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Sample records for high pressure brine

  1. Interfacial tension measurement between CO2 and brines under high temperature and elevated pressure conditions

    Li, X.; Boek, E. S.; Maitland, G. C.; Trusler, J. P. M.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the dependence of interfacial tension of (CO2 + brine) on temperature, pressure and salinity (including both salt type and molality) over the range of conditions applicable to CO2 storage in saline aquifers. The study covered a wide range of measurements of the interfacial tensions between carbon dioxide and (NaCl + KCl)(aq), CaCl2(aq), MgCl2(aq), Na2SO4(aq), KHCO3(aq), NaHCO3(aq) and two laboratory constructed brines with molality ranging from (0.3 to 5.0) mol·kg-1. The measurements were made at temperatures between (298 and 448) K at various pressures up to 50 MPa, using the pendant drop method in a high-pressure view cell filled with water-saturated CO2. The drop to be imaged was created by injecting brine from a high-pressure syringe pump into a capillary sealed through the top of the cell. The expanded uncertainties of the experimental state variables at 95 % confidence are +0.05 K in temperature and +70 kPa in pressure. For the interfacial tension, the overall expanded relative uncertainty at 95 % confidence was +1.6%. The experimental results show that interfacial tension for all the systems increases linearly with molality, indicating that relatively few measurements and simple interpolation procedures are adequate for describing this property accurately over wide ranges of conditions.

  2. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-04

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods.

  3. Simulation of the high-pressure phase equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Guo, Tian-Min

    1996-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are: (1) extend the modified Patel-Teja (MPT) equation of state proposed for aqueous electrolyte systems (Zuo and Guo, 1991) to describe the liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbon-water/brine systems through introducing an unconventional...

  4. Capillary pressure and saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Jung, Jong-Won; Kim, Tae Wook; Kim, Yongman; Dong, Wenming

    2013-08-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration, reliable predictions of CO2 storage require understanding the capillary behavior of supercritical (sc) CO2. Given the limited availability of measurements of the capillary pressure (Pc) dependence on water saturation (Sw) with scCO2 as the displacing fluid, simulations of CO2 sequestration commonly rely on modifying more familiar air/H2O and oil/H2O Pc(Sw) relations, adjusted to account for differences in interfacial tensions. In order to test such capillary scaling-based predictions, we developed a high-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter, allowing accurate Pc and Sw measurements. Drainage and imbibition processes were measured on quartz sand with scCO2-brine at pressures of 8.5 and 12.0 MPa (45°C), and air-brine at 21°C and 0.1 MPa. Drainage and rewetting at intermediate Sw levels shifted to Pc values that were from 30% to 90% lower than predicted based on interfacial tension changes. Augmenting interfacial tension-based predictions with differences in independently measured contact angles from different sources led to more similar scaled Pc(Sw) relations but still did not converge onto universal drainage and imbibition curves. Equilibrium capillary trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined for Pc = 0 during rewetting. The capillary-trapped volumes for scCO2 were significantly greater than for air. Given that the experiments were all conducted on a system with well-defined pore geometry (homogeneous sand), and that scCO2-brine interfacial tensions are fairly well constrained, we conclude that the observed deviations from scaling predictions resulted from scCO2-induced decreased wettability. Wettability alteration by scCO2 makes predicting hydraulic behavior more challenging than for less reactive fluids.

  5. Determination of extremely high pressure tolerance of brine shrimp larvae by using a new pressure chamber system.

    Seo, Mihye; Koyama, Sumihiro; Toyofuku, Takashi; Kojima, Shigeaki; Watanabe, Hiromi

    2013-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure is the only one of a range of environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, light availability, and so on) that increases in proportion with depth. Pressure tolerance is therefore essential to understand the foundation of populations and current diversity of faunal compositions at various depths. In the present study, we used a newly developed pressure chamber system to examine changes in larval activity of the salt-lake crustacean, Artemia franciscana, in response to a range of hydrostatic pressures. We showed that A. franciscana larvae were able to survive for a short period at pressures of ≤ 60 MPa (approximately equal to the pressure of 6000 m deep). At a pressure of > 20 MPa, larval motor ability was suppressed, but not lost. Meanwhile, at a pressure of > 40 MPa, some of the larval motor ability was lost without recovery after decompression. For all experiments, discordance of movement and timing between right and left appendages, was observed at pressures of > 20 MPa. Our results indicate that the limit of pressure for sustaining active behavior of A. franciscana larvae is ∼20 MPa, whereas the limit of pressure for survival is within the range 30-60 MPa. Thus, members of the genus Artemia possess the ability to resist a higher range of pressures than their natural habitat depth. Our findings demonstrated an example of an organism capable of invading deeper environment in terms of physical pressure tolerance, and indicate the need and importance of pressure study as an experimental method.

  6. Pressure-driven brine migration in a salt repository

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The traditional view is that salt is the ideal rock for isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and probably ''impermeable.'' The existence of salt through geologic time is prima facie evidence of such properties. Experiments and experience at potential salt sites for geologic repositories have indicated that while porosity and permeability of salt are low, the salt may be saturated with brine. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is possible to have brine flow due to pressure differences within the salt. If there is pressure-driven brine migration in salt repositories then it is paramount to know the magnitude of such flow because inward brine flow would affect the corrosion rate of nuclear waste containers and outward brine flow might affect radionuclide transport rates. Brine exists in natural salt as inclusions in salt crystals and in grain boundaries. Brine inclusions in crystals move to nearby grain boundaries when subjected to a temperature gradient, because of temperature-dependent solubility of salt. Brine in grain boundaries moves under the influence of a pressure gradient. When salt is mined to create a waste repository, brine from grain boundaries will migrate into the rooms, tunnels and boreholes because these cavities are at atmospheric pressure. After a heat-emitting waste package is emplaced and backfilled, the heat will impose a temperature gradient in the surrounding salt that will cause inclusions in the nearby salt to migrate to grain boundaries within a few years, adding to the brine that was already present in the grain boundaries. The formulation of brine movement with salt as a thermoelastic porous medium, in the context of the continuum theory of mixtures, has been described. In this report we show the mathematical details and discuss the results predicted by this analysis

  7. Thermodynamics of high temperature brines

    Pitzer, K.S.; Bradley, D.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Peiper, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    Osmotic and activity coefficient data and enthalpy and heat capacity data for NaCl solutions at saturation pressure of water from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and to saturation composition have been simultaneously fit to a 30 parameter equation. The data are reproduced by the equation, in most cases, to within experimental error. Calculated values of the osmotic coefficient, the activity of water, the activity of NaCl, and the heat capacity, enthalpy and entropy of the solution are given in Tables in 25{sup 0}C intervals from 0 to 300{sup 0}C and concentrations from 0.25 to 25 wt% NaCl.

  8. Brine migration resulting from pressure increases in a layered subsurface system

    Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    intermediate aquifer above the injection formation, where brine settles down and flows from the fault zone into the aquifer. This effect changes buoyancy so that lower density brine from the upper aquifers can rise higher and at larger fluxes compared to the case when no intermediary aquifers are present. In general, uplift of brine originating from the intermediary aquifers is mainly restricted to the next overlying two to three permeable aquifers (200m-1000m) or even only to the next aquifer if injection pressures are lower than about 10 bar. If injection induced over-pressures are high, brine from the injection reservoir can dominate inflow into the freshwater reservoir at late times (tens of years). An extensive parameter variation shows the effects of individual parameters. It is found, e.g., that no brine enters the freshwater aquifer if fault permeability is lower than about 10-14 m2. Acknowledgments: This work is part of the ANGUS+ project (www.angusplus.de) and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) as part of the energy storage initiative "Energiespeicher".

  9. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake sou...

  10. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  11. Chemistry of glass corrosion in high saline brines

    Grambow, B.; Mueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion data obtained in laboratory tests can be used for the performance assessment of nuclear waste glasses in a repository if the data are quantitatively described in the frame of a geochemical model. Experimental data were obtained for conventional pH values corrected for liquid junction, amorphous silica solubility and glass corrosion in concentrated salt brines. The data were interpreted with a geochemical model. The brine chemistry was described with the Pitzer formalism using a data base which allows calculation of brine compositions in equilibrium with salt minerals at temperatures up to 200C. In MgCl 2 dominated brines Mg silicates form and due to the consumption of Mg the pH decreases with proceeding reaction. A constant pH (about 4) and composition of alteration products is achieved, when the alkali release from the glass balances the Mg consumption. The low pH results in high release of rare earth elements REE (rare earth elements) and U from the glass. In the NaCl dominated brine MgCl 2 becomes exhausted by Mg silicate formation. As long as there is still Mg left in solution the pH decreases. After exhaustion of Mg the pH rises with the alkali release from the glass and analcime is formed

  12. Durability of concrete materials in high-magnesium brine

    Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.; Burkes, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    Cement pastes and mortars representing 11 combinations of candidate concrete materials were cast in the laboratory and monitored for susceptibility to chemical deterioration in high-magnesium brine. Mixtures were selected to include materials included in the current leading candidate concrete for seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some materials were included in the experimental matrix to answer questions that had arisen during study of the concrete used for construction of the liner of the WIPP waste-handling shaft. Mixture combinations compared Class C and Class F fly ashes, presence or absence of an expansive component, and presence or absence of salt as a mixture component. Experimental conditions exposed the pastes and mortars to extreme conditions, those being very high levels of Mg ion and an effectively unlimited supply of brine. All pastes and mortars showed deterioration with brine exposure. In general, mortars deteriorated more extensively than the corresponding pastes. Two-inch cube specimens of mortar were not uniformly deteriorated, but showed obvious zoning even after a year in the brine, with a relatively unreacted zone remaining at the center of each cube. Loss of calcium from the calcium hydroxide of paste/aggregate interfaces caused measurable strength loss in the reacted zone comprising the outer portion of every mortar specimen. The current candidate mass concrete for WIPP seals includes salt as an initial component, and has a relatively closed initial microstructure. Both of these features contribute to its suitability for use in large placements within the Salado Formation

  13. Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

  14. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01

    Deep saline formations and oil and gas reservoirs often contain concentrated brine solutions of ionic strength greater than 1 (I > 1 M). Geochemical modeling, involving high ionic strength brines, is a challenge. In the original TOUGHREACT code (Xu et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2006), activity coefficients of charged aqueous species are computed using an extended Debye-Huckel (DH) equation and parameters derived by Helgeson et al. (1981). The DH model can deal with ionic strengths from dilute to moderately saline water (up to 6 molal for an NaCl-dominant solution). The equations implemented for the DH model are presented in Appendix A. During the course of the Yucca Mountain project, a Pitzer ion-interaction model was implemented into TOUGHREACT. This allows the application of this simulator to problems involving much more concentrated aqueous solutions, such as those involving geochemical processes in and around high-level nuclear waste repositories where fluid evaporation and/or boiling is expected to occur (Zhang et al., 2007). The Pitzer ion-interaction model, which we refer to as the Pitzer virial approach, and associated ion-interaction parameters have been applied successfully to study non-ideal concentrated aqueous solutions. The formulation of the Pitzer model is presented in Appendix B; detailed information can be founded in Zhang et al. (2007). For CO 2 geological sequestration, the Pitzer ion-interaction model for highly concentrated brines was incorporated into TOUGHREACT/ECO2N, then was tested and compared with a previously implemented extended Debye-Hueckel (DH) ion activity model. The comparison was made through a batch geochemical system using a Gulf Coast sandstone saline formation

  15. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.; Negmatov, Sh.I.; Barotov, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content. The research results on uranium extraction from the brine of Sasik-Kul Lake by means of sorption method were considered. The chemical composition of salt was determined. The process of uranium sorption was described and analyzed. The technology of uranium extraction from the brine with high chlorine-ion content was proposed.

  16. Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations

    Okwen, Roland [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Frailey, Scott [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.; Dastgheib, Seyed [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.

    2017-06-14

    The overall goal of the this project is to develop and validate pressure management and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume control strategies that can address technical and economic barriers to commercial deployment of CO2 storage technologies, based on computational and field demonstration work at the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) facility where the Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) and the Illinois-Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-ICCS) projects are located. To accomplish the overall goal, the ISGS designed a brine extraction storage test (BEST) that could be completed in two phases. The goal of BEST Phase I was to evaluate the feasibilities of extraction well(s) placement, the brine extraction to CO2 injection rate ratio, extraction well completion, and brine treatment and handling. The goal of BEST Phase II would be to validate the brine extraction and treatment options deemed feasible in Phase I by (1) demonstrating the efficacy of brine extraction (BE) in managing pressure (i.e., formation) and the CO2 plume, and (2) demonstrating treatment of extracted brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS; >200,000 mg/L) using multiple advanced treatment technologies. This report details work done in Phase I. Several brine extraction and treatment scenarios were tested, simulated, and analyzed for their effectiveness in extracting brine. Initially a vertical well was studied; however, geologic modeling, reservoir modeling, and the existing facility and wellbore infrastructure dictated that the location of a vertical brine extraction well was limited to an area with no existing monitoring wells and where the well would be in relative proximity to an existing CO2 plume. Consequently, a vertical well was excluded, and a horizontal brine extraction well placed above the existing CO2 plume near two existing wells was studied. The horizontal well option allows the project to leverage the

  17. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-01-01

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54 psu) compared with seawater controls (37 psu) over 6 weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2–4 weeks at 54 psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. - Highlights: • We separated salt effects of desalination brine from other deleterious components. • Sublethal salinity stress depended on both salinity increase and exposure time. • Very effective osmoregulation led to tolerance of short intervals of high salinity.

  18. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  19. Evaporative crystallization of salts from Electrodialysis concentrated brine at atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures

    Wang, Dong; Du, Wei; Cheng, Penggao; Tang, Na; Wang, Xuekui

    2018-02-01

    A large amount of concentrated brine was produced as by-product during the process of the electrodialysis seawater desalination. In this study, the crystallization sequences of different salts from the brine through evaporative crystallization at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures were investigated in detail. The profile of the boiling temperature with density and the relationship between the boiling temperature and the pressure were recorded. The combination of Powder X-Ray Diffraction and the polarizing microscope was employed to identify the salts in the solid form. It can be inferred that NaCl crystallized out firstly and then MgSO4·6H2O and CaSO4 precipitate in order at both atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures, and it should be noticed that CaSO4 crystallized as anhydrate at 70°C and 90°C while as dihydrate at 50°C. At the end of all the experiments the precipitation rates of CaSO4 and NaCl have reached to more than 95% while MgSO4 only reached to about 60%.

  20. Effects of high salinity from desalination brine on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and osmolyte concentrations of seagrass Posidonia australis.

    Cambridge, M L; Zavala-Perez, A; Cawthray, G R; Mondon, J; Kendrick, G A

    2017-02-15

    Highly saline brines from desalination plants expose seagrass communities to salt stress. We examined effects of raised salinity (46 and 54psu) compared with seawater controls (37psu) over 6weeks on the seagrass, Posidonia australis, growing in tanks with the aim of separating effects of salinity from other potentially deleterious components of brine and determining appropriate bioindicators. Plants survived exposures of 2-4weeks at 54psu, the maximum salinity of brine released from a nearby desalination plant. Salinity significantly reduced maximum quantum yield of PSII (chlorophyll a fluorescence emissions). Leaf water potential (Ψ w ) and osmotic potential (Ψ π ) were more negative at increased salinity, while turgor pressure (Ψ p ) was unaffected. Leaf concentrations of K + and Ca 2+ decreased, whereas concentrations of sugars (mainly sucrose) and amino acids increased. We recommend leaf osmolarity, ion, sugar and amino acid concentrations as bioindicators for salinity effects, associated with brine released in desalination plant outfalls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-high chlorine in submarine Kı̄lauea glasses: Evidence for direct assimilation of brine by magma

    Coombs, Michelle L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi

    2004-01-01

    Basaltic glass grains from the submarine south flank of Kı̄lauea, Hawai′i, have Cl concentrations of 0.01–1.68 wt%, the latter being the highest Cl content yet recorded for a Hawaiian glass. The high-Cl glass grains are products of brine assimilation by tholeiite magma. The glasses are grains in a sandstone clast from bedded breccias draping the southwestern margin of Kı̄lauea’s submarine midslope bench. The clast contains two distinct suites of glass grains: abundant degassed tholeiites, perhaps derived from subaerial lavas of Mauna Loa that shattered upon ocean entry, and a smaller population of Kea-type tholeiite (n=17 analyzed) that erupted subaqueously, based on elevated S (780–1050 ppm), H2O (0.42–1.27 wt%), and CO2 (1000 ppm, six >5000 ppm, and two grains have >10 000 ppm dissolved Cl. Abundances of H2O, Na2O, K2O, and several trace elements increase regularly with Cl concentration, and we estimate that Cl enrichment was due to up to 13 wt% addition of a brine consisting of 78% H2O (wt), 13% Cl, 4.4% Na, 2.6% K, 2.6% Ca, 620 ppm Ba, 360 ppm Sr, 65 ppm Rb, and 7 ppm Pb. The large amounts of brine addition argue against bulk assimilation of low-porosity brine-bearing rock. The brine’s composition is appropriate for a seawater-derived hydrothermal fluid that reacted with basaltic wall rocks at T>100°C, losing Mg and S and gaining K, Ca, Rb, Ba, Sr, and Pb, followed by phase separation near 500°C and ∼50 MPa (5 km below sea level at hydrostatic pressure). Brine was assimilated at or near the depth it formed, as estimated on petrologic grounds, but under lithostatic conditions. The highest extents of assimilation either forced volatile saturation of the magma or enriched already coexisting magmatic vapor in H2O. Possible mechanisms for assimilation are: (1) forcible injection of brine into magma during bursting of overpressured pockets heated by new dikes, or (2) intrusion of magma into lenses or sills occupied by trapped brine.

  2. An experimental study of relative permeability hysteresis, capillary trapping characteristics, and capillary pressure of CO2/brine systems at reservoir conditions

    Akbarabadi, Morteza

    We present the results of an extensive experimental study on the effects of hysteresis on permanent capillary trapping and relative permeability of CO2/brine and supercritical (sc)CO2+SO2/brine systems. We performed numerous unsteady- and steady-state drainage and imbibition full-recirculation flow experiments in three different sandstone rock samples, i.e., low and high-permeability Berea, Nugget sandstones, and Madison limestone carbonate rock sample. A state-of-the-art reservoir conditions core-flooding system was used to perform the tests. The core-flooding apparatus included a medical CT scanner to measure in-situ saturations. The scanner was rotated to the horizontal orientation allowing flow tests through vertically-placed core samples with about 3.8 cm diameter and 15 cm length. Both scCO2 /brine and gaseous CO2 (gCO2)/brine fluid systems were studied. The gaseous and supercritical CO2/brine experiments were carried out at 3.46 and 11 MPa back pressures and 20 and 55°C temperatures, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, the gCO2 and scCO2 have 0.081 and 0.393 gr/cm3 densities, respectively. During unsteady-state tests, the samples were first saturated with brine and then flooded with CO2 (drainage) at different maximum flow rates. The drainage process was then followed by a low flow rate (0.375 cm 3/min) imbibition until residual CO2 saturation was achieved. Wide flow rate ranges of 0.25 to 20 cm3/min for scCO2 and 0.125 to 120 cm3min for gCO2 were used to investigate the variation of initial brine saturation (Swi) with maximum CO2 flow rate and variation of trapped CO2 saturation (SCO2r) with Swi. For a given Swi, the trapped scCO2 saturation was less than that of gCO2 in the same sample. This was attributed to brine being less wetting in the presence of scCO2 than in the presence of gCO 2. During the steady-state experiments, after providing of fully-brine saturated core, scCO2 was injected along with brine to find the drainage curve and as

  3. Pressure-induced brine migration in consolidated salt in a repository

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes a mathematical model for brine migration through intact salt near a radioactive waste package emplaced in salt. Solutions indicate limited movement following ten years emplacement

  4. Measurement and modeling of CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density

    Yan, Wei; Huang, Shengli; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    over climate change and energy security. This work is an experimental and modeling study of two fundamental properties in high pressure CO2–NaCl brine equilibrium, i.e., CO2 solubility in NaCl brine and CO2–saturated NaCl brine density. A literature review of the available data was presented first...

  5. Capillary pressure - saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine: Implications for capillary/residual trapping in carbonate reservoirs during geologic carbon sequestration

    Wang, S.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), data on capillary pressure (Pc) - saturation (Sw) relations are routinely needed to appraise reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been often experimentally studied in oil-water, gas-water and three phase gas-oil-water systems, but fewer works have been reported on scCO2-water under in-situ reservoir conditions. Here, Pc-Sw relations of supercritical (sc) CO2 displacing brine, and brine rewetting the porous medium to trap scCO2 were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior in carbonate reservoirs under representative reservoir conditions. High-quality drainage and imbibition (and associated capillary pressure hysteresis) curves were measured under elevated temperature and pressure (45 ºC, 8.5 and 12 MPa) for scCO2-brine as well as at room temperature and pressure (23 ºC, 0.1 MPa) for air-brine in unconsolidated limestone and dolomite sand columns using newly developed semi-automated multistep outflow-inflow porous plate apparatus. Drainage and imbibition curves for scCO2-brine deviated from the universal scaling curves for hydrophilic interactions (with greater deviation under higher pressure) and shifted to lower Pc than predicted based on interfacial tension (IFT) changes. Augmented scaling incorporating differences in IFT and contact angle improved the scaling results but the scaled curves still did not converge onto the universal curves. Equilibrium residual trapping of the nonwetting phase was determined at Pc =0 during imbibition. The capillary-trapped amounts of scCO2 were significantly larger than for air. It is concluded that the deviations from the universal capillary scaling curves are caused by scCO2-induced wettability alteration, given the fact that pore geometry remained constant and IFT is well constrained. In-situ wettability alteration by reactive scCO2 is of critical importance and must be accounted for to achieve reliable predictions of CO2 behavior in GCS reservoirs.

  6. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Blanco-Martin, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone “Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures” (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  7. Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco-Martin, Laura; Molins, Sergi; Trebotich, David; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we present FY2015 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This is a combined milestone report related to milestone Salt R&D Milestone ''Modeling Coupled THM Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures'' (M3FT-15LB0818012) and the Salt Field Testing Milestone (M3FT-15LB0819022) to support the overall objectives of the salt field test planning.

  8. Results for the Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) Brine Processing Test

    Delzeit, Lance; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Shaw, Hali; Kawashima, Brian; Beeler, David; Howard, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The recent Brine Processing Test compared the NASA Forward Osmosis Brine Dewatering (FOBD), Paragon Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), UMPQUA Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS), and the NASA Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB). This paper reports the results of the BEB. The BEB was operated at 70 deg C and a base pressure of 12 torr. The BEB was operated in a batch mode, and processed 0.4L of brine per batch. Two different brine feeds were tested, a chromic acid-urine brine and a chromic acid-urine-hygiene mix brine. The chromic acid-urine brine, known as the ISS Alternate Pretreatment Brine, had an average processing rate of 95 mL/hr with a specific power of 5kWhr/L. The complete results of these tests will be reported within this paper.

  9. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    Bougouffa, Salim; Yang, J. K.; Lee, O. O.; Wang, Y.; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  10. Distinctive Microbial Community Structure in Highly Stratified Deep-Sea Brine Water Columns

    Bougouffa, Salim

    2013-03-29

    Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.

  11. OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines

    Burr, R.

    2000-01-01

    DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource

  12. Geochemical evidence for the existence of high-temperature hydrothermal brines at Vesuvio volcano, Italy

    Chiodini, Giovanni; Marini, Luigi; Russo, Massimo

    2001-07-01

    A high-temperature hydrothermal system is present underneath the crater area of Vesuvio volcano. It is suggested that NaCl brines reside in the high-temperature reservoir and influence the chemical composition of the gases discharged by the fumaroles of the crater bottom (vents FC1, FC2, and FC5). These have typical hydrothermal compositions, with H 2O and CO 2 as major components, followed by H 2, H 2S, N 2, CH 4, and CO (in order of decreasing contents) and undetectable SO 2, HCl, and HF. Fumarolic H 2O is either meteoric water enriched in 18O through high-temperature water-rock oxygen isotope exchange or a mixture of meteoric and arc-type magmatic water. Fumarolic CO 2 is mainly generated by decarbonation reactions of marine carbonates, but the addition of small amounts of magmatic CO 2 is also possible. All investigated gas species (H 2O, CO 2, CO, CH 4, H 2, H 2S, N 2, and NH 3) equilibrate, probably in a saturated vapor phase, at temperatures of 360 to 370°C for vent FC1 and 430 to 445°C for vents FC2 and FC5. These temperatures are confirmed by the H 2-Ar geoindicator. The minimum salt content of the liquid phase coexisting with the vapor phase is ˜14.9 wt.% NaCl, whereas its maximum salinity corresponds to halite saturation (49.2-52.5 wt.% NaCl). These poorly constrained salinities of NaCl brines reflect in large uncertainties in total fluid pressures, which are estimated to be 260 to 480 bar for vents FC2 and FC5 and 130 to 220 bar for vent FC1. Pressurization in some parts of the hydrothermal system, and its subsequent discharge through hydrofracturing, could explain the relatively frequent seismic crises recorded in the Vesuvio area after the last eruption. An important heat source responsible for hydrothermal circulation is represented by the hot rocks of the eruptive conduits, which have been active from 1631 to 1944. Geochemical evidence suggests that no input of fresh magma at shallow depths took place after the end of the last eruptive period.

  13. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  14. The Effects of NaCl Concentration and Confining Pressure on Mechanical and Acoustic Behaviors of Brine-Saturated Sandstone

    Yan-Hua Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanical behavior of rock with brine saturation, conventional triaxial experiments were carried out on sandstone for a range of confining pressures (0–60 MPa and NaCl concentrations (0–30%. As the confining pressure and NaCl concentration increased, the triaxial compressive strength, crack damage threshold, Young’s modulus, cohesion, and internal friction angle all increased. Real-time ultrasonic wave and acoustic emission (AE techniques were used to obtain the relationship between acoustic behavior and stress level during the whole triaxial compression process. During the whole deformation process, the evolution of P-wave velocity and accumulated AE count could be divided into four phases. The microstructural characteristics of brine-saturated sandstone, before and after loading, indicated that the strength enhancement mechanism may be attributed to an increase in inter-particle friction resulting from salt crystallisation around the points of contact. The angle of friction increased by more than 86% at maximum NaCl concentration compared to that for distilled water. The NaCl deposition in the pore space resulted in nonlinear strength increases for the brine-saturated sandstone specimens with increasing salinity. The present study is expected to improve the knowledge of the strength and failure mechanisms of sedimentary rock in deep saline aquifers.

  15. Receding and advancing (CO_2 + brine + quartz) contact angles as a function of pressure, temperature, surface roughness, salt type and salinity

    Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z.; Lebedev, Maxim; Barifcani, Ahmed; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases substantially with pressure and salinity. • (Water + CO_2) contact angle on quartz increases slightly with temperature. • Surface roughness has only a minor influence on (water + CO_2 + quartz) contact angles. - Abstract: The wetting characteristics of CO_2 in rock are of vital importance in carbon geo-storage as they determine fluid dynamics and storage capacities. However, the current literature data has a high uncertainty, which translates into uncertain predictions in terms of containment security and economic project feasibility. We thus measured contact angles for the CO_2/water/quartz system at relevant reservoir conditions, and analysed the effects of pressure (0.1 to 20) MPa, temperature (296 to 343) K, surface roughness (56 to 1300) nm, salt type (NaCl, CaCl_2, and MgCl_2) and brine salinities (0 to 35) wt%. Water contact angles decreased with surface roughness, but increased with pressure, temperature, and brine salinity. Overall the contact angles were significantly increased at storage conditions (∼50°) when compared to ambient conditions (always 0°). Consequently quartz is weakly water-wet (not completely water-wet) at storage conditions, and structural and residual trapping capacities are reduced accordingly.

  16. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    Wan, Chunfeng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  17. Osmotic power generation by pressure retarded osmosis using seawater brine as the draw solution and wastewater retentate as the feed

    Wan, Chunfeng

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to produce clean and sustainable osmotic energy from salinity gradient. Fresh water is of scarcity in Singapore; however, alternative sources of feed solutions and draw solutions are well explored. For the first time, seawater brine from the TuaSpring desalination plant and wastewater retentate from the NEWater plant were used in a state-of-the-art TFC-PES hollow fiber membrane PRO process. The highest power densities obtained with 1 M NaCl solution and seawater brine were 27.0 W/m2 and 21.1 W/m2 at 20bar, respectively, when deionized (DI) water was used as the feed solution. However, the highest power density dropped to 4.6W/m2 when wastewater retentate was used as the feed solution. Fouling on the porous substrate induced by the wastewater retentate was identified as the main cause of the reduction in the power densities, while the negative effects of seawater brine on the PRO performances were negligible. Both ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) pretreatment were employed to mitigate fouling from the wastewater retentate, and the power densities were boosted to 6.6W/m2 and 8.9W/m2, respectively, beyond the power density of 5W/m2 proposed by Statkraft for the PRO process to be economical.

