Sample records for high power yag

  1. High power, diode pumped Er:YAG for dentistry (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Heinrich, A.; Nussbaumer, B.


    Pantec Medical Laser presents a diode pumped Er:YAG laser for dental and hard tissue applications. The diode pumped laser is practically maintenance free and ensures reliable operation over several thousand hours. The high repetition rate with up to 15 W average output power, allows treatments otherwise not feasible with low repetition rate, lamp pumped Er:YAG systems. The variable pulse duration of 10 to 200 μs combined with the good beam quality ensures precise and fast treatment. First results on enamel ablation as well as the power scalability of the technology to 200 mJ and 30 W average power are also shown.

  2. Diode pumped 1kHz high power Nd:YAG laser with excellent beam quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Offerhaus, Herman L.


    The design and operation of a one kilohertz diode pumped all solid-state Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system with a phase conjugate mirror is presented. The setup allows high power scaling without reduction in beam quality.

  3. High-power dual-rod Yb:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, Eric C.; Beach, Raymond J.; Mitchell, Scott C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.; Sutton, Steven B.; Payne, Stephen A.; Avizonis, Petras V.; Monroe, Robert S.; Harris, Dennis G.


    We describe a diode-pumped Yb:YAG laser that produces 1080 W of power cw with 27.5% optical optical efficiency and 532 W Q -switched with M{sup 2}=2.2 and 17% optical-optical efficiency. The laser uses two composite Yb:YAG rods separated by a 90 degree sign quartz rotator for bifocusing compensation. A microlensed diode array end pumps each rod, using a hollow lens duct for pump delivery. By changing resonator parameters we can adjust the fundamental mode size and the output beam quality. Using a flattened Gaussian intensity profile to calculate the mode-fill efficiency and clipping losses, we compare experimental data with modeled output power versus beam quality. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  4. High-efficiency, high-power and low threshold Yb3+:YAG ceramic laser. (United States)

    Pirri, Angela; Alderighi, Daniele; Toci, Guido; Vannini, Matteo


    We present a high-power, high-efficiency and low threshold laser prototype based on doped ceramic Yb(3+):YAG. We achieved an output power of 9 W with a slope efficiency of 73% and a threshold of 1 W at 1030 nm in quasi-Continuous Wave (QCW). Moreover, we obtained an output power 7.7 W with a slope efficiency of 60% in Continuous Wave (CW). Finally, a characterization of a low losses tunable cavity for several laser wavelengths with an output power exceeding 5 W is reported.

  5. Design of a high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser. (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Garcia, Dário


    A simple high-power, high-brightness Nd:YAG solar laser pumping approach is presented in this paper. The incoming solar radiation is both collected and concentrated by four Fresnel lenses and redirected toward a Nd:YAG laser head by four plane-folding mirrors. A fused-silica secondary concentrator is used to compress the highly concentrated solar radiation to a laser rod. Optimum pumping conditions and laser resonator parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. Solar laser power of 96 W is numerically calculated, corresponding to the collection efficiency of 24  W/m². A record-high solar laser beam brightness figure of merit of 9.6 W is numerically achieved.

  6. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices. (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian


    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  7. Cryogenic, high power, near diffraction limited, Yb:YAG slab laser. (United States)

    Ganija, Miftar; Ottaway, David; Veitch, Peter; Munch, Jesper


    A cryogenic slab laser that is suitable for scaling to high power, while taking full advantage of the improved thermo-optical and thermo-mechanical properties of Yb:YAG at cryogenic temperatures is described. The laser uses a conduction cooled, end pumped, zigzag slab geometry resulting in a near diffraction limited, robust, power scalable design. The design and the initial characterization of the laser up to 200W are presented.

  8. Investigations on fibers for high-peak power pulsed Nd:YAG-lasers for laser detonator (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhao, Xing-hai; Su, Wei; Cheng, Yong-sheng; Xu, Mei-jian; Duan, Wen-tao; Yu, Hai-wu


    For laser detonator application, high-peak power pulsed Nd:YAG laser is transmitted through all-silica optical fiber. The transmission properties of step-index fibers are investigated, using a high-peak power pulsed Nd: YAG rod laser with beyond 1MW power and Q-switch mode. The fibers are step-index multimode fibers with 400 or 600 μm core diameters, 440 or 660 μm cladding diameters. The power delivery characteristics were studied by theory and experiments. The results show that the fiber core diameter, NA, length and so on affect the transmission efficiency for high power laser. When the laser power is beyond a certain threshold, the SRS and SBS will be serious; the quantity of fiber end-face limits to the raising of laser power passing through fibers; the zero-probability damage threshold is calculated according to ISO/DIS standard 11254-1.2, which is 58.6J/cm2. Energy distribution of output beam from fibers will be uniform. Even the fiber end-face was partly damaged, laser power is still deliverable, and the transmission efficiency is related to the fiber damage grade.

