrene monomers transform to amorphous atactic polystyrene (APS) with minor crystalline isotactic polystyrene. In contrast, APS was found to be the sole product when polymerization occurs at relatively higher loading pressures. The time-dependent reaction profiles allow the examination of the polymerization kinetics by analyzing the rate constant and activation volume as a function of pressure. As a result, an optimized pressure condition, which allows a barrierless reaction to proceed, was identified and attributed to the very desirable reaction yield and kinetics. Finally, the photoinitiated reaction mechanism and the growth geometry of the polymer chains were investigated from the energy diagram of styrene and by the topology analysis of the crystal styrene. This study shows strong promise to produce functional polymeric materials in a highly efficient and controlled manner.

  14. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  15. High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling

    Johnson, R P

    2004-01-01

    High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.

  16. Kinetics of a Criegee intermediate that would survive high humidity and may oxidize atmospheric SO2.

    Huang, Hao-Li; Chao, Wen; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2015-09-01

    Criegee intermediates are thought to play a role in atmospheric chemistry, in particular, the oxidation of SO2, which produces SO3 and subsequently H2SO4, an important constituent of aerosols and acid rain. However, the impact of such oxidation reactions is affected by the reactions of Criegee intermediates with water vapor, because of high water concentrations in the troposphere. In this work, the kinetics of the reactions of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO with water vapor and with SO2 were directly measured via UV absorption of (CH3)2COO under near-atmospheric conditions. The results indicate that (i) the water reaction with (CH3)2COO is not fast enough (kH2O SO2 at a near-gas-kinetic-limit rate (kSO2 = 1.3 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1)). These observations imply a significant fraction of atmospheric (CH3)2COO may survive under humid conditions and react with SO2, very different from the case of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO, in which the reaction with water dimer predominates in the CH2OO decay under typical tropospheric conditions. In addition, a significant pressure dependence was observed for the reaction of (CH3)2COO with SO2, suggesting the use of low pressure rate may underestimate the impact of this reaction. This work demonstrates that the reactivity of a Criegee intermediate toward water vapor strongly depends on its structure, which will influence the main decay pathways and steady-state concentrations for various Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere.

  17. Isothermal crystallization kinetics in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.; Smith, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass were measured and modelled. Kinetics of acmite growth in the standard HW39-4 glass were measured using the isothermal method. A time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram was generated from these data. Classical glass-crystal transformation kinetic models were empirically applied to the crystallization data. These models adequately describe the kinetics of crystallization in complex HLW glasses (i.e., RSquared = 0.908). An approach to measurement, fitting, and use of TTT diagrams for prediction of crystallinity in a HLW glass canister is proposed

  18. Pressure effects on high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4

    Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Kwangpyo; Ryu, Taegeun

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effects on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding in high temperature steam have been analyzed. A double layer autoclave was made for the high pressure, high temperature oxidation tests. The experimental test temperature range was 700 - 900 deg C, and pressures were 0.1 - 15 MPa. Steam partial pressure turns out to be an important one rather than total pressure. Steam pressure enhances the oxidation rate of Zry-4 exponentially. The enhancement depends on the temperature, and the maximum exists between 750 - 800 deg C. Pre-existing oxide layer decreases the enhancement about 40 - 60%. The acceleration of oxidation rate by high pressure team seems to be originated from the formation of cracks by abrupt transformation of tetragonal phase in oxide, where the un-stability of tetragonal phase comes from the reduction of surface energy by steam. (author)

  19. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  20. Cavitation-induced reactions in high-pressure carbon dioxide

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; van Eck, D.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of ultrasound-induced in situ radical formation in liquid carbon dioxide was demonstrated. The required threshold pressure for cavitation could be exceeded at a relatively low acoustic intensity, as the high vapor pressure of CO2 counteracts the hydrostatic pressure. With the use of

  1. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  2. Determination of kinetic coefficients for proton-nucleus collisions at high energy

    Rizzato, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    From the effective proton dynamics, the approximations in the context of high energy collisions which lead to the Boltzmann equation, are established. From this equation, general expressions for the kinetic coefficients are deduced. Using a simple model, analytical expressions for kinetic coefficients are obtained. The importance of the effect of Pauli blocking is also shown. (author) [pt

  3. Insights into Sonogashira cross-coupling by high-throughput kinetics and descriptor modeling

    an der Heiden, M.R.; Plenio, H.; Immel, S.; Burello, E.; Rothenberg, G.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for the high-throughput monitoring of reaction kinetics in homogeneous catalysis, running up to 25 coupling reactions in a single reaction vessel. This method is demonstrated and validated on the Sonogashira reaction, analyzing the kinetics for almost 500 coupling reactions.

  4. Influence of preliminary deformation and phase strengthening on γ reversible α transformation kinetics in cerium under pressure

    Larionov, L.V.; Livshits, L.D.; Peresada, G.I.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fiziki Zemli)

    1985-01-01

    Using the methods of piezo- and resistometry the influence of preliminary plastic deformation, phase transformation induced strengthening and heat treatment on kinetics of γ reversible α transformation in cerium is studied. It is shown, that the used methods of preliminary treatment of sample material do not change pressure value of γ → α and α →γ transformation initiation and do not affect hysteresis value, but affect considerably its kinetics. Preliminary plastic deformation and structural strengthening increase the average formation rate of a new phase. According to the data of tensile tests, structural strengthening, apprearing as a result of one cycle of γ → α → γ transformation, increases cerium strength characteristics 6y 30-50% with simultaneous decrease in plasticity. Metallographic studies confirm martensitic character of γ → α → γ transformations in cerium

  5. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  6. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  7. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  8. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    Kamimura, N; Sotome, S; Shimizu, A; Nakajima, K; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4 0 C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4 0 C.

  9. Magnetic structures of erbium under high pressure

    Kawano, S.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic structures of erbium metal at 4.5 K and 11.5 kbar hydrostatic pressure have revealed that the transition to a conical structure at low temperatures is suppressed and that the cycloidal structure, with modulation vector Q congruent-to (2/7 2pi/c)c persists...

  10. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  11. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  12. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  13. Magnetization at high pressure in CeP

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okayama, Y.; Môri, N.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence of magnetization below 60 K up to 1.6 GPa in the low-carrier concentration system CeP showing two step transitions at T = TL and TH under high pressure. At high pressure, M( P, T) exhibits a maximum at around the lower transition temperature TL. This behavior implies that the magnetic state changes at TL. The pressure dependence of isothermal magnetization M( P) is different above and below TL. In fact, M( P) below TL exhibits a maximum at around 1.4 GPa, whereas M( P) above TL increases steeply with pressure up to 1.6 GPa.