  18. High Blood Pressure

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Facts

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  1. Carbonate dissolution rates in high salinity brines: Implications for post-Noachian chemical weathering on Mars

    Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Parnell, S. R.; McGraw, L. E.; Elwood Madden, M. E.

    2018-06-01

    A diverse suite of carbonate minerals including calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) have been observed on the martian surface and in meteorites. Terrestrial carbonates usually form via aqueous processes and often record information about the environment in which they formed, including chemical and textural biosignatures. In addition, terrestrial carbonates are often found in association with evaporite deposits on Earth. Similar high salinity environments and processes were likely active on Mars and some areas may contain active high salinity brines today. In this study, we directly compare calcite and magnesite dissolution in ultrapure water, dilute sulfate and chloride solutions, as well as near-saturated sulfate and chloride brines with known activity of water (aH2O) to determine how dissolution rates vary with mineralogy and aH2O, as well as aqueous cation and anion chemistry to better understand how high salinity fluids may have altered carbonate deposits on Mars. We measured both calcite and magnesite initial dissolution rates at 298 K and near neutral pH (6-8) in unbuffered solutions containing ultrapure water (18 MΩ cm-1 UPW; aH2O = 1), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1; aH2O = 1) and near-saturated Na2SO4 (2.5 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92), dilute (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1) and near-saturated NaCl (5.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.75). Calcite dissolution rates were also measured in dilute and near-saturated MgSO4 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 2.7 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.92, respectively) and MgCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 3 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.73, respectively), while magnesite dissolution rates were measured in dilute and near-saturated CaCl2 (0.1 mol kg-1, aH2O = 1 and 9 mol kg-1, aH2O = 0.35). Initial calcite dissolution rates were fastest in near-saturated MgCl2 brine, while magnesite dissolution rates were fastest in dilute (0.1 mol kg-1) NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. Calcite dissolution rates in near-saturated Na2SO4 were similar to those observed in the dilute solutions (-8.00 ± 0

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  3. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH 2 ) -1/2 dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  4. High blood pressure - children

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  5. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  6. High blood pressure - infants

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  7. High blood pressure medications

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  8. Development of a Rapid, Nondestructive Method to Measure Aqueous Carbonate in High Salinity Brines Using Raman Spectroscopy

    McGraw, L.; Phillips-Lander, C. M.; Elwood Madden, A. S.; Parnell, S.; Elwood Madden, M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical contact with the fluid and is not affected by many ionic brines. Developing methods to study aqueous carbonates is vital to future study of brines on Mars and other planetary bodies, as they can reveal important information about modern and ancient near-surface aqueous processes. Both sodium carbonate standards and unknown samples from carbonate mineral dissolution experiments in high salinity brines were analyzed using a 532 nm laser coupled to an inVia Renishaw spectrometer to collect carbonate spectra from near-saturated sodium chloride and sodium sulfate brines. A calibration curve was determined by collecting spectra from solutions of known carbonate concentrations mixed with a pH 13 buffer and a near-saturated NaCl or Na2SO4 brine matrix. The spectra were processed and curve fitted to determine the height ratio of the carbonate peak at 1066 cm-1 to the 1640 cm-1 water peak. The calibration curve determined using the standards was then applied to the experimental data after accounting for dilutions. Concentrations determined based on Raman spectra were compared against traditional acid titration measurements. We found that the two techniques vary by less than one order of magnitude. Further work is ongoing to verify the method and apply similar techniques to measure aqueous carbonate concentrations in other high salinity brines.Traditional methods of quantitative analysis are often ill-suited to determining the bulk chemistry of high salinity brines due to their corrosive and clogging properties. Such methods are also often difficult to apply remotely in planetary environments. However, Raman spectroscopy can be used remotely without physical

  9. High-pressure microbiology

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  10. Experimental investigation of CO2-brine-rock interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Koksalan, T.; Palandri, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Deep-saline aquifers are potential repositories for excess CO2, currently being emitted to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities, but the reactivity of supercritical CO2 with host aquifer fluids and formation minerals needs to be understood. Experiments reacting supercritical CO2 with natural and synthetic brines in the presence and absence of limestone and plagioclase-rich arkosic sandstone showed that the reaction of CO2-saturated brine with limestone results in compositional, mineralogical, and porosity changes in the aquifer fluid and rock that are dependent on initial brine composition, especially dissolved calcium and sulfate. Experiments reacting CO2-saturated, low-sulfate brine with limestone dissolved 10% of the original calcite and increased rock porosity by 2.6%. Experiments reacting high-sulfate brine with limestone, both in the presence and absence of supercritical CO2, were characterized by the precipitation of anhydrite, dolomitization of the limestone, and a final decrease in porosity of 4.5%. However, based on favorable initial porosity changes of about 15% due to the dissolution of calcite, the combination of CO2 co-injection with other mitigation strategies might help alleviate some of the well-bore scale and formation-plugging problems near the injection zone of a brine disposal well in Paradox Valley, Colorado, as well as provide a repository for CO2. Experiments showed that the solubility of CO2 is enhanced in brine in the presence of limestone by 9% at 25 ??C and 6% at 120 ??C and 200 bar relative to the brine itself. The solubility of CO2 is enhanced also in brine in the presence of arkosic sandstone by 5% at 120 ??C and 300 bar. The storage of CO 2 in limestone aquifers is limited to only ionic and hydraulic trapping. However, brine reacted with supercritical CO2 and arkose yielded fixation and sequestration of CO2 in carbonate mineral phases. Brine desiccation was observed in all experiments containing a discrete CO2 phase

  11. High-pressure apparatus

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  12. High blood pressure - adults

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  13. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  14. Brine/Rock Interaction in Deep Oceanic Layered Gabbros: Petrological Evidence from Cl-Rich Amphibole, High-Temperature Hydrothermal Veins, and Experiments

    Currin Sala, A. M.; Koepke, J.; Almeev, R. R.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Zihlmann, B.; Wolff, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence of high temperature brine/rock interaction is found in hydrothermal veins and dykelets that cross-cut layered olivine gabbros in the deep palaeocrust of the Sumail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman. Here we present petrological and geochemical data from these samples, and an experimental attempt to simulate brine/gabbro interaction using externally heated cold seal pressure vessels. The studied natural veins and dykelets contain pargasite, hornblende, actinolite, and Cl-rich pargasite with up to 5 wt% Cl, showing a range of formation conditions from magmatic to metamorphic (hydrothermal) and thus a complex history of brine/rock interaction. In addition, the isotopic study of the radiogenic 87/86Sr and stable 18O in different amphibole types provide an estimate for the extent of seawater influence as alteration agent in the veins of the studied samples. Experiments performed at 750 °C and 200 MPa with different starting materials (chlorine-free amphibole, olivine gabbro powder) and 20 wt% NaCl aqueous brine, illustrate the process by which gabbro-hosted amphibole-rich veins evolve at subsolidus temperatures in the presence of a seawater-derived fluid. Our results demonstrate a decrease in olivine, plagioclase and magnetite content in favour of hastingsite, pargasite and magnesiohornblende, a decrease of IVAl and Ti in the starting amphibole, and an increase in Cl in amphibole, up to 0.2 Cl wt%. Our experiments show the change of magmatic pargasite towards more magnesium and silica-rich end members with results comparable to mildly chlorine-rich pargasites and hornblendes found in the natural samples studied. However, the experimental setup also presents limitations in the attainment of very high-chlorine amphibole (up to 5 wt%). Our analytical and experimental results provide further evidence for the existence of a hydrothermal cooling system in the deep oceanic crust.

  15. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Arctic

    Møller, Annette; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial...... densities were 9.4 × 10(5), 5 × 10(5) and 0.9-3.1 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) in freshwater, brine and snow, respectively. Highest cultivability was observed in snow (11.9%), followed by freshwater (0.3%) and brine (0.03%). In snow, the mercury-resistant bacteria accounted for up to 31% of the culturable bacteria, but...

  16. Soil washing for brine removal

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  17. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Myers, J.; Tyburski, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) Phase II Report is an interim report which updates the data released in the BSEP Phase I Report. Direct measurements and observations of the brine that seeps into the WIPP repository excavations were continued through the period between August 1986 and July 1987. That data is included in Appendix A, which extends the observation period for some locations to approximately 900 days. Brine observations at 87 locations are presented in this report. Although WIPP underground workings are considered ''dry,'' small amounts of brine are present. Part of that brine migrates into the repository in response to pressure gradients at essentially isothermal conditions. The data presented in this report is a continuation of moisture content studies of the WIPP facility horizon that were initiated in 1982, as soon as underground drifts began to be excavated. Brine seepages are manifested by salt efflorescences, moist areas, and fluid accumulations in drillholes. 35 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  18. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  19. High-pressure crystallography

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  20. High Blood Pressure

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  1. High Blood Pressure

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  2. High-pressure tritium

    Coffin, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 0 K are discussed. The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be easily modified by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal bellows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings, and gauges for high-pressure tritium work is also reviewed briefly

  3. Deuterium high pressure target

    Perevozchikov, V.V.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Vinogradov, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm 3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  4. Heat Exchangers for Utilization of the Heat of High-Temperature Geothermal Brines

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The basic component of two-circuit geothermal systems is the heat exchanger. When used in geothermal power systems, conventional shell-and-tube and plate heat exchangers cause problems related to the cleaning of the latter from salt-deposition and corrosion products. Their lifetime does not exceed, as a rule, 1 year. To utilize the heat of high-temperature geothermal brines, a heat exchanger of the "tube-in-tube" type is proposed. A heat exchanger of this design has been operated for several years in Ternair geothermal steam field; in this heat exchanger, the thermal potential of the saline thermal water is transferred to the fresh water of the secondary circuit of the heating system for apartment houses. The reduction in the weight and size characteristics of the heat exchangers is a topical problem that can be solved with the help of heat transfer enhancers. To enhance the heat transfer process in the heat exchanger, longitudinal ribbing of the heat exchange surface is proposed. The increase in the heat exchange surface from the heat carrier side by ribbing results in an increase in the amount of the heat transferred from the heating agent. The heat exchanger is easy to manufacture and is assembled out of components comprised of two concentrically positioned tubes of a definite length, 3-6 m, serially connected with each other. The method for calculation of the impact of the number and the size of the longitudinal ribs on the heat transfer in the well heat exchanger is presented and a criterion for the selection of the optimal number and design parameters of the ribs is formulated. To prevent the corrosion and salt deposition in the heat exchanger, the use of an effective OEDFK (oxyethylidenediphosphonic acid) agent is proposed. This agent has a long-lasting corrosion-inhibiting and antiscaling effect, which is explained by the formation of a strongly adhesive chelate layer difficult to wash off the surface. The passivating OEDFK layer is restored by periodical

  5. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10 -7 m s -1 (13 m y -1 ) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10 -4 m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component

  6. Methodology Measuring Rare Earth Elements in High TDS Reservoir Brines Application as Natural Tracers in CCUS Studies

    Smith, W.; Mcling, T. L.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, H.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years rare earth elements (REE) have been demonstrated to be useful natural tracers for geochemical processes in aqueous environments. The application of REE's to carbon dioxide utilization and storage (CCUS) could provide researchers with a sensitive, inexpensive tool for tracking the movement of CO2 and displaced formation brines. By definition, geologic reservoirs that have been deemed suitable for carbon capture and storage contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) greater than 10,000 ppm and often these formation brines exceed 75,000 ppm TDS. This high TDS water makes it very difficult to measure REE, which typically occur at part per trillion concentrations. Critical to the use of REE for CCUS studies is the development of a procedure, which allows for the pre-concentration of REE's across a wide range of water quality. Additionally, due to the large number of samples that will need analysis, any developed procedure must be inexpensive, reproducible, and quick to implement. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL's Center for Advance Energy Studies is developing REE pre-concentration procedures based on methods reported in the literature. While there are many REE pre-concentration procedures in the literature, our tests have shown these methods have difficulty at TDS greater than seawater (roughly 35,000 ppm TDS). Therefore, the ability to quantitatively measure REE's in formation brines with very high TDS has required the modification of an already developed procedure. After careful consideration and testing we selected methods modified after those described by Kingston et al., 1978 and Strachan et al., 1989 utilizing chelating media for very high TDS waters and ion-exchange media as detailed by Crock et al., 1984; Robinson et al., 1985; and Stetzenbach et al., 1994 for low TDS (tested in our laboratory and have proven effective in greatly reducing interfering monovalent and divalent cation concentrations (e

  7. Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

    1983-04-01

    The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal

  8. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  9. Fascination at high pressures

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Research at high pressures has developed into an interdisciplinary area which has important implications for and applications in the areas of physics, chemistry, materials sciences, planetary sciences, biology, engineering sciences and technology. The state of-the-art in this field is reviewed and future directions are indicated. (M.G.B.)

  10. Diversity and characterization of mercury-resistant bacteria in snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine from the High Arctic.

    Møller, Annette K; Barkay, Tamar; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Skov, Henrik; Kroer, Niels

    2011-03-01

    It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports mercury from lower latitudes to the Arctic. The role of bacteria in the dynamics of the deposited mercury, however, is unknown. We characterized mercury-resistant bacteria from High Arctic snow, freshwater and sea-ice brine. Bacterial densities were 9.4 × 10(5), 5 × 10(5) and 0.9-3.1 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) in freshwater, brine and snow, respectively. Highest cultivability was observed in snow (11.9%), followed by freshwater (0.3%) and brine (0.03%). In snow, the mercury-resistant bacteria accounted for up to 31% of the culturable bacteria, but levels of most isolates were not temperature dependent. Of the resistant isolates, 25% reduced Hg(II) to Hg(0). No relation between resistance level, ability to reduce Hg(II) and phylogenetic group was observed. An estimation of the potential bacterial reduction of Hg(II) in snow suggested that it was important in the deeper snow layers where light attenuation inhibited photoreduction. Thus, by reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), mercury-resistant bacteria may limit the supply of substrate for methylation processes and, hence, contribute to lowering the risk that methylmercury is being incorporated into the Arctic food chains. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cryogenic, Absolute, High Pressure Sensor

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams. Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  12. Cryogenic High Pressure Sensor Module

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Powers, William T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure sensor is provided for cryogenic, high pressure applications. A highly doped silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is bonded to a silicon substrate in an absolute pressure sensing configuration. The absolute pressure sensor is bonded to an aluminum nitride substrate. Aluminum nitride has appropriate coefficient of thermal expansion for use with highly doped silicon at cryogenic temperatures. A group of sensors, either two sensors on two substrates or four sensors on a single substrate are packaged in a pressure vessel.

  13. Corrosion and hydrogen permeation of A216 Grade WCA steel in hydrothermal magnesium-containing brines

    Haberman, J.H.; Frydrych, D.J.; Westerman, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    Corrosion rates determined at 1 month in 150/degree/C brine increased with magnesium concentration. The structure of the corrosion product, as determined by x-ray diffraction, depended upon the magnesium concentration. In brines with less than 10,000 ppM magnesium, the primary corrosion product had a spinel structure characteristic of magnetite or magnesioferrite. In brines containing magnesium concentrations greater than 20,000 ppM, the primary corrosion product had the amakinite structure characteristic of a complex iron-magnesium hydroxide. The high corrosion rates observed in brines containing high magnesium concentrations suggest that the corrosion products having the amakinite structure is less protective than corrosion products having the spinel structure. Corrosion rates in high-magnesium (inclusion) brine determined over a 6-month test duration were essentially constant. Hydrogen permeation rates observed in exposing mild steel to high-Mg/sup 2/plus// brine at 150/degree/C could be potentially damaging to a mild steel waste package container. The rate of hydrogen permeation was proportional to the brine flow rate in the autoclave. Thiourea additions to the brine increased the hydrogen permeation rate; sulfate and bromide ion additions did not. The maximum gaseous hydrogen pressure attainable is not known (based on 3Fe /plus/ 4H 2 O /plus/ Fe(sub 3)O /plus/ 4H 2 , would be /approximately/900 atmospheres), and the dependence of permeation rate on temperature is not known. 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  15. Improved methylene blue two-phase titration method for determining cationic surfactant concentration in high-salinity brine.

    Cui, Leyu; Puerto, Maura; López-Salinas, José L; Biswal, Sibani L; Hirasaki, George J

    2014-11-18

    The methylene blue (MB) two-phase titration method is a rapid and efficient method for determining the concentrations of anionic surfactants. The point at which the aqueous and chloroform phases appear equally blue is called Epton's end point. However, many inorganic anions, e.g., Cl(-), NO3(-), Br(-), and I(-), can form ion pairs with MB(+) and interfere with Epton's end point, resulting in the failure of the MB two-phase titration in high-salinity brine. Here we present a method to extend the MB two-phase titration method for determining the concentration of various cationic surfactants in both deionized water and high-salinity brine (22% total dissolved solid). A colorless end point, at which the blue color is completely transferred from the aqueous phase to the chloroform phase, is proposed as titration end point. Light absorbance at the characteristic wavelength of MB is measured using a spectrophotometer. When the absorbance falls below a threshold value of 0.04, the aqueous phase is considered colorless, indicating that the end point has been reached. By using this improved method, the overall error for the titration of a permanent cationic surfactant, e.g., dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, in deionized (DI) water and high-salinity brine is 1.274% and 1.322% with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.149 and 0.215 mM, respectively. Compared to the traditional acid-base titration method, the error of this improved method for a switchable cationic surfactant, e.g., tertiary amine surfactant (Ethomeen C12), is 2.22% in DI water and 0.106% with LOD of 0.369 and 0.439 mM, respectively.

  16. High pressure mechanical seal

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  17. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  18. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  19. High blood pressure and diet

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  20. Combinación de sistemas de flujo de baja y alta presion para la determinacion de Mg, Ca y Sr en salmueras por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica con llama Combination of low- and high-pressure flow systems for the determination of Mg, Ca and Sr in brines by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    José Neira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the combination of low- and high-pressure flow systems for the determination of Magnesium, Calcium and Strontium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. In the low-pressure system a short C-18 RP column (length 0,5 cm was utilized for the preconcentration/matrix separation step, xylenol orange was used as chelating agent and tetrabutylamonium acetate for ion pair formation. The hydraulic high pressure nebulization (HHPN was used for sample transport and sample introduction in the high pressure system. The repeatabilities and detection limits for Mg, Ca and Sr were determined and compared with those obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN. The results show that the detection limits obtained using the HHPN for Mg, Ca and Sr are between 1.5 to 2 times better than those obtained by PN when the signal transient was measured in area. The system presented a sampling frequency of 130 h-1 for direct determination of Mg, Ca or Sr in samples of saturated sodium chloride used in the production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide.

  1. Controlling your high blood pressure

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  2. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  3. Calculated radiation doses from radionuclides brought to the surface if future drilling intercepts the WIPP repository and pressurized brine

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a scenario in which an exploratory borehole connects an underlying brine reservoir with the repository and results in saturation of the waste storage area. A subsequent borehole brings portions of this radionuclide contaminated brine to the surface. Radiation odses are calculated for time periods of 125, 400, and 1000 years after repository closing for the following: (1) external radiation doses for workers at the borehole location; (2) inhalation doses for workers at the borehole location; (3) external and inhalation doses for a resident located 360 meters downwind; (4) ingestion doses for the downwind resident from locally grown produce, milk, and meat; and (5) population doses from inhalation within a 50-mile radius. The probability of the various calculated doses occurring was estimated. Probability was included in the report because of a belief that probability considerations are useful in evaluating the acceptability of unlikely events and to encourage others to provide a more detailed evaluation using more sophisticated methodology. Since the probabilities presented in this report were calculated using a simple methodology, with some parameter values chosen arbitrarily, they should be considered as approximate examples, not accurate numbers. The reasonableness of the scenario and the significance of the results are also discussed

  4. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  5. High pressure inactivation of relevant target microorganisms in poultry meat products and the evaluation of pressure-induced protein denaturation of marinated poultry under different high pressure treatments

    Schmidgall, Johanna; Hertel, Christian; Bindrich, Ute; Heinz, Volker; Toepfl, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the possibility of extending shelf life of marinated poultry meat products by high pressure processing was evaluated. Relevant spoilage and pathogenic strains were selected and used as target microorganisms (MOs) for challenge experiments. Meat and brine were inoculated with MOs and treated at 450 MPa, 4 °C for 3 min. The results of inactivation show a decreasing pressure tolerance in the series Lactobacillus > Arcobacter > Carnobacterium > Bacillus cereus > Brochothrix thermosphacta > Listeria monocytogenes. Leuconostoc gelidum exhibited the highest pressure tolerance in meat. A protective effect of poultry meat was found for L. sakei and L. gelidum. In parallel, the influence of different marinade formulations (pH, carbonates, citrates) on protein structure changes during a pressure treatment was investigated. Addition of sodium carbonate shows a protection against denaturation of myofibrillar proteins and provides a maximum water-holding capacity. Caustic marinades allowed a higher retention of product characteristics than low-pH marinades.

  6. High-rate nitrogen removal from waste brine by marine anammox bacteria in a pilot-scale UASB reactor.

    Yokota, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Yasutsugu; Tokutomi, Takaaki; Kiyokawa, Tomohiro; Hori, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Daisuke; Song, Kang; Hosomi, Masaaki; Terada, Akihiko

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a startup strategy for a high-rate anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor to treat waste brine with high concentrations of ammonium from a natural gas plant. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor with an effective volume of 294 L was fed continuously with waste brine with a salinity of 3% and a NH 4 + concentration of 180 mg-N/L, as well as a NaNO 2 solution. By inoculating a methanogenic granular biomass as a biomass carrier, the reactor attained the maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 10.7 kg-N/m 3 /day on day 209, which was 1.7 times higher than the highest reported NRR for wastewater of comparable salinity. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that Candidatus Scalindua wagneri was enriched successfully in granules in the UASB, and it replaced Methanosaeta and became dominant in the granule. The inhibitory effect of NO 2 - on the anammox reaction in the granules was assessed by a 15 N tracer method, and the results showed that anammox activity was maintained at 60% after exposure to 300 mg-N/L of NO 2 - for 24 h. Compared with previous studies of the susceptibilities of Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia to NO 2 - , the enriched marine anammox bacteria were proven to have comparable or even higher tolerances for high NO 2 - concentrations after a long exposure.

  7. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  8. High pressure shaft seal

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  9. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  10. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: Phase 1 report

    Deal, D.E.; Case, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary data obtained in the course of the WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program. The investigations focus on the brine present in the near-field environment around the WIPP underground workings. Although the WIPP underground workings are considered dry, small amounts of brine are present. This amount of brine is not unexpected in rocks of marine sedimentary origin. Part of that brine can and does migrate into the repository in response to pressure gradients, at essentially isothermal conditions. These small volumes of brine have little effect on the day-to-day operations, but are pervasive throughout the repository and may contribute enough moisture over a period of years to affect resaturation and repressurization after sealing and closure. Gas bubbles are observed in many of the brine occurrences. Gas is also known to exsolve from solution as the brine is poured from container to container. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  11. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

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  12. Fundamentals of high pressure adsorption

    Zhou, Y.P.; Zhou, L. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). High Pressure Adsorption Laboratory

    2009-12-15

    High-pressure adsorption attracts research interests following the world's attention to alternative fuels, and it exerts essential effect on the study of hydrogen/methane storage and the development of novel materials addressing to the storage. However, theoretical puzzles in high-pressure adsorption hindered the progress of application studies. Therefore, the present paper addresses the major theoretical problems that challenged researchers: i.e., how to model the isotherms with maximum observed in high-pressure adsorption; what is the adsorption mechanism at high pressures; how do we determine the quantity of absolute adsorption based on experimental data. Ideology and methods to tackle these problems are elucidated, which lead to new insights into the nature of high-pressure adsorption and progress in application studies, for example, in modeling multicomponent adsorption, hydrogen storage, natural gas storage, and coalbed methane enrichment, was achieved.

  13. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  14. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  15. High pressure experimental water loop

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  16. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  17. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  18. High Blood Pressure and Women

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  19. High Pressure Industrial Water Facility

    1992-01-01

    In conjunction with Space Shuttle Main Engine testing at Stennis, the Nordberg Water Pumps at the High Pressure Industrial Water Facility provide water for cooling the flame deflectors at the test stands during test firings.

  20. High Pressure Research on Materials

    example, represents the stress on the x plane in the y direction. There are three .... optical studies and studying compressibility of fluids. 3.2 Opposed ..... [4] G N Peggs, High Pressure Measurement Techniques, Applied Science. Publishers ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  2. Terbium oxide at high pressures

    Dogra, Sugandha; Sharma, Nita Dilawar; Singh, Jasveer; Bandhyopadhyay, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report the behaviour of terbium oxide at high pressures. The as received sample was characterized at ambient by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction showed the sample to be predominantly cubic Tb 4 O 7 , although a few peaks also match closely with Tb 2 O 3 . In fact in a recent study done on the same sample, the sample has been shown to be a mixture of Tb 4 O 7 and Tb 2 O 3 . The sample was subjected to high pressures using a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell upto a pressure of about 42 GPa with ruby as pressure monitor

  3. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello; Gerardo González Martínez; Bernadette F. Klotz Ceberio; Dolores Rodrigo; Antonio Martínez López

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non...

  4. High-salt brines compromise autoinducer-mediated bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum survival in Spanish-style green olive fermentations.

    Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Lucena-Padrós, Helena; Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The effect of NaCl on plantaricin production by five Lactobacillus plantarum strains was investigated. Plantaricin production in these strains was found to be regulated by three-component regulatory systems ruled by two different autoinducer peptides (AIPs), either PLNC8IF or Plantaricin A. Bacteriocin activity exhibited by these strains came to a halt in liquid medium containing NaCl concentrations of or above 2%. In contrast, bacteriocin activity was still observed when the producing strains were growing on solid medium containing up to 4% NaCl. Bacteriocin activity in liquid medium containing up to 2% NaCl could be restored by coculturing the producing strains with a selected plantaricin-production inducing strain of Lactococcus lactis. Growth of these bacteriocinogenic L. plantarum strains was monitored in traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Survival of these strains could not be enhanced when provided with a range of plantaricin-production inducing mechanisms previously described, such as constitutive AIP production or coinoculation with a specific bacteriocin-production inducing strain of L. lactis. Our results suggest that it is advisable the use of constitutive bacteriocin producers, or at least non-AIP-dependant ones, as starters for olive fermentations due to the intrinsic physical characteristics of this food fermentation, especially the high salt concentration of the brines currently used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pressure vessel failure at high internal pressure

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.

    1995-01-01

    A RPV failure due to plastic instability was investigated using the ABAQUS finite element code together with a material model of thermal plasticity for large deformations. Not only rotational symmetric temperature distributions were studied, but also 'hot spots'. Calculations show that merely by the depletion of strength of the material - even at internal wall temperatures well below the melting point of the fuel elements of about 2000/2400 C - the critical internal pressure can decrease to values smaller than the operational pressure of 16 Mpa. (orig.)

  6. Computer simulation at high pressure

    Alder, B.J.

    1977-11-01

    The use of either the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics method to generate equations-of-state data for various materials at high pressure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to phase diagrams, such as the generation of various types of critical lines for mixtures, melting, structural and electronic transitions in solids, two-phase ionic fluid systems of astrophysical interest, as well as a brief aside of possible eutectic behavior in the interior of the earth. Then the application of the molecular dynamics method to predict transport coefficients and the neutron scattering function is discussed with a view as to what special features high pressure brings out. Lastly, an analysis by these computational methods of the measured intensity and frequency spectrum of depolarized light and also of the deviation of the dielectric measurements from the constancy of the Clausius--Mosotti function is given that leads to predictions of how the electronic structure of an atom distorts with pressure

  7. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  8. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  9. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  10. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  11. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  12. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  13. High-pressure sodium lamp

    1996-01-01

    A high pressure sodium lamp of the invention is provided with a discharge vessel (20) which is enclosed with intervening space (1) by an outer bulb (10), which space contains a gas-fill with at least 70 mol. % nitrogen gas. Electrodes (30a, 30b) are positioned in the discharge vessel (20) and are

  14. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st...