  9. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm. (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan


    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  10. [Diagnosis and analysis of high power YAG laser and MAG arc hybrid source with spectral information]. (United States)

    Li, Zhi-yong; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xu-you; Li, Huan


    High power YAG laser and MAG are hybrid source is a promising material processing heat source for future industry application Diagnosis of the plasma state is critical for better understanding of the coupling effect, application of the source and optimization of the hybrid parameters. Through establishing a hollow probe spectral collecting system, Avaspec-Ft-2 high speed digital spectrometer was applied for collecting the spectral information of hybrid are plasma. The hollow probe scans the plasma body to acquire the spatial distribution of the YAG laser-MAG hybrid are spectrum. The radiation intensity in specific spectral zone was acquired for analysis of the radiation variation when the laser beam was hybrid with the MAG arc. High speed photo was also applied for comparison of the plasma with and without laser beam coupling. Furthermore, line spectra of Fe I were selected for calculating the electronic temperature of the hybrid plasma with Boltzmann plot method. The results show that energy of the hybrid plasma focused on the weld plate with high intensity and wider acting zone. The electronic temperature increased in the center of the hybrid plasma.

  11. High-peak power, passively Q-switched, composite, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG laser and generation of 532-nm green light (United States)

    Salamu, G.; Ionescu, A.; Brandus, C. A.; Sandu, O.; Pavel, N.; Dascalu, T.


    Output performances of passively Q-switched, composite Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG lasers that consisted of bonded, all-poly-crystalline ceramics Nd:YAG and Cr4+:YAG are reported. Laser pulses at 1.06 μm with 2.5-mJ energy and 1.9-MW peak power are obtained from a 1.1-at % Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramics that was quasi-continuous-wave (quasi-CW) pumped with a diode laser. Single-pass frequency doubling with LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal at room temperature yielded green laser pulses at 532 nm of 0.36-mJ energy and 0.3-MW peak power, with a conversion efficiency of 0.27.

  12. Wettability characteristics of carbon steel modified with CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer and high power diode lasers


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle. These modifications are related to changes in the surface roughness, changes in the surface oxygen content and changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. The wettability characteristics of the selected mild steel could be controll...

  13. Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy with high-power holmium YAG laser in pediatric patients with staghorn and complex calculi. (United States)

    Bujons, Anna; Millán, Félix; Centeno, Clara; Emiliani, Esteban; Sánchez Martín, Francisco; Angerri, Oriol; Caffaratti, Jorge; Villavicencio, Humberto


    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the treatment of choice for most cases of renal lithiasis in children. Some cases, however, are refractory to SWL and may be associated with anatomic and metabolic changes or a large stone burden. In these circumstances, mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) is an option. The aim was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-power holmium YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in mini-PCNL for staghorn calculi. The clinical records relating to 35 mini-PCNLs (Table) performed between January 2008 and December 2012 in 33 patients (27 boys and 6 girls; mean age 7 years, range 2-18 years) were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-two (66.7%) of the patients had undergone a previous SWL (28.6% three sessions). The mini-PCNL puncture technique used involved fluoroscopic guidance with the C arm at 0-90° in the supine position. An 18F tract was used. Stone fragmentation was performed with a high-power Ho:YAG laser (Lumenis 100 W). Ten of the mini-PCNLs (28.6%) were right sided, and 25 were left sided (71.4%). Stones were located in the lower calyceal group in 64% of patients and in the renal pelvis in 50%. The mean stone size was 4.46 cm(2) (range 3-13.20 cm(2)). The number of stones varied between one and 20, and 83.3% were radiopaque. The laser was set at 70 W (range 50-100 W) (3.5 J/pulse with a frequency of 20 pulses/s). The mean surgical time was 150 min. In 78% of patients, complete stone clearance was achieved, and the overall stone-free rate rose to 85% when residual stones were treated with either SWL or retrograde intrarenal surgery. No perioperative complications were seen. There are few reports in the literature concerning the use of a high-power laser for treatment of complex stones and the few that do exist relate to adults have similar results, showing it to be highly effective and safe, with low morbidity. Some limitations of the present study must be acknowledged. It was retrospective and a relatively small number of patients were

  14. Wettability characteristics of a modified mild steel with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high-power diode laser radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle of certain liquids. Such changes were identified as being due to modifications to (i) the surface roughness, (ii) changes in the surface oxygen content and (iii) changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. However, it was found that changes in the wet...

  15. Wavefront improvement in an end-pumped high-power Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser. (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Cha, Yong-Ho; Lim, Gwon; Kim, Yonghee; Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Hyeon Cheor; Kim, Sangin; Koh, Kwang Uoong; Kim, Hyun Tae


    Techniques for wavefront improvement in an end-pumped Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser amplifier were proposed and demonstrated experimentally. First, a study on the contact materials was conducted to improve the heat transfer between the slab and cooling blocks and to increase the cooling uniformity. Among many attempts, only the use of silicon oil showed an improvement in the wavefront. Thus, the appropriate silicone oil was applied to the amplifier as a contact material. In addition, the wavefront compensation method using a glass rod array was also applied to the amplifier. A very low wavefront distortion was obtained through the use of a silicone-oil contact and glass rod array. The variance of the optical path difference for the entire beam height was 3.87 μm at a pump power of 10.6 kW, and that for the 80% section was 1.69 μm. The output power from the oscillator was 3.88 kW, which means the maximum output extracted from the amplifier at a pump power of 10.6 kW.

  16. High-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser (United States)

    Zhuang, W. Z.; Chang, M. T.; Su, K. W.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.