  14. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  15. Proposed dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS

    Ruoff, A.L.; Vohra, Y.K.; Bassett, W.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An instrumentation proposal for dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS is described. It is the purpose of this proposed program to provide researchers in high pressure science with beam lines for X-ray diffraction studies in the megabar regime. This will involve radiation from a bending magnet as well as from a wiggler. Examples of the high pressure results up to 2.16 Mbar are shown. Diffraction patterns from bending magnet and wiggler beams are shown and compared. The need for this facility by the high pressure community is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  17. High pressure argon detector of high energy neutrinos

    Vishnevskii, A.V.; Golutvin, I.A.; Sarantsev, V.L.; Sviridov, V.A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskii, A.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Chernyatin, V.K.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovanskii, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an electron neutrino detector of a new type where track information is available for all charged particles. As a working medium we use Argon compressed up to a pressure of 100 to 150 atm (approximately 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 ). The spatial reconstruction of tracks are accomplished with an accuracy not inferior to that of bubble chambers. The detector has a high sensitivity in ionization measurements. An assembly with a working medium mass of approximately 100 tons seem to be realisable. This makes it possible to perform tasks with cross-sections of (10 -5 + 10 -3 ) x delty tot at an intensity of the neutrino beam which is available in present-day accelerators. (orig.)

  18. Kinetics of highly vibrationally excited O2(X) molecules in inductively-coupled oxygen plasmas

    Annušová, Adriana; Marinov, Daniil; Booth, Jean-Paul; Sirse, Nishant; Lino da Silva, Mário; Lopez, Bruno; Guerra, Vasco

    2018-04-01

    The high degree of vibrational excitation of O2 ground state molecules recently observed in inductively coupled plasma discharges is investigated experimentally in more detail and interpreted using a detailed self-consistent 0D global kinetic model for oxygen plasmas. Additional experimental results are presented and used to validate the model. The vibrational kinetics considers vibrational levels up to v = 41 and accounts for electron impact excitation and de-excitation (e-V), vibration-to-translation relaxation (V-T) in collisions with O2 molecules and O atoms, vibration-to-vibration energy exchanges (V-V), excitation of electronically excited states, dissociative electron attachment, and electron impact dissociation. Measurements were performed at pressures of 10–80 mTorr (1.33 and 10.67 Pa) and radio frequency (13.56 MHz) powers up to 500 W. The simulation results are compared with the absolute densities in each O2 vibrational level obtained by high sensitivity absorption spectroscopy measurements of the Schumann–Runge bands for O2(X, v = 4–18), O(3 P) atom density measurements by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) calibrated against Xe, and laser photodetachment measurements of the O‑ negative ions. The highly excited O2(X, v) distribution exhibits a shape similar to a Treanor-Gordiets distribution, but its origin lies in electron impact e-V collisions and not in V-V up-pumping, in contrast to what happens in all other molecular gases known to date. The relaxation of vibrational quanta is mainly due to V-T energy-transfer collisions with O atoms and to electron impact dissociation of vibrationally excited molecules, e+O2(X, v)→O(3P)+O(3P).

  19. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B z ) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is ∼2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed

  20. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  1. High pressure behaviour of uranium mono pnictides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, Poonam; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2006-01-01

    The pressure induced structural phase transition of three actinide mono pnictides AX (A=U and X=As, Sb, Bi), have been studied theoretically using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 5f electrons of the actinide (uranium) ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves are compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 17GPa, 9.5GPa and 5.3 GPa respectively. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. (author)

  2. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  3. Glass transition, crystallization kinetics and pressure effect on crystallization of ZrNbCuNiBe bulk metallic glass

    Xing, P.F.; Zhuang, Yanxin; Wang, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    The glass transition behavior and crystallization kinetics of Zr48Nb8Cu14Ni12Be18 bulk metallic glass have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The activation energies of both glass transition and crystallization events have been obtained using...... the Kissinger method. Results indicate that this glass crystallizes by a three-stage reaction: (1) phase separation and primary crystallization of glass, (2) formation of intermetallic compounds, and (3) decomposition of intermetallic compounds and crystallization of residual amorphous phase. The pressure...

  4. A preliminary high-pressure thermogravimetric study of combustion reactivity of a Collie coal char

    Chan, Yii Leng; Zhang, Zhezi; Zhu, Mingming; Zhang, Dongke [Western Australia Univ., Crawley, WA (Australia). Centre for Energy (M473); Luan, Chao [Western Australia Univ., Crawley, WA (Australia). Centre for Energy (M473); Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering; You, Changfu [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The effect of pressure(up to 20 bar)on the reactivity of a char(150-160 {mu}m) produced from Western Australian Collie coal has been studied using a high-pressure thermogravimetric analyser (HP TGA). The pressure demonstrated a positive effect in enhancing char combustion reactivities.Kinetic parameters have been determined from the experimental data.The apparent reaction order was found to be approximately 0.7 and the apparent activation energies were 91.0 kJ/mol at atmospheric pressure and 1.5 kJ/mol at an elevated pressure(10 bar),indicating a shift in the control regimes of the reaction at elevated pressures.The lumped effect of the sample size, bulk diffusion,interparticle and intraparticle diffusion at the elevated pressures played an important role in reducing the mass transfer during the HP-TGA experimentation.Thus the activation energy calculated at elevated pressures may not represent the intrinsic activation energy of the char particles but the apparent values of the bulk of the samples.

  5. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of ambient air pressure on the oxidation kinetics of Fe–6 at.% Si alloy

    Lashin, Abdel Rahman; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Houbaert, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2008), s. 2580-2587 ISSN 0010-938X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Iron-silicon * Mössbauer spectroscopy * XRD * Oxidation kinetics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.293, year: 2008

  7. Formation of quasicrystals and amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass under pressure

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Zhuang, Yanxin; Rasmussen, Helge Kildahl

    2001-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the formation of quasicrystals and the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the supercooled liquid region for a Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu7.5Ag10 metallic glass have been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature nonisothermal and isothermal...... of quasicrystals decrease, Atomic mobility is important for the formation of quasicrystals from the metallic glass whereas the relationship of the crystallization temperature vs pressure for the transition from the quasicrystalline state to intermetallic compounds may mainly depend on the thermodynamic potential...... energy barrier. To study the amorphous-to-quasicrystalline phase transformation kinetics in the metallic glass, relative volume fractions of the transferred quasicrystalline phase as a function of annealing time, obtained at 663, 673, 683, and 693 K, have been analyzed in details using 14 nucleation...