  15. High-pressure water facility

    2006-01-01

    NASA Test Operations Group employees, from left, Todd Pearson, Tim Delcuze and Rodney Wilkinson maintain a water pump in Stennis Space Center's high-pressure water facility. The three were part of a group of employees who rode out Hurricane Katrina at the facility and helped protect NASA's rocket engine test complex.

  16. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  17. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Torres Bello, Edwin Fabian; González Martínez, Gerardo; Klotz Ceberio, Bernadette F.; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez López, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional). Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance. PMID:28234332

  18. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  19. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  20. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    surface water bodies. Results of the assessment were generated, stored, and analyzed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and ESRI Geographical Information System (GIS) maps. Conclusions about the relative benefits and impacts of alternative brine-­management strategies were highly sensitive to local climate and weather, and aquifer water chemistry. The NPV of certain scenarios ranged from -­$50/mt-­CO2 (a cost) to +$10/mt-­CO2 (revenue). The land footprint of the scenarios in this study ranged from <1 km2 to 100 km2. Brine extraction as a pressure management tool for GCS has potential for improving the economics and for minimizing the environmental impacts of CCS. In order to maximize this potential, careful analysis of each saline aquifer and region must be conducted to determine a regionally appropriate brine use sequence (BUS) at the time of site selection. Models that use GIS will be essential tools in determining such sequences for individual CFPP. Future studies that perform risk and life cycle assessments (LCA) of BUS scenarios, incorporate additional impact metrics into the BUS model, and enhance the temporal sensitivity of the model would improve the robustness of this regional assessment method.

  1. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  2. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  3. INTRAVAL test case 13: Brine transport in porous media at high salinity

    Fein, E.

    1991-02-01

    In a two-dimensional vertical column filled with a synthetic porous media sweet water is displaced by salt water. Starting with salt water of very low concentration the concentration of the displacing salt water was increased in various experiments up to approximately saturation. In courses of these experiments breakthrough curves at different locations within the column are monitored with respect to time. It was the idea of validation to determine the system parameters like porosity, dispersion length, permeability etc. from experiments at low concentrations. Afterwards the validity of the physical assumptions should be proved by using these parameters to predict results of experiments with high concentrations like the salt water overlying the Gorleben salt dome. (orig./DG)

  4. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure treatment can be used for product modification through pressure gelatinization of starch and pressure denaturation of proteins. Key pressure–thermal treatment effects on vitamin, enzymes, flavor, co...

  5. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  6. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  7. Waste glass/metal interactions in brines

    Shade, J.W.; Pederson, L.R.; McVay, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Leaching studies of MCC 76-68 glass in synthetic brines high in NaCl were performed from 50 to 150 0 C and included interactive testing with ductile iron and titanium. Hydrolysis of the glass matrix was generally slower in saturated brines than in deionized water, due to a lower solubility of silica in the brines. Inclusion of ductile iron in the tests resulted in accelerated leach rates because irion-silica reactions occurred which reduced the silica saturation fraction. At 150 0 C, iron also accelerated the rate of crystalline reaction product formation which were primarily Fe-bearing sepiolite and talc. 16 references

  8. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  9. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  10. High Pressure Electrolyzer System Evaluation

    Prokopius, Kevin; Coloza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the continuing efforts to evaluate the operational state of a high pressure PEM based electrolyzer located at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This electrolyzer is a prototype system built by General Electric and refurbished by Hamilton Standard (now named Hamilton Sunstrand). It is capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen at an output pressure of 3000 psi. The electrolyzer has been in storage for a number of years. Evaluation and testing was performed to determine the state of the electrolyzer and provide an estimate of the cost for refurbishment. Pressure testing was performed using nitrogen gas through the oxygen ports to ascertain the status of the internal membranes and seals. It was determined that the integrity of the electrolyzer stack was good as there were no appreciable leaks in the membranes or seals within the stack. In addition to the integrity testing, an itemized list and part cost estimate was produced for the components of the electrolyzer system. An evaluation of the system s present state and an estimate of the cost to bring it back to operational status was also produced.

  11. High pressure research at CHESS

    Brister, K.

    1992-01-01

    Since February 1990 there has been a dedicated high pressure line at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). This facility provides X-ray instrumentation for energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Laue diffraction using diamond anvil cells. Both hard-bend magnet and wiggler radiation are available as well as focused monochromatic radiation. In addition, support instrumentation is also available; a ruby system, laser heating, sample loading, and data analysis software. Experienced users need only to bring their diamond anvil cells and samples and can leave with the initial data analysis finished. Research using diamond anvil cells will be introduced and the facility will be described. Some of the diamond anvil cell research done at CHESS will be reviewed, including crystalline to amorphous transitions (R.R. Winters et al., Chem. Phys, in press), properties of C 6 0 under stress (S.J. Duclos et al., Nature 351 (1991) 380), deep earthquakes (T.C. Wu et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.)l, and reaching pressures of the center of Earth (A.L. Ruoff et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 61 (1990) 3830). (orig.)

  12. Risk Associated With The Decompression Of High Pressure High Temperature Fluids - Study On Black Oil

    Figueroa, D. C.; Fosbøl, P. L.; Thomsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluids produced from deep underground reservoirs may result in exponential increase in temperature. It is a consequence of adiabatic fluid decompression from the inverse Joule Thomson Effect (JTE). The phenomenon requires analysis in order to avoid any operational risks. This study evaluates...... the JTE upon decompression of black oil in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs. Also the effect caused by the presence of water and brine on the black oil is studied. The final temperature is calculated from the corresponding energy balance at isenthalpic and non-isenthalpic conditions. It is found...... that the final temperature of black oil increases upon adiabatic decompression. In the case of the isenthalpic process at initial conditions of the reservoir, e.g. 150°C and 1000 bars, it is found that the final temperature can increase to 173.7°C. At non-isenthalpic conditions the final temperature increases...

  13. High-pressure microhydraulic actuator

    Mosier, Bruce P [San Francisco, CA; Crocker, Robert W [Fremont, CA; Patel, Kamlesh D [Dublin, CA

    2008-06-10

    Electrokinetic ("EK") pumps convert electric to mechanical work when an electric field exerts a body force on ions in the Debye layer of a fluid in a packed bed, which then viscously drags the fluid. Porous silica and polymer monoliths (2.5-mm O.D., and 6-mm to 10-mm length) having a narrow pore size distribution have been developed that are capable of large pressure gradients (250-500 psi/mm) when large electric fields (1000-1500 V/cm) are applied. Flowrates up to 200 .mu.L/min and delivery pressures up to 1200 psi have been demonstrated. Forces up to 5 lb-force at 0.5 mm/s (12 mW) have been demonstrated with a battery-powered DC-DC converter. Hydraulic power of 17 mW (900 psi@ 180 uL/min) has been demonstrated with wall-powered high voltage supplies. The force and stroke delivered by an actuator utilizing an EK pump are shown to exceed the output of solenoids, stepper motors, and DC motors of similar size, despite the low thermodynamic efficiency.

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies at high pressures

    Jonas, J.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are reviewed. After a brief discussion of two novel experimental techniques, the main focus of this review is on several specific studies which illustrate the versatility and power of this high pressure field. Experimental aspects of NMR measurements at high pressure and high temperature and the techniques for the high resolution NMR spectroscopy at high pressure are discussed. An overview of NMR studies of the dynamic structure of simple polyatomic liquids and hydrogen bonded liquids is followed by a discussion of high resolution spectroscopy at high pressure. Examples of NMR studies of disordered organic solids and polymers conclude the review. (author)

  15. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  16. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  17. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  18. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  19. High blood pressure and eye disease

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  20. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress-strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic-plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  1. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  2. Evaluation of high temperature pressure sensors

    Choi, In-Mook; Woo, Sam-Yong; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming more important to measure the pressure in high temperature environments in many industrial fields. However, there is no appropriate evaluation system and compensation method for high temperature pressure sensors since most pressure standards have been established at room temperature. In order to evaluate the high temperature pressure sensors used in harsh environments, such as high temperatures above 250 deg. C, a specialized system has been constructed and evaluated in this study. The pressure standard established at room temperature is connected to a high temperature pressure sensor through a chiller. The sensor can be evaluated in conditions of changing standard pressures at constant temperatures and of changing temperatures at constant pressures. According to the evaluation conditions, two compensation methods are proposed to eliminate deviation due to sensitivity changes and nonlinear behaviors except thermal hysteresis.

  3. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    Marquez, L.N.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Wruck, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO 2 2+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO 2 2+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO 2 2+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na 2 SO 4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  4. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  5. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  6. Unlocking High-Salinity Desalination with Cascading Osmotically Mediated Reverse Osmosis: Energy and Operating Pressure Analysis.

    Chen, Xi; Yip, Ngai Yin

    2018-02-20

    Current practice of using thermally driven methods to treat hypersaline brines is highly energy-intensive and costly. While conventional reverse osmosis (RO) is the most efficient desalination technique, it is confined to purifying seawater and lower salinity sources. Hydraulic pressure restrictions and elevated energy demand render RO unsuitable for high-salinity streams. Here, we propose an innovative cascading osmotically mediated reverse osmosis (COMRO) technology to overcome the limitations of conventional RO. The innovation utilizes the novel design of bilateral countercurrent reverse osmosis stages to depress the hydraulic pressure needed by lessening the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane, and simultaneously achieve energy savings. Instead of the 137 bar required by conventional RO to desalinate 70 000 ppm TDS hypersaline feed, the highest operating pressure in COMRO is only 68.3 bar (-50%). Furthermore, up to ≈17% energy saving is attained by COMRO (3.16 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.79 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). When COMRO is employed to boost the recovery of seawater desalination to 70% from the typical 35-50%, energy savings of up to ≈33% is achieved (2.11 kWh/m 3 , compared to 3.16 kWh/m 3 with conventional RO). Again, COMRO can operate at a moderate hydraulic pressure of 80 bar (25% lower than 113 bar of conventional RO). This study highlights the encouraging potential of energy-efficient COMRO to access unprecedented high recovery rates and treat hypersaline brines at moderate hydraulic pressures, thus extending the capabilities of membrane-based technologies for high-salinity desalination.

  7. High pressure effect for high-Tc superconductors

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Tomita, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of high-T c superconductivity and to enhance T c . High-pressure techniques have played a very important role for these studies. In this paper, the high-pressure techniques and physical properties of high-T c superconductor under high pressure are presented. (author)

  8. Estimated radiation doses resulting if an exploratory borehole penetrates a pressurized brine reservoir assumed to exist below the WIPP repository horizon: a single hole scenario

    Bard, S.T.

    1982-03-01

    A radiation dose consequence analysis has been performed for a postulated scenario in which an exploratory gas or oil well-bore penetrates the repository and intercepts a brine reservoir in the Castile formation. The brine, corings and drilling mud are contained in a one acre holding pond on the surface. Upon the completion of drilling activities the dried holding pond area is reclaimed with a bulldozer to its original topographic conformation. The estimated radiation bone dose commitments to (1) a bulldozer operator, and (2) a member of a farm family 500 meters down wind are summarized for three penetration event times. The highest estimated 50 year bone dose commitment to an individual reclaiming the contaminated holding pond area was determined to be 590 mrem from the inhalation of CH-TRU wastes resuspended into the atmosphere at an event time of 100 years post-closure. A second dose model using a specific activity approach is developed in Appendix C for this same individual where an upper 50 year dose commitment of 450 mrem is calculated. Both of these derived estimates may be compared to the 5800 mrem to bone surfaces which may be expected from natural background radiation to an individual in the United States over a fifty year period

  9. Pressure pressure-balanced pH sensing system for high temperature and high pressure water

    Tachibana, Koji

    1995-01-01

    As for the pH measurement system for high temperature, high pressure water, there have been the circumstances that first the reference electrodes for monitoring corrosion potential were developed, and subsequently, it was developed for the purpose of maintaining the soundness of metallic materials in high temperature, high pressure water in nuclear power generation. In the process of developing the reference electrodes for high temperature water, it was clarified that the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in BWRs is closely related to the corrosion potential determined by dissolved oxygen concentration. As the types of pH electrodes, there are metal-hydrogen electrodes, glass electrodes, ZrO 2 diaphragm electrodes and TiO 2 semiconductor electrodes. The principle of pH measurement using ZrO 2 diaphragms is explained. The pH measuring system is composed of YSZ element, pressure-balanced type external reference electrode, pressure balancer and compressed air vessel. The stability and pH response of YSZ elements are reported. (K.I.)

  10. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  11. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  12. High pressure gas reinjection unit

    1976-03-01

    Nuovo Pignone has built for gas reinjection at Ekofisk the highest pressure injection unit to date: suction pressure 246 bar, discharge 647 bar, for 5.7 million cu m/day of natural gas, and driven by a GE MS 5001 gas turbine of 24,000 hp. The barrel-type compressor has been used already in Algeria at Hassi Messaoud. Full scale tests have shown that the unit is satisfactory; special attention being paid to the stability of the rotor. Air cooled heat exchangers were used in the test loop to cool the discharge gas; at Ekofisk, heat exchangers with sea water will be used. The valves in the test loop were of a special, low- noise type. Vibrations of the rotor system and changes in gas pressure monitored, showing that a pressure of 680 bars can be achieved without instability. Economic considerations lead to preference for rotary compressors driven by gas turbines for similar applications in the exploitation of oil fields. A graph of the characteristics of the unit is given.

  13. Impact of CO2 injection protocol on fluid-solid reactivity: high-pressure and temperature microfluidic experiments in limestone

    Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Porter, Mark; Carey, James; Guthrie, George; Viswanathan, Hari

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 has been proposed in the last decades as a technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and mitigate the global climate change. However, some questions such as the impact of the protocol of CO2 injection on the fluid-solid reactivity remain open. In our experiments, two different protocols of injection are compared at the same conditions (8.4 MPa and 45 C, and constant flow rate 0.06 ml/min): i) single phase injection, i.e., CO2-saturated brine; and ii) simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2. For that purpose, we combine a unique high-pressure/temperature microfluidics experimental system, which allows reproducing geological reservoir conditions in geo-material substrates (i.e., limestone, Cisco Formation, Texas, US) and high resolution optical profilometry. Single and multiphase flow through etched fracture networks were optically recorded with a microscope, while processes of dissolution-precipitation in the etched channels were quantified by comparison of the initial and final topology of the limestone micromodels. Changes in hydraulic conductivity were quantified from pressure difference along the micromodel. The simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2, reduced the brine-limestone contact area and also created a highly heterogeneous velocity field (i.e., low velocities regions or stagnation zones, and high velocity regions or preferential paths), reducing rock dissolution and enhancing calcite precipitation. The results illustrate the contrasting effects of single and multiphase flow on chemical reactivity and suggest that multiphase flow by isolating parts of the flow system can enhance CO2 mineralization.

  14. High-pressure boron hydride phases

    Barbee, T.W. III; McMahan, A.K.; Klepeis, J.E.; van Schilfgaarde, M.

    1997-01-01

    The stability of boron-hydrogen compounds (boranes) under pressure is studied from a theoretical point of view using total-energy methods. We find that the molecular forms of boranes known to be stable at ambient pressure become unstable at high pressure, while structures with extended networks of bonds or metallic bonding are energetically favored at high pressures. If such structures are metastable on return to ambient pressure, they would be energetic as well as dense hydrogen storage media. An AlH 3 -like structure of BH 3 is particularly interesting in that it may be accessible by high-pressure diamond anvil experiments, and should exhibit both second-order structural and metal-insulator transitions at lower pressures. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. High-pressure torsion of hafnium

    Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji; Mine, Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Pure Hf (99.99%) is processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) under pressures of 4 and 30 GPa to form an ultrafine-grained structure with a gain size of ∼180 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, unlike Ti and Zr, no ω phase formation is detected after HPT processing even under a pressure of 30 GPa. A hydride formation is detected after straining at the pressure of 4 GPa. The hydride phase decomposes either by application of a higher pressure as 30 GPa or by unloading for prolong time after HPT processing. Microhardness, tensile and bending tests show that a high hardness (360 Hv) and an appreciable ductility (8%) as well as high tensile and bending strength (1.15 and 2.75 GPa, respectively) are achieved following the high-pressure torsion.

  16. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies.

    Vane, Leland M

    2017-03-08

    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  17. High pressure X-ray studies

    Sikka, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    High pressure research has already led to new insights in the physical properties of materials and at times to the synthesis of new ones. In all this, X-ray diffraction has been a valuable diagnostic experimental tool. In particular, X-rays in high pressure field have been used (a) for crystallographic identification of high pressure polymorphs and (b) for study of the effect of pressure on lattice parameters and volume under isothermal conditions. The results in the area (a) are reviewed. The techniques of applying high pressures are described. These include both static and dynamic shockwave X-ray apparatus. To illustrate the effect of pressure, some of the pressure induced phase transitions in pure metals are described. It has been found that there is a clear trend for elements in any group of the periodic table to adopt similar structures at high pressures. These studies have enabled to construct generalized phase diagrams for many groups. In the case of alloys, the high pressure work done on Ti-V alloys is presented. (author)

  18. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  19. Application of High Pressure in Food Processing

    Herceg, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In high pressure processing, foods are subjected to pressures generally in the range of 100 – 800 (1200 MPa. The processing temperature during pressure treatments can be adjusted from below 0 °C to above 100 °C, with exposure times ranging from a few seconds to 20 minutes and even longer, depending on process conditions. The effects of high pressure are system volume reduction and acceleration of reactions that lead to volume reduction. The main areas of interest regarding high-pressure processing of food include: inactivation of microorganisms, modification of biopolymers, quality retention (especially in terms of flavour and colour, and changes in product functionality. Food components responsible for the nutritive value and sensory properties of food remain unaffected by high pressure. Based on the theoretical background of high-pressure processing and taking into account its advantages and limitations, this paper aims to show its possible application in food processing. The paper gives an outline of the special equipment used in highpressure processing. Typical high pressure equipment in which pressure can be generated either by direct or indirect compression are presented together with three major types of high pressure food processing: the conventional (batch system, semicontinuous and continuous systems. In addition to looking at this technology’s ability to inactivate microorganisms at room temperature, which makes it the ultimate alternative to thermal treatments, this paper also explores its application in dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable processing. Here presented are the effects of high-pressure treatment in milk and dairy processing on the inactivation of microorganisms and the modification of milk protein, which has a major impact on rennet coagulation and curd formation properties of treated milk. The possible application of this treatment in controlling cheese manufacture, ripening and safety is discussed. The opportunities

  20. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  1. In-Situ X-ray Tomography Study of Cement Exposed to CO2 Saturated Brine

    Chavez Panduro, E. A.; Torsæter, M.; Gawel, K.

    2017-01-01

    For successful CO2 storage in underground reservoirs, the potential problem of CO2 leakage needs to be addressed. A profoundly improved understanding of the behavior of fractured cement under realistic subsurface conditions including elevated temperature, high pressure and the presence of CO2...... saturated brine is required. Here, we report in situ X-ray micro computed tomography (μ-CT) studies visualizing the microstructural changes upon exposure of cured Portland cement with an artificially engineered leakage path (cavity) to CO2 saturated brine at high pressure. Carbonation of the bulk cement......, self-healing of the leakage path in the cement specimen, and leaching of CaCO3 were thus directly observed. The precipitation of CaCO3, which is of key importance as a possible healing mechanism of fractured cement, was found to be enhanced in confined regions having limited access to CO2...

  2. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME (Dimenthyl Ether) using a standard diesel pump with pintle and hole nozzles. Fundamental spray behavior was characterized by determining fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and evaporation. The influences of opening pressure, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure above and below the critical pressure of the fuel on the spray behavior were investigated. The influence of opening pressures on the spray characteristics for the hole nozzle was investigated. The results showed that for opening pressures of 120 bar and 180 bar the spray has a similar appearance. For the higher opening pressure (200 bar and 240 bar), the initial spray breaks up very rapidly giving a high initial spray angle. The opening pressure had little influence on spray penetration. The spray angle later in the injection increased as the opening pressure was decreased. Above the critical pressure, the spray from the hole nozzle had a more irregular shape. Penetration decreased and the spray angle increased above the critical pressure. Three pintle nozzles with different geometries and opening pressures were tested. The appearance of the three sprays were very similar. The sprays seemed to be more sharply pointed as the nozzle hole angle decreased. The nozzle with the 4 deg. hole nozzle angle and an opening pressure of 280 bar had the highest penetration and highest initial spray angle. The pintle nozzle with the 12 deg. hole nozzle angle and opening pressure of approx. 450 bar was tested above the critical ambient pressure. Penetration was very similar for injection above and below the critical ambient pressure, while the spray angle decreased for the spray above the critical ambient pressure. (au)

  3. High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design's (FFD) High Pressure EVA Glove (HPEG) is a game changing technology enabling future exploration class space missions. The high operating...

  4. Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

    Klotz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea

  5. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks.

    Byerlee, J D; Brace, W F

    1969-05-09

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  6. Nucleation at high pressure I: Theoretical considerations.

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Dongen, van M.E.H.

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented that accounts for the influence of high pressure background gases on the vapor-to-liquid nucleation process. The key idea is to treat the carrier gas pressure as a perturbation parameter that modifies the properties of the nucleating substance. Two important

  7. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  8. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  9. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  10. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  11. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-24

    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  12. High pressure processing of meat

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  13. Raman spectroscopy of triolein under high pressures

    Tefelski, D. B.; Jastrzębski, C.; Wierzbicki, M.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Rostocki, A. J.; Wieja, K.; Kościesza, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the high pressure Raman spectroscopy of triolein. Triolein, a triacylglyceride (TAG) of oleic acid, is an unsaturated fat, present in natural oils such as olive oil. As a basic food component and an energy storage molecule, it has considerable importance for food and fuel industries. To generate pressure in the experiment, we used a high-pressure cylindrical chamber with sapphire windows, presented in (R.M. Siegoczyński, R. Kościesza, D.B. Tefelski, and A. Kos, Molecular collapse - modification of the liquid structure induced by pressure in oleic acid, High Press. Res. 29 (2009), pp. 61-66). Pressure up to 750 MPa was applied. A Raman spectrometer in "macro"-configuration was employed. Raman spectroscopy provides information on changes of vibrational modes related to structural changes of triolein under pressure. Interesting changes in the triglyceride C‒H stretching region at 2650-3100 cm-1 were observed under high-pressures. Changes were also observed in the ester carbonyl (C˭ O) stretching region 1700-1780 cm-1 and the C‒C stretching region at 1050-1150 cm-1. The overall luminescence of the sample decreased under pressure, making it possible to set longer spectrum acquisition time and obtain more details of the spectrum. The registered changes suggest that the high-pressure solid phase of triolein is organized as β-polymorphic, as was reported in (C. Akita, T. Kawaguchi, and F. Kaneko, Structural study on polymorphism of cis-unsaturated triacylglycerol: Triolein, J. Phys. Chem. B 110 (2006), pp. 4346-4353; E. Da Silva and D. Rousseau, Molecular order and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid transition in triglycerides via Raman spectroscopy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10 (2008), pp. 4606-4613) (with temperature-induced phase transitions). The research has shown that Raman spectroscopy in TAGs under pressure reveals useful information about its structural changes.

  14. High pressure semiconductor physics I

    Willardson, R K; Paul, William; Suski, Tadeusz

    1998-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise indeed that this tra...

  15. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre; Pitchford, Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking CPAT as follows: The Grantee will perform theoretical modeling of point, surface, and volume high-pressure plasmas created using Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge sources...

  16. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  17. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  18. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  19. High-pressure portable pneumatic drive unit.

    Hete, B F; Savage, M; Batur, C; Smith, W A; Golding, L A; Nosé, Y

    1989-12-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) is a single-chamber assist pump, driven by a high-pressure pneumatic cylinder. A low-cost, portable driver that will allow cardiac care patients, with a high-pressure pneumatic ventricle assist, more freedom of movement has been developed. The compact and light-weight configuration can provide periods of 2 h of freedom from a fixed position driver and does not use exotic technology.

  20. High Pressure Physics at Brigham Young University

    Decker, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    I will discuss the high pressure research of Drs. J. Dean Barnett, Daniel L. Decker and Howard B. Vanfleet of the department of Physics and Astronomy at Brigham Young University and their many graduate students. I will begin by giving a brief history of the beginning of high pressure research at Brigham Young University when H. Tracy Hall came to the University from General Elecrtric Labs. and then follow the work as it progressed from high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments, melting curve measurements under pressure to pressure effects on tracer diffusion and Mossbauer effect spectra. This will be followed by showing the development of pressure calibration techniques from the Decker equation of state of NaCl to the ruby fluorescence spectroscopy and a short discussion of using a liquid cell for hydrostatic measurements and temperature control for precision high pressure measurements. Then I will conclude with a description of thermoelectric measuremnts, critical phenomena at the magnetic Curie point, and the tricritical point of BaTiO_3.

  1. Holographic interferometry of high pressure

    McIlwain, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods. Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma. Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry, and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained. This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented

  2. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Gersen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly...... diluted in nitrogen. It was found that under the investigated conditions, the onset temperature for methane oxidation ranged from 723 K under reducing conditions to 750 K under stoichiometric and oxidizing conditions. The RCM experiments were carried out at pressures of 15–80 bar and temperatures of 800......–1250 K under stoichiometric and fuel-lean (Φ=0.5) conditions. Ignition delays, in the range of 1–100 ms, decreased monotonically with increasing pressure and temperature. A chemical kinetic model for high-pressure methane oxidation was established, with particular emphasis on the peroxide chemistry...

  3. On high-pressure melting of tantalum

    Luo, Sheng-Nian; Swift, Damian C.

    2007-01-01

    The issues related to high-pressure melting of Ta are discussed within the context of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments, theoretical calculations and common melting models. The discrepancies between the extrapolations of the DAC melting curve and the melting point inferred from shock wave experiments, cannot be reconciled either by superheating or solid-solid phase transition. The failure to reproduce low-pressure DAC melting curve by melting models such as dislocation-mediated melting and the Lindemann law, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics-based calculations, undermines their predictions at moderate and high pressures. Despite claims to the contrary, the melting curve of Ta (as well as Mo and W) remains inconclusive at high pressures.

  4. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    Forster, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacement of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely

  5. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  6. Statistical testing of input factors in the carbonation of brine impacted fly ash.

    Grace, Muriithi N; Wilson, Gitari M; Leslie, Petrik F

    2012-01-01

    A D-optimal design was applied in the study of input factors: temperature, pressure, solid/liquid (S/L) ratio and particle size and their influence on the carbonation of brine impacted fly ash (FA) determined. Both temperature and pressure were at two levels (30°C and 90°C; 1 Mpa and 4 Mpa), S/L ratio was at three levels (0.1, 0.5 and 1) while particle size was at 4 levels (bulk ash, 150 μm). Pressure was observed to have a slight influence on the % CaCO(3) yield while higher temperatures led to higher percentage CaCO(3) yield. The particle size range of 20 μm - 150 μm enhanced the degree of carbonation of the fly ash/brine slurries. This was closely followed by the bulk ash while the >150 μm particle fraction had the least influence on the % CaCO(3). The effect of S/L ratio was temperature dependent. At low temperature, the S/L ratio of 1 resulted in the highest % CaCO(3) formation while at high temperature, the ratio of 0.5 resulted in the highest percentage CaCO(3) formation. Overall the two most important factors in the carbonation of FA and brine were found to be particle size and temperature.

  7. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures

    Milinchuk, V.; Kirjukhin, V.; Klinshpont, E.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibres were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures. (J.B.)

  8. observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. ∗. Email: kohara@sci.himeji tech.ac.jp. Abstract. NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si. NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic ...

  9. High pressure, high current, low inductance, high reliability sealed terminals

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; McKeever, John W [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-03-23

    The invention is a terminal assembly having a casing with at least one delivery tapered-cone conductor and at least one return tapered-cone conductor routed there-through. The delivery and return tapered-cone conductors are electrically isolated from each other and positioned in the annuluses of ordered concentric cones at an off-normal angle. The tapered cone conductor service can be AC phase conductors and DC link conductors. The center core has at least one service conduit of gate signal leads, diagnostic signal wires, and refrigerant tubing routed there-through. A seal material is in direct contact with the casing inner surface, the tapered-cone conductors, and the service conduits thereby hermetically filling the interstitial space in the casing interior core and center core. The assembly provides simultaneous high-current, high-pressure, low-inductance, and high-reliability service.