    We report on high-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser. A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is developed to achieve synchronously mode-locked operation at two spectral bands centered at 1031.67 and 1049.42 nm with a pulse duration of 1.54 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 80.3 GHz. With a diamond heat spreader to improve the heat removal efficiency, the average output power can be up to 1.1 W at an absorbed pump power of 5.18 W. The autocorrelation traces reveal that the mode-locked pulse is modulated with a beat frequency of 4.92 THz and displays a modulation depth to be greater than 80%.

  17. High energy single frequency Yb:YAG crystalline fiber waveguide master oscillator power amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective is to demonstrate the concept of Yb:YAG crystalline fiber MOPA laser and investigation the technical feasibility toward 50 mJ single frequency...

  18. High peak power Q-switched Er:YAG laser with two polarizers and its ablation performance for hard dental tissues. (United States)

    Yang, Jingwei; Wang, Li; Wu, Xianyou; Cheng, Tingqing; Jiang, Haihe


    An electro-optically Q-switched high-energy Er:YAG laser with two polarizers is proposed. By using two Al(2)O(3) polarizing plates and a LiNbO(3) crystal with Brewster angle, the polarization efficiency is significantly improved. As a result, 226 mJ pulse energy with 62 ns pulse width is achieved at the repetition rate of 3 Hz, the corresponding peak power is 3.6 MW. To our knowledge, such a high peak power has not been reported in literature. With our designed laser, in-vitro teeth were irradiated under Q-switched and free-running modes. Results of a laser ablation experiment on hard dental tissue with the high-peak-power laser demonstrates that the Q-switched Er:YAG laser has higher ablation precision and less thermal damage than the free-running Er:YAG laser.

  19. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.


    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  20. High average power 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser, passively Q-switched with V:YAG

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, RC


    Full Text Available A 1314 nm Nd:YLF laser was designed and operated both CW and passively Q-switched. Maximum CW output of 10.4 W resulted from 45.2 Wof incident pump power. Passive Q-switching was obtained by inserting a V:YAG saturable absorber in the cavity...

  1. High-power 200 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator. (United States)

    Pronin, O; Brons, J; Grasse, C; Pervak, V; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Kalashnikov, V L; Apolonski, A; Krausz, F


    We demonstrate a power-scalable Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator. It delivers 200 fs pulses at an average power of 17 W and a repetition rate of 40 MHz. At an increased (180 W) pump power level, the laser produces 270 fs 1.1 μJ pulses at an average power of 45 W (optical-to-optical efficiency of 25%). Semiconductor-saturable-absorber-mirror-assisted Kerr-lens mode locking (KLM) and pure KLM with a hard aperture show similar performance. To our knowledge, these are the shortest pulses achieved from a mode-locked Yb:YAG disk oscillator and this is the first demonstration of a Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk laser.

  2. High-power and high-efficiency diode-pumped Nd:LuYAG mixed crystal lasers operating at 939 and 946  nm. (United States)

    Cui, Qin; Lan, Jinglong; Lin, Zhi; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Jun


    We report on high-performance infrared lasers at 0.94 μm based on quasi-three-level transition of F3/24→I9/24 in Nd:LuYAG mixed crystal, for the first time to our knowledge. The maximum output power was achieved to 5.64 W with slope efficiency of approximately 52.5% at 946 nm. The simultaneous dual-wavelength laser at 939 and 946 nm is also obtained with maximum output power of 3.61 W and slope efficiency of 34.8% by introducing a glass etalon into the cavity. Moreover, a 2.0-W single-wavelength laser at 939 nm can be further attained by suitably tilting the etalon. Using a Cr:YAG saturable absorber, Q-switched laser operation is realized with maximum average output power of 0.68 W and the narrowest pulse width of 8.4 ns, which results in the maximum single pulse energy of approximately 55.3 μJ and the maximum pulse peak power of approximately 6.15 kW. Finally, thermal focal length of the laser crystal is estimated by using a flat-flat laser cavity.

  3. High power-pulsed Nd:YAG laser as a new stimulus to induce BMP-2 expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Cho, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kwansik; Weber, Franz E; Hwang, Soon Jung


    High-power laser has recently become a physical stimulus for bone regeneration. Little is known about how high-power laser irradiation affects osteoblast differentiation. This study investigated osteoblast responses to high-power laser and combined irradiation with BMP-2 treatment. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were exposed to laser irradiation, 100 ng/ml BMP-2 or both. Cells were irradiated with a Q-switched, pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, with a 1,064 nm wavelength and 0.75 W output power under 1.5, 3, or 5 J/cm(2) energy densities. Cell proliferation was evaluated using tetrazolium salt, WST-8. To determine the effect of these treatments on in vitro osteogenesis, we examined alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineral deposition, and expression of genes associated with osteogenesis. Quantitative real time PCR or ELISA was used to examine cytokine expression. In each experiment, either non-irradiated or BMP-2 (100 ng/ml)-treated cells were used as controls. High-power, low-level, Nd:YAG laser irradiation significantly increased ALP activity, when combined with BMP-2 or not. Cell proliferation declined in the irradiation and combined irradiation/BMP-2 groups. Interestingly, Nd:YAG laser stimulation resulted in significant induction of endogenous BMP-2 protein and gene expression. The increased expression of upstream regulators cbfa1 by Nd:YAG laser alone was comparable to exogenous BMP-2 treatment (100 ng/ml). Combined laser/BMP-2 treatment was synergistic in the expression of some genes (IGF-1, cbfa1) and ALP activity, compared to both BMP-2 treatment and laser irradiation alone. In vitro matrix mineralization was significantly accelerated by laser stimulation compared to that of the control, more so than with the combined laser/BMP-2 treatment. The present in vitro findings demonstrate that high-power, low-level Nd:YAG laser increased osteoblast activity, very efficiently accelerating mineral deposition. Osteoinductive effect of laser

  4. High power Er:YAG laser with radially-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian (LG01) mode output (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; MacKenzie, J. I.; Hayes, J. R.; Clarkson, W. A.