  8. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  9. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  10. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    Kamigaki, Kazuo; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  11. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice preservation.

    Lavinas, F C; Miguel, M A L; Lopes, M L M; Valente Mesquita, V L

    2008-08-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to thermal processing to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Cashew apple juice has a pleasant flavor and is rich in vitamin C. Studies to determine the effect of high pressure on microorganisms in cashew apple juice are still lacking. In this study, the inactivation of natural micropopulation and inoculated Escherichia coli by high pressure was evaluated in fresh cashew apple juice. The microbiological stability of pressure-treated juice was also evaluated. The applied high pressure levels ranged from 250 to 400 MPa for periods of 3 to 7 min. Treatments with 350 MPa for 7 min and 400 MPa for either 3 or 7 min reduced the aerobic mesophilic bacteria count to a level below the detection limit. Pressure treatments were also efficient in inactivating yeast and filamentous fungi. The inoculated E. coli (10(6) CFU/mL) was reduced to below 10 CFU/mL after a pressure treatment of 400 MPa for 3 min. The inactivation of this microorganism followed a 1st-order reaction kinetics. The decimal reduction time (D-value) ranged from 1.21 to 16.43 min, while pressure resistance value (z-value) was 123.46 MPa. Neither natural micropopulation growth nor E. coli repair was observed in postprocessed (400 MPa for 3 min) cashew apple juice kept under refrigerated storage (at 4 degrees C) during 8 wk. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high-pressure treatment for preserving cashew apple juice.

  13. Pressurizer pump reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    During a prolonged outage from November 1986 to May 1990, numerous changes were made at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Some of these changes involved the pressurizer pumps. An analysis was performed to calculate the impact of these changes on the pressurizer system availability. The analysis showed that the availability of the pressurizer system dropped from essentially 100% to approximately 96%. The primary reason for the decrease in availability comes because off-site power grid disturbances sometimes result in a reactor trip with the present pressurizer pump configuration. Changes are being made to the present pressurizer pump configuration to regain some of the lost availability

  14. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    Allebrod, Frank

    against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, such as natural gas reforming, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. A reduction of the investment costs may be achieved by increasing the operational pressure and temperature of the electrolyzer, as this will result in: 1.......3 A cm-2 combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production. One of the produced electrolysis cells was operated for 350 h. Based on the successful results a patent application covering this novel cell was filed...

  15. Decomposition kinetics of expanded austenite with high nitrogen contents

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the decomposition kinetics of synthesized homogeneous expanded austenite formed by gaseous nitriding of stainless steel AISI 304L and AISI 316L with nitrogen contents up to 38 at.% nitrogen. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in both inert (N2) and reducing (H2......) atmospheres. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry were applied for identification of the decomposition reactions and X-ray diffraction analysis was applied for phase analysis. CrN precipitated upon annealing; the activation energies are 187 kJ/mol and 128 kJ/mol for AISI 316L and AISI 304L...

  16. Spectroscopy and Kinetics of Combustion Gases at High Temperatures

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Bowman, Craig [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes our research program that involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw laser absorption methods for the measurement of concentration time-histories and fundamental spectroscopic parameters for species of interest in combustion; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. This first part of this report covers research during the final three-year support period, i.e. March 2012 – November 2015. The later part of this report summarizes research conducted over multiple-year periods between March 1988 to March 2012. Publications supported by DOE for each period are summarized at the end of that report section.

  17. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  18. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  19. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  1. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  2. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Woon-Yong; Oh, Sung-Ho; Lee, Choon-Geun; Seo, Yong-Chang; Kim, Ji-Seon; Song, Chi-Ho; Kim, Ga-Vin; Lee, Shin-Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v). Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production. PMID:22969270

  4. Enhancement of Lipid Extraction from Marine Microalga, Scenedesmus Associated with High-Pressure Homogenization Process

    Seok-Cheol Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalga, Scenedesmus sp., which is known to be suitable for biodiesel production because of its high lipid content, was subjected to the conventional Folch method of lipid extraction combined with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment process at 1200 psi and 35°C. Algal lipid yield was about 24.9% through this process, whereas only 19.8% lipid can be obtained by following a conventional lipid extraction procedure using the solvent, chloroform : methanol (2 : 1, v/v. Present approach requires 30 min process time and a moderate working temperature of 35°C as compared to the conventional extraction method which usually requires >5 hrs and 65°C temperature. It was found that this combined extraction process followed second-order reaction kinetics, which means most of the cellular lipids were extracted during initial periods of extraction, mostly within 30 min. In contrast, during the conventional extraction process, the cellular lipids were slowly and continuously extracted for >5 hrs by following first-order kinetics. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy revealed altered texture of algal biomass pretreated with high-pressure homogenization. These results clearly demonstrate that the Folch method coupled with high-pressure homogenization pretreatment can easily destruct the rigid cell walls of microalgae and release the intact lipids, with minimized extraction time and temperature, both of which are essential for maintaining good quality of the lipids for biodiesel production.

  5. Impurity trapped excitons under high hydrostatic pressure

    Grinberg, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Paper summarizes the results on pressure effect on energies of the 4fn → 4fn and 4fn-15d1 → 4fn transitions as well as influence of pressure on anomalous luminescence in Lnα+ doped oxides and fluorides. A model of impurity trapped exciton (ITE) was developed. Two types of ITE were considered. The first where a hole is localized at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α+1)+) and an electron is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states and the second where an electron captured at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α-1)+) and a hole is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states. Paper presents detailed analysis of nonlinear changes of energy of anomalous luminescence of BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+ (x > 0.3) and LiBaF3:Eu2+, and relate them to ITE-4f65d1 states mixing.

  6. Photon-Counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) for High Resolution Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing ultrasensitive Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) for high resolution far-infrared spectroscopy applications, with a long-term goal of...

  7. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  8. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  9. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure or hydrophobic modification on thermal stability of xanthine oxidase.