  10. High Temperature Dynamic Pressure Measurements Using Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Okojie, Robert S.; Meredith, Roger D.; Chang, Clarence T.; Savrun, Ender

    2014-01-01

    Un-cooled, MEMS-based silicon carbide (SiC) static pressure sensors were used for the first time to measure pressure perturbations at temperatures as high as 600 C during laboratory characterization, and subsequently evaluated in a combustor rig operated under various engine conditions to extract the frequencies that are associated with thermoacoustic instabilities. One SiC sensor was placed directly in the flow stream of the combustor rig while a benchmark commercial water-cooled piezoceramic dynamic pressure transducer was co-located axially but kept some distance away from the hot flow stream. In the combustor rig test, the SiC sensor detected thermoacoustic instabilities across a range of engine operating conditions, amplitude magnitude as low as 0.5 psi at 585 C, in good agreement with the benchmark piezoceramic sensor. The SiC sensor experienced low signal to noise ratio at higher temperature, primarily due to the fact that it was a static sensor with low sensitivity.

  11. High-Pressure Polymorphism in Orthoamphiboles

    Finkelstein, G. J.; Zhang, D.; Shelton, H.; Dera, P.

    2017-12-01

    Amphiboles are double-chain silicate minerals that are the structurally hydrated counterpart to single-chain, anhydrous pyroxenes. They may play an important role in the earth as a carrier for volatiles in subduction zones, as well as a generator for seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. Recent work has described previously unrecognized high-pressure polymorphism at low temperatures in a variety of pyroxene minerals, which may be relevant for the structure and dynamics of thick, cold, subducted slabs. However, high-pressure polymorphism in amphiboles above a few GPa in pressure has not been well explored, and if similar polymorphism to pyroxenes exists in this mineral family, it may affect the extent and depth of volatile transport in amphiboles, as well as their rheological properties. At low temperatures and high pressures, orthopyroxenes undergo crystal structure transitions at lower pressures than clinopyroxenes (10-30 GPa vs. > 50 GPa), so for this study we have investigated polymorphism in the anthophyllite-gedrite (Al-free and Al rich) orthoamphibole solid solution series. Using neon gas-loaded diamond anvil cells, we compressed both phases to a maximum pressure of 31 GPa, and observed transitions to new monoclinic structures in both endmembers. In this presentation, we will discuss the details of these transitions and implications for the earth's interior.

  12. High-pressure oxidation of methane

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob M.; Gersen, Sander; Levinsky, Howard; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Methane oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures was investigated in a laminar flow reactor and in a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor experiments were conducted at 700–900 K and 100 bar for fuel-air equivalence ratios (Φ) ranging from 0.06 to 19.7, all highly

  13. High pressure synthesis of bismuth disulfide

    Søndergaard-Pedersen, Simone; Nielsen, Morten Bormann; Bremholm, Martin

    In this research the BiS2 compound was synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature method using a multi-anvil large volume press and the structure was solved by single crystal diffraction. The structure contains Bi atoms in distorted square-based pyramidal coordination to five surrounding...

  14. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  15. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  16. High-Tc superconductors under very high pressure

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Scholtz, J.J.; Eenige, E.N. van; Griessen, R.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure has played a crucial role in the short history of high T c superconductors. Soon after the discovery of superconductivity by Bednorz and Muller in La-Ba-Cu-O, Chu et al. showed that the critical temperature T c could be significantly increased by pressure. This observation led to the discovery of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 by Wu et al. with a T c above 90 K. Incidentally, this high T c is probably also due to the fact that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has two CuO 2 layers per unit cell instead of a single one in La-Ba-Cu-O. The authors discuss the high pressure dependence of the oxide superconductors, particularly at pressures above 10 GPa, and the nonmonotonic dependence of transition temperature on pressure

  17. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  18. High pressure freon decontamination of remote equipment

    Wilson, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of decontamination tests using high pressure FREON 113 was conducted in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. The intent of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of FREON 113 in decontamination of manipulator components, tools, and equipment items contaminated with mixed fission products. The test results indicated that high pressure FREON 113 is very effective in removing fissile material from a variety of objects and can reduce both the quantity and the volume of the radioactive waste material presently being buried

  19. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  20. High pressure water jet mining machine

    Barker, Clark R.

    1981-05-05

    A high pressure water jet mining machine for the longwall mining of coal is described. The machine is generally in the shape of a plowshare and is advanced in the direction in which the coal is cut. The machine has mounted thereon a plurality of nozzle modules each containing a high pressure water jet nozzle disposed to oscillate in a particular plane. The nozzle modules are oriented to cut in vertical and horizontal planes on the leading edge of the machine and the coal so cut is cleaved off by the wedge-shaped body.

  1. Raman study of opal at high pressure

    Farfan, G.; Wang, S.; Mao, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    More commonly known for their beauty and lore as gemstones, opals are also intriguing geological materials which may have potential for materials science applications. Opal lacks a definite crystalline structure, and is composed of an amorphous packing of hydrated silica (SiO2) spheroids, which provides us with a unique nano-scaled mineraloid with properties unlike those of other amorphous materials like glass. Opals from different localities were studied at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell to apply pressure and Raman spectroscopy to look at changes in bonding as pressure was increased. We first tested different samples from Virgin Valley, NV, Spencer, ID, Juniper Ridge, OR, and Australia, which contain varying amounts of water at ambient conditions, using Raman spectroscopy to determine if they were opal-CT (semicrystalline cristobalite-trydimite volcanic origin) or opal-A (amorphous sedimentary origin). We then used x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell to see how their bonding and structure changed under compression and to determine what effect water content had on their high pressure behavior. Comparison of our results on opal to other high pressure studies of amorphous materials like glass has implications from a geological and materials science standpoint.

  2. HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT

    Stefano Orsino

    2005-03-30

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical

  3. Dynamism or Disorder at High Pressures?

    Angel, R. J.; Bismayer, U.; Marshall, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    Phase transitions in minerals at elevated temperatures typically involve dynamics as a natural consequence of the increase in thermal energy available to the system. Classic examples include quartz, cristobalite, and carbonates in which the high-temperature, high symmetry phase is dynamically disordered. This disorder has important thermodynamic consequences, including displacement and curvature of phase boundaries (e.g. calcite-aragonite). In other minerals such as clinopyroxenes and anorthite feldspar, the dynamic behaviour is restricted to the neighbourhood of the phase transition. The fundamental question is whether increasing pressure generally suppresses such dynamic behaviour (as in anorthite; Angel, 1988), or not. In the latter case it must be included in thermodynamic models of high-pressure phase equilibria and seismological modelling of the mantle; the potential dynamics and softening in stishovite may provide the critical observational constraint on the presence or otherwise of free silica in the lower mantle. We have continued to use the lead phosphate as a prototype ferroelastic in which to understand dynamic behaviour, simply because its dynamics and transition behaviour is far better characterised than any mineral. Furthermore, the phase transition is at a pressure where experimental difficulties do not dominate the experimental results. Our previous neutron diffraction study (Angel et al., 2001) revealed that some disorder, either dynamic or static, is retained in the high-symmetry, high-pressure phase just above the phase transition. New neutron diffraction data on the pure material now suggests that this disorder slowly decreases with increasing pressure until at twice the transition pressure it is ordered. Further data for doped material provides insights into the nature of this disorder. Angel (1988) Amer. Mineral. 73:1114. Angel et al (2001) J PhysC 13: 5353.

  4. High pressure photoinduced ring opening of benzene

    Ciabini, Lucia; Santoro, Mario; Bini, Roberto; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical transformation of crystalline benzene into an amorphous solid (a-C:H) was induced at high pressure by employing laser light of suitable wavelengths. The reaction was forced to occur at 16 GPa, well below the pressure value (23 GPa) where the reaction normally occurs. Different laser sources were used to tune the pumping wavelength into the red wing of the first excited singlet state S 1 ( 1 B 2u ) absorption edge. Here the benzene ring is distorted, presenting a greater flexibility which makes the molecule unstable at high pressure. The selective pumping of the S 1 level, in addition to structural considerations, was of paramount importance to clarify the mechanism of the reaction

  5. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  6. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V. [Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería, “Ing. H. Fernández Long,” Av. Paseo Colón 850 (1063), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Institut Universitari de Ciència dels Materials, Universitat de Valencia, c/ Doctor Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Agouram, S. [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de València, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2015-08-21

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20–27 GPa to 7.5–12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B{sub 0} = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (B{sub 0} = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B{sub 0} = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  7. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  8. Sounding experiments of high pressure gas discharge

    Biele, Joachim K.

    1998-01-01

    A high pressure discharge experiment (200 MPa, 5·10 21 molecules/cm 3 , 3000 K) has been set up to study electrically induced shock waves. The apparatus consists of the combustion chamber (4.2 cm 3 ) to produce high pressure gas by burning solid propellant grains to fill the electrical pump chamber (2.5 cm 3 ) containing an insulated coaxial electrode. Electrical pump energy up to 7.8 kJ at 10 kV, which is roughly three times of the gas energy in the pump chamber, was delivered by a capacitor bank. From the current-voltage relationship the discharge develops at rapidly decreasing voltage. Pressure at the combustion chamber indicating significant underpressure as well as overpressure peaks is followed by an increase of static pressure level. These data are not yet completely understood. However, Lorentz forces are believed to generate pinching with subsequent pinch heating, resulting in fast pressure variations to be propagated as rarefaction and shock waves, respectively. Utilizing pure axisymmetric electrode initiation rather than often used exploding wire technology in the pump chamber, repeatable experiments were achieved

  9. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  10. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  11. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  12. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  13. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  14. High pressure studies of planetary matter

    Ross, M.

    1989-06-01

    Those materials which are of greatest interest to the physics of the deep planetary interiors are Fe, H 2 , He and the Ices. These are sufficiently diverse and intensively studied to offer an overview of present day high pressure research. 13 refs., 1 fig

  15. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  16. Physiological characteristics of bacteria isolated from water brines within permafrost

    Shcherbakova, V.; Rivkina, E.; Laurinavichuis, K.; Pecheritsina, S.; Gilichinsky, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the Arctic there are lenses of overcooled water brines (cryopegs) sandwiched within permafrost marine sediments 100 120 thousand years old. We have investigated the physiological properties of the pure cultures of anaerobic Clostridium sp. strain 14D1 and two strains of aerobic bacteria Psychrobacter sp. isolated from these cryopegs. The structural and physiological characteristics of new bacteria from water brines have shown their ability to survive and develop under harsh conditions, such as subzero temperatures and high salinity.

  17. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  18. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  19. High temperature and high pressure equation of state of gold

    Matsui, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    High-temperature and high-pressure equation of state (EOS) of Au has been developed using measured data from shock compression up to 240 GPa, volume thermal expansion between 100 and 1300 K and 0 GPa, and temperature dependence of bulk modulus at 0 GPa from ultrasonic measurements. The lattice thermal pressures at high temperatures have been estimated based on the Mie-Grueneisen-Debye type treatment with the Vinet isothermal EOS. The contribution of electronic thermal pressure at high temperatures, which is relatively insignificant for Au, has also been included here. The optimized EOS parameters are K' 0T = 6.0 and q = 1.6 with fixed K 0T = 167 GPa, γ 0 = 2.97, and Θ 0 = 170 K from previous investigations. We propose the present EOS to be used as a reliable pressure standard for static experiments up to 3000K and 300 GPa.

  20. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure and inter......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...... and intermolecular interactions on optical excitations, electron–phonon interaction, and changes in backbone conformations. This picture is connected to the optical high pressure studies of other π-conjugated systems and emerging x-ray scattering experiments from polyfluorenes which provides a structure-property map...

  1. The high-pressure behavior of bloedite

    Comodi, Paola; Nazzareni, Sabrina; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure single-crystal synchrotron X‑ray diffraction was carried out on a single crystal of bloedite [Na2Mg(SO4)24H2O] compressed in a diamond-anvil cell. The volume-pressure data, collected up to 11.2 GPa, were fitted by a second- and a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS....... Pressure decreases significantly the distortion of Na coordination. Up to 10 GPa, the donor-acceptor oxygen distances decrease significantly and the difference between the two water molecules decreases with an increase in the strengths of hydrogen bonds. At the same time, the bond lengths from Na and Mg...... to O atoms of the water molecules decrease faster than other bonds to these cations suggesting that there is a coupling between the Na-Ow and Mg-Ow bond strengths and the “hydrogen transfer” to acceptor O atoms....

  2. Strain engineered pyrochlore at high pressure

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Park, Changyong; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-05-22

    Strain engineering is a promising method for next-generation materials processing techniques. Here, we use mechanical milling and annealing followed by compression in diamond anvil cell to tailor the intrinsic and extrinsic strain in pyrochlore, Dy2Ti2O7 and Dy2Zr2O7. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray pair distribution function analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize atomic order over short-, medium-, and long-range spatial scales, respectively, under ambient conditions. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were further employed to interrogate the material in situ at high pressure. High-pressure behavior is found to depend on the species and concentration of defects in the sample at ambient conditions. Overall, we show that defects can be engineered to lower the phase transformation onset pressure by ~50% in the ordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7, and lower the phase transformation completion pressure by ~20% in the disordered pyrochlore Dy2Zr2O7. These improvements are achieved without significantly sacrificing mechanical integrity, as characterized by bulk modulus.

  3. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  4. Effect of iron cation on geochemical trapping of CO2 in brine

    Liu, Qi; Maroto-Valer, Mercedes

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration using brines has emerged as a promising technology to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change due to its large storage capacity and favorable chemistries. However, the permanent storage (mineral trapping) of CO2 in brines takes significantly long periods of time as the formation and precipitation of carbonates is very slow .[1]. The main parameters reported to effect on mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines are brine composition, brine pH, system temperature and pressure.[2, 3]. It is suggested that the precipitation of mineral carbonates is mostly dependent on brine pH. Previous studies by the authors concluded that iron in natural brines causes pH instability, but it was not ascertained whether ferric iron or ferrous iron caused pH instability .[4]. Accordingly, the aim of this project is to study synthetic brines mimicking the major ions found in natural brines and including different concentrations of ferric and ferrous iron. Three brines were prepared, as follows: Brine 1 was prepared with ferric Fe3+ iron, Brine 2 prepared with ferrous Fe2+ iron and Brine 3 prepared with no iron. A series of pH stability studies and carbonation reactions were conducted using the above three brines. It is concluded that the ferrous iron causes pH instability, while ferric iron might promote carbonate precipitation. .1. Garcia, S., et al., Sequestration of non-pure carbon dioxide streams in iron oxyhydroxide-containing saline repositories. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2012. 7: p. 89-97. 2. Liu, Q. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Investigation of the pH effect of a typical host rock and buffer solution on CO 2 sequestration in synthetic brines. Fuel Processing Technology, 2010. 91(10): p. 1321-1329. 3. Liu, Q. and M.M. MarotoValer, Parameters affecting mineral trapping of CO2 sequestration in brines. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 2011. 1(3): p. 211-222. 4. Druckenmiller, M.L. and M.M. Maroto-Valer, Carbon

  5. 7 CFR 58.219 - High pressure pumps and lines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High pressure pumps and lines. 58.219 Section 58.219....219 High pressure pumps and lines. High pressure lines may be cleaned-in-place and shall be of such construction that dead ends, valves and the high pressure pumps can be disassembled for hand cleaning. The high...

  6. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-02-01

    It has been proposed that the high level nuclear waste be buried deep underground in a suitable geologic formation. Natural salt deposits have been under active consideration as one of the geologic formations where a nuclear waste repository may be built in future. The salt deposits, however, are known to contain a small amount (about 0.5 vol.%) of water in the form of brine inclusions which are dispersed throughout the medium. The temperature gradients imposed by the heat generating nuclear waste will mobilize these brine inclusions. It is important to know the rate and the amount of brine accumulating at the waste packages to properly evaluate the performance of a nuclear waste repository. An extensive experimental investigation of the migration velocities of brine inclusions in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and in polycrystalline natural salt crystals has been conducted. The results show that in a salt repository the brine inclusions within a grain would move with the diffusion controlled velocities. The brine reaching a grain boundary may be swept across, if the thermal gradient is high enough. Grain boundaries in polycrystalline rock salt are apparently quite weak and open up due to drilling the hole for a waste canister and to the thermal stresses which accompany the thermal gradient produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosity allows the water reaching the grain boundary to escape by a vapor transport process

  7. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  8. High pressure injection injuries: an overview.

    Fialkov, J A; Freiberg, A

    1991-01-01

    Injuries resulting from the use of high pressure injectors and spray guns are relatively rare; however, the potential tissue damage caused by the injury as well as the extent of the injury itself may go unrecognized by the primary physician. The purpose of this paper is to inform the emergency physician of the nature and standard management of this type of injury. A basic understanding of the pathophysiology of the high pressure injection injury (HPII) is essential in avoiding the mistakes in management that have been reported in the literature. The emergency management of the HPII includes: evaluation and immobilization, tetanus and antimicrobial prophylaxis, supportive and resuscitative measures, analgesia, and minimizing the time to definitive surgical treatment.

  9. Stress concentration effects in high pressure components

    Aller, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the stress concentration effects of sideholes in thick walled, high pressure cylinders. It has been shown that the theoretical stress concentration factor at the intersection of a small crossbore in a closed end, thick walled cylinder varies between 3.0 and 4.0. Tests have shown that this effect can be greatly reduced in practice by carefully radiusing the bore intersection and autofrettaging the cylinder. It has also been shown that the minimum stress concentration factor occurs when the main bore and sidehole or crossbore have the same diameter, and the radius of the intersection is approximately equal to the sidehole radius. When the bore and sidehole intersection angle decreases from 90 degrees, the stress concentration factor increases significantly. Knowledge of these fundamental relationships can be used in maintaining, as well ad designing, high pressure equipment

  10. High Pressure Multicomponent Adsorption in Porous Media

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1999-01-01

    We analyse adsorption of a multicomponent mixture at high pressure on the basis of the potential theory of adsorption. The adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external field produced by a solid adsorbent. we derive an analytical equation for the thickness of a multicomponent fi...... close to a dew point. This equation (asymptotic adsorption equation, AAE) is a first order approximation with regard to the distance from a phase envelope....

  11. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  12. High pressure phase transitions in Europous oxide

    Kremser, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure-volume relationship for EuO was investigated to 630 kilobars at room temperature with a diamond-anvil, high-pressure cell. Volumes were determined by x-ray diffraction; pressures were determined by the ruby R 1 fluorescence method. The preferred interpretation involves normal compression behavior for EuO, initially in the B1 (NaCl-type) structure, to about 280 kilobars. Between approx. =280 and approx. =350 kilobars a region of anomalous compressibility in which the volume drops continuously by approximately 2% is observed. A second-order electronic transition is proposed with the 6s band overlapping with the 4f levels, thereby reducing the volume of EuO without changing the structure. This is not a semiconductor-to-metal transition. In reflected light, this transition is correlated with a subtle and continuous change in color from brown-black to a light brown. The collapsed B1 phase (postelectronic transition) is stable between approx. =350 and approx. =400 kilobars. At about 400 kilobars the collapsed B1 structure transforms to the B2 (CsCl-type) structure, with a zero pressure-volume change of approximately 12 +/- 1.5%

  13. Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration

    Facility | NREL Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory Energy Systems High-Pressure Test Laboratory In the Energy Systems Integration Facility's High-Pressure Test Laboratory, researchers can safely test high-pressure hydrogen components. Photo of researchers running an experiment with a hydrogen fuel

  14. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine.

    Yang, Ting; Doudrick, Kyle; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Nitrate is often removed from groundwater by ion exchange (IX) before its use as drinking water. Accumulation of nitrate in IX brine reduces the efficiency of IX regeneration and the useful life of the regeneration brine. For the first time, we present a strategy to photocatalytically reduce nitrate in IX brine, thereby extending the use of the brine. Titanium dioxide (Evonik P90), acting as photocatalyst, reduced nitrate effectively in both synthetic brines and sulfate-removed IX brine when formic acid (FA) was used as the hole scavenger (i.e., electron donor) and the initial FA to nitrate molar ratio (IFNR) was 5.6. Increasing the NaCl level in the synthetic brine slowed the nitrate reduction rate without affecting by-product selectivity of ammonium and gaseous N species (e.g., N(2), N(2)O). In a non-modified IX brine, nitrate removal was greatly inhibited owing to the presence of sulfate, which competed with nitrate for active surface sites on P90 and induced aggregation of P90 nanoparticles. After removing sulfate through barium sulfate precipitation, nitrate was effectively reduced; approximately 3.6 × 10(24) photons were required to reduce each mole of nitrate to 83% N Gases and 17% NH(4)(+). To make optimum use of FA and control the residual FA level in treated brine, the IFNR was varied. High IFNRs (e.g., 4, 5.6) were found to be more efficient for nitrate reduction but left higher residual FA in brine. IX column tests were performed to investigate the impact of residual FA for brine reuse. The residual FA in the brine did not significantly affect the nitrate removal capacity of IX resins, and formate contamination of treated water could be eliminated by rinsing with one bed volume of fresh brine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  16. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea.

    Antunes, André; Alam, Intikhab; Simões, Marta Filipa; Daniels, Camille; Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-10-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Antunes, Andre; Alam, Intikhab; Simoes, Marta; Daniels, Camille Arian; Ferreira, Ari J.S.; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  18. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-10-31

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  19. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Suzuki, Naoshi; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2006-01-01

    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors

  20. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  1. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells...... and facilitate different types of electrochemical measurements. Selected examples of materials and electrochemical cells examined in the test station are provided, ranging from the evaluation of the ionic conductivity of liquid electrolytic solutions immobilized in mesoporous ceramic structures...

  2. SrWO4 at high pressures

    Grzechnik, A.; Crichton, W.A.; Hanfland, M.

    2005-01-01

    Room-temperature high-pressure behaviour of SrWO 4 scheelite (I4 1 /a, Z=4) has been studied to 20.7 GPa in a diamond anvil cell using synchrotron angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction. Above 10 GPa, it transforms to the fergusonite structure (I2/a, Z=4). Both scheelite and fergusonite types are ordered superstructures of fluorite (Fm anti 3m, Z=4). There is no significant volume collapse at the scheelite-fergusonite phase transition. However, the compression data including both phases of strontium tungstate cannot be fitted by a common Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. An onset of decomposition into component oxides occurs at about 15 GPa. The pressure-induced transformations are irreversible. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  4. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T c superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T c cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.55 samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 . A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T c as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B 1g -like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x . At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group Imm2). The structural transition is clearly reflected in the high pressure

  5. Effective Wettability Measurements of CO2-Brine-Sandstone System at Different Reservoir Conditions

    Al-Menhali, Ali; Krevor, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    , core-scale effective contact angle can be determined. In addition to providing a quantitative measure of the core-averaged wetting properties, the technique allows for the observation of shifts in contact angle with changing conditions. We examine the wettability changes of the CO2-brine system in Berea sandstone with variations in reservoir conditions including supercritical, gaseous and liquid CO2injection. We evaluate wettability variation within a single rock with temperature, pressure, and salinity across a range of conditions relevant to subsurface CO2 storage. This study will include results of measurements in a Berea sandstone sample across a wide range of conditions representative of subsurface reservoirs suitable for CO2 storage (5-20 MPa, 25-90 oC, 0-5 mol kg-1). The measurement uses X-ray CT imaging in a state of the art core flooding laboratory designed to operate at high temperature, pressure, and concentrated brines.

  6. 30 CFR 57.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 57.13021... Air and Boilers § 57.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are...-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch inside diameter or larger, and between high-pressure hose lines of 3/4-inch...

  7. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  8. 49 CFR 192.621 - Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Operations § 192.621 Maximum allowable operating pressure: High-pressure distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a segment of a high pressure distribution system at a pressure that exceeds the... segment of a distribution system otherwise designed to operate at over 60 p.s.i. (414 kPa) gage, unless...

  9. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  10. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N 2 , CO, SiO 2 -aerogel, H 2 O, and C 6 H 6 . The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Commentary on differential-pressure measurements at high reference pressures

    Hasbrouck, R.T.; Noyes, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some practical approaches to the difficult problems in calibrating and implementing differential-pressure measurements are discussed. The data presented were gathered several years ago in separate investigations. An attempt is made to compare the results of these investigations to the common mode concept as described by Peter K. Stein in his publication, The Measurement of Differential Quantities - Problems and Approaches. Although one of these investigations involed a 10,000- to 20,000-psi reference-pressure gas measured at an ambient temperature and the other a classic /sup Δ/P flow measurement of cryogenic temperature, the problems encountered were the same

  12. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  13. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  14. Thermal-gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-09-01

    It has been proposed that high-level nuclear waste be disposed in a geologic repository. Natural-salt deposits, which are being considered for this purpose, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive-decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In this work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is non-linear.At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boundaries was observed. 35 figures, 3 tables

  15. Thermal gradient migration of brine inclusions in salt crystals

    Yagnik, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level nuclear wastes repositories, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms which is undesirable. In the present work, thermal gradient migration of both all-liquid and gas-liquid inclusions was experimentally studied in synthetic single crystals of NaCl and KCl using a hot-stage attachment to an optical microscope which was capable of imposing temperature gradients and axial compressive loads on the crystals. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, however, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, three different gas phases (helium, air and argon) were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large angle grain boudaries was observed

  16. Protein removal from waste brines generated during ham salting through acidification and centrifugation.

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Maria del Rosario; Muñoz-Guerrero, Hernán; Alcaína-Miranda, Maria Isabel; Barat, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The salting step in food processes implies the production of large quantities of waste brines, having high organic load, high conductivity, and other pollutants with high oxygen demand. Direct disposal of the residual brine implies salinization of soil and eutrophication of water. Since most of the organic load of the waste brines comes from proteins leaked from the salted product, precipitation of dissolved proteins by acidification and removal by centrifugation is an operation to be used in waste brine cleaning. The aim of this study is optimizing the conditions for carrying out the separation of proteins from waste brines generated in the pork ham salting operation, by studying the influence of pH, centrifugal force, and centrifugation time. Models for determining the removal of proteins depending on the pH, centrifugal force, and time were obtained. The results showed a high efficacy of the proposed treatment for removing proteins, suggesting that this method could be used for waste brine protein removal. The best pH value to be used in an industrial process seems to be 3, while the obtained results indicate that almost 90% of the proteins from the brine can be removed by acidification followed by centrifugation. A further protein removal from the brine should have to be achieved using filtrating techniques, which efficiency could be highly improved as a consequence of the previous treatment through acidification and centrifugation. Waste brines from meat salting have high organic load and electrical conductivity. Proteins can be removed from the waste brine by acidification and centrifugation. The total protein removal can be up to 90% of the initial content of the waste brine. Protein removal is highly dependent on pH, centrifugation rate, and time. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-09-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

  19. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm 2 ) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  20. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  1. Permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine

    Gilpatrick, L.O.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Shor, A.J.; Canonico, C.M.

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the movement of brine along grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, measurements have been made of the radial flow of brine through the interface between cylindrical salt crystals under axial stresses to 140 bar and temperatures to 80 0 C. For constant conditions, the total flow of brine showed a linear dependence on the logarithm of time, and the reciprocal permeability increased linearly with time. Loss of salt from the interface by pressure solution effects was more than enough to account for the decrease in the apparent thickness of the interface (i.e., that which may be estimated for an interface of the same permeability formed by plane parallel surfaces). This apparent thickness, initially as large as 10 μm, decreased to as little as 0.2 μm with exposure to stress and flowing brine. It decreased quickly with sudden increases in axial stress and usually increased, though not reversibly, with decreases in stress. The rate of increase in the reciprocal permeability with time was roughly proportional to the stress and to the square of the hydraulic pressure drop. Assuming similar apparent thicknesses for the grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, permeabilities are predicted that are quite consistent with the low values reported for stressed core specimens

  2. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B.; Steinitz, G.; Raab, M.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2σ). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios could have been developed. (author)

  3. Engineering Model of High Pressure Moist Air

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the moist air equation of state. There are equations of state discussed in the article, i.e. the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases, the model of an ideal mixture of real gases and the model based on the virial equation of state. The evaluation of sound speed based on the ideal mixture concept is mentioned. The sound speed calculated by the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases is compared with the sound speed calculated by using the model based on the concept of an ideal mixture of real gases. The comparison of enthalpy end entropy based on the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases and the model of an ideal mixture of real gases is performed. It is shown that the model of an ideal mixture of real gases deviates from the model of an ideal mixture of ideal gases only in the case of high pressure. An impossibility of the definition of partial pressure in the mixture of real gases is discussed, where the virial equation of state is used.