    A simple method for conditioning the pump beam in an end-pumped solid-state laser to allow direct excitation of the first order Laguerre-Gaussian doughnut (LG01) mode is reported. This approach has been applied to a hybrid (fiber-laser-pumped) Er:YAG laser yielding 13.1 W of continuous-wave output at 1645 nm in a radially-polarized LG01 doughnut beam with beam propagation factor (M2) < 2.4 for 34 W of incident pump power at 1532 nm. The corresponding slope efficiency with respect to incident pump power was 48%. The prospects of further power scaling and improved laser performance are discussed.

  5. Resonantly pumped monolithic nonplanar Ho:YAG ring laser with high-power single-frequency laser output at 2122 nm. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Chunqing; Gao, Mingwei; Li, Yan


    We demonstrated a stable single-frequency laser operating at 2122 nm from a monolithic nonplanar Ho:YAG ring oscillator (NPRO). The Ho:YAG NPRO was resonantly pumped by a 1907 nm Tm:YLF laser built up by ourselves. The maximum multimode output power from the Ho:YAG NPRO was 9.66 W and the slope efficiency was 71.7%. With accurate adjustment of the pump position to make the laser oscillate in single frequency condition, an output power of 8.0 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 61.4% and an optical-optical efficiency of 50.0%. The power stability of the Ho:YAG NPRO laser was 0.29% at maximum single frequency output power. The beam quality M(2) factors were measured to be less than 1.1 in x- and y- directions.

  6. High-power ultraviolet 278 nm laser from fourth-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser in CsB3O5. (United States)

    Wang, Zhichao; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Guochun; Bo, Yong; Liu, Shanshan; Xie, Shiyong; Xu, Yiting; Zong, Nan; Li, Fangqin; Liu, Biaolong; Xu, Jialin; Peng, Qinjun; Zhang, Jingyuan; Cui, Dafu; Wu, Yicheng; Xu, Zuyan


    We demonstrate a high-power UV 278 nm laser by fourth-harmonic generation (FHG) of a 1112 nm Nd:YAG laser in a nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal CsB3O5 (CBO) for the first time, to our best knowledge. A 30 W level diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1112 nm with beam quality factor M2=1.2 was used as the fundamental light source at a pulse width of 500 ns. With an LiB3O5 crystal, the 1112 nm laser was first frequency-doubled to 556 nm with an average output power of 13.5 W. It was then frequency doubled again in a CBO crystal to obtain the FHG output at 278 nm. The maximum average output power of the 278 nm laser is up to 1.5 W. The results demonstrated that CBO crystal is a promising NLO material for UV high-power lasers below 300 nm.

  7. High-power narrow-linewidth QCW diode-pumped TEM00 1319 nm Nd:YAG oscillator using twisted-mode technique (United States)

    Bian, Qi; Zhong, Qing-Shuang; Chang, Jin-Quan; Guo, Chuan; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Jun-Wei; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Zhang, Shen-Jin; Yuan, Lei; Cui, Da-Fu; Peng, Qin-Jun; Chen, Hong-Bin; Xu, Zu-Yan


    We demonstrated a high-average-power, narrow-linewidth, quasi-continuous-wave diode-side-pumped 1319 nm Nd:YAG twisted-mode laser oscillator with a linearly polarized TEM00 mode. The resonator is based on a symmetrical convex-convex structure with a two-rod configuration for birefringence compensation, working in a thermally near-unstable cavity. With an optimum cavity length of 940 mm, a 39.4 W linear polarized 1319 nm laser is obtained with a good beam quality of M 2  =  1.21 and a linewidth of ~250 MHz, and the corresponding brightness is as high as 1.55 GW cm-2. The laser is operated at a repetition rate of 500 Hz and pulse duration of 150 µs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power 1319 nm laser with narrow-linewidth from diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers, and is the first report on the twisted-mode laser operation at the 1.3 µm region.

  8. Surface modification of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic treated with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers for altered wettability characteristics


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic was found to affect significant changes in the wettability characteristics of the material. It was observed that interaction with CO2, Nd:YAG and HPDL radiation reduced the enamel contact angle from 1180 to 310, 340 and 330 respectively. In contrast, interaction with excimer laser radiation resulted an increase in the contact angle to 1210. Such changes were identifi...

  9. Output power variations in ND:YAG laser hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, W.B. II


    Seemingly identical Nd:YAG laser rods often exhibit significant variations in output power. The purpose of this report is to investigate the possible cause or causes for the performance variations in Nd:YAG laser rods. The fundamental chemical and crystal growth characteristics of Nd:YAG are reviewed. The spectroscopy of Nd:YAG is discussed with emphasis on the laser transition. The more common spectroscopic parameters are defined and the important relationships between them derived. Expressions relating the laser performance of cw and Q-switched systems to the host parameters are developed and the important parameters are discussed. Possible energy transfer mechanisms to account for performance variations are presented and evaluated. It is proposed that concentration variations are primarily responsible for laser performance fluctuations and a method for obtaining experimental verification is outlined.