    Halalipour, Ali; Duff, Michael R; Howell, Elizabeth E; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2017-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the kinetics of thermal inactivation of xanthine oxidase (XOx) from bovine milk was studied. Inactivation of XOx followed pseudo-first-order kinetics at 0.1-300MPa and 55.0-70.0°C. High pressure up to at least 300MPa stabilized XOx at all the studied temperatures. The highest stabilization effect of HHP on XOx was at 200-300MPa at 55.0 and 58.6°C, and at 250-300MPa at 62.3-70.0°C. The stability of XOx increased 9.5 times at 300MPa and 70.0°C compared to atmospheric pressure at the same temperature. The activation energy of inactivation of XOx decreased with pressure and was 1.9 times less at 300MPa (97.0±8.2kJmol -1 ) than at 0.1MPa (181.7±12.1kJmol -1 ). High pressure decreased the dependence of the rate constant of inactivation to temperature effects compared to atmospheric pressure. The stabilizing effect of HHP on XOx was highest at 70.0°C where the activation volume of inactivation of XOx was 28.9±2.9cm 3 mol -1 . A second approach to try to increase XOx stability involved hydrophobic modification using aniline or benzoate. However, the thermal stability of XOx remained unaffected after 8-14 modifications of carboxyl side groups per XOx monomer with aniline, or 12-17 modifications of amino side groups per XOx monomer with benzoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy

    Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.

    2018-05-01

    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies has been shown in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this, we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasi-linear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modelling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.

  12. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures. [. gamma. rays

    Milinchuk, V; KIRJUKHIN, V; KLINSHPONT, E

    1977-06-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibers were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene, 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures.

  13. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  14. First experimental results on the kinetic processes in a surface-wave-sustained argon discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Calzada, M.D.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.

    1995-01-01

    This communication presents an advance of the results of an experimental study of the kinetic processes in a surface-wave-sustained argon discharge at atmospheric pressure. We utilize the study developed by Fujimoto on the population and depopulation processes of the excited levels of atoms and ions. This theory has been applied by S. Daviaud and A. Hirabayashi to explain the kinetic processes in helium plasma at low pressure. Fujimoto has studied the ionization and recombination mechanisms of the plasma under various conditions and its relation to the population density distributions. This study establishes, for an hydrogenic ion with a core charge z, different zones in the atomic system (level map). Each zone is characterized by the dominant mechanisms of the population and depopulation of their excited levels, A level is characterized for the effective principal quantum number p, where p = z (E H /|E p |) 1/2 , E H is the hydrogen ionization energy and |E p | is the energy required to ionize the atom from the level considered. The population of each level p can be expressed in terms of the parameter b(p) defined as n(p)/n SB (p), n(p) and n SB (p) being the actual population and the Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium population of the level, respectively. Figure I shows the population and depopulation processes of a level p, which are both collisional and radiative that are characterized by their respective coefficients

  15. Disclosure of the oscillations in kinetics of the reactor pressure vessel steel damage at fast neutron intensity decreasing

    Krasikov, E.; Nikolaenko, V.

    2017-01-01

    Fast neutron intensity influence on reactor materials radiation damage is a critically important question in the problem of the correct use of the accelerated irradiation tests data for substantiation of the materials workability in real irradiation conditions that is low neutron intensity. Investigations of the fast neutron intensity (flux) influence on radiation damage and experimental data scattering reveal the existence of non-monotonous sections in kinetics of the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steel damage. Discovery of the oscillations as indicator of the self-organization processes presence give reasons for new ways searching on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel radiation stability increasing and attempt of the self-restoring metal elaboration. Revealing of the wavelike process in the form of non monotonous parts of the kinetics of radiation embrittlement testifies that periodic transformation of the structure take place. This fact actualizes the problem of more precise definition of the RPV materials radiation embrittlement mechanisms and gives reasons for search of the ways to manage the radiation stability (nanostructuring and so on to stimulate the radiation defects annihilation), development of the means for creating of more stableness self recovering smart materials.

  16. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  17. Development of high pressure pipe scanners

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes an automatic ultrasonic scanning system for pressure pipe welds, which was developed in this project using recent advanced technologies on mobile robot and computer. The system consists of two modules: a robot scanner module which navigates and manipulates scanning devices, and a data acquisition module which generates ultrasonic signal and processes the data from the scanner. The robot has 4 magnetic wheels and 2 -axis manipulator on which ultrasonic transducer attached. The wheeled robot can navigate curved surface such as outer wall of circular pipes. Magnetic wheels were optimally designed through magnetic field analysis. Free surface sensing and line tracking control algorithm were developed and implemented, and the control devices and software can be used in practical inspection works. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results

  18. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  19. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C [Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2004-04-14

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  20. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C

    2004-01-01

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic

  1. A novel SOI pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Li Sainan; Liang Ting; Wang Wei; Hong Yingping; Zheng Tingli; Xiong Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) high temperature pressure sensor is a novel pressure sensor with high-performance and high-quality. A structure of a SOI high-temperature pressure sensor is presented in this paper. The key factors including doping concentration and power are analyzed. The process of the sensor is designed with the critical process parameters set appropriately. The test result at room temperature and high temperature shows that nonlinear error below is 0.1%, and hysteresis is less than 0.5%. High temperature measuring results show that the sensor can be used for from room temperature to 350 °C in harsh environments. It offers a reference for the development of high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  2. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  3. High pressure processing reaches the U.S. market

    Mermelstein, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first food product commercially produced by a U.S. company using high-pressure processing has had successful test market results. High-pressure processing permits food to be preserved by subjecting it to pressures in the range of 60,000-100,000 psi for a short time instead of exposing the food to heat, freezing, chemicals, or irradiation. To produce Classic Guacamole, Avomex of Keller, Texas, uses a batch isostatic press to deactivate the enzymes in the avocado and to kill bacteria, obtaining a refrigerated shelf life of over 30 days. The guacamole is then vacuum packed and processed again. The product undergoes no heat treatment and does not contain preservatives, and the high pressure does not affect its texture, color, or taste. Meanwhile, a continuous system for high-pressure processing of pumpable foods is currently being developed by Flow International of Kent, Washington, and will be used for testing and applications work at Oregon State University

  4. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  5. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  6. Effect of stress on the diffusion kinetics of methane during gas desorption in coal matrix under different equilibrium pressures

    Li, Chengwu; Xue, Honglai; Hu, Po; Guan, Cheng; Liu, Wenbiao

    2018-06-01

    Stress has a significant influence on gas diffusion, which is a key factor for methane recovery in coal mines. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate effect of stress on the gas diffusivity during desorption in tectonic coal. Additionally, the desorbed data were modeled using the unipore and bidisperse models. The results show that the bidisperse model better describes the diffusion kinetics than the unipore model in this study. Additionally, the modeling results using the bidisperse approach suggest that the stress impact on the macropore diffusivity is greater than the stress on the micropore diffusivity. Under the same equilibrium pressure, the diffusivity varies with stress according to a four-stage function, which shows an ‘M-shape’. As the equilibrium gas pressure increased from 0.6 to 1.7 MPa, the critical point between stage 2 and stage 3 and between stage 3 and stage 4 transferred to a low stress. This difference is attributed to the gas pressure effects on the physical and mechanical properties of coal. These observations indicate that both the stress and gas pressure can significantly impact gas diffusion and may have significant implications on methane recovery in coal mines.