  4. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface Complexation Modeling of Calcite Zeta Potential Measurement in Mixed Brines for Carbonate Wettability Characterization

    Song, J.; Zeng, Y.; Biswal, S. L.; Hirasaki, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    We presents zeta potential measurements and surface complexation modeling (SCM) of synthetic calcite in various conditions. The systematic zeta potential measurement and the proposed SCM provide insight into the role of four potential determining cations (Mg2+, SO42- , Ca2+ and CO32-) and CO2 partial pressure in calcite surface charge formation and facilitate the revealing of calcite wettability alteration induced by brines with designed ionic composition ("smart water"). Brines with varying potential determining ions (PDI) concentration in two different CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) are investigated in experiments. Then, a double layer SCM is developed to model the zeta potential measurements. Moreover, we propose a definition for contribution of charged surface species and quantitatively analyze the variation of charged species contribution when changing brine composition. After showing our model can accurately predict calcite zeta potential in brines containing mixed PDIs, we apply it to predict zeta potential in ultra-low and pressurized CO2 environments for potential applications in carbonate enhanced oil recovery including miscible CO2 flooding and CO2 sequestration in carbonate reservoirs. Model prediction reveals that pure calcite surface will be positively charged in all investigated brines in pressurized CO2 environment (>1atm). Moreover, the sensitivity of calcite zeta potential to CO2 partial pressure in the various brine is found to be in the sequence of Na2CO3 > Na2SO4 > NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2 (Ionic strength=0.1M).

  6. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  7. Possible Mars brines - Equilibrium and kinetic considerations

    Zent, A. P.; Fanale, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    To determine the fate of postulated near surface brines on Mars, the rate of H2O mass loss from subsurface brines was calculated as a function of latitude, depth, regolith porosity, eutectic temperature, and pore size. A model for a chemically reasonable brine that could reproduce Martian radar results was developed, and the escape rate of H2O molecules from such a brine was estimated. It is suggested that the presence of a low-permeability duricrust may be required to preserve such a brine for reasonable periods, and to prevent detection of an extensive subsurface system by the Viking MAWD instrument.

  8. Computer simulations of high pressure systems

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical methods are capable of solving very difficult problems in solid mechanics and gas dynamics. In the design of engineering structures, critical decisions are possible if the behavior of materials is correctly described in the calculation. Problems of current interest require accurate analysis of stress-strain fields that range from very small elastic displacement to very large plastic deformation. A finite difference program is described that solves problems over this range and in two and three space-dimensions and time. A series of experiments and calculations serve to establish confidence in the plasticity formulation. The program can be used to design high pressure systems where plastic flow occurs. The purpose is to identify material properties, strength and elongation, that meet the operating requirements. An objective is to be able to perform destructive testing on a computer rather than on the engineering structure. Examples of topical interest are given

  9. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  10. Recent developments in high pressure water technology

    Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, T.

    1992-01-01

    High Pressure Water Jetting has advanced rapidly in the last decade to a point where the field is splitting into specialised areas. This has left the end user or client in the dark as to whether water jetting will work and if so what equipment is best suited to their particular application. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of:-1. The way water is delivered to the surface and the parameters which control the concentration of energy available on impact. 2. The factors governing application driven selection of equipment. 3. The effects to technical advances in pumps and delivery systems on equipment selection with reference to their to their application to concrete removal and nuclear decontamination. (Author)

  11. Condensed matter at high shock pressures

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Hamilton, D.

    1985-07-12

    Experimental techniques are described for shock waves in liquids: Hugoniot equation-of-state, shock temperature and emission spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental data are reviewed and presented in terms of phenomena that occur at high densities and temperatures in shocked He, Ar, N/sub 2/, CO, SiO/sub 2/-aerogel, H/sub 2/O, and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. The superconducting properties of Nb metal shocked to 100 GPa (1 Mbar) and recovered intact are discussed in terms of prospects for synthesizing novel, metastable materials. Ultrahigh pressure data for Cu is reviewed in the range 0.3 to 6TPa (3 to 60 Mbar). 56 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. High-pressure structures of methane hydrate

    Hirai, H; Uchihara, Y; Fujihisa, H; Sakashita, M; Katoh, E; Aoki, K; Yamamoto, Y; Nagashima, K; Yagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Three high-pressure structures of methane hydrate, a hexagonal structure (str. A) and two orthorhombic structures (str. B and str. C), were found by in situ x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The well-known structure I (str. I) decomposed into str. A and fluid at 0.8 GPa. Str. A transformed into str. B at 1.6 GPa, and str. B further transformed into str. C at 2.1 GPa which survived above 7.8 GPa. The fluid solidified as ice VI at 1.4 GPa, and the ice VI transformed to ice VII at 2.1 GPa. The bulk moduli, K 0 , for str. I, str. A, and str. C were calculated to be 7.4, 9.8, and 25.0 GPa, respectively

  13. High Pressure Quick Disconnect Particle Impact Tests

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) performed particle impact testing to determine whether there is a particle impact ignition hazard in the quick disconnects (QDs) in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on the International Space Station (ISS). Testing included standard supersonic and subsonic particle impact tests on 15-5 PH stainless steel, as well as tests performed on a QD simulator. This paper summarizes the particle impact tests completed at WSTF. Although there was an ignition in Test Series 4, it was determined the ignition was caused by the presence of a machining imperfection. The sum of all the test results indicates that there is no particle impact ignition hazard in the ISS ECLSS QDs. KEYWORDS: quick disconnect, high pressure, particle impact testing, stainless steel

  14. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  15. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  16. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  17. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  18. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  19. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Belski, D.S.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry

  20. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1990 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Case, J.B.; Martin, M.L.; Roggenthen, W.M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1991-08-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1990. When excavations began in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. These brine occurrences were initially described as part of the Site Validation Program. Brine studies were formalized in 1985. The BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. The brine chemistry is important because it assists in understanding the origin of the brine and because it may affect possible chemical reactions in the buried waste after sealing the repository. The volume of brine and the hydrologic system that drives the brine seepage also need to be understood to assess the long-term performance of the repository. After more than eight years of observations (1982--1990), no credible evidence exists to indicate that enough naturally occurring brine will seep into the WIPP excavations to be of practical concern. The detailed observations and analyses summarized herein and in previous BSEP reports confirm the evidence apparent during casual visits to the underground workings -- that the excavations are remarkably dry.

  1. Effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci

    Reps, A; Kuzmicka, M; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Heweliusza 1, 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The research concerned the effect of high pressure on mesophilic lactic fermentation streptococci, present in two cheese-making commercial inocula produced by Christian-Hansen. Water solutions of inocula were pressurized at 50-800 MPa, at room temperature, for 30-120 min. Pressurization at 50-100 MPa slightly increased or reduced the number of lactic streptococci, depending on the inoculum and pressurization time. Pressurization at 200 MPa caused a reduction in the number of streptococci by over 99.9%, whereas the pressure of 400 MPa and above almost completely inactivated streptococci. Pressurization also reduced the dynamics of microorganism growth and acidification, to the degree depending on the pressure.

  2. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  3. High pressure apparatus transport properties study in high magnetic field

    Honda, F.; Sechovský, V.; Mikulina, O.; Kamarád, Jiří; Alsmadi, A. M.; Nakotte, H.; Lacerda, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, 20, 21 & 22 (2002), s. 3330-3333 ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/01/D045; GA ČR GA202/00/1217; GA MŠk ME 165 Grant - others:NSF(XX) DMR-0094241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : high-pressure apparatus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.604, year: 2002

  4. Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment

    Winter, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R ampersand D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage -7 cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved

  5. 30 CFR 56.13021 - High-pressure hose connections.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-pressure hose connections. 56.13021... and Boilers § 56.13021 High-pressure hose connections. Except where automatic shutoff valves are used, safety chains or other suitable locking devices shall be used at connections to machines of high-pressure...

  6. 76 FR 38697 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2011-07-01

    ... imports from China of high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV and subsidized imports of high pressure steel cylinders... contained in USITC Publication 4241 (July 2011), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China...

  7. 77 FR 37712 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China

    2012-06-22

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of high pressure steel... preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of high pressure steel cylinders from China were... Publication 4328 (June 2012), entitled High Pressure Steel Cylinders from China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-480...

  8. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    Griffith, Christopher, E-mail: cgriffith@utexas.edu; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from ~3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of ~500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of ~330 nm.

  9. Selective Recovery of Metals from Geothermal Brines

    Ventura, Susanna [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bhamidi, Srinivas [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perea, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-16

    The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of developing a new generation of highly selective low-cost ion-exchange resins based on metal-ion imprinted polymers for the separation of metals from geothermal fluids. Expansion of geothermal energy production over the entire U.S. will involve exploitation of low-to-medium temperature thermal waters. Creating value streams from the recovery of critical and near-critical metals from these thermal waters will encourage geothermal expansion. Selective extraction of metals from geothermal fluids is needed to design a cost-effective process for the recovery of lithium and manganese-two near-critical metals with well-known application in the growing lithium battery industry. We have prepared new lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymers in the form of beads by crosslinking polymerization of a metal polymerizable chelate, where the metal acts as a template. Upon leaching out the metal template, the crosslinked polymer is expected to leave cavities defined by the ligand functional group with enhanced selectivity for binding the template metal. We have demonstrated that lithium- and manganese-imprinted polymer beads can be used as selective solid sorbents for the extraction of lithium and manganese from brines. The polymers were tested both in batch extractions and packed bed lab-scale columns at temperatures of 45-100°C. Lithium-imprinted polymers were found to have Li+ adsorption capacity as high as 2.8 mg Li+/g polymer at 45°C. Manganese-imprinted polymers were found to have a Mn2+ adsorption capacity of more than 23 mg Mn2+/g polymer at 75°C. The Li+ extraction efficiency of the Li-imprinted polymer was found to be more that 95% when a brine containing 390 ppm Li+, 410 ppm Na+, and 390 ppm K+ was passed through a packed bed of the polymer in a lab-scale column at 45°C. In brines containing 360 ppm Li

  10. Ion association in concentrated NaCl brines from ambient to supercritical conditions: results from classical molecular dynamics simulations

    Collings Matthew D

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Highly concentrated NaCl brines are important geothermal fluids; chloride complexation of metals in such brines increases the solubility of minerals and plays a fundamental role in the genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits. There is experimental evidence that the molecular nature of the NaCl–water system changes over the pressure–temperature range of the Earth's crust. A transition of concentrated NaCl–H2O brines to a "hydrous molten salt" at high P and T has been argued to stabilize an aqueous fluid phase in the deep crust. In this work, we have done molecular dynamic simulations using classical potentials to determine the nature of concentrated (0.5–16 m NaCl–water mixtures under ambient (25°C, 1 bar, hydrothermal (325°C, 1 kbar and deep crustal (625°C, 15 kbar conditions. We used the well-established SPCE model for water together with the Smith and Dang Lennard-Jones potentials for the ions (J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 3757. With increasing temperature at 1 kbar, the dielectric constant of water decreases to give extensive ion-association and the formation of polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters in addition to simple NaCl ion pairs. Large polyatomic (NanClmn-m clusters resemble what would be expected in a hydrous NaCl melt in which water and NaCl were completely miscible. Although ion association decreases with pressure, temperatures of 625°C are not enough to overcome pressures of 15 kbar; consequently, there is still enhanced Na–Cl association in brines under deep crustal conditions.

  11. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Arnold D.

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  12. Recombination times in germanium under high pressure

    Kuyt, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of pressure on a well defined recombination process was studied. The centres were introduced by γirradiation and the lifetime determined by the decay time of photoconductivity. An optical pressure vessel is described which allows for a hydrostatic variation of 3000 bars. The diffusion constant and lifetime measurements are presented and analysed. (V.J.C.)

  13. Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program: 1988 report

    Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Case, J.B.; Crawley, M.E.; Deshler, R.M.; Drez, P.E.; Givens, C.A.; King, R.B.; Myers, J.; Pietz, J.M.; Roggenthen, W.M.; Tyburski, J.R.; Belski, D.S.; Niou, S.; Wallace, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during 1988. These activities, which are a continuation and update of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program, were formalized as the BSEP in 1985 to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation, and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. Previous BSEP reports (Deal and Case, 1987; Deal and others, 1987) described the results of ongoing activities that monitor brine inflow into boreholes in the facility, moisture content of the Salado Formation, brine geochemistry, and brine weeps and crusts. The information provided in this report updates past work and describes progress made during the calendar year 1988. During 1988, BSEP activities focused on four major areas to describe and quantify brine activity: (1) monitoring of brine inflow parameters, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled upward from the underground drifts (upholes), downward from the underground drifts (downholes), and near-horizontal holes; (2) characterizing the brine, e.g., the geochemistry of the brine and the presence of bacteria and their possible interactions with experiments and operations; (3) characterizing formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine; e.g., determining the water content of various geologic units, examining these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measuring their resistivity (conductivity); and (4) modeling to examine the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and brine seepage through the deforming salt. 77 refs., 48 figs., 32 tabs

  14. High Pressure Laminates with Antimicrobial Properties

    Sandra Magina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure laminates (HPLs are durable, resistant to environmental effects and good cost-benefit decorative surface composite materials with special properties tailored to meet market demand. In the present work, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB was incorporated for the first time into melamine-formaldehyde resin (MF matrix on the outer layer of HPLs to provide them antimicrobial properties. Chemical binding of PHMB to resin matrix was detected on the surface of produced HPLs by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Antimicrobial evaluation tests were carried out on the ensuing HPLs doped with PHMB against gram-positive Listeria innocua and gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results revealed that laminates prepared with 1.0 wt % PHMB in MF resin were bacteriostatic (i.e., inhibited the growth of microorganisms, whereas those prepared with 2.4 wt % PHMB in MF resin exhibited bactericidal activity (i.e., inactivated the inoculated microorganisms. The results herein reported disclose a promising strategy for the production of HPLs with antimicrobial activity without affecting basic intrinsic quality parameters of composite material.

  15. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  16. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  17. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  18. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  20. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  1. High-temperature fiber optic pressure sensor

    Berthold, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to a program to develop fiber optic methods to measure diaphragm deflection. The end application is intended for pressure transducers capable of operating to 540 C. In this paper are reported the results of a laboratory study to characterize the performance of the fiber-optic microbend sensor. The data presented include sensitivity and spring constant. The advantages and limitations of the microbend sensor for static pressure measurement applications are described. A proposed design is presented for a 540 C pressure transducer using the fiber optic microbend sensor.

  2. Inhibition of Weld Corrosion in Flowing Brines Containing Carbon Dioxide

    Alawadhi, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of a typical oilfield corrosion inhibitor, which is considered to be a green inhibitor (non toxic to the environment) in controlling internal corrosion of welded X65 pipeline steel in brines saturated with carbon dioxide at one bar pressure, under dynamic flowing conditions, over a range of temperatures. Several experimental configurations were used ranging from a simple flat plate design to a novel rotating cylinder electrode, to all...

  3. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  4. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G

    2001-01-01

    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  5. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  6. Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure

    Li, Baosheng; Rigden, Sally M.; Liebermann, Robert C.

    1996-08-01

    The elastic-wave velocities of stishovite, the rutile-structured polymorph of SiO 2, were measured to 3 GPa at room temperature in a piston cylinder apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry on polycrystalline samples. These polycrystalline samples (2-3 mm in length and diameter) were hot-pressed at 14 GPa and 1050°C in a 2000 ton uniaxial split-sphere apparatus (USSA-2000) using fused silica rods as starting material. They were characterized as low porosity (less than 1%), single phase, fine grained, free of cracks and preferred orientation, and acoustically isotropic by using density measurement, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and bench-top velocity measurements. On the basis of subsequent in situ X-ray diffraction study at high P and T on peak broadening on similar specimens, it is evident that the single crystal grains within these polycrystalline aggregates are well equilibrated and that these specimens are free of residual strain. P- and S-wave velocities measured at 1 atm are within 1.5% of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds calculated from single-crystal elastic moduli. Measured pressure derivatives of the bulk and shear moduli, K' 0 = 5.3 ± 0.1 and G' 0 = 1.8 ± 0.1, are not unusual compared with values measured for other transition zone phases such as silicate spinel and majorite garnet. Isothermal compression curves calculated with the measured values of K0 and K' 0 agree well with experimental P-V data to 16 GPa. The experimental value of dG /dP is in excellent agreement with predictions based on elasticity systematics. Theoretical models are not yet able to replicate the measured values of K' 0 and G' 0.

  7. High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments

    Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.

    1998-01-01

    High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model

  8. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  10. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  11. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  12. High Pressure, High Gradient RF Cavities for Muon Beam Cooling

    Johnson, R P

    2004-01-01

    High intensity, low emittance muon beams are needed for new applications such as muon colliders and neutrino factories based on muon storage rings. Ionization cooling, where muon energy is lost in a low-Z absorber and only the longitudinal component is regenerated using RF cavities, is presently the only known cooling technique that is fast enough to be effective in the short muon lifetime. RF cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas bring two advantages to the ionization technique: the energy absorption and energy regeneration happen simultaneously rather than sequentially, and higher RF gradients and better cavity breakdown behavior are possible than in vacuum due to the Paschen effect. These advantages and some disadvantages and risks will be discussed along with a description of the present and desired RF R&D efforts needed to make accelerators and colliders based on muon beams less futuristic.

  13. Brine chemistry and control of adverse chemical reactions with natural gas production. Annual report, July 1990-June 1991

    Oddo, J.E.; Kan, A.T.; Cao, X.; Hunter, M.; Tomson, M.B.

    1991-08-01

    A significant quantity of brine is produced along with nearly all gas production. In addition to disposal, three specific chemistry problems occur: (1) scale formation; (2) carbon dioxide corrosion; (3) solids or turbidity production. Additionally, there are numerous specific analytical chemistry issues which require attention. Several research oriented small test squeezes were performed in the Delee Well. Results of these test squeezes were used to better design a full-sized squeeze at the O'Daniels No. 2 Well in the Alta Loma East field, near Galveston, Texas. Sulfate scale formation is common in offshore gas production, because of the high sulfate content in sea water. Preliminary work has been completed on sulfate scale prediction for the common scales of calcium, strontium and barium. These predictive algorithms have been developed for field use and are based upon readily measured brine parameters. Corresponding laboratory work on sulfate inhibition has been started using a newly developed high temperature and pressure flow through apparatus. Flow through core tests have been conducted to determine the important mechanisms of inhibition retention and release in the field. These results are summarized along with their major implications to squeeze design. Also, a new method has been developed and a patent application filed for low level phosphonate inhibition analysis in produced brines.

  14. Pressure effects on high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4

    Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Kwangpyo; Ryu, Taegeun

    2000-01-01

    The pressure effects on Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding in high temperature steam have been analyzed. A double layer autoclave was made for the high pressure, high temperature oxidation tests. The experimental test temperature range was 700 - 900 deg C, and pressures were 0.1 - 15 MPa. Steam partial pressure turns out to be an important one rather than total pressure. Steam pressure enhances the oxidation rate of Zry-4 exponentially. The enhancement depends on the temperature, and the maximum exists between 750 - 800 deg C. Pre-existing oxide layer decreases the enhancement about 40 - 60%. The acceleration of oxidation rate by high pressure team seems to be originated from the formation of cracks by abrupt transformation of tetragonal phase in oxide, where the un-stability of tetragonal phase comes from the reduction of surface energy by steam. (author)

  15. Origin of the yellow brine and the black brine in Sichuan Basin

    Wang Dongsheng

    1988-01-01

    The spring water, geothermal water and Cretaceous brine in the outer zone of the Sichuan Basin has the Craig relationship, and they are cycling waters. The brine in the inner zone is mainly metasedimentary water. A basic feature of them is poor in 2 H, but rich in 18 O. The δD-values of the yellow brine in Jurassic and Upper Triassic aquifer of continental facies varies from -62.25 to -22.4, and the δ 18 O-values are -6.72 - +6.02. The δD-values of the black brine in marine aquifer (T 2 ,T 1 ,P,C,O and so on) varies from -49 to -25.1, and the 18 O values are +3.89 - +6.14. The δD of yellow brine is similar to that of meteoric water, and the δD of the black brine is around that of crystallization water expelled from gypsum by anhydritization. Increases of salinity in Jurassic yellow brine result primarily from the evapotranspiration process. The salinity in Upper Triassic yellow brine in Aa sub-area originated from underlying rock salt which was leached by paleometeoric water. Triassic black brine derived from the mixing of the crystallization water leached from rock salt with the residual sea water after salt crystallization. In Zhigong, the composition of yellow brine has mainly been changed by the mixing of the yellow brine with the black brine. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature

    Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)

  17. Cavitation-induced reactions in high-pressure carbon dioxide

    Kuijpers, M.W.A.; van Eck, D.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of ultrasound-induced in situ radical formation in liquid carbon dioxide was demonstrated. The required threshold pressure for cavitation could be exceeded at a relatively low acoustic intensity, as the high vapor pressure of CO2 counteracts the hydrostatic pressure. With the use of

  18. Viscosity of liquid sulfur under high pressure

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Kato, T; Funakoshi, K; Suzuki, A; Urakawa, S

    2004-01-01

    The viscosity of liquid sulfur up to 9.7 GPa and 1067 K was measured using the in situ x-ray radiography falling sphere method. The viscosity coefficients were found to range from 0.11 to 0.69 Pa s, and decreased continuously with increasing pressure under approximately constant homologous temperature conditions. The observed viscosity variation suggests that a gradual structural change occurs in liquid sulfur with pressure up to 10 GPa. The L-L' transition in liquid sulfur proposed by Brazhkin et al (1991 Phys. Lett. A 154 413) from thermobaric measurements has not been confirmed by the present viscometry

  19. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  20. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  1. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  2. Transportable, small high-pressure preservation vessel for cells

    Kamimura, N; Sotome, S; Shimizu, A; Nakajima, K; Yoshimura, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the survival rate of astrocytes increases under high-pressure conditions at 4 0 C. However, pressure vessels generally have numerous problems for use in cell preservation and transportation: (1) they cannot be readily separated from the pressurizing pump in the pressurized state; (2) they are typically heavy and expensive due the use of materials such as stainless steel; and (3) it is difficult to regulate pressurization rate with hand pumps. Therefore, we developed a transportable high-pressure system suitable for cell preservation under high-pressure conditions. This high-pressure vessel has the following characteristics: (1) it can be easily separated from the pressurizing pump due to the use of a cock-type stop valve; (2) it is small and compact, is made of PEEK and weighs less than 200 g; and (3) pressurization rate is regulated by an electric pump instead of a hand pump. Using this transportable high-pressure vessel for cell preservation, we found that astrocytes can survive for 4 days at 1.6 MPa and 4 0 C.

  3. Magnetic structures of erbium under high pressure

    Kawano, S.; Lebech, B.; Achiwa, N.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of the magnetic structures of erbium metal at 4.5 K and 11.5 kbar hydrostatic pressure have revealed that the transition to a conical structure at low temperatures is suppressed and that the cycloidal structure, with modulation vector Q congruent-to (2/7 2pi/c)c persists...

  4. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  5. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  7. Magnetization at high pressure in CeP

    Naka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okayama, Y.; Môri, N.; Haga, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-02-01

    We have investigated the pressure dependence of magnetization below 60 K up to 1.6 GPa in the low-carrier concentration system CeP showing two step transitions at T = TL and TH under high pressure. At high pressure, M( P, T) exhibits a maximum at around the lower transition temperature TL. This behavior implies that the magnetic state changes at TL. The pressure dependence of isothermal magnetization M( P) is different above and below TL. In fact, M( P) below TL exhibits a maximum at around 1.4 GPa, whereas M( P) above TL increases steeply with pressure up to 1.6 GPa.

  8. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  9. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  10. On the physico-chemical characteristics of brines

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    Analyses of the natural brines form the salt lakes, salt pans and the artificial brines obtained after the solar desalination of seawater respectively, showed wide differences in their physico-chemical characteristics. The natural brines are markEd...

  11. Proposed dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS

    Ruoff, A.L.; Vohra, Y.K.; Bassett, W.A.; Batterman, B.W.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    An instrumentation proposal for dedicated high pressure beam lines at CHESS is described. It is the purpose of this proposed program to provide researchers in high pressure science with beam lines for X-ray diffraction studies in the megabar regime. This will involve radiation from a bending magnet as well as from a wiggler. Examples of the high pressure results up to 2.16 Mbar are shown. Diffraction patterns from bending magnet and wiggler beams are shown and compared. The need for this facility by the high pressure community is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Effect of high pressurized carbon dioxide on Escherichia coli ...

    Carbon dioxide at high pressure can retard microbial growth and sometimes kill microorganisms depending on values of applied pressure, temperature and exposure time. In this study the effect of high pressurised carbon dioxide (HPCD) on Escherichia coli was investigated. Culture of E. coli was subjected to high ...

  13. High pressure argon detector of high energy neutrinos

    Vishnevskii, A.V.; Golutvin, I.A.; Sarantsev, V.L.; Sviridov, V.A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskii, A.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Chernyatin, V.K.; Kaftanov, V.S.; Khovanskii, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper, we suggest an electron neutrino detector of a new type where track information is available for all charged particles. As a working medium we use Argon compressed up to a pressure of 100 to 150 atm (approximately 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 ). The spatial reconstruction of tracks are accomplished with an accuracy not inferior to that of bubble chambers. The detector has a high sensitivity in ionization measurements. An assembly with a working medium mass of approximately 100 tons seem to be realisable. This makes it possible to perform tasks with cross-sections of (10 -5 + 10 -3 ) x delty tot at an intensity of the neutrino beam which is available in present-day accelerators. (orig.)

  14. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  15. High pressure behaviour of uranium mono pnictides

    Pagare, Gitanjali; Ojha, Poonam; Sanyal, S.P.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2006-01-01

    The pressure induced structural phase transition of three actinide mono pnictides AX (A=U and X=As, Sb, Bi), have been studied theoretically using two body interionic potential with necessary modifications to include the effect of Coulomb screening by the delocalized 5f electrons of the actinide (uranium) ion. The peculiar properties of these compounds have been interpreted in terms of the hybridization of f electrons with the conduction band. The calculated compression curves are compared with the experimental results. These compounds exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from their NaCl (B 1 ) phase to CsCl (B 2 ) phase at 17GPa, 9.5GPa and 5.3 GPa respectively. The NaCl phase possesses lower energy than CsCl phase and stable at ambient pressure. (author)

  16. High pressure multiple shock response of aluminum

    Lawrence, R.J.; Asay, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that both dynamic yield strength and rate-dependent material response exert direct influence on the development of surface and interface instabilities under conditions of strong shock loading. A detailed understanding of these phenomena is therefore an important aspect of the analysis of dynamic inertial confinement techniques which are being used in such applications as the generation of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In these types of applications the surfaces and interfaces under consideration can be subjected to cyclic loading characterized by shock pressures on the order of 100 GPa or more. It thus becomes important to understand how rate effects and material strength differ from the values observed in the low pressure regime where they are usually measured, as well as how they are altered by the loading history

  17. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  18. Solid gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure

    Ishizaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that to evaluate which are the stable phases under high gas pressure conditions, a solid-gas reaction phase diagram under high gas pressure (HIP phase diagram) has been proposed by the author. The variables of the diagram are temperature, reactant gas partial pressure and total gas pressure. Up to the present time the diagrams have been constructed using isobaric conditions. In this work, the stable phases for a real HIP process were evaluated assuming an isochoric condition. To understand the effect of the total gas pressure on stability is of primary importance. Two possibilities were considered and evaluated, those are: the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, or it only affects the fugacity values. The results of this work indicate that the total gas pressure acts as an independent variable, and in turn also affects the fugacity values

  19. Solubility of Nd in brine

    Khalili, F.I.; Symeopoulos, V.; Chen, J.F.; Choppin, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The solubility of Nd(III) has been measured at 23±3 C in a synthetic brine at pcH 6.4, 8.4, 10.4 and 12.4. The brine consisted predominantly of (Na+K)Cl and MgCl 2 with an ionic strength of 7.8 M (9.4 m) a solid compound of Nd(III) at each pcH was assigned from X-ray diffraction patterns. The log values of the experimental solubilities decrease fomr -3 at pcH 6.4 to -5.8 at pcH 8.4; at pcH 10.4 and 12.4 the solubility was below the detection limit of -7.5. The experimental solubility does not follow closely the variation with pcH estimated from modeling of the species in solution in equilibrium with the Nd solid using S.I.T. (orig.)