  10. Continuous-wave seeded mid-IR parametric system pumped by the high-average-power picosecond Yb:YAG thin-disk laser (United States)

    Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Miura, Taisuke; Turčičová, Hana; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáś


    Mid-IR wavelength range offers variety of interesting applications. Down-conversion in the optical parametric devices is promising to generate high average power mid-IR beam due to inherently low thermal load of the nonlinear crystals if a powerful and high quality pump beam is available. We developed 100 kHz pump laser of 100-W level average power. The stretched pulses of Yb-fiber laser oscillator at 1030 nm wavelength are injected into the regenerative amplifier with an Yb:YAG thin-disk. Diode pumping at zero phonon line at wavelength of 969 nm significantly reduces its thermal load and increases conversion efficiency and stability. We obtained the beam with power of 80 W and 2 ps compressed pulsewidth. We are developing a watt level mid-IR picosecond light source pumped by a beam of the thin disk regenerative amplifier. Part of the beam pumps PPLN, which is seeded by a continuous wave laser diode at 1.94 μm to decrease the generation threshold and determine the amplified spectrum. The 3 W pumping gave output of 30 mW, which is by up to two orders higher compared to unseeded operation. The gain of about 107 was achieved in the PPLN in the temporal window of the pump pulse. The spectrum and beam of the generated idler pulses in the mid-IR was measured. We obtained an amplified signal from the second stage with the KTP crystal. We expect watt level mid-IR output for initial 50-W pumping. The generation of longer wavelengths is discussed.

  11. High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator in the positive dispersion regime. (United States)

    Pronin, O; Brons, J; Grasse, C; Pervak, V; Boehm, G; Amann, M-C; Apolonski, A; Kalashnikov, V L; Krausz, F


    We demonstrate a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked (KLM) Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator operating in the regime of positive intracavity group-delay dispersion (GDD). It delivers 1.7 ps pulses at an average power of 17 W and a repetition rate of 40 MHz. Dispersive mirrors compress the pulses to a duration of 190 fs (assuming sech2 shape; Fourier limit: 150 fs) at an average power level of 11 W. To our knowledge, this is the first KLM thin-disk oscillator with positive GDD. Output powers of up to 30 W were achieved with an increased output coupler transmission and intracavity GDD. We demonstrate increase of the pulse energy with increasing positive intracavity GDD, limited by difficulties in initiating mode-locking.

  12. High-power continuous-wave dual-wavelength diode-pumped Yb:YAG slab amplifier with temperature-dependent effects (United States)

    Ma, Yifang; Shen, Yijie; Xu, Liu; Zhou, Tangjian; Lin, Weiping; Gao, Qingsong; Wu, Yingchen


    A kilo-Watt-level continuous-wave dual-wavelength dual-end diode-pumped Yb:YAG slab amplifier is experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. A 1.18 kW seed with stable dual-wavelength operation at 1029.6 and 1031.5 nm can be amplified to the maximum output power of 6.56 kW. We also propose a numerical model to characterize the amplifier system including broad spectrum and temperature-dependent effects. The numerical results of power and spectra evolutions show great agreement with our experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the dual-wavelength laser with the highest average power, which has great potential in scaling the application scope of dual-wavelength lasers.

  13. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.


    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...

  14. Seeing laser scalpel: a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser system at 2.02 μm with double-clad fiber combined OCT (United States)

    Messner, Manuel; Heinrich, Arne; Hagen, Clemens; Unterrainer, Karl


    We report on a novel monolithic high-power diode pumped Tm:YAG laser at 2.02 μm. The pulsed laser generates average output power and pulse energy of beyond 90W and 900mJ in 400 μs pulses, respectively. This wavelength allows usage of standard fused silica fibers and optics, a price competitive solution for minimally-invasive endoscopic surgery. Recent developments in double-clad fiber combiners enable a rugged delivery system for the laser and the OCT ideal for a seeing laser scalpel. This gives the possibility to detect in-depth underlying tissue not yet ablated by the laser in a 2D or 3D fashion with micrometer resolution.

  15. High-power Cr2+:ZnS saturable absorber passively Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser and its application to pumping of a mid-IR OPO. (United States)

    Yao, Baoquan; Yuan, Jinhe; Li, Jiang; Dai, Tongyu; Duan, Xiaoming; Shen, Yingjie; Cui, Zheng; Pan, Yubai


    We used the Cr2+:ZnS as a saturable absorber to obtain a passively Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser operating near 2.1 μm. The maximum average output power of 14.8 W and a shortest pulse width of 29 ns were obtained, and to our knowledge, this is the best report for the PQS Ho:YAG ceramic laser. A maximum energy per pulse of 0.6 mJ with a maximum pulse repetition frequency of 24.4 kHz was achieved, which corresponded to a peak power of 20 kW. We first used the PQS laser as the pump source of optical parametric oscillator to obtain the mid-infrared laser. A maximum average output power of 4.4 W was achieved from the ZnGeP2 parametric oscillator, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 49.5% with respect to the incident pump power.