  7. Fluorinert as a pressure-transmitting medium for high-pressure diffraction studies

    Varga, Tamas; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Angel, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorinert is a liquid pressure-transmitting medium that is widely used in high-pressure diffraction work. A systematic study of five different fluorinerts was carried out using single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell in order to determine the pressure range over which they provide a hydrostatic stress state to the sample. It was found that none of the fluorinerts studied can be considered hydrostatic above 1.2 GPa, a lower pressure than reported previously

  8. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  9. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  10. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  12. Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field

    Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail: kolpakov683@gmail.com; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].

  13. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of reactional system (X-I-O-H) by high temperature mass spectrometry

    Roki, F.Z.

    2009-01-01

    High temperature mass spectrometry is used for analysis of vapors coming from iodine reaction with fission products in case of a severe nuclear accident in a pressurized water reactor. Two main ways are used, - (i) thermodynamic analysis of vaporization processes of CsOH, CsI and mixtures CsI-CsOH. - (ii) building a dedicated reactor for kinetic analysis of the recombination of atoms into these stables molecular species. The present study confirms the existence of Cs 2 IOH(g) molecule. Vapor pressures of gaseous molecules CsOH(g), Cs 2 O 2 H 2 (g) and Cs 2 IOH(g) have been determined. Molecular parameters of the mixed molecule have been estimated on the basis of the pure dimmers Cs 2 O 2 H 2 (g) and Cs 2 I 2 (g) and its enthalpy of formation are established. The acquisition of kinetic data needs a new reactor, the conception of which is presented in this work as well as qualification tests: thermal, flow regimes and pressure calibration tests. (author)

  14. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures.

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-04-14

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures--while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  15. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  16. General kinetic solution for the Biermann battery with an associated pressure anisotropy generation

    Schoeffler, K. M.; Silva, L. O.

    2018-01-01

    Fully kinetic analytic calculations of an initially Maxwellian distribution with arbitrary density and temperature gradients exhibit the development of temperature anisotropies and magnetic field growth associated with the Biermann battery. The calculation, performed by taking a small order expansion of the ratio of the Debye length to the gradient scale, predicts anisotropies and magnetic fields as a function of space given an arbitrary temperature and density profile. These predictions are shown to qualitatively match the values measured from particle-in-cell simulations, where the development of the Weibel instability occurs at the same location and with a wavenumber aligned with the predicted temperature anisotropy.

  17. High-pressure phase transition in Ho2O3

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Ravindran, T.R.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on holmium sesquioxide (Ho 2 O 3 ) have been carried out up to a pressure of ∼17 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Holmium oxide, which has a cubic or bixbyite structure under ambient conditions, undergoes an irreversible structural phase transition at around 9.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase has been identified to be low symmetry monoclinic type. The two phases coexist to up to about 16 GPa, above which the parent phase disappears. The high-pressure laser-Raman studies have revealed that the prominent Raman band ∼370 cm -1 disappears around the similar transition pressure. The bulk modulus of the parent phase is reported.

  18. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  19. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  20. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  1. Kinetics of combustion related processes at high temperatures

    Kiefer, J.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This past year has seen an excursion into perhalomethane dissociation using the laser-schlieren (LS) technique, with work on CCl{sub 4} already published and on CF{sub 3}Cl under analysis. However, the author`s emphasis has again been on the study of relaxation and dissociation of large molecules using the converging/diverging nozzle method to generate very weak (low pressure) shock waves.

  2. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Yahya TÜLEK; Gökçe FİLİZAY

    2006-01-01

    Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decont...

  3. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  4. Flow-Based Systems for Rapid and High-Precision Enzyme Kinetics Studies

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme kinetics studies normally focus on the initial rate of enzymatic reaction. However, the manual operation of steps of the conventional enzyme kinetics method has some drawbacks. Errors can result from the imprecise time control and time necessary for manual changing the reaction cuvettes into and out of the detector. By using the automatic flow-based analytical systems, enzyme kinetics studies can be carried out at real-time initial rate avoiding the potential errors inherent in manual operation. Flow-based systems have been developed to provide rapid, low-volume, and high-precision analyses that effectively replace the many tedious and high volume requirements of conventional wet chemistry analyses. This article presents various arrangements of flow-based techniques and their potential use in future enzyme kinetics applications.

  5. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  6. High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from ...

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials.

  7. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide ...

    Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single ... tance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify .... The optical band gaps of the as-grown crystals were obtained by optical ab-.

  8. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    Marshall, William G.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low...

  9. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  10. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  11. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  12. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  13. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  14. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  15. High-pressure structural behaviour of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H; Liu, J F; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jiang, J Z; Olsen, J Staun; Gerward, L

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transition remains constant. Simplified models for the high-pressure structural behaviour are presented, based on the assumption that a large fraction of the atoms reside in grain boundary regions of the nanocrystalline material. The interface structure plays a significant role in affecting the transition pressure and the bulk modulus

  16. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  17. High-pressure behavior of CaMo O4

    Panchal, V.; Garg, N.; Poswal, H. K.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Cavalli, E.

    2017-09-01

    We report a high-pressure study of tetragonal scheelite-type CaMo O4 up to 29 GPa. In order to characterize its high-pressure behavior, we have combined Raman and optical-absorption measurements with density functional theory calculations. We have found evidence of a pressure-induced phase transition near 15 GPa. Experiments and calculations agree in assigning the high-pressure phase to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure. The reported results are consistent with previous powder x-ray-diffraction experiments, but are in contradiction with the conclusions obtained from earlier Raman measurements, which support the existence of more than one phase transition in the pressure range covered by our studies. The observed scheelite-fergusonite transition induces significant changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of CaMo O4 . We have determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependencies of the Raman-active and infrared-active modes. In addition, based on calculations of the phonon dispersion of the scheelite phase, carried out at a pressure higher than the transition pressure, we propose a possible mechanism for the reported phase transition. Furthermore, from the calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters and atomic positions of the different phases and their room-temperature equations of state. These results are compared with previous experiments showing a very good agreement. Finally, information on bond compressibility is reported and correlated with the macroscopic compressibility of CaMo O4 . The reported results are of interest for the many technological applications of this oxide.