  20. Practical conditions in the neutron diffraction under high pressure

    Kamigaki, Kazuo; Ohashi, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    Practical analysis is made on some conditions in utilizing neutrons for the study of atomistic structure of materials under high pressure. Investigation is made on the geometrical conditions; size of the specimen, width of slits, and the rate of extra-scattering. Experiments are performed on the effects of absorption by high pressure cell and the disturbance due to an overlapping of diffraction peaks. An observation is presented on the pressure-induced transformation in RbBr. (author)

  1. Pressurizer pump reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    During a prolonged outage from November 1986 to May 1990, numerous changes were made at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Some of these changes involved the pressurizer pumps. An analysis was performed to calculate the impact of these changes on the pressurizer system availability. The analysis showed that the availability of the pressurizer system dropped from essentially 100% to approximately 96%. The primary reason for the decrease in availability comes because off-site power grid disturbances sometimes result in a reactor trip with the present pressurizer pump configuration. Changes are being made to the present pressurizer pump configuration to regain some of the lost availability

  2. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    Allebrod, Frank

    against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, such as natural gas reforming, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. A reduction of the investment costs may be achieved by increasing the operational pressure and temperature of the electrolyzer, as this will result in: 1.......3 A cm-2 combined with relatively small production costs may lead to both reduced investment and operating costs for hydrogen and oxygen production. One of the produced electrolysis cells was operated for 350 h. Based on the successful results a patent application covering this novel cell was filed...

  3. High-Performance Pressure Sensor for Monitoring Mechanical Vibration and Air Pressure

    Yancheng Meng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To realize the practical applications of flexible pressure sensors, the high performance (sensitivity and response time as well as more functionalities are highly desired. In this work, we fabricated a piezoresistive pressure sensor based on the micro-structured composites films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and poly (dimethylsiloxane (PDMS. In addition, we establish efficient strategies to improve key performance of our pressure sensor. Its sensitivity is improved up to 474.13 kPa−1 by minimizing pressure independent resistance of sensor, and response time is shorten as small as 2 μs by enhancing the elastic modulus of polymer elastomer. Benefiting from the high performance, the functionalities of sensors are successfully extended to the accurate detection of high frequency mechanical vibration (~300 Hz and large range of air pressure (6–101 kPa, both of which are not achieved before.

  4. High pressure ices are not the end of the story for large icy moons habitability: experimental studies of salts effects on high pressure ices and the implications for icy worlds large hydrosphere structure and chemical evolution

    Journaux, Baptiste; Abramson, Evan; Brown, J. Michael; Bollengier, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    The presence of several phases of deep high-pressure ices in large icy moons hydrosphere has often been pointed as a major limitation for the habitability of an uppermost ocean. As they are gravitationally stable bellow liquid H2O, they are thought to act as a chemical barrier between the rocky bed and the ocean. Solutes, including salt species such as NaCl and MgSO4, have been suggested inside icy world oceans from remote sensing, magnetic field measurements and chondritic material alteration models. Unfortunately, the pressures and temperatures inside these hydrospheres are very different from the one found in Earth aqueous environments, so most of our current thermodynamic databases do not cover the range of conditions relevant for modeling realistically large icy worlds interiors.Recent experimental results have shown that the presence of solutes, and more particularly salts, in equilibrium with high pressure ices have large effects on the stability, buoyancy and chemistry of all the phases present at these extreme conditions.In particular brines have been measured to be sometimes more dense than the high pressure ices at melting conditions, possibly creating several oceanic layer "sandwiched" in between two ices shells or in contact with the rocky bed.Other effects currently being investigated by our research group also covers ice melting curve depressions that depend on the salt species and incorporation of solutes inside the crystallographic lattice of high pressure ices. Both of these could have very important implication at the planetary scale, enabling thicker/deeper liquid oceans, and allowing chemical transportation through the high pressure ice layer in large icy worlds.We will present the latest results obtained in-situ using diamond anvil cell high pressure allowing to probe the density, chemistry and thermodynamic properties of high pressure ice and aqueous solutions in equilibrium with Na-Mg-SO4-Cl ionic species.We will also discuss the new

  5. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  6. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  8. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  9. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J.

    1997-01-01

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Impurity trapped excitons under high hydrostatic pressure

    Grinberg, Marek

    2013-09-01

    Paper summarizes the results on pressure effect on energies of the 4fn → 4fn and 4fn-15d1 → 4fn transitions as well as influence of pressure on anomalous luminescence in Lnα+ doped oxides and fluorides. A model of impurity trapped exciton (ITE) was developed. Two types of ITE were considered. The first where a hole is localized at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α+1)+) and an electron is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states and the second where an electron captured at the Lnα+ ion (creation of Ln(α-1)+) and a hole is attracted by Coulomb potential at Rydberg-like states. Paper presents detailed analysis of nonlinear changes of energy of anomalous luminescence of BaxSr1-xF2:Eu2+ (x > 0.3) and LiBaF3:Eu2+, and relate them to ITE-4f65d1 states mixing.

  11. Microstructures define melting of molybdenum at high pressures

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Meng, Yue; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-03-01

    High-pressure melting anchors the phase diagram of a material, revealing the effect of pressure on the breakdown of the ordering of atoms in the solid. An important case is molybdenum, which has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed. On the other hand, previous experiments showed nearly constant melting temperature as a function of pressure, in large discrepancy with theoretical expectations. Here we report a high-slope melting curve in molybdenum by synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis of crystalline microstructures, generated by heating and subsequently rapidly quenching samples in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Distinct microstructural changes, observed at pressures up to 130 gigapascals, appear exclusively after melting, thus offering a reliable melting criterion. In addition, our study reveals a previously unsuspected transition in molybdenum at high pressure and high temperature, which yields highly textured body-centred cubic nanograins above a transition temperature.

  12. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  13. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  14. Radioresistance increase in polymers at high pressures. [. gamma. rays

    Milinchuk, V; KIRJUKHIN, V; KLINSHPONT, E

    1977-06-01

    The effect was studied of very high pressures ranging within 100 and 2,700 MPa on the radioresistance of polytetrafluoroethylene, polypropylene and polyethylene in gamma irradiation. For experiments industrial polymers in the shape of blocks, films and fibers were used. It is shown that in easily breakable polymers, such as polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene, 1.3 to 2 times less free radicals are formed as a result of gamma irradiation and a pressure of 150 MPa than at normal pressure. The considerably reduced radiation-chemical formation of radicals and the destruction suppression by cross-linking in polymers is the evidence of the polymer radioresistance in irradiation at high pressures.

  15. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær

    2013-01-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination....... All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure....... revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along...

  16. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  17. Development of high pressure pipe scanners

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes an automatic ultrasonic scanning system for pressure pipe welds, which was developed in this project using recent advanced technologies on mobile robot and computer. The system consists of two modules: a robot scanner module which navigates and manipulates scanning devices, and a data acquisition module which generates ultrasonic signal and processes the data from the scanner. The robot has 4 magnetic wheels and 2 -axis manipulator on which ultrasonic transducer attached. The wheeled robot can navigate curved surface such as outer wall of circular pipes. Magnetic wheels were optimally designed through magnetic field analysis. Free surface sensing and line tracking control algorithm were developed and implemented, and the control devices and software can be used in practical inspection works. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results

  18. Bead Evaporator for Complete Water and Salt Recovery from Brine, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Brine Evaporation and Mineralization System (BEMS) is proposed for 100% water recovery from highly contaminated wastewater as well as water...

  19. Various high precision measurements of pressure in atomic energy industry

    Aritomi, Masanori; Inoue, Akira; Hosoma, Takashi; Tanaka, Izumi; Gabane, Tsunemichi.

    1987-01-01

    As for the pressure measurement in atomic energy industry, it is mostly the measurement using differential pressure transmitters and pressure transmitters for process measurement with the general accuracy of measurement of 0.2 - 0.5 % FS/year. However, recently for the development of nuclear fusion reactors and the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle accompanying new atomic energy technology, there are the needs of the pressure measurement having higher accuracy of 0.01 % FS/year and high resolution, and quartz vibration type pressure sensors appeared. New high accuracy pressure measurement techniques were developed by the advance of data processing and the rationalization of data transmission. As the results, the measurement of the differential pressure of helium-lithium two-phase flow in the cooling system of nuclear fusion reactors, the high accuracy measuring system for the level of plutonium nitrate and other fuel substance in tanks in fuel reprocessing and conversion, the high accuracy measurement of atmospheric pressure and wind velocity in ducts, chimneys and tunnels in nuclear facilities and so on became feasible. The principle and the measured data of quartz vibration type pressure sensors are shown. (Kako, I.)

  20. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C [Centro Nacional de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Departamento de Bioquimica Medica, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil)

    2004-04-14

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic.

  1. High-pressure applications in medicine and pharmacology

    Silva, Jerson L; Foguel, Debora; Suarez, Marisa; Gomes, Andre M O; Oliveira, Andrea C

    2004-01-01

    High pressure has emerged as an important tool to tackle several problems in medicine and biotechnology. Misfolded proteins, aggregates and amyloids have been studied, which point toward the understanding of the protein misfolding diseases. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has also been used to dissociate non-amyloid aggregates and inclusion bodies. The diverse range of diseases that result from protein misfolding has made this theme an important research focus for pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The use of high pressure promises to contribute to identifying the mechanisms behind these defects and creating therapies against these diseases. High pressure has also been used to study viruses and other infectious agents for the purpose of sterilization and in the development of vaccines. Using pressure, we have detected the presence of a ribonucleoprotein intermediate, where the coat protein is partially unfolded but bound to RNA. These intermediates are potential targets for antiviral compounds. The ability of pressure to inactivate viruses, prions and bacteria has been evaluated with a view toward the applications of vaccine development and virus sterilization. Recent studies demonstrate that pressure causes virus inactivation while preserving the immunogenic properties. There is increasing evidence that a high-pressure cycle traps a virus in the 'fusion intermediate state', not infectious but highly immunogenic

  2. Modelling CO2-Brine Interfacial Tension using Density Gradient Theory

    Ruslan, Mohd Fuad Anwari Che

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge regarding carbon dioxide (CO2)-brine interfacial tension (IFT) is important for petroleum industry and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) strategies. In petroleum industry, CO2-brine IFT is especially importance for CO2 – based enhanced oil recovery strategy as it affects phase behavior and fluid transport in porous media. CCS which involves storing CO2 in geological storage sites also requires understanding regarding CO2-brine IFT as this parameter affects CO2 quantity that could be securely stored in the storage site. Several methods have been used to compute CO2-brine interfacial tension. One of the methods employed is by using Density Gradient Theory (DGT) approach. In DGT model, IFT is computed based on the component density distribution across the interface. However, current model is only applicable for modelling low to medium ionic strength solution. This limitation is due to the model only considers the increase of IFT due to the changes of bulk phases properties and does not account for ion distribution at interface. In this study, a new modelling strategy to compute CO2-brine IFT based on DGT was proposed. In the proposed model, ion distribution across interface was accounted for by separating the interface to two sections. The saddle point of tangent plane distance where ( ) was defined as the boundary separating the two sections of the interface. Electrolyte is assumed to be present only in the second section which is connected to the bulk liquid phase side. Numerical simulations were performed using the proposed approach for single and mixed salt solutions for three salts (NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2), for temperature (298 K to 443 K), pressure (2 MPa to 70 MPa), and ionic strength (0.085 mol·kg-1 to 15 mol·kg-1). The simulation result shows that the tuned model was able to predict with good accuracy CO2-brine IFT for all studied cases. Comparison with current DGT model showed that the proposed approach yields better match with the experiment data

  3. Temperature control for high pressure processes up to 1400 MPa

    Reineke, K; Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    Pressure- assisted sterilisation is an emerging technology. Hydrostatic high pressure can reduce the thermal load of the product and this allows quality retention in food products. To guarantee the safety of the sterilisation process it is necessary to investigate inactivation kinetics especially of bacterial spores. A significant roll during the inactivation of microorganisms under high pressure has the thermodynamic effect of the adiabatic heating. To analyse the individual effect of pressure and temperature on microorganism inactivation an exact temperature control of the sample to reach ideal adiabatic conditions and isothermal dwell times is necessary. Hence a heating/cooling block for a high pressure unit (Stansted Mini-Food-lab; high pressure capillary with 300 μL sample volume) was constructed. Without temperature control the sample would be cooled down during pressure built up, because of the non-adiabatic heating of the steel made vessel. The heating/cooling block allows an ideal adiabatic heat up and cooling of the pressure vessel during compression and decompression. The high pressure unit has a pressure build-up rate up to 250 MPa s -1 and a maximum pressure of 1400 MPa. Sebacate acid was chosen as pressure transmitting medium because it had no phase shift over the investigate pressure and temperature range. To eliminate the temperature difference between sample and vessel during compression and decompression phase, the mathematical model of the adiabatic heating/cooling of water and sebacate acid was implemented into a computational routine, written in Test Point. The calculated temperature is the setpoint of the PID controller for the heating/cooling block. This software allows an online measurement of the pressure and temperature in the vessel and the temperature at the outer wall of the vessel. The accurate temperature control, including the model of the adiabatic heating opens up the possibility to realise an ideal adiabatic heating and cooling

  4. A novel SOI pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Li Sainan; Liang Ting; Wang Wei; Hong Yingping; Zheng Tingli; Xiong Jijun

    2015-01-01

    The silicon on insulator (SOI) high temperature pressure sensor is a novel pressure sensor with high-performance and high-quality. A structure of a SOI high-temperature pressure sensor is presented in this paper. The key factors including doping concentration and power are analyzed. The process of the sensor is designed with the critical process parameters set appropriately. The test result at room temperature and high temperature shows that nonlinear error below is 0.1%, and hysteresis is less than 0.5%. High temperature measuring results show that the sensor can be used for from room temperature to 350 °C in harsh environments. It offers a reference for the development of high temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  5. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, S; Morimoto, S; Kawakami, T; Kuzushita, K; Takano, M

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure sup 5 sup 7 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO sub 3 , CaFeO sub 3 and La sub 1 sub / sub 3 Sr sub 2 sub / sub 3 O sub 3. The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO sub 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  6. High pressure processing reaches the U.S. market

    Mermelstein, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    The first food product commercially produced by a U.S. company using high-pressure processing has had successful test market results. High-pressure processing permits food to be preserved by subjecting it to pressures in the range of 60,000-100,000 psi for a short time instead of exposing the food to heat, freezing, chemicals, or irradiation. To produce Classic Guacamole, Avomex of Keller, Texas, uses a batch isostatic press to deactivate the enzymes in the avocado and to kill bacteria, obtaining a refrigerated shelf life of over 30 days. The guacamole is then vacuum packed and processed again. The product undergoes no heat treatment and does not contain preservatives, and the high pressure does not affect its texture, color, or taste. Meanwhile, a continuous system for high-pressure processing of pumpable foods is currently being developed by Flow International of Kent, Washington, and will be used for testing and applications work at Oregon State University

  7. High pressure orthorhombic structure of CuInSe2

    Bovornratanaraks, T; Saengsuwan, V; Yoodee, K; McMahon, M I; Hejny, C; Ruffolo, D

    2010-01-01

    The structural behaviour of CuInSe 2 under high pressure has been studied up to 53 GPa using angle-dispersive x-ray powder diffraction techniques. The previously reported structural phase transition from its ambient pressure tetragonal structure to a high pressure phase with a NaCl-like cubic structure at 7.6 GPa has been confirmed. On further compression, another structural phase transition is observed at 39 GPa. A full structural study of this high pressure phase has been carried out and the high pressure structure has been identified as orthorhombic with space group Cmcm and lattice parameters a = 4.867(8) A, b = 5.023(8) A and c = 4.980(3) A at 53.2(2) GPa. This phase transition behaviour is similar to those of analogous binary and trinary semiconductors, where the orthorhombic Cmcm structure can also be viewed as a distortion of the cubic NaCl-type structure.

  8. High pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy of perovskite iron oxide

    Nasu, Saburo; Suenaga, Tomoya; Morimoto, Shotaro; Kawakami, Takateru; Kuzushita, Kaori; Takano, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    High-pressure 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy using a diamond anvil cell has been performed for perovskite iron oxides SrFeO 3 , CaFeO 3 and La 1/3 Sr 2/3 O 3 . The charge states and the magnetic dependency to pressure were determined. Pressure magnetic phase diagrams of these perovskite iron oxides are determined up to about 70 GPa. To be clear the magnetic ordered state, they are measured up to 7.8 T external magnetic fields at 4.5K. The phase transition of these perovskite oxides to ferromagnetisms with high magnetic ordered temperature is observed. In higher pressure, high spin-low spin transition of oxides besides CaFeO 3 is generated. The feature of Moessbauer spectroscopy, perovskite iron oxide and Moessbauer spectroscopy under high pressure are explained. (S.Y.)

  9. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  10. Fluorinert as a pressure-transmitting medium for high-pressure diffraction studies

    Varga, Tamas; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Angel, Ross J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorinert is a liquid pressure-transmitting medium that is widely used in high-pressure diffraction work. A systematic study of five different fluorinerts was carried out using single-crystal x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell in order to determine the pressure range over which they provide a hydrostatic stress state to the sample. It was found that none of the fluorinerts studied can be considered hydrostatic above 1.2 GPa, a lower pressure than reported previously

  11. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    Adel, Mustafa

    2016-09-06

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Migration rates of brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl

    Chou, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Rock-salt deposits have been considered as a possible medium for the permanent storage of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Brine inclusions present in natural salt can migrate toward the waste if the temperature and the temperature gradients in the vicinity of the radioactive waste are large enough. This migration is due to the dissolution of salt at the hot side of the salt-brine interface, ion diffusion through the brine droplet, and the precipitation of salt at the cold side of the salt brine interface. In order to quantify the problem, the migration rate of these brine inclusions must be estimated under various repository conditions. This paper estimates migration rates for all-liquid brine inclusions in single crystals of NaCl by utilizing recent data for brines and the model of Anthony and Cline [T.R. Anthony and H.E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys., 42, pp. 3380-387 (1971)]. The predictions are compared with experimentally measured migration rates. 4 figures, 6 tables

  14. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  15. The effect of high pressure on nitrogen compounds of milk

    Kielczewska, Katarzyna; Czerniewicz, Maria; Michalak, Joanna; Brandt, Waldemar

    2004-01-01

    The effect of pressurization at different pressures (from 200 to 1000 MPa, at 200 MPa intervals, t const. = 15 min) and periods of time (from 15 to 35 min, at 10 min intervals, p const. = 800 MPa) on the changes of proteins and nitrogen compounds of skimmed milk was studied. The pressurization caused an increase in the amount of soluble casein and denaturation of whey proteins. The level of nonprotein nitrogen compounds and proteoso-peptone nitrogen compounds increased as a result of the high-pressure treatment. These changes increased with an increase in pressure and exposure time. High-pressure treatment considerably affected the changes in the conformation of milk proteins, which was reflected in the changes in the content of proteins sedimenting and an increase in their degree of hydration

  16. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  18. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  19. Design principles for high-pressure force fields: Aqueous TMAO solutions from ambient to kilobar pressures.

    Hölzl, Christoph; Kibies, Patrick; Imoto, Sho; Frach, Roland; Suladze, Saba; Winter, Roland; Marx, Dominik; Horinek, Dominik; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-04-14

    Accurate force fields are one of the major pillars on which successful molecular dynamics simulations of complex biomolecular processes rest. They have been optimized for ambient conditions, whereas high-pressure simulations become increasingly important in pressure perturbation studies, using pressure as an independent thermodynamic variable. Here, we explore the design of non-polarizable force fields tailored to work well in the realm of kilobar pressures--while avoiding complete reparameterization. Our key is to first compute the pressure-induced electronic and structural response of a solute by combining an integral equation approach to include pressure effects on solvent structure with a quantum-chemical treatment of the solute within the embedded cluster reference interaction site model (EC-RISM) framework. Next, the solute's response to compression is taken into account by introducing pressure-dependence into selected parameters of a well-established force field. In our proof-of-principle study, the full machinery is applied to N,N,N-trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in water being a potent osmolyte that counteracts pressure denaturation. EC-RISM theory is shown to describe well the charge redistribution upon compression of TMAO(aq) to 10 kbar, which is then embodied in force field molecular dynamics by pressure-dependent partial charges. The performance of the high pressure force field is assessed by comparing to experimental and ab initio molecular dynamics data. Beyond its broad usefulness for designing non-polarizable force fields for extreme thermodynamic conditions, a good description of the pressure-response of solutions is highly recommended when constructing and validating polarizable force fields.

  20. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.

    2017-11-01

    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  1. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany: Quarterly brine migration data report, October--December 1985

    Eckert, J.L.; Kalia, H.N.; Coyle, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    The tenth brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through December 1985. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report includes test data for 31 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. 3 refs., 118 figs., 93 tabs

  2. Quarterly brine migration data report, May-September 1983: Nuclear Waste Repository simulation experiments (brine migration), Asse Mine of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.N.; Eckert, J.L.

    1987-04-01

    The first quarterly brine migration data report describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany from May 1983 through September 1983. This report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, and the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery. This report also includes test data for the first 4 months of operations on brine migration rates, borehole pressure, salt temperatures, and thermomechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be approximately 2 years, ending in December 1985. 83 figs., 55 tabs

  3. High-pressure phase transition in Ho2O3

    Lonappan, Dayana; Shekar, N.V. Chandra; Ravindran, T.R.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman studies on holmium sesquioxide (Ho 2 O 3 ) have been carried out up to a pressure of ∼17 GPa in a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature. Holmium oxide, which has a cubic or bixbyite structure under ambient conditions, undergoes an irreversible structural phase transition at around 9.5 GPa. The high-pressure phase has been identified to be low symmetry monoclinic type. The two phases coexist to up to about 16 GPa, above which the parent phase disappears. The high-pressure laser-Raman studies have revealed that the prominent Raman band ∼370 cm -1 disappears around the similar transition pressure. The bulk modulus of the parent phase is reported.

  4. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  5. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  6. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  7. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Yahya TÜLEK; Gökçe FİLİZAY

    2006-01-01

    Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decont...

  8. Glassy selenium at high pressure: Le Chatelier's principle still works

    Brazhkin, V. V.; Tsiok, O. B.

    2017-10-01

    Selenium is the only easily vitrified elementary substance. Numerous experimental studies of glassy Se (g -Se) at high pressures show a large spread in the data on the compressibility and electrical resistivity of g -Se. Furthermore, H. Liu et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] have arrived at the surprising conclusion that the volume of glass increases during pressure-induced crystallization. We have performed high-precision measurements of the specific volume and electrical resistivity of glassy selenium (g -Se) at high hydrostatic pressures up to 9 GPa. The measured bulk modulus at normal pressure is B =(9.0 5 ±0.15 ) GPa and its pressure derivative is BP'=6.4 ±0.2 . In the pressure range P <3 GPa, glassy selenium has an anomalously large negative second derivative of the bulk modulus. The electrical resistivity of g -Se decreases almost exponentially with increasing pressure and reaches 20 Ω cm at a pressure of 8.75 GPa. The inelastic behavior and weak relaxation of the volume for g -Se begin at pressures above 3.5 GPa; the volume and logarithm of the electrical resistivity relax significantly (logarithmically with the time) at pressures above 8 GPa. Bulk measurements certainly indicate that the volume of g -Se glass in the crystallization pressure range is larger than the volumes of both appearing crystalline phases (by 2% and 4%). Therefore, the "volume expansion phenomenon" suggested in [H. Liu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13229 (2008), 10.1073/pnas.0806857105] is not observed, and the pressure-induced crystallization of glassy selenium is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.

  9. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  10. High hydrostatic pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from ...

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HHPP) is a food processing method, in which food is subjected to the elevated pressure which is mostly between 100 to 800 MPa. HHPP is seen not only in food engineering, but also have other application areas, such as extraction of active ingredients from natural biomaterials.

  11. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide ...

    Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single ... tance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify .... The optical band gaps of the as-grown crystals were obtained by optical ab-.

  12. Investigation of Methacrylic Acid at High Pressure Using Neutron Diffraction

    Marshall, William G.; Urquhart, Andrew; Oswald, Iain D. H.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows that pressure can be a low-intensity route to the synthesis of polymethacrylic acid. The exploration of perdeuterated methacrylic acid at high pressure using neutron diffraction reveals that methacrylic acid exhibits two polymorphic phase transformations at relatively low...

  13. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  14. Migration of brine inclusions in salt

    Pigford, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Theories of the migration of brine inclusions in salt are interpreted as simple physical processes, and theories by Russian and U.S. workers are shown to yield the same results. The migration theory is used to predict threshold temperature gradients below which migration of brine inclusions should not occur. The predicted threshold gradients are compared with the temperature gradients expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. The theory of a threshold gradient helps explain the existence of brine inclusions in natural salt deposits

  15. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  16. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  17. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  18. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  19. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  20. High pressure structural studies on nanophase praseodymium oxide

    Saranya, L.; Chandra Shekar, N.V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Hussain, Shamima; Arulraj, A.; Sahu, P. Ch.

    2014-01-01

    The phase stability of nanocrystalline Pr 2 O 3 has been investigated under pressure by in-situ high pressure X-ray diffraction using Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell. The ambient structure and phase of the praseodymium oxide have been resolved unambiguously using x-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM techniques. Under the action of pressure the cubic phase of the system is retained up to 15 GPa. This is unusual as other isostructural rare earth oxides show structural transformations even at lower pressures. From the best fit to the P–V data with the Murnaghan equation of state yields a bulk modulus of 171 GPa

  1. High-pressure structural behaviour of nanocrystalline Ge

    Wang, H; Liu, J F; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, W; Jiang, J Z; Olsen, J Staun; Gerward, L

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse at the transition remains constant. Simplified models for the high-pressure structural behaviour are presented, based on the assumption that a large fraction of the atoms reside in grain boundary regions of the nanocrystalline material. The interface structure plays a significant role in affecting the transition pressure and the bulk modulus

  2. Trends in high pressure developments for new perspectives

    Largeteau, Alain; Prakasam, Mythili

    2018-06-01

    Temperature and Pressure are two parameters in the universe, where pressure represents the largest scale in comparison to temperature. The design of high pressure equipment depends mainly on the media used which could be gas, liquid or solid and the objective could be synthesis of materials or in situ characterization. The development of new research fields requiring high pressure equipment which are currently in Bordeaux - France are based on the historical development of high pressure domain initiated by Professor Gerard DEMAZEAU and his team during the last half century, which is discussed here. The main concepts governing the effect of pressure on materials synthesis is by the combination of high pressure and high temperature which are described with apt examples. There is an upsurge in various technologies for strong development for the synthesis of materials to drive several possibilities, for example: to reach very high density to obtain optical ceramics (by conventional SPS), to diminish parameters (P, T, t) of synthesis (by HP-SPS), to sinter at low temperature thermal sensitive composition (by HyS), to consolidate porous materials (by FIP), to densify biocomposite with cold decontamination (by HHP) simultaneously, etc.

  3. High-pressure behavior of CaMo O4

    Panchal, V.; Garg, N.; Poswal, H. K.; Errandonea, D.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Cavalli, E.

    2017-09-01

    We report a high-pressure study of tetragonal scheelite-type CaMo O4 up to 29 GPa. In order to characterize its high-pressure behavior, we have combined Raman and optical-absorption measurements with density functional theory calculations. We have found evidence of a pressure-induced phase transition near 15 GPa. Experiments and calculations agree in assigning the high-pressure phase to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure. The reported results are consistent with previous powder x-ray-diffraction experiments, but are in contradiction with the conclusions obtained from earlier Raman measurements, which support the existence of more than one phase transition in the pressure range covered by our studies. The observed scheelite-fergusonite transition induces significant changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of CaMo O4 . We have determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependencies of the Raman-active and infrared-active modes. In addition, based on calculations of the phonon dispersion of the scheelite phase, carried out at a pressure higher than the transition pressure, we propose a possible mechanism for the reported phase transition. Furthermore, from the calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters and atomic positions of the different phases and their room-temperature equations of state. These results are compared with previous experiments showing a very good agreement. Finally, information on bond compressibility is reported and correlated with the macroscopic compressibility of CaMo O4 . The reported results are of interest for the many technological applications of this oxide.