  16. Comparison of the local effects of a 600-μm bare fibre at high laser power on lung parenchyma: Nd:YAG laser 1320 vs. 1064 nm. (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Bartsch, Detlef K; Rexin, Peter


    Lung metastases are often resected non-anatomically with a laser using a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1320 nm with a laser output of up to 60 W. Usually the removal of lesions is carried out in contact mode by means of a bare fibre. We compared the local effects of an Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm with those at a wavelength of 1320 nm using a 600-μm bare fibre in contact mode in an experimental model. The investigations were carried out on porcine lungs freshly withdrawn at the abattoir. The 600-μm laser fibre was fixed vertically in contact with the lung surface on a fibre holder. The fibre holder was connected to a feeding device that advances the laser fibre at constant speeds (5, 10 or 20 mm/s). In each case, two laser powers were examined: 20 and 60 W. The lung lesions produced by the laser fibre were excised for histological examination. After haematoxylin-eosin staining, the depth of the vaporisation and coagulation zones (in μm) from the laser cuts was measured. For each setting, an average value was calculated. The individual groups were compared for significance using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (p laser output of 20 W, the average depth of the vaporisation zone was 858 ± 3.3 μm (λ = 1064 nm) compared to 766.0 ± 7.5 μm (λ = 1320 nm) (p laser). Upon faster movement of the laser fibre at the same output, the extent of the coagulation zone decreased in both groups. At a laser power of 60 W, the extent of the coagulation zone was significantly less with the 1064-nm laser (110.3 ± 2.4 μm) than with the 1320-nm laser (324.8 ± 1.9 μm; p laser fibre moves more rapidly, the extent of the coagulation zone decreases further. The Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1320 nm still has the optimal ratio of cutting and coagulation capacity on the resection surface. With the 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, a higher cutting capacity is associated with a decrease of the coagulation capacity.

  17. Tape casting fabrication and properties of planar waveguide YAG/Yb:YAG/YAG transparent ceramics (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Qiang; Ge, Lin; Wang, Chao; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Chao; Wang, Juntao; Yuan, Lei; Xie, Tengfei; Kou, Huamin; Pan, Yubai; Gao, Qingsong; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Xu, Zuyan; Li, Jiang


    Highly transparent YAG/10at.%Yb:YAG/YAG planar waveguide ceramics were fabricated by the non-aqueous tape casting and solid-state reactive sintering technology. The tapes are relatively homogeneous and the green body shows a dense structure without distinct interfaces after the treatment of debinding and cold isostatic pressing. YAG/10at.%Yb:YAG/YAG ceramics with almost full dense structure were obtained by vacuum-sintering at 1760 °C for 30 h. For the mirror-polished sample with the thickness of 3.5 mm, the In-line transmittance was measured to be 83.6% at the visual wavelength of 400 nm. The diffusion distance of the Yb3+ ions was about 215 μm along the thickness direction of the ceramics. In the lasing experiments, the YAG/10at.%Yb:YAG/YAG planar waveguide ceramics were end-pumped by a 976 nm semiconductor diode laser and enabled efficient continuous-wave lasers, which resulted in a maximum output power of 1.6 W and a slope efficiency of 34.4% at 1030 nm.

  18. 1-W average power levels and tunability from a diode-pumped 2.94-microm Er:YAG oscillator. (United States)

    Hamilton, C E; Beach, R J; Sutton, S B; Furu, L H; Krupke, W F


    A tunable Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a quasi-cw InGaAs diode array, generates > 500 mW of power at 2.936 microm. The cavity is a 4-cm plano-concave resonator that uses total internal reflection on the pump face of the Er:YAG crystal to couple the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. Tuning is accomplished by angle tuning a 300-microm-thick YAG étalon. The tuning range is 2.933-2.939 microm. Thermal lensing limits the duty factor to 4% or 8%, depending on the Er:YAG crystal thickness (2 or 1 mm). A 2.5-cm-long resonator operates at an 11% duty factor and generates 1.3 W of average power.

  19. Spectral investigation of highly ionized bismuth plasmas produced by subnanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Li, Bowen; Arai, Goki; Hara, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Takanori; Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Dunne, Padraig; O'Reilly, Fergal; Sokell, Emma; O'Sullivan, Gerry


    The unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) emitted from laser produced bismuth (Bi) plasma sources show potential for single-shot live cell imaging. We have measured extreme ultraviolet spectra from bismuth laser produced plasmas in the 1-7 nm region using a λ = 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 150 ps. Comparison of spectra obtained under different laser power densities with calculations using the Hartree-Fock with configuration interaction Cowan suite of codes and the UTA formalism, as well as consideration of previous predictions of isoelectronic trends, are employed to identify lines and a number of new features in spectra from Bi XXIII to Bi XLVII. The results show that Δn = 0, n = 4-4 emission from highly charged ions merges to form intense UTAs in the 4 nm region and Δn = 1, n = 4-5 resonance transitions UTAs dominate the 1-3 nm region of the Bi spectrum.