  18. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  19. Kinetics of low pressure chemical vapor deposition of tungsten silicide from dichlorocilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride

    Srinivas, D.; Raupp, G.B.; Hillman, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report on experiments to determine the intrinsic surface reaction rate dependences and film properties' dependence on local reactant partial pressures and wafer temperature in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of tungsten silicide from dichlorosilane reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Films were deposited in a commercial-scale Spectrum CVD cold wall single wafer reactor under near differential, gradientless conditions. Over the range of process conditions investigated, deposition rate was found to be first order in dichlorosillane and negative second order in tungsten hexafluoride partial pressure. The apparent activation energy in the surface reaction limited regime was found to be 70-120 kcal/mol. The silicon to tungsten ratio of as deposited silicide films ranged from 1.1 to 2.4, and increased with increasing temperature and dichlorosillane partial pressure, and decreased with increasing tungsten hexafluoride pressure. These results suggest that the apparent silicide deposition rate and composition are controlled by the relative rates of at least two competing reactions which deposit stoichiometric tungsten silicides and/or silicon

  20. Experimental Simulation of Methane Hydrate Extraction at High Pressure Conditions: Influence of the Sediment Bed

    Agudo, J. R.; Park, J.; Luzi, G.; Williams, M.; Rauh, C.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.

    2017-10-01

    Being a clean alternative to other fossil fuels, Methane Hydrate (MH) is currently considered as one of the most important potential sources for hydrocarbon fuels [1]. In addition, the high energy density of MH and its stability at higher temperatures as compared to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) makes MH a potential greener method for energy transportation. At the same time, the low thermodynamic stability of MH strongly questions the future exploitation of gas hydrate deposits, turning its extraction into a possible geohazard [2]. Fluctuations in pressure, temperature, salinity, degree of saturation or sediment bed properties may cause methane gas release from the water lattice. We experimentally study the influence of the sediment bed geometry during formation-dissociation of MH. For this purpose, MH is synthesized within regular substrates in a 93 cm3 high pressure vessel. The regular substrates are triangular and quadratic arrangements of identical glass spheres with a diameter of 2 and 5 mm, respectively. MH formation within regular substrate reduces the possibility of spontaneous nucleation to a unique geometrical configuration. This fact permits us to characterize the kinetics of MH formation-dissociation as a function of the sediment bed geometry. Preliminary experimental results reveal a strong dependence of MH formation on the geometry of the regular substrate. For instance, under the same pressure and temperature, the kinetics of MH production is found to change by a factor 3 solely depending on the substrate symmetry, i.e. triangular or quadratic.

  1. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  2. Oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of carbon/carbon composites and their components in water vapour at high temperatures

    Qin, Fei; Peng, Li-na; He, Guo-qiang; Li, Jiang; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 4D-C/C composite was fabricated using carbon fibre and coal tar pitch. • The rate of mass loss and oxidation kinetics parameters of fibres-H 2 O and matrix-H 2 O are obtained. • The rate of mass loss and oxidation kinetics parameters of C/C–H 2 O are obtained. • Oxidation rate of the fibre bundle is greater than the oxidation rate of the matrix. - Abstract: Thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the oxidation kinetics of four-direction carbon/carbon composites and their components (fibres and matrices) in a H 2 O–Ar atmosphere at high temperatures. The oxidation processes were restricted to reaction-limited oxidation. The rate of mass loss was estimated for the four-direction carbon/carbon composites and their components at high temperature. The pressure exponent for the reaction of the carbon/carbon composites with H 2 O was 0.59, and the pre-exponential factor and activation energy for the reactions of H 2 O with the carbon/carbon composites, carbon fibres and matrices were determined

  3. High-kinetic inductance additive manufactured superconducting microwave cavity

    Holland, Eric T.; Rosen, Yaniv J.; Materise, Nicholas; Woollett, Nathan; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Y. Morris; Torres, Sharon G.; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; DuBois, Jonathan L.

    2017-11-01

    Investigations into the microwave surface impedance of superconducting resonators have led to the development of single photon counters that rely on kinetic inductance for their operation, while concurrent progress in additive manufacturing, "3D printing," opens up a previously inaccessible design space for waveguide resonators. In this manuscript, we present results from the synthesis of these two technologies in a titanium, aluminum, vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) superconducting radio frequency resonator which exploits a design unattainable through conventional fabrication means. We find that Ti-6Al-4V has two distinct superconducting transition temperatures observable in heat capacity measurements. The higher transition temperature is in agreement with DC resistance measurements, while the lower transition temperature, not previously known in the literature, is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the superconducting microwave surface impedance. From the surface reactance, we extract a London penetration depth of 8 ± 3 μm—roughly an order of magnitude larger than other titanium alloys and several orders of magnitude larger than other conventional elemental superconductors.

  4. Vapor pressure isotope effect in 13CClF3/12CClF3 by cryogenic distillation kinetics

    Wieck, H.J.; Ishida, T.

    1975-08-01

    The vapor pressure of 13 CClF 3 relative to the vapor pressure of 12 CClF 3 was measured as a function of temperature between 169 0 and 206 0 K by using a modified Bigeleisen distillation column. The transient build-up of the isotopic concentration gradient along the length of the packed column during the start-up period was monitored by taking samples from the condenser section as a function of time. The gaseous samples were completely oxidized to carbon dioxide in the presence of a platinum catalyst and a large excess of oxygen at temperatures between 1050 and 1100 0 C. The combustion products were purified by means of gas chromatography, and the purified carbon dioxide samples were analyzed in a Nier-type isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. The data of each distillation run were reduced in the light of Cohen's theory of the kinetics of square cascade of close-separation stages. The vapor pressure isotope effect for the carbon substitution in CClF 3 at temperatures between 169 0 and 206 0 K was found to be an inverse effect and to be rather insensitive to changes in temperature. The relative vapor pressure may be expressed 1n(P'/P) = [(1.5 +- 14.1)/T 2 ] - [(0.159 +- 0.076)/T], or 1n(P'/P) = [(0.173 +- 0.098)/T] - [(0.11 +- 0.53) x 10 -3 ], where P' and P are the vapor pressures of 12 CClF 3 and 13 CClF 3 , respectively. To the first-order, the presence of chlorine isotopes would not affect the fractionation of carbon isotopes by the distillation of CClF 3