  4. Effect of High Pressure and Heat on Bacterial Toxins

    Dirk Margosch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the inactivation of microorganisms by high pressure treatment is a subject of intense investigations, the effect of high pressure on bacterial toxins has not been studied so far. In this study, the influence of combined pressure/temperature treatment (0.1 to 800 MPa and 5 to 121 °C on bacterial enterotoxins was determined. Therefore, heat-stable enterotoxin (STa of cholera toxin (CT from Vibrio cholerae, staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E, haemolysin BL (HBL from Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (STa were subjected to different treatment schemes. Structural alterations were monitored in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs. Cytotoxicity of the pressure treated supernatant of toxigenic B. cereus DSM 4384 was investigated with Vero cells. High pressure of 200 to 800 MPa at 5 °C leads to a slight increase of the reactivity of the STa of E. coli. However, reactivity decreased at 800 MPa and 80 °C to (66±21 % after 30 min and to (44±0.3 % after 128 min. At ambient pressure no decrease in EIA reactivity could be observed after 128 min. Pressurization (0.1 to 800 MPa of heat stable monomeric staphylococcal toxins at 5 and 20 °C showed no effect. A combined heat (80 °C and pressure (0.1 to 800 MPa treatment lead to a decrease in the immuno-reactivity to 20 % of its maximum. For cholera toxin a significant loss in latex agglutination was observable only at 80 °C and 800 MPa for holding times higher than 20 min. Interestingly, the immuno-reactivity of B. cereus HBL toxin increased with the increase of pressure (182 % at 800 MPa, 30 °C, and high pressure showed only minor effects on cytotoxicity to Vero cells. Our results indicate that pressurization can increase inactivation observed by heat treatment, and combined treatments may be effective at lower temperatures and/or shorter incubation time.

  5. Vertical distributions and speciation of dissolved rare earth elements in the anoxic brines of Bannock Basin, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Schijf, Johan; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Millero, Frank J.; Byrne, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Vertical distributions of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) are presented for the anoxic, highly sulfidic brines of Bannock Basin in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. REE concentrations at the seawater-brine interface are the highest ever recorded in the water column of an anoxic basin and

  6. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del, E-mail: delcorno@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Morandi, Sonia, E-mail: morandi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Technologies and Materials Dept, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Araneo, Lucio, E-mail: lucio.araneo@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy); CNR-IENI, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Casella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco2.casella@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, via Lambruschini 4A, I-20156 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m{sup 3}. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO{sub 2} particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m{sup 3}. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was

  7. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m"3. • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO_2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m"3. The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  8. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  9. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  10. High-pressure Raman investigation of the semiconductor antimony oxide

    Geng, Aihui; Cao, Lihua [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 130012 Changchun (China); Wan, Chunming [State Key Lab on High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 130022 Changchun (China); Ma, Yanmei [Department of Agronomy, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun (China)

    2011-05-15

    The in situ high-pressure behavior of the semiconductor antimony trioxide (Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy techniques in a diamond anvil cell up to 20 GPa at room temperature. New peaks in the external lattice mode range emerged at a pressure above 8.6-15 GPa, suggesting that the structural phase transition occurred. The pressure dependence of Raman frequencies was obtained. The band at 139 cm{sup -1} (assigned to group mode) has a pressure dependence of -0.475 cm{sup -1}/GPa and reveals significant softening at high pressure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  12. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  13. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  14. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  15. Bio-Hemostat-Acute Treatment Modality for High Pressure Hemorrhage

    Carr, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    Bleeding from an artery is difficult to control due to the high pressures found in the arterial system Hemorrhage is especially problematic in penetrating wounds where the bleeding source may not be...

  16. Applicable technical method for freeze-substitution of high pressure ...

    bmshsj

    2011-11-02

    Quintana, 1994) are available for the microscopic visualization of intracellular organelles. Cryo- fixation, plunge freezing, propane jet freezing, cold metal block freezing, and high pressure freezing provide advantages over chemical ...

  17. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Hemmerling, B; Kaeppeli, B [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of AIN under high pressure

    Li Zetao; Dang Suihu; Li Chunxia

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and optical properties of Wurtzite structure AIN under different high pressure with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in this paper. The total energy, density of state, energy band structure and optical absorption and reflection properties under high pressure are calculated. By comparing the changes of the energy band structure, we obtained AIN phase transition pressure for 16.7 GPa, which is a direct band structure transforming to an indirect band structure. Meanwhile, according to the density of states distribution and energy band structure, we analyzed the optical properties of AIN under high-pressure, the results showed that the absorption spectra moved from low-energy to high-energy. (authors)

  19. The compact mirrors with high pressure plasmas

    Anikeev, A.V.; Bagryansky, P.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lizunov, A.A.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Prikhodko, V.V.; Collatz, S.; Noack, K.

    2004-01-01

    The gas dynamic trap (GDP) experimental facility at the Budker Institute Novosibirsk is a long axial-symmetric mirror system with a high mirror ratio variable in the range of 12.5 - 100 for the confinement of a two-component plasma. One component is a collisional plasma with ion and electron temperatures up to 100 eV and density up to 10 14 cm -3 . The second component is the population of high-energetic fast ions with energies of 2-18 keV and a density up to 10 13 cm -3 which is produced by neutral beam injection (NBI). GDP is currently undergoing an upgrade whose first stage is the achievement of the synthesized hot ion plasmoid experiment (SHIP). This experiment aims at the investigation of plasmas and at the knowledge of plasma parameters that have never been achieved before in magnetic mirrors. The paper presents the physical concept of the SHIP experiment, the results of numerical pre-calculations and draws conclusions regarding possible scenarios of experiments. The simulation of a maximal NBI power regime with hydrogen injection gave a fast ion density of 1.2*10 14 cm -3 with a mean energy of 14 keV. The calculation of the deuterium injection regime with 2 MW NBI power gave a maximal fast ion density of 1.9*10 14 cm -3 with a beam energy of 9 keV. The calculation of an experimental scenario with reduced magnetic field resulted in a maximal β-value of 62%, so this regime is recommended for the study of high-β effects in plasmas confined in axial-symmetric mirrors

  20. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  1. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  2. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for extended missions. It is anticipated...

  3. Ice Control with Brine on Highways

    Bolet, Lars

    traffic flow the spread rate of pure sodium chloride (and thus the environmental impact) in the pre-salting operations was cut back by more than one third. Compared to neighbouring counties the use of salt is less than fifty percent per square meter. In addition, supply of brine from two mixer...... of interpreting this information. The improvements gained by the county of Funen were mainly due to the use of technologies (brine spreading with nozzles) giving a more precise spread pattern than the traditional gritting of pre-wetted salt. Major challenges in the process have been to verify the higher quality...... of the nozzles spread pattern, to ensure maximum utilization of volume of brine carried by the spreading vehicles and to control the mixing of brine without getting stratification in the mixture. Moreover, of course, to ensure political approval of abandoning a well-served technology and to organize...

  4. Brine Dewatering Using Ultrasonic Nebulization, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water...

  5. Distillation Brine Purification for Resource Recovery Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wastewater processing systems for space generate residual brine that contains water and salts that could be recovered to reduce life support consumables. The project...

  6. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  7. Model of Structural Fragmentation Induced by High Pressure Torsion

    Kratochvíl, J.; Kružík, Martin; Sedláček, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2010), s. 88-98 ISSN 1606-5131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : High-pressure torsion * intergranular glide * homogeneous deformation mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/kruzik-model of structural fragmentation induced by high pressure torsion.pdf

  8. Thermal neutron scattering studies of condensed matter under high pressures

    Carlile, C.J.; Salter, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Although temperature has been used as a thermodynamic variable for samples in thermal neutron scattering experiments since the inception of the neutron technique, it is only in the last decade that high pressures have been utilised for this purpose. In the paper the problems particular to this field of work are outlined and a review is made of the types of high-pressure cells used and the scientific results obtained from the experiments. 103 references. (author)

  9. Signal processing in urodynamics: towards high definition urethral pressure profilometry.

    Klünder, Mario; Sawodny, Oliver; Amend, Bastian; Ederer, Michael; Kelp, Alexandra; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Stenzl, Arnulf; Feuer, Ronny

    2016-03-22

    Urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) is used in the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) which is a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Low spatial pressure resolution, common occurrence of artifacts, and uncertainties in data location limit the diagnostic value of UPP. To overcome these limitations, high definition urethral pressure profilometry (HD-UPP) combining enhanced UPP hardware and signal processing algorithms has been developed. In this work, we present the different signal processing steps in HD-UPP and show experimental results from female minipigs. We use a special microtip catheter with high angular pressure resolution and an integrated inclination sensor. Signals from the catheter are filtered and time-correlated artifacts removed. A signal reconstruction algorithm processes pressure data into a detailed pressure image on the urethra's inside. Finally, the pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is calculated through deconvolution. A mathematical model of the urethra is contained in a point-spread-function (PSF) which is identified depending on geometric and material properties of the urethra. We additionally investigate the PSF's frequency response to determine the relevant frequency band for pressure information on the urinary sphincter. Experimental pressure data are spatially located and processed into high resolution pressure images. Artifacts are successfully removed from data without blurring other details. The pressure distribution on the urethra's outside is reconstructed and compared to the one on the inside. Finally, the pressure images are mapped onto the urethral geometry calculated from inclination and position data to provide an integrated image of pressure distribution, anatomical shape, and location. With its advanced sensing capabilities, the novel microtip catheter collects an unprecedented amount of urethral pressure data. Through sequential signal processing steps, physicians are provided with

  10. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  11. High-pressure test loop design and application

    Burnette, R.D.; Graves, J.N.; Blair, P.G.; Baldwin, N.L.

    1980-07-01

    A high-pressure test loop (HPTL) has been constructed for the purpose of performing a number of chemistry experiments at simulated HTGR conditions of temperature, pressure, flow, and impurity content. The HPTL can be used to develop, modify, and verify computer codes for a variety of chemical processes involving gas phase transport in the reactor. Processes such as graphite oxidation, fission product transport, fuel reactions, purification systems, and dust entrainment can be studied at high pressure, which would largely eliminate difficulties in correlating existing laboratory data and reactor conditions

  12. Very high pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy using diamond anvil cells

    Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of generating very high pressure by means of Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) for Mossbauer Effect applications is outlined. A comprehensive description is presented of the principles of DAC, modification for the use in M/umlt o/ssbauer Spectroscopy (MS), the Merrill--Bassett and Bassett cells, of pressure measurements, of gasketing and collimation, and of hydrostatic media. Examples of 151 Eu, 119 Sn and 129 I are given showing the feasibility of DAC applications in MS. Other isotopes with potential use for high pressure MS using DAC are suggested. 27 refs., 9 figs

  13. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  14. In Situ Raman Study of Liquid Water at High Pressure.

    Romanenko, Alexandr V; Rashchenko, Sergey V; Goryainov, Sergey V; Likhacheva, Anna Yu; Korsakov, Andrey V

    2018-06-01

    A pressure shift of Raman band of liquid water (H 2 O) may be an important tool for measuring residual pressures in mineral inclusions, in situ barometry in high-pressure cells, and as an indicator of pressure-induced structural transitions in H 2 O. However, there was no consensus as to how the broad and asymmetric water Raman band should be quantitatively described, which has led to fundamental inconsistencies between reported data. In order to overcome this issue, we measured Raman spectra of H 2 O in situ up to 1.2 GPa using a diamond anvil cell, and use them to test different approaches proposed for the description of the water Raman band. We found that the most physically meaningful description of water Raman band is the decomposition into a linear background and three Gaussian components, associated with differently H-bonded H 2 O molecules. Two of these components demonstrate a pronounced anomaly in pressure shift near 0.4 GPa, supporting ideas of structural transition in H 2 O at this pressure. The most convenient approach for pressure calibration is the use of "a linear background + one Gaussian" decomposition (the pressure can be measured using the formula P (GPa) = -0.0317(3)·Δν G (cm -1 ), where Δν G represents the difference between the position of water Raman band, fitted as a single Gaussian, in measured spectrum and spectrum at ambient pressure).

  15. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure.

    Lupton, Samantha J; Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  17. High pressure synthesis of amorphous TiO2 nanotubes

    Quanjun Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with diameters of 8-10 nm and length of several nanometers were synthesized by high pressure treatment of anatase TiO2 nanotubes. The structural phase transitions of anatase TiO2 nanotubes were investigated by using in-situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The starting anatase structure is stable up to ∼20GPa, and transforms into a high-density amorphous (HDA form at higher pressure. Pressure-modified high- to low-density transition was observed in the amorphous form upon decompression. The pressure-induced amorphization and polyamorphism are in good agreement with the previous results in ultrafine TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoribbons. The relationship between the LDA form and α-PbO2 phase was revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM study. In addition, the bulk modulus (B0 = 158 GPa of the anatase TiO2 nanotubes is smaller than those of the corresponding bulks and nanoparticles (180-240 GPa. We suggest that the unique open-ended nanotube morphology and nanosize play important roles in the high pressure phase transition of TiO2 nanotubes.

  18. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  19. High pressure-sensitive gene expression in Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis

    R.F. Vogel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis is a Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium used in food biotechnology. It is necessary to investigate many aspects of a model organism to elucidate mechanisms of stress response, to facilitate preparation, application and performance in food fermentation, to understand mechanisms of inactivation, and to identify novel tools for high pressure biotechnology. To investigate the mechanisms of the complex bacterial response to high pressure we have analyzed changes in the proteome and transcriptome by 2-D electrophoresis, and by microarrays and real time PCR, respectively. More than 16 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon high pressure stress and were compared to those sensitive to other stresses. Except for one apparently high pressure-specific stress protein, no pressure-specific stress proteins were found, and the proteome response to pressure was found to differ from that induced by other stresses. Selected pressure-sensitive proteins were partially sequenced and their genes were identified by reverse genetics. In a transcriptome analysis of a redundancy cleared shot gun library, about 7% of the genes investigated were found to be affected. Most of them appeared to be up-regulated 2- to 4-fold and these results were confirmed by real time PCR. Gene induction was shown for some genes up-regulated at the proteome level (clpL/groEL/rbsK, while the response of others to high hydrostatic pressure at the transcriptome level seemed to differ from that observed at the proteome level. The up-regulation of selected genes supports the view that the cell tries to compensate for pressure-induced impairment of translation and membrane transport.

  20. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  1. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  2. Diamonds: powerful tools for high-pressure physics

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Diamond-anvil high-pressure studies have progressed to the point where they complement shock-wave studies. Because they operate at static high pressure, they permit time-consuming procedures, such as x-ray diffraction measurements for determining crystal structure. The sample material is completely recoverable and the method is adaptable to minute advantage when dealing with rare or hazardous materials. One of our goals in investigating the high-pressure behavior of iridium was to test the theoretical prediction that iridium would exhibit a phase transformation from the face-centered cubic crystal structure at about 9 GPa. Our finding that no such transformation takes place even at pressures up to 30 GPa will need to be taken into account by physicsts working to improve solid-state theory

  3. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    Lassila, David H [Aptos, CA; Bonner, Brian P [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  4. Modification of enzymes by use of high-pressure homogenization.

    Dos Santos Aguilar, Jessika Gonçalves; Cristianini, Marcelo; Sato, Helia Harumi

    2018-07-01

    High-pressure is an emerging and relatively new technology that can modify various molecules. High-pressure homogenization (HPH) has been used in several studies on protein modification, especially in enzymes used or found in food, from animal, plant or microbial resources. According to the literature, the enzymatic activity can be modulated under pressure causing inactivation, stabilization or activation of the enzymes, which, depending on the point of view could be very useful. Homogenization can generate changes in the structure of the enzyme modifying various chemical bonds (mainly weak bonds) causing different denaturation levels and, consequently, affecting the catalytic activity. This review aims to describe the various alterations due to HPH treatment in enzymes, to show the influence of high-pressure on proteins and to report the HPH effects on the enzymatic activity of different enzymes employed in the food industry and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  6. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance characterization of solid oxide cells under high pressure

    Sun, Xiufu; Bonaccorso, Alfredo Damiano; Graves, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    in both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode. In electrolysis mode at low current density, the performance improvement was counteracted by the increase in open circuit voltage, but it has to be born in mind that the pressurised gas contains higher molar free energy. Operating at high current density...... hydrocarbon fuels, which is normally performed at high pressure to achieve a high yield. Operation of SOECs at elevated pressure will therefore facilitate integration with the downstream fuel synthesis and is furthermore advantageous as it increases the cell performance. In this work, recent pressurised test...... results of a planar Ni-YSZ (YSZ: Yttria stabilized Zirconia) supported solid oxide cell are presented. The test was performed at 800 °C at pressures up to 15 bar. A comparison of the electrochemical performance of the cell at 1 and 3 bar shows a significant and equal performance gain at higher pressure...

  8. Condensation heat transfer on natural convection at the high pressure

    Jong-Won, Kim; Hyoung-Kyoun, Ahn; Goon-Cherl, Park

    2007-01-01

    The Regional Energy Research Institute for the Next Generation is to develop a small scale electric power system driven by an environment-friendly and stable small nuclear reactor. REX-10 has been developed to assure high system safety in order to be placed in densely populated region and island. REX-10 adopts the steam-gas pressurizer to assure the inherent safety. The thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the steam-gas pressurizer are very complex. Especially, the condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas on the natural convection is important to evaluate the pressurizer behavior. However, there have been few investigations on the condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas at the high pressure. In this study, the theoretical model is developed to estimate the condensation heat transfer at the high pressure using heat and mass transfer analogy. The analysis results show good agreement with correlations and experimental data. It is found that the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases as the total pressure increases or the mass fraction of the non-condensable gas decreases. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient no more increases over the specific pressure

  9. Structural stability of high entropy alloys under pressure and temperature

    Ahmad, Azkar S.; Su, Y.; Liu, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is a key issue before their selection for industrial applications. In this study, in-situ high-pressure and high-temperature synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on three typical HEAs Ni20Co20Fe20Mn20Cr20, Hf25Nb25Zr25Ti...

  10. Effect of high pressure hydrogen on low-cycle fatigue

    Rie, K.T.; Kohler, W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that the fatigue life can be influenced in low-cycle range by high pressure hydrogen while the effect of high pressure hydrogen on high-cycle fatigue will not be as significant. The paper reports the details and the results of the investigations of the effect of high pressure hydrogen on the low-cycle endurance of commercially pure titanium. The results of this study indicate that: 1. The degradation of the fatigue life in low-cycle region for commercially pure titanium under high pressure hydrogen can be described by Nsub(cr)sup(α x Δepsilon)sub(pl)sup(=c) 2. The fatigue life decreases with decreasing strain rate. 3. The fatigue life decreases with increasing hydrogen pressure. It was found that the semilogarithmic plot of the fatigue life versus the hydrogen pressure gives a linear relationship. The Sievert's law does not hold in low-cycle fatigue region. 4. HAC in titanium in low-cycle fatigue region is the result of the disolution of hydrogen at the crack tip and of the strain-induced hybride formation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  11. High-temperature transient creep properties of CANDU pressure tubes

    Fong, R.W.L.; Chow, C.K.

    2002-06-01

    During a hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the coolant flow would be reduced in some fuel channels and would stagnate and cause the fuel temperature to rise and overheat the pressure tube. The overheated pressure tube could balloon (creep radially) into contact with its moderator-cooled calandria tube. Upon contact, the stored thermal energy in the pressure tube is transferred to the calandria tube and into the moderator, which acts as a heat sink. For safety analyses, the modelling of fuel channel deformation behaviour during a large LOCA requires a sound knowledge of the high-temperature creep properties of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. To this extent, a ballooning model to predict pressure-tube deformation was developed by Shewfelt et al., based on creep equations derived using uniaxial tensile specimens. It has been recognized, however, that there is an inherent variability in the high-temperature creep properties of CANDU pressure tubes. The variability, can be due to different tube-manufacturing practices, variations in chemical compositions, and changes in microstructure induced by irradiation during service in the reactor. It is important to quantify the variability of high-temperature creep properties so that accurate predictions on pressure-tube creep behaviour can be made. This paper summarizes recent data obtained from high-temperature uniaxial creep tests performed on specimens taken from both unirradiated (offcut) and irradiated pressure tubes, suggesting that the variability is attributed mainly to the initial differences in microstructure (grain size, shape and preferred orientation) and also from tube-to-tube variations in chemical composition, rather than due to irradiation exposure. These data will provide safety analysts with the means to quantify the uncertainties in the prediction of pressure-tube contact temperatures during a postulated large break LOCA. (author)

  12. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vibrational properties of ZnTe at high pressures

    Camacho, J.; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Cantarero, A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of ZnTe were measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 15 GPa at T=300 K. Results for the frequencies of first- and second-order Raman features of the zincblende phase (0-9.5 GPa) are used to set up a rigid-ion model of the phonon dispersion relations under pressure. Calculated phonon densities of states, mode Grueneisen parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure are discussed. The effect of pressure on the widths and intensities of Raman spectral features is considered. Raman spectra of high-pressure phases of ZnTe are reported. These spectra indicate the possible existence of a new phase near 13 GPa, intermediate between the cinnabar and orthorhombic (Cmcm) phases of ZnTe. (author)

  15. Vibrational properties of ZnTe at high pressures

    Camacho, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany) and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: Juana.Camacho@uv.es; Loa, I.; Syassen, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Cantarero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2002-02-04

    Raman spectra of ZnTe were measured under hydrostatic pressures up to 15 GPa at T=300 K. Results for the frequencies of first- and second-order Raman features of the zincblende phase (0-9.5 GPa) are used to set up a rigid-ion model of the phonon dispersion relations under pressure. Calculated phonon densities of states, mode Grueneisen parameters and the thermal expansion coefficient as a function of pressure are discussed. The effect of pressure on the widths and intensities of Raman spectral features is considered. Raman spectra of high-pressure phases of ZnTe are reported. These spectra indicate the possible existence of a new phase near 13 GPa, intermediate between the cinnabar and orthorhombic (Cmcm) phases of ZnTe. (author)

  16. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...

  17. A Manganin Thin Film Ultra-High Pressure Sensor for Microscale Detonation Pressure Measurement

    Guodong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of energetic materials (EMs and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS initiating explosive devices, the measurement of detonation pressure generated by EMs in the microscale has become a pressing need. This paper develops a manganin thin film ultra-high pressure sensor based on MEMS technology for measuring the output pressure from micro-detonator. A reliable coefficient is proposed for designing the sensor’s sensitive element better. The sensor employs sandwich structure: the substrate uses a 0.5 mm thick alumina ceramic, the manganin sensitive element with a size of 0.2 mm × 0.1 mm × 2 μm and copper electrodes of 2 μm thick are sputtered sequentially on the substrate, and a 25 μm thick insulating layer of polyimide is wrapped on the sensitive element. The static test shows that the piezoresistive coefficient of manganin thin film is 0.0125 GPa−1. The dynamic experiment indicates that the detonation pressure of micro-detonator is 12.66 GPa, and the response time of the sensor is 37 ns. In a word, the sensor developed in this study is suitable for measuring ultra-high pressure in microscale and has a shorter response time than that of foil-like manganin gauges. Simultaneously, this study could be beneficial to research on ultra-high-pressure sensors with smaller size.

  18. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  19. High pressure {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy on guanine nucleotides

    Spoerner, Michael; Karl, Matthias; Lopes, Pedro; Hoering, Marcus; Loeffel, Karoline; Nuehs, Andrea; Adelsberger, Joseph; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert, E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@ur.de [University of Regensburg, Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The {sup 31}P NMR pressure response of guanine nucleotides bound to proteins has been studied in the past for characterizing the pressure perturbation of conformational equilibria. The pressure response of the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shifts of the phosphate groups of GMP, GDP, and GTP as well as the commonly used GTP analogs GppNHp, GppCH{sub 2}p and GTPγS was measured in the absence and presence of Mg{sup 2+}-ions within a pressure range up to 200 MPa. The pressure dependence of chemical shifts is clearly non-linear. For all nucleotides a negative first order pressure coefficient B{sub 1} was determined indicating an upfield shift of the resonances with pressure. With exception of the α-phosphate group of Mg{sup 2+}·GMP and Mg{sup 2+}·GppNHp the second order pressure coefficients are positive. To describe the data of Mg{sup 2+}·GppCH{sub 2}p and GTPγS a Taylor expansion of 3rd order is required. For distinguishing pH effects from pressure effects a complete pH titration set is presented for GMP, as well as GDP and GTP in absence and presence of Mg{sup 2+} ions using indirect referencing to DSS under identical experimental conditions. By a comparison between high pressure {sup 31}P NMR data on free Mg{sup 2+}-GDP and Mg{sup 2+}-GDP in complex with the proto-oncogene Ras we demonstrate that pressure induced changes in chemical shift are clearly different between both forms.

  20. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  1. Design Concepts for Low Aspect Ratio High Pressure Turbines for High Bypass Ratio Turbofans, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance gains and weight reductions from using Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) turbine blades in both the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) and Low Pressure...

  2. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed

  3. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  4. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent

    Elbehery, Ali H. A.

    2016-12-03

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world’s largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  5. Strength-toughness requirements for thick walled high pressure vessels

    Kapp, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness requirements of materials for use in high pressure vessels has been the subject of some discussion in the meetings of the Materials Task Group of the Special Working Group High Pressure Vessels. A fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to theoretically establish the required toughness for a high pressure vessel. This paper reports that the analysis performed is based on the validity requirement for plane strain fracture of fracture toughness test specimens. This is that at the fracture event, the crack length, uncracked ligament, and vessel length must each be greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone size for brittle fracture to occur. For high pressure piping applications, the limiting physical dimension is the uncracked ligament, as it can be assumed that the other dimensions are always greater than fifty times the crack tip plastic zone. To perform the fracture mechanics analysis several parameters must be known: these include vessel dimensions, material strength, degree of autofrettage, and design pressure. Results of the analysis show, remarkably, that the effects of radius ratio, pressure and degree of autofrettage can be ignored when establishing strength and toughness requirements for code purposes. The only parameters that enter into the calculation are yield strength, toughness and vessel thickness. The final results can easily be represented as a graph of yield strength against toughness on which several curves, one for each vessel thickness, are plotted

  6. Systematics, functional morphology and distribution of a bivalve (Apachecorbula muriatica gen. et sp. nov.) from the rim of the 'Valdivia Deep' brine pool in the Red Sea

    Oliver, Pere Graham

    2014-11-11

    The deep brine pools of the Red Sea comprise extreme, inhospitable habitats yet house microbial communities that potentially may fuel adjacent fauna. We here describe a novel bivalve from a deep-sea (1525 m) brine pool in the Red Sea, where conditions of high salinity, lowered pH, partial anoxia and high temperatures are prevalent. Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) footage showed that the bivalves were present in a narrow (20 cm) band along the rim of the brine pool, suggesting that it is not only tolerant of such extreme conditions but is also limited to them. The bivalve is a member of the Corbulidae and named Apachecorbula muriatica gen. et sp. nov. The shell is atypical of the family in being modioliform and thin. The semi-infaunal habit is seen in ROV images and reflected in the anatomy by the lack of siphons. The ctenidia are large and typical of a suspension feeding bivalve, but the absence of \\'guard cilia\\' and the greatly reduced labial palps suggest that it is non-selective as a response to low food availability. It is proposed that the low body mass observed is a consequence of the extreme habitat and low food availability. It is postulated that the observed morphology of Apachecorbula is a result of paedomorphosis driven by the effects of the extreme environment on growth but is in part mitigated by the absence of high predation pressures. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2014.