  20. Low-power irradiation of Er: YAG laser using broom-type probe for dentine hypersensitivity (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Kataoka, Kenzo; Iwami, Hideo; Shinoki, Takeshi; Okagami, Yoshihide; Ishikawa, Isao


    This study was performed to examine the possibility of Er:YAG laser for dentine hypersensitivity treatment using a novel laser probe; broom type probe. The morphological change of dentinal tubules of bovine dentine plate after low power laser irradiation (5 or 10 mJ, 10 pps) or boiling was observed by SEM. Fifty teeth from 13 patients aged 31-54 years with complain of dentine hypersensitivity were treated by laser irradiation at 25-35 mJ, 10 pps using the broomed probe. Clinical effect of laser irradiation was verified by the examination of sensitivity rate to cold water, air blow and mechanical stimuli of explorer at before, immediately after, and 1,3,5 and 12 weeks after laser irradiation. The ratio of blockade and reduction of dentinal tubules after laser irradiation was 16-61%. The accumulation due to vaporization of water in dentinal tubules and degeneration or coagulation of organinc elements at the site of blockade and reduction were superficially described by SEM. Remarkable clinical improvement of dentine hypersensitivity by laser was admitted but relapse was also detected partially. The present study suggests low power irradiation of Er:YAG laser would be effective on dentine hypersensitivity, but a partial limitation of laser treatment for dentine hypersensitivity may be exited.

  1. [Transurethral enucleation of the prostate with the holmium: YAG laser system: how much power is necessary?]. (United States)

    Rassweiler, J; Roder, M; Schulze, M; Muschter, R


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an intermediate power (50 W) holmium:YAG laser system for transurethral enucleation of the prostate (TULP) with the use of a new mechanical morcellator. Our results are compared with the results of high-powered holmium laser enucleation (HoLEP) presented in the literature. From December 2003 to January 2008, 129 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were treated by TULP. In 45 cases (group A; 2.0, 12 Hz) we used a bipolar resectoscope (VISTA/ACMI) for morcellation, whereas after that morcellation was accomplished with a modified endoscopic shaver (Wolf). Thirty-nine patients were treated using 25 W (group B; 2.0 J, 12 Hz), and 45 patients were treated using 40 W (group C; 2.2 J 18 Hz), who were compared with 45 matched-pair patients who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP; group D). Finally, the literature on HoLEP was reviewed. Bipolar morcellation significantly prolonged the operating time (135 vs. 131 vs. 96 min). The morcellation speed averaged 2.8 (range 1.3-5.2) g/min with no complications. The resection speed (retrieval rate) of 40-W TULP was comparable to that for TURP (0.71 vs. 0.76 g/min). The transfusion rate was lower than for TURP (8% vs. 12%), with a smaller Hb difference (3.1 vs. 3.8 mg/dl). Catheter times (3.4 vs. 4.1 days) were similar; however, hospital stay was significantly shorter after TULP (5.2 vs. 6.8 days). The complication rate was significantly lower (6.6% vs. 13.3%). The efficacy of HoLEP significantly improved with introduction of the morcellator: Resection speed increased from 0.34-0.61 g/min to 0.48-0.82 g/min. HoLEP was better than 40-W TULP regarding transfusion rate (0-4% vs. 8%) and catheter time (1.1-1.5 vs. 3.4 days). Complications and functional results were similar. CONCLUSION[UBERSCHRIFT]: The intermediate-power 50-W holmium laser together with the new morcellator enable safe transurethral enucleation of the prostate. As with HoLEP, the procedure has a significant

  2. Evaluation of Static Friction of Polycrystalline Ceramic Brackets after Conditioning with Different Powers of Er:YAG Laser


    Valiollah Arash; Saeed Javanmard; Zeinab Eftekhari; Manouchehr Rahmati-Kamel; Mohammad Bahadoram


    This research aimed to reduce the friction between the wire and brackets by Er:YAG laser. To measure the friction between the wires and brackets in 0° and 10° of wire angulations, 40 polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Hubit, South Korea) were divided into 8 study groups and irradiated by 100, 200, and 300 mj/s of Er:YAG laser power. Two groups of brackets were not irradiated. The friction between the wires and brackets was measured with universal testing machine (SANTAM) with a segment of .019...

  3. 100 W continuous linearly polarized, high beam quality output from standard side-pumped Nd:YAG laser modules (United States)

    Bereczki, Allan; Wetter, Niklaus Ursus


    Dynamically stable operation with joined stability zones of a linearly polarized resonator is shown for a laser containing two diode side-pumped Nd:YAG rods. The unpolarized resonator generated 115 W of output. When polarized by a Brewster plate, it reached 100.5 W of output power at a beam quality M2 power achieved is, to our knowledge, the highest reported for continuous polarized, fundamental-mode lasers using standard side-pumped Nd:YAG modules.

  4. Investigations on the potential of a low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery (United States)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian; Wagner, Sophia; Hibst, Raimund


    Flash lamp pumped Er:YAG-lasers are used in clinical practice for dental applications successfully. As an alternative, several diode pumped Er:YAG laser systems (Pantec Engineering AG) become available, with mean laser power of 2W, 15W, and 30W. The aim of the presented study is to investigate the potential of the 2W Er:YAG laser system for oral surgery. At first an appropriate experimental set-up was realized with a beam delivery and both, a focusing unit for non-contact tissue cutting and a fiber tip for tissue cutting in contact mode. In order to produce reproducible cuts, the samples (porcine gingiva) were moved by a computer controlled translation stage. On the fresh samples cutting depth and quality were determined by light microscopy. Afterwards histological sections were prepared and microscopically analyzed regarding cutting depth and thermal damage zone. The experiments show that low laser power ≤ 2W is sufficient to perform efficient oral soft tissue cutting with cut depth up to 2mm (sample movement 2mm/s). The width of the thermal damage zone can be controlled by the irradiation parameters within a range of about 50μm to 110μm. In general, thermal injury is more pronounced using fiber tips in contact mode compared to the focused laser beam. In conclusion the results reveal that even the low power diode pumped Er:YAG laser is an appropriate tool for oral surgery.