  5. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  6. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  7. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  8. High-pressure Raman investigation of the semiconductor antimony oxide

    Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130012 Changchun (China); Wan, Chunming [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Ma, Yanmei [Department of Agronomy, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun (China)

    2011-05-15

    The in situ high-pressure behavior of the semiconductor antimony trioxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 20 GPa at room temperature. New peaks in the external lattice mode range emerged at a pressure above 8.6-15 GPa, suggesting that the structural phase transition occurred. The pressure dependence of Raman frequencies was obtained. The band at 139 cm{sup -1} (assigned to group mode) has a pressure dependence of -0.475 cm{sup -1}/GPa and reveals significant softening at high pressure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrochemical Reactor for Conversion of Power to Chemicals

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2016-01-01

    forces. Raising the operating temperature offers a means to boost performance, as both ionic transport and reaction kinetics are exponentially activated with temperature. Indeed, we have demonstrated alkaline electrolysis cells operating at 200-250 °C and 20-50 bar at very high efficiencies and power...... been established enabling experiments with gaseous or liquids reactants/products at cell sizes of up to 25 cm2. Efforts are currently directed towards the investigation of the intrinsic activity of mixed oxides for the oxygen evolution reaction at elevated temperatures and pressures...

  10. An experimental and kinetic modeling study of premixed nitromethane flames at low pressure

    Zhang, Kuiwen; Li, Yuyang; Yuan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    An experimental and modeling study is reported on three premixed nitromethane/oxygen/argon flames at low pressure (4.655kPa) with equivalence ratios (ϕ) of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. Flame species were identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The mole fraction profiles of more...

  11. Self-Consistent System of Equations for a Kinetic Description of the Low-Pressure Discharges Accounting for the Nonlocal and Collisionless Electron Dynamics

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg

    2003-01-01

    In low-pressure discharges, when the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially non-local. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the non-local conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is derived. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile on both the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated

  12. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  13. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  14. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  15. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  16. Bio-Hemostat-Acute Treatment Modality for High Pressure Hemorrhage

    Carr, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    Bleeding from an artery is difficult to control due to the high pressures found in the arterial system Hemorrhage is especially problematic in penetrating wounds where the bleeding source may not be...

  17. Applicable technical method for freeze-substitution of high pressure ...

    bmshsj

    2011-11-02

    Quintana, 1994) are available for the microscopic visualization of intracellular organelles. Cryo- fixation, plunge freezing, propane jet freezing, cold metal block freezing, and high pressure freezing provide advantages over chemical ...

  18. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  19. Electronic structure and optical properties of AIN under high pressure

    Li Zetao; Dang Suihu; Li Chunxia

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and optical properties of Wurtzite structure AIN under different high pressure with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in this paper. The total energy, density of state, energy band structure and optical absorption and reflection properties under high pressure are calculated. By comparing the changes of the energy band structure, we obtained AIN phase transition pressure for 16.7 GPa, which is a direct band structure transforming to an indirect band structure. Meanwhile, according to the density of states distribution and energy band structure, we analyzed the optical properties of AIN under high-pressure, the results showed that the absorption spectra moved from low-energy to high-energy. (authors)

  20. The compact mirrors with high pressure plasmas

    Anikeev, A.V.; Bagryansky, P.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lizunov, A.A.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Prikhodko, V.V.; Collatz, S.; Noack, K.

    2004-01-01

    The gas dynamic trap (GDP) experimental facility at the Budker Institute Novosibirsk is a long axial-symmetric mirror system with a high mirror ratio variable in the range of 12.5 - 100 for the confinement of a two-component plasma. One component is a collisional plasma with ion and electron temperatures up to 100 eV and density up to 10 14 cm -3 . The second component is the population of high-energetic fast ions with energies of 2-18 keV and a density up to 10 13 cm -3 which is produced by neutral beam injection (NBI). GDP is currently undergoing an upgrade whose first stage is the achievement of the synthesized hot ion plasmoid experiment (SHIP). This experiment aims at the investigation of plasmas and at the knowledge of plasma parameters that have never been achieved before in magnetic mirrors. The paper presents the physical concept of the SHIP experiment, the results of numerical pre-calculations and draws conclusions regarding possible scenarios of experiments. The simulation of a maximal NBI power regime with hydrogen injection gave a fast ion density of 1.2*10 14 cm -3 with a mean energy of 14 keV. The calculation of the deuterium injection regime with 2 MW NBI power gave a maximal fast ion density of 1.9*10 14 cm -3 with a beam energy of 9 keV. The calculation of an experimental scenario with reduced magnetic field resulted in a maximal β-value of 62%, so this regime is recommended for the study of high-β effects in plasmas confined in axial-symmetric mirrors

  1. A 2 TiO 5 (A = Dy, Gd, Er, Yb) at High Pressure

    Park, Sulgiye [Department of Geological Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Rittman, Dylan R. [Department of Geological Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Tracy, Cameron L. [Department of Geological Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon; Zhang, Fuxiang [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, United States; Park, Changyong [HPCAT, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Tkachev, Sergey N. [Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States; O’Quinn, Eric [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States; Shamblin, Jacob [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States; Lang, Maik [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States; Mao, Wendy L. [Department of Geological Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States; Stanford; amp, Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States; Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States

    2018-02-07

    The structural evolution of lanthanide A2TiO5 (A = Dy, Gd, Yb, and Er) at high pressure is investigated using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The effects of A-site cation size and of the initial structure are systematically examined by varying the composition of the isostructural lanthanide titanates, and the structure of dysprosium titanate polymorphs (orthorhombic, hexagonal and cubic), respectively. All samples undergo irreversible high pressure phase transformations, but with different onset pressures depending on the initial structure. While individual phase exhibits different phase transformation histories, all samples commonly experience a sluggish transformation to a defect cotunnite-like (Pnma) phase for a certain pressure range. Orthorhombic Dy2TiO5 and Gd2TiO5 form P21am at pressures below 9 GPa and Pnma above 13 GPa. Pyrochlore-type Dy2TiO5 and Er2TiO5 as well as defect-fluorite-type Yb2TiO5 form Pnma at ~ 21 GPa, followed by Im-3m. Hexagonal Dy2TiO5 forms Pnma directly, although a small amount of remnants of hexagonal Dy2TiO5 is observed even at the highest pressure (~ 55 GPa) reached, indicating a kinetic limitations in the hexagonal Dy2TiO5 phase transformations at high pressure. Decompression of these materials leads to different metastable phases. Most interestingly, a high pressure cubic X-type phase (Im-3m) is confirmed using highresolution transmission electron microscopy on recovered pyrochlore-type Er2TiO5. The kinetic constraints on this metastable phase yield a mixture of both the X-type phase and amorphous domains upon pressure release. This is the first observation of an X-type phase for an A2BO5 composition at high pressure.