  7. Kinetics of radioisotope exchange between brine and rock in a geothermal system

    Hammond, D.E.; Zukin, J.G.; Teh-Lung Ku

    1988-01-01

    A wide range of isotopes in the /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th decay chains was measured in geothermal brines collected from two production zones at 1898 and 3220 m in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well. High concentrations of radium, radon, and lead isotopes are generated and maintained by the input of these isotopes from solid phases into brine by both recoil and leaching processes, by the high chloride content of the brine which complexes radium and lead, and by the apparent absence of suitable unoccupied adsorption sites. In contrast, uranium, thorium, actinium, bismuth, and polonium isotopes all have low concentrations due to their efficient sorption from brine to rock. Measurements of short-lived isotopes in these decay series yield insights regarding the mechanisms controlling radioisotope exchange, and they permit estimation of rates of brine-rock interaction. For example, the /sup 228/Ac//sup 228/Ra activity ratio of 0.2 in brines indicates that the mean residence time of actinium in solution before sorption onto solid surfaces is less than 2.5 hours

  8. Characterization of high-pressure, underexpanded hydrogen-jet flames

    Schefer, R.W.; Houf, W.G.; Williams, T.C. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bourne, B.; Colton, J. [SRI International, 333 Ravenwood Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Measurements were performed to characterize the dimensional and radiative properties of large-scale, vertical hydrogen-jet flames. This data is relevant to the safety scenario of a sudden leak in a high-pressure hydrogen containment vessel and will provide a technological basis for determining hazardous length scales associated with unintended hydrogen releases at storage and distribution centers. Jet flames originating from high-pressure sources up to 413 bar (6000 psi) were studied to verify the application of correlations and scaling laws based on lower-pressure subsonic and choked-flow jet flames. These higher pressures are expected to be typical of the pressure ranges in future hydrogen storage vessels. At these pressures the flows exiting the jet nozzle are categorized as underexpanded jets in which the flow is choked at the jet exit. Additionally, the gas behavior departs from that of an ideal-gas and alternate formulations for non-ideal gas must be introduced. Visible flame emission was recorded on video to evaluate flame length and structure. Radiometer measurements allowed determination of the radiant heat flux characteristics. The flame length results show that lower-pressure engineering correlations, based on the Froude number and a non-dimensional flame length, also apply to releases up to 413 bar (6000 psi). Similarly, radiative heat flux characteristics of these high-pressure jet flames obey scaling laws developed for low-pressure, smaller-scale flames and a wide variety of fuels. The results verify that such correlations can be used to a priori predict dimensional characteristics and radiative heat flux from a wide variety of hydrogen-jet flames resulting from accidental releases. (author)

  9. Determination of the partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure lamp arcs: A comparative study

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.; Aubes, M.

    1986-01-01

    The partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure Hg-TlI discharges with different mercury, thallium, and electron pressures has been measured by using the optically thin line Tl 655 nm and the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm. The partial pressure of the arc axis has been measured from the line Tl 655nm. The effective partial pressure has been measured from the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm on the basis of the multiparameter method, and it has been calculated from the known axis pressure of thallium and the calculation of its radial variation by taking into account the chemical reactions. The experimental results confirm the dispersion character of the blue wing of the line Tl 535 nm. The systematic difference obtained between the measured and calculated effective pressure, particularly at the moment of minimum electron density, may be interpreted by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) caused by overpopulation of the upper level of the line Tl 535 nm

  10. Photoconductivity studies of the ferrocyanide ion under high pressure

    Finston, M. I.

    1979-01-01

    The photoaquation of the ferrocyanide ion was studied using a high-pressure photoconductivity apparatus and a steady-state high-pressure mercury lamp. The first-order photocurrent rise-time could be related to the relative quantum efficiency of the photoaquation process, while the dark decay of the photocurrent yielded a relative value of the bimolecular rate-constant for the reverse reaction. Kinetic measurements were carried out on dilute solutions of potassium ferrocyanide in pure water, and in 20% ethanol. The photocurrent yield in aqueous solution was dependent upon secondary chemical equilibria which were sensitive to pressure in a predictable way. In ethanolic solution, the dependence of photocurrent yield on pressure followed the variation of the reciprocal solvent vicosity. In both aqueous and alcoholic solution, the photoaquation quantum efficiency decreased exponentially with pressure, as did the biomolecular rate-constant for the dark reaction in aqueous solution. The pressure dependence of the bimolecular rate-constant in the alcoholic solution indicated a diffusion-limited process. The pressure dependence of the photoaquation quantum yield, and of the bimolecular rate-constant in aqueous solution, was interpreted in terms of an activation volume model. The photoaquation data for both the aqueous and the alcoholic solutions agreed with a hypothetical mechanism whereby ligand-to-metal bond-breaking, and solvent-to-metal bond-formation, are effectively simultaneous. The results for the aqueous dark reaction strongly indicated breaking of the solvent-to-metal bond as the rate-limiting step.

  11. Microwave Wire Interrogation Method Mapping Pressure under High Temperatures

    Xiaoyong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wireless reading for in-situ mapping of pressure under high-temperature environments is the most feasible method, because it is not subject to frequent heterogeneous jointing failures and electrical conduction deteriorating, or even disappearing, under heat load. However, in this article, we successfully demonstrate an in-situ pressure sensor with wire interrogation for high-temperature applications. In this proof-of-concept study of the pressure sensor, we used a microwave resonator as a pressure-sensing component and a microwave transmission line as a pressure characteristic interrogation tunnel. In the sensor, the line and resonator are processed into a monolith, avoiding a heterogeneous jointing failure; further, microwave signal transmission does not depend on electrical conduction, and consequently, the sensor does not suffer from the heat load. We achieve pressure monitoring under 400 °C when employing the sensor simultaneously. Our sensor avoids restrictions that exist in wireless pressure interrogations, such as environmental noise and interference, signal leakage and security, low transfer efficiency, and so on.

  12. Experimental in situ investigations of turbulence under high pressure.

    Song, Kwonyul; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; Jovanovic, Jovan; Rauh, Cornelia; Delgado, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    In tube injection systems applied in high-pressure processing of packed biomaterials and foods, the pressure-transmitting medium is injected into the vessel to increase the pressure up to 1000 MPa, generating a submerged liquid-free jet. The presence of a turbulent-free jet during the pressurization phase and its positive influence on the homogeneity of the product treatment has already been examined by computational fluid dynamics investigations. However, no experimental data have supported the existence and properties of turbulent flow under high-pressure (HP) conditions up to 400 MPa. This contribution presents the development of two experimental setups: HP-laser Doppler anemometry and HP-hot wire anemometry. For the first time the time-averaged velocity profiles of a free jet during pressurization up to 300 MPa at different Reynolds numbers (Re) have been obtained. In this article, the dependence of the velocity profiles on the Re is discussed in detail. Moreover, the relaminarization phenomenon of the turbulent pipe flow most likely caused by the compressibility effects and viscosity changes of the pressure-transmitting medium is examined.

  13. Microscopic Analysis of Bacterial Motility at High Pressure

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  14. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    ... Spanish Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Nutrition Quitting Smoking Stress National Institutes of Health The ...

  15. High pressure fracturing in Colombia: a quantum leap

    Velasquez, Juan C. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom); Gutierrez, Jim; Ham, Ernesto; Castro, Alberto [BJ Services Company (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Fracturing has become one of the most common stimulation and well completion techniques in petroleum production. Due to the deeper depths and high frac gradients encountered in some areas, various treatments have resulted in early screen outs or aborted operations due to insufficient rate limited by the available treating pressures. A state of the art technology and high pressure equipment including the largest frac pumps (rated at 2,700 hhp) in the world, were used in Colombian fields to overcome these limitations. The reliability of this equipment has allowed the treatment of these wells to operating pressures of up to 18,000 psi and rates in excess of 40 bpm, placing up to 400,000 lbs of bauxite. Bottom hole treating pressures of 25,000 psi also were reached. This paper describes the development of the fracture campaign and relates the jobs performed to date, including the results and lessons learned (author)

  16. A hydronitrogen solid: high pressure ab initio evolutionary structure searches

    Hu Anguang; Zhang Fan

    2011-01-01

    High pressure ab initio evolutionary structure searches resulted in a hydronitrogen solid with a composition of (NH) 4 . The structure searches also provided two molecular isomers, ammonium azide (AA) and trans-tetrazene (TTZ) which were previously discovered experimentally and can be taken as molecular precursors for high pressure synthesis of the hydronitrogen solid. The computed pressure versus enthalpy diagram showed that the transformation pressure to the hydronitrogen solid is 36 GPa from AA and 75 GPa from TTZ. Its metastability was analyzed by the phonon dispersion spectrum and room-temperature vibrational density of state together with the transformation energy barrier back to molecular phases at 298 K. The predicted energy barrier of 0.21 eV/atom means that the proposed hydronitrogen solid should be very stable at ambient conditions. (fast track communication)

  17. High-pressure needle interface for thermoplastic microfluidics.

    Chen, C F; Liu, J; Hromada, L P; Tsao, C W; Chang, C C; DeVoe, D L

    2009-01-07

    A robust and low dead volume world-to-chip interface for thermoplastic microfluidics has been developed. The high pressure fluidic port employs a stainless steel needle inserted into a mating hole aligned to an embedded microchannel, with an interference fit used to increase pressure resistance. Alternately, a self-tapping threaded needle screwed into a mating hole is also demonstrated. In both cases, the flat bottom needle ports seat directly against the microchannel substrate, ensuring low interfacial dead volumes. Low dispersion is observed for dye bands passing the interfaces. The needle ports offer sufficient pull-out forces for applications such as liquid chromatography that require high internal fluid pressures, with the epoxy-free interfaces compatible with internal microchannel pressures above 40 MPa.

  18. Pressure Amplification Off High Impedance Barriers in DDT

    Heatwole, Eric Mann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Broilo, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kistle, Trevin Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Gary Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-04-23

    The Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in one-dimensional porous explosive, where combustion in an explosive transitions to detonation, can be described by the following model. This simplified model proceeds in five steps, as follows: 1) Ignition of the explosive, surface burning. 2) Convective burning, with the flame front penetrating through the porous network of the explosive. This proceeds until the pressure grows high enough to result in choked flow in the pores restricting the convective burn. 3) The choked flow results in the formation of a high-density compact of explosive. This compact is driven into undisturbed material by the pressure of the burning explosive. See Figure1. 4) The compression of the undisturbed porous explosive by the compact leads to the ignition of a compressive burn. This builds in pressure until a supported shock forms. 5) The shock builds in pressure until detonation occurs. See Figure 2 for an overview streak of the proceeding steps.

  19. High pressure transport properties of Yb2Cu9

    Spendeler, L.; Jaccard, D.; Sierro, J.; Flouquet, J.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical resistivity (ρ) and the absolute thermopower (S) of high-purity Yb 2 Cu 9 have been measured between 1.2 and 300 K at pressures up to 17 kbar and in magnetic fields up to 6 T. At zero pressure the three measured samples show a Kondo peak in the resistivity at 17 K. Furthermore for one of them the resistivity rises below 5 K. Under pressure, the Kondo peak in ρ slowly moves towards lower temperatures indicating a decrease of the Kondo temperature T K , in good agreement with specific heat results. The increase of ρ below 5 K disappears completely for pressure lower than 1 kbar and the residual resistivity remains high. The thermopower S exhibits similar trends. Magnetic field dependences of both ρ and S are weak. No evidence of magnetic ordering has been detected up to 17.6 kbar

  20. Foam glass obtained through high-pressure sintering

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Foam glasses are usually prepared through a chemical approach, that is, by mixing glass powder with foaming agents, and heating the mixture to a temperature above the softening point (106.6 Pa s) of the glass. The foaming agents release gas, enabling expansion of the sintered glass. Here, we use...... a physical foaming approach to prepare foam glass. First, closed pores filled with inert gases (He, Ar, or N2) are physically introduced into a glass body by sintering cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass powder at high gas pressure (5‐25 MPa) at 640°C and, then cooled to room temperature. The sintered bodies...... are subjected to a second heat treatment above the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure. This heat treatment causes expansion of the pores due to high internal gas pressure. We found that the foaming ability strongly depends on the gas pressure applied during sintering, and on the kinetic...

  1. High-pressure phase transitions - Examples of classical predictability

    Celebonovic, Vladan

    1992-09-01

    The applicability of the Savic and Kasanin (1962-1967) classical theory of dense matter to laboratory experiments requiring estimates of high-pressure phase transitions was examined by determining phase transition pressures for a set of 19 chemical substances (including elements, hydrocarbons, metal oxides, and salts) for which experimental data were available. A comparison between experimental and transition points and those predicted by the Savic-Kasanin theory showed that the theory can be used for estimating values of transition pressures. The results also support conclusions obtained in previous astronomical applications of the Savic-Kasanin theory.

  2. Synergistic effect of high pressure processing and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against pressure resistant Listeria monocytogenes.

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate combinations of high pressure processing (HPP) and Lactobacillus casei antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes strains with variation in pressure resistance in culture and in a food model. In culture, combination of HPP (350 MPa, for 1-20 min) and Lb. casei cell extract (CE, 32 CEAU/ml) showed a significant synergistic bactericidal effect (P5 log(10)CFU/ml. Synergy between CE and HPP was most evident in the pressure-resistant strain, OSY-8578. Similar result was observed in meat products where high pressure (500 MPa for 1 min), and high-activity CE (100 CEAU/g) caused >5 log reduction in the viability of L. monocytogenes Scott A. The combination treatment resulted in the absence of peaks associated with cellular components in DSC thermogram suggesting that the presence of CE may have caused a considerable damage to cellular components during the high pressure treatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uranium, RADON and radon isotopes in selected brines of Poland

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Zipper, W.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactive isotopes were studied in nine different types of brines from four locations in Poland. Investigated brines are exploited from various geological structures composed of the rocks of different chemical and mineral composition as well as different age and depth. All investigated brines are used in balneotherapy (i.e. baths, inhalations, showers). The main goal of this study was to obtain some basic knowledge on the activity range of natural elements such as uranium, RADON and radon in different brine types in Poland and their variability depending on their location in certain geological structures. Activities of 234,238 U, 226,228 Ra and 222 Rn isotopes were measured with the use of two nuclear spectrometry techniques: liquid scintillation and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn vary from below 1 to 76.1±3.7 Bq/l, for the 226 Ra isotope from 0.19±0.01 to 85.5±0.4 Bq/l and for 228 Ra from below 0.03 to 2.17±0.09 Bq/l. For uranium isotopes, the concentrations are in the range from below 0.5 to 5.1±0.4 mBq/l for 238 U and from 1.6±0.4 to 45.6±2.0 mBq/l for 2 34U . The obtained results indicate high RADON activity concentrations corresponding to high mineralization of waters. (authors)

  4. Advances in high pressure research in condensed matter: proceedings of the international conference on condensed matter under high pressures

    Sikka, S.K.; Gupta, Satish C.; Godwal, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The use of pressure as a thermodynamic variable for studying condensed matter has become very important in recent years. Its main effect is to reduce the volume of a substance. Thus, in some sense, it mimics the phenomena taking place during the cohesion of solids like pressure ionization, modifications in electronic properties and phase changes etc. Some of the phase changes under pressure lead to synthesis of new materials. The recent discovery of high T c superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 may be indirectly attributed to the pressure effect. In applied fields like simulation of reactor accident, design of inertial confinement fusion schemes and for understanding the rock mechanical effects of shock propagation in earth due to underground nuclear explosions, the pressure versus volume relations of condensed matter are a vital input. This volume containing the proceedings of the International Conference on Condensed Matter Under High Pressure covers various aspects of high pressure pertaining to equations of state, phase transitions, electronic, optical and transport properties of solids, atomic and molecular studies, shock induced reactions, energetic materials, materials synthesis, mineral physics, geophysical and planetary sciences, biological applications and food processing and advances in experimental techniques and numerical simulations. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  6. High pressure phase transition in Pr-monopnictides

    Raypuria, Gajendra Singh, E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com, E-mail: gsraypuria@gmail.com; Gupta, Dinesh Chandra [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474011 (India); Department of Physics, Govt. K.R.G. P.G. Autonomous College, Gwalior - 474001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The Praseodymium-monopnictides compounds have been found to undergo transition from their initial NaCl-type structure to high pressure body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (distorted CsCl-type P4/mmm) using CTIP model. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers.

  7. Phase transition of La- chalcogenides under high pressure

    Gupta, Dinesh Chandra [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior - 474 011 (India); Raypuria, Gajendra Singh, E-mail: gsraypuria@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. K.R.G. P.G. Autonomous College, Gwalior - 474 001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The lanthanum compounds have been found to undergo transition from their initial NaCl-type structure to high pressure body centered tetragonal (BCT) structure (distorted CsCl-type P4/mmm) using CTIP model. The calculated values of cohesive energy, lattice constant, phase transition pressure, relative volume collapse agree well with the available measured data and better than those computed by earlier workers.

  8. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  9. Experimental alteration of R7T7 glass in salt brines at 90 deg C and 150 deg C

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.; Gin, S.; Beaufort, D.; Thomassin, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Static experiments have been developed to investigate the R7T7 glass corrosion in four natural salt brines (brines 1 and 3: pure halite, brines 2 and 4: high Mg, K fluid inclusions rich halite), at 90 deg C and 150 deg C with 0.7 cm -1 S/V ratio and at 11 different running times. Analysis of brines after alteration (pHmeter and ICP) added to a detailed study of the crystalline phases developed at the interface glass-brine (XRD,SEM and Microprobe), showed that the influence of the compositional difference is more important on the nature of the secondary phases formed than on the corrosion rate of the glass. After 91 days of alteration at 150 deg C stady states to be reached (after 40 days at 90 deg C). A long term experiment (1 year) is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Nb effect on Zr-alloy oxidation under high pressure steam at high temperatures

    Park, Kwangheon; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Kyutae

    2005-01-01

    The high-pressure steam effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) and Zirlo (Zry-1%Nb) claddings at high temperature have been analyzed. Test temperature range was 700-900degC, and pressures were 1-150 bars. High pressure-steam enhances oxidation of Zry-4, and the dependency of enhancement looks exponential to steam pressure. The origin of the oxidation enhancement turned out to be the formation of cracks in oxide. The loss of tetragonal phase by high-pressure steam seems related to the crack formation. Addition of Nb as an alloying element to Zr alloy reduces significantly the steam pressure effects on oxidation. The higher compressive stresses and the smaller fraction of tetragonal oxides in Zry-1%Nb seem to be the diminished effect of high-pressure steam on oxidation. (author)

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Their Mixture in the Presence of Brine

    Yang, Yafan; Nair, Arun Kumar Narayanan; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation study of CO2, methane, and their mixture in the presence of brine over a broad range of temperature (311–473 K), pressure (up to about 100 MPa), and NaCl concentration (up to about 14 wt %). The general

  12. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  13. High-Pressure Design of Advanced BN-Based Materials

    Oleksandr O. Kurakevych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to highlight the state of the art in high-pressure design of new advanced materials based on boron nitride. Recent experimental achievements on the governing phase transformation, nanostructuring and chemical synthesis in the systems containing boron nitride at high pressures and high temperatures are presented. All these developments allowed discovering new materials, e.g., ultrahard nanocrystalline cubic boron nitride (nano-cBN with hardness comparable to diamond, and superhard boron subnitride B13N2. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of high-pressure synthesis are described based on the data obtained by in situ and ex situ methods. Mechanical and thermal properties (hardness, thermoelastic equations of state, etc. are discussed. New synthetic perspectives, combining both soft chemistry and extreme pressure–temperature conditions are considered.

  14. Superconductivity of divalent Chevrel phases at very high pressures

    Yao, Y.S.; Guertin, R.P.; Hinks, D.G.; Jorgensen, J.; Capone II, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and the superconducting transition temperatures were examined for three representative divalent Chevrel phase systems, SnMo 6 S 8 , EuMo 6 S 8 , and BaMo 6 S 8 , as a function of hydrostatic pressure to 2 GPa and in quasihydrostatic pressures to 10 GPa. In all systems, T/sub c/ is depressed to 0 K for sufficiently large pressures. For the Sn- and Eu-based systems, both highly purified samples and samples with controlled oxygen content were used. In an oxygenated SnMo 6 S 8 sample (less than 3% O 2 substituted for the S atoms) the pressure threshold and maximum T/sub c/ are 40% lower than in the pure sample, but for P>3.5 GPa the T/sub c/-P phase diagrams nearly coincide, with T/sub c/ reaching zero at an extrapolated pressure of about 12 GPa. In pure EuMo 6 S 8 , superconductivity appears only above a threshold pressure of about 1 GPa and is depressed to 0 K above 4.5 GPa. In an oxygenated sample the maximum T/sub c/ and the threshold pressure are depressed, and above about 3.5 GPa the T/sub c/-P phase diagrams coincide, as in the Sn-based system, although T/sub c/ is then rapidly depressed to 0 K at about 4.5 GPa. In a highly purified BaMo 6 S 8 sample superconductivity appears above about 2 GPa and is depressed to 0 K at extrapolated pressures above 12 GPa. A full transition to the zero-resistance superconducting state is observed in BaMo 6 S 8 . The data are discussed in terms of a model linking the rhombohedral-to-triclinic structural transition, the superconducting transition temperature, and the role of pressure in suppressing the structural transition

  15. Transient heating effects in high pressure Diesel injector nozzles

    Strotos, George; Koukouvinis, Phoevos; Theodorakakos, Andreas; Gavaises, Manolis; Bergeles, George

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of friction-induced heating in high pressure Diesel fuel injectors. • Injection pressures up to 3000 bar. • Simulations with variable fuel properties significantly affect predictions. • Needle motion affects flow and temperature fields. • Possible heterogeneous boiling as injection pressures increase above 2000 bar. - Abstract: The tendency of today’s fuel injection systems to reach injection pressures up to 3000 bar in order to meet forthcoming emission regulations may significantly increase liquid temperatures due to friction heating; this paper identifies numerically the importance of fuel pressurization, phase-change due to cavitation, wall heat transfer and needle valve motion on the fluid heating induced in high pressure Diesel fuel injectors. These parameters affect the nozzle discharge coefficient (C d ), fuel exit temperature, cavitation volume fraction and temperature distribution within the nozzle. Variable fuel properties, being a function of the local pressure and temperature are found necessary in order to simulate accurately the effects of depressurization and heating induced by friction forces. Comparison of CFD predictions against a 0-D thermodynamic model, indicates that although the mean exit temperature increase relative to the initial fuel temperature is proportional to (1 − C d 2 ) at fixed needle positions, it can significantly deviate from this value when the motion of the needle valve, controlling the opening and closing of the injection process, is taken into consideration. Increasing the inlet pressure from 2000 bar, which is the pressure utilized in today’s fuel systems to 3000 bar, results to significantly increased fluid temperatures above the boiling point of the Diesel fuel components and therefore regions of potential heterogeneous fuel boiling are identified

  16. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS USE IN FOOD INDUSTRY

    Yahya TÜLEK

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is a continuous fight against microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Investigated inactivation technologies are ionisation radiation, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, pulsed electrical fields, high pressure homogenisation, UV decontamination, etc. Most research has focussed on HHP and is therefore discussed in detail here.

  17. CONTACT ANGLE OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN WELDED TUFF WITH WATER AND BRINES

    H. Kalia

    2006-01-01

    A number of tests were performed to acquire contact angles between Yucca Mountain welded tuff from Topopah Springs Lower Lithophysal geologic unit and various brine solutions. The tests were performed on core disks received from Sample Management Facility (SMF), oven dried to a constant weight and the core disks vacuum saturated in: distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine to constant weight. The contact angles were acquired from eight points on the surface of the core disks, four on rough surface, and four on polished surface. The contact angle was measured by placing a droplet of the test fluid, distilled water, J-13 water, calcium chloride brine and sodium chloride brine on the core disks. The objective of this test was to acquire contact angles as a potential input to estimating capillary forces in accumulated dust on the waste packages and drip shields slated for the proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. It was noted that once the droplet contacts the test surface, it continues to spread hence the contact angle continues to decrease with elapsed time. The maximum observed angle was at time 0 or when the drop contacted the rock surface. The measured contact angle, in all cases has significant scatter. In general, the time zero contact angles for core disks saturated in sodium chloride brine were smaller than those saturated in calcium chloride brine, distilled water, and J-13 water. The contact angles for samples saturated in distilled water, J-13 water and calcium chloride brine at time zero were similar. There was slight difference between the observed contact angles for smooth and rough surface of the test samples. The contact angles for smooth surfaces were smaller than for the rough surfaces

  18. Modeling Episodic Ephemeral Brine Lake Evaporation and Salt Crystallization on the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah

    Liu, T.; Harman, C. J.; Kipnis, E. L.; Bowen, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Public concern about apparent reductions in the areal extent of the Bonneville Salt Flat (BSF) and perceived changes in inundation frequency has motivated renewed interest in the hydrologic and geochemical behavior of this salt playa. In this study, we develop a numerical modeling framework to simulate the relationship between hydrometeorologic variability, brine evaporation and salt crystallization processes on BSF. The BSF, locates in Utah, is the remnant of paleo-lake Bonneville, and is capped by up to 1 meter of salt deposition over a 100 km2 area. The BSF has two distinct hydrologic periods each year: a winter wet periods with standing surface brine and the summer dry periods when the brine is evaporated, exposing the surface salt crust. We develop a lumped non-linear dynamical models coupling conservation expressions from water, dissolved salt and thermal energy to investigate the seasonal and diurnal behavior of brine during the transition from standing brine to exposed salt at BSF. The lumped dynamic models capture important nonlinear and kinetic effects introduced by the high ionic concentration of the brine, including the pronounced effect of the depressed water activity coefficient on evaporation. The salt crystallization and dissolution rate is modeled as a kinetic process linearly proportional to the degree of supersaturation of brine. The model generates predictions of the brine temperature and the solute and solvent masses controlled by diurnal net radiation input and aerodynamic forcing. Two distinct mechanisms emerge as potential controls on salt production and dissolution: (1) evapo-concentration and (2) changes in solubility related to changes in brine temperature. Although the evaporation of water is responsible for ultimate disappearance of the brine each season ,variation in solubility is found to be the dominant control on diurnal cycles of salt precipitation and dissolution in the BSF case. Most salt is crystallized during nighttime, but the

  19. Numerical studies of CO2 and brine leakage into a shallow aquifer through an open wellbore

    Wang, Jingrui; Hu, Litang; Pan, Lehua; Zhang, Keni

    2018-03-01

    Industrial-scale geological storage of CO2 in saline aquifers may cause CO2 and brine leakage from abandoned wells into shallow fresh aquifers. This leakage problem involves the flow dynamics in both the wellbore and the storage reservoir. T2Well/ECO2N, a coupled wellbore-reservoir flow simulator, was used to analyze CO2 and brine leakage under different conditions with a hypothetical simulation model in water-CO2-brine systems. Parametric studies on CO2 and brine leakage, including the salinity, excess pore pressure (EPP) and initially dissolved CO2 mass fraction, are conducted to understand the mechanism of CO2 migration. The results show that brine leakage rates increase proportionally with EPP and inversely with the salinity when EPP varies from 0.5 to 1.5 MPa; however, there is no CO2 leakage into the shallow freshwater aquifer if EPP is less than 0.5 MPa. The dissolved CO2 mass fraction shows an important influence on the CO2 plume, as part of the dissolved CO2 becomes a free phase. Scenario simulation shows that the gas lifting effect will significantly increase the brine leakage rate into the shallow freshwater aquifer under the scenario of 3.89% dissolved CO2 mass fraction. The equivalent porous media (EPM) approach used to model the wellbore flow has been evaluated and results show that the EPM approach could either under- or over-estimate brine leakage rates under most scenarios. The discrepancies become more significant if a free CO2 phase evolves. Therefore, a model that can correctly describe the complex flow dynamics in the wellbore is necessary for investigating the leakage problems.

  20. A novel high pressure, high temperature vessel used to conduct long-term stability measurements of silicon MEMS pressure transducers

    Wisniewiski, David

    2014-03-01

    The need to quantify and to improve long-term stability of pressure transducers is a persistent requirement from the aerospace sector. Specifically, the incorporation of real-time pressure monitoring in aircraft landing gear, as exemplified in Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS), has placed greater demand on the pressure transducer for improved performance and increased reliability which is manifested in low lifecycle cost and minimal maintenance downtime through fuel savings and increased life of the tire. Piezoresistive (PR) silicon MEMS pressure transducers are the primary choice as a transduction method for this measurement owing to their ability to be designed for the harsh environment seen in aircraft landing gear. However, these pressure transducers are only as valuable as the long-term stability they possess to ensure reliable, real-time monitoring over tens of years. The "heart" of the pressure transducer is the silicon MEMS element, and it is at this basic level where the long-term stability is established and needs to be quantified. A novel High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) vessel has been designed and constructed to facilitate this critical measurement of the silicon MEMS element directly through a process of mechanically "floating" the silicon MEMS element while being subjected to the extreme environments of pressure and temperature, simultaneously. Furthermore, the HPHT vessel is scalable to permit up to fifty specimens to be tested at one time to provide a statistically significant data population on which to draw reasonable conclusions on long-term stability. With the knowledge gained on the silicon MEMS element, higher level assembly to the pressure transducer envelope package can also be quantified as to the build-effects contribution to long-term stability in the same HPHT vessel due to its accommodating size. Accordingly, a HPHT vessel offering multiple levels of configurability and robustness in data measurement is presented, along