  2. The influence of peak shock stress on the high pressure phase transformation in Zr

    Cerreta, E K; Addessio, F L; Bronkhorst, C A; Brown, D W; Escobedo, J P; Fensin, S J; Gray, G T III; Lookman, T; Rigg, P A; Trujillo, C P

    2014-01-01

    At high pressures zirconium is known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP) alpha phase to the simple hexagonal omega phase. Under conditions of shock loading, a significant volume fraction of high-pressure omega phase is retained upon release. However, the hysteresis in this transformation is not well represented by equilibrium phase diagrams and the multi-phase plasticity under shock conditions is not well understood. For these reasons, the influence of peak shock stress and temperature on the retention of omega phase in Zr has been explored. VISAR and PDV measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to quantify the volume fraction of retained omega phase and qualitatively understand the kinetics of this transformation. In turn, soft recovered specimens with varying volume fractions of retained omega phase have been utilized to understand the contribution of omega and alpha phases to strength in shock loaded Zr.

  3. Model of Structural Fragmentation Induced by High Pressure Torsion

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin; Sedláček, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2010), s. 88-98 ISSN 1606-5131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : High-pressure torsion * intergranular glide * homogeneous deformation mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/kruzik-model of structural fragmentation induced by high pressure torsion.pdf

  4. Thermal neutron scattering studies of condensed matter under high pressures

    Carlile, C.J.; Salter, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Although temperature has been used as a thermodynamic variable for samples in thermal neutron scattering experiments since the inception of the neutron technique, it is only in the last decade that high pressures have been utilised for this purpose. In the paper the problems particular to this field of work are outlined and a review is made of the types of high-pressure cells used and the scientific results obtained from the experiments. 103 references. (author)

  5. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  6. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  7. High-pressure test loop design and application

    Burnette, R.D.; Graves, J.N.; Blair, P.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-07-01

    A high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed for the purpose of performing a number of chemistry experiments at simulated HTGR conditions of temperature, pressure, flow, and impurity content. The HPTL can be used to develop, modify, and verify computer codes for a variety of chemical processes involving gas phase transport in the reactor. Processes such as graphite oxidation, fission product transport, fuel reactions, purification systems, and dust entrainment can be studied at high pressure, which would largely eliminate difficulties in correlating existing laboratory data and reactor conditions

  8. Very high pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy using diamond anvil cells

    Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of generating very high pressure by means of Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) for Mossbauer Effect applications is outlined. A comprehensive description is presented of the principles of DAC, modification for the use in M/umlt o/ssbauer Spectroscopy (MS), the Merrill--Bassett and Bassett cells, of pressure measurements, of gasketing and collimation, and of hydrostatic media. Examples of 151 Eu, 119 Sn and 129 I are given showing the feasibility of DAC applications in MS. Other isotopes with potential use for high pressure MS using DAC are suggested. 27 refs., 9 figs

  9. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  10. In Situ Raman Study of Liquid Water at High Pressure.

    Romanenko, Alexandr V; Rashchenko, Sergey V; Goryainov, Sergey V; Likhacheva, Anna Yu; Korsakov, Andrey V

    2018-06-01

    A pressure shift of Raman band of liquid water (H 2 O) may be an important tool for measuring residual pressures in mineral inclusions, in situ barometry in high-pressure cells, and as an indicator of pressure-induced structural transitions in H 2 O. However, there was no consensus as to how the broad and asymmetric water Raman band should be quantitatively described, which has led to fundamental inconsistencies between reported data. In order to overcome this issue, we measured Raman spectra of H 2 O in situ up to 1.2 GPa using a diamond anvil cell, and use them to test different approaches proposed for the description of the water Raman band. We found that the most physically meaningful description of water Raman band is the decomposition into a linear background and three Gaussian components, associated with differently H-bonded H 2 O molecules. Two of these components demonstrate a pronounced anomaly in pressure shift near 0.4 GPa, supporting ideas of structural transition in H 2 O at this pressure. The most convenient approach for pressure calibration is the use of "a linear background + one Gaussian" decomposition (the pressure can be measured using the formula P (GPa) = -0.0317(3)·Δν G (cm -1 ), where Δν G represents the difference between the position of water Raman band, fitted as a single Gaussian, in measured spectrum and spectrum at ambient pressure).

  11. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure.

    Lupton, Samantha J; Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  13. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  14. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  15. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

    R.F. Vogel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK, while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport.

  16. Diamonds: powerful tools for high-pressure physics

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Diamond-anvil high-pressure studies have progressed to the point where they complement shock-wave studies. Because they operate at static high pressure, they permit time-consuming procedures, such as x-ray diffraction measurements for determining crystal structure. The sample material is completely recoverable and the method is adaptable to minute advantage when dealing with rare or hazardous materials. One of our goals in investigating the high-pressure behavior of iridium was to test the theoretical prediction that iridium would exhibit a phase transformation from the face-centered cubic crystal structure at about 9 GPa. Our finding that no such transformation takes place even at pressures up to 30 GPa will need to be taken into account by physicsts working to improve solid-state theory

  17. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  18. Modification of enzymes by use of high-pressure homogenization.

    Dos Santos Aguilar, Jessika Gonçalves; Cristianini, Marcelo; Sato, Helia Harumi

    2018-07-01

    High-pressure is an emerging and relatively new technology that can modify various molecules. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) has been used in several studies on protein modification, especially in enzymes used or found in food, from animal, plant or microbial resources. According to the literature, the enzymatic activity can be modulated under pressure causing inactivation, stabilization or activation of the enzymes, which, depending on the point of view could be very useful. Homogenization can generate changes in the structure of the enzyme modifying various chemical bonds (mainly weak bonds) causing different denaturation levels and, consequently, affecting the catalytic activity. This review aims to describe the various alterations due to HPH treatment in enzymes, to show the influence of high-pressure on proteins and to report the HPH effects on the enzymatic activity of different enzymes employed in the food industry and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  20. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.