  5. Ceramic planar waveguide laser of non-aqueous tape casting fabricated YAG/Yb:YAG/YAG (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Li, Wenxue; Yang, Chao; Bai, Dongbi; Li, Jiang; Ge, Lin; Pan, Yubai; Zeng, Heping


    Ceramic YAG/Yb:YAG/YAG planar waveguide lasers were realized on continuous-wave and mode-locked operations. The straight waveguide, fabricated by non-aqueous tape casting and solid state reactive sintering, enabled highly efficient diode-pumped waveguide continuous-wave laser with the slope efficiency of 66% and average output power of more than 3 W. The influence of the waveguide structure on the wavelength tunability was also experimentally investiccgated with a dispersive prism. Passively mode-locked operation of the ceramic waveguide laser was achieved by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), output 2.95 ps pulses with maximum power of 385 mW at the central wavelength of 1030 nm.

  6. High-radiance light sources with LED-pumped luminescent concentrators applied to pump Nd:YAG passively Q-switched laser (United States)

    Pichon, P.; Barbet, A.; Blengino, D.; Legavre, P.; Gallinelli, T.; Druon, F.; Blanchot, J.-P.; Balembois, F.; Forget, S.; Chénais, S.; Georges, P.


    By power scaling of LEDs pump concentrators we demonstrated a visible light source (centered at 550 nm) producing 294 W with a radiance of 668 W/cm2/sr in the air. Using more than 1100 LEDs, this setup represents one order of magnitude improvement in terms of output power and brightest of LED pump concentrator ever reported. We pushed further the concept of low cost high brightness light source using this concentrator to pump a very simple Nd:YAG laser in free running mode and in passively Q-switched regime using a Cr:YAG saturable absorber. Output energies up to 263 μJ with a pulse duration of 33 ns have been obtained at 1064 nm, leading to a peak power of 8 kW in a TEM00 mode.

  7. Low threshold and high efficiency solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and a grooved Nd:YAG rod (United States)

    Guan, Zhe; Zhao, Changming; Yang, Suhui; Wang, Yu; Ke, Jieyao; Gao, Fengbin; Zhang, Haiyang


    Sunlight is considered as a new efficient source for direct optical-pumped solid state lasers. High-efficiency solar pumped lasers with low threshold power would be more promising than semiconductor lasers with large solar panel in space laser communication. Here we report a significant advance in solar-pumped laser threshold by pumping Nd:YAG rod with a grooved sidewall. Two-solar pumped laser setups are devised. In both cases, a Fresnel lens is used as the primary sunlight concentrator. Gold-plated conical cavity with a liquid light-guide lens is used as the secondary concentrator to further increase the solar energy concentration. In the first setup, solar pumping a 6mm diameter Nd:YAG rod, maximum laser power of 31.0W/m2 cw at 1064nm is produced, which is higher than the reported record, and the slope efficiency is 4.98% with the threshold power on the surface of Fresnel lens is 200 W. In the second setup, a 5 mm diameter laser rod output power is 29.8W/m2 with a slope efficiency of 4.3%. The threshold power of 102W is obtained, which is 49% lower than the former. Meanwhile, the theoretical calculating of the threshold power and slope efficiency of the solar-pumped laser has been established based on the rate-equation of a four-level system. The results of the finite element analysis by simulation software are verified in experiment. The optimization of the conical cavity by TraceProsoftware and the optimization of the laser resonator by LASCADare useful for the design of a miniaturization solar- pumped laser.

  8. Freeze frame analysis on high speed cinematography of Nd/YAG laser explosions in ocular tissues. (United States)

    Vernon, S A; Cheng, H


    High speed colour cinematography at 400 frames per second was used to photograph both single and train burst Nd/YAG laser applications in ox eyes at threshold energy levels. Measurements of the extent and speed of particle scatter and tissue distortion from the acoustic transient were made from a sequential freeze frame analysis of the films. Particles were observed to travel over 8 mm from the site of Nd/YAG application 20 milliseconds after a single pulse at initial speeds in excess of 20 km/h. The use of train bursts of pulses was seen to increase the number of particles scattered and project the wavefront of particles further from the point of laser application. Images PMID:3754458

  9. High-efficiency wavelength and polarization selective grating-waveguide structures for Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers (United States)

    Rumpel, Martin; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Voss, Andreas; Graf, Thomas


    We report on Grating Waveguide Structures (GWS) with a high diffraction efficiency used in Littrow configuration to select (and tune) the wavelength of an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. The structures are composed of a multilayer HR coating, on which an additional low index layer (SiO2) and high index layer (Ta2O5) was deposited. A binary grating with a period of 580 nm is etched on top of the structure with a groove depth of 87 nm for GWS 1 and 72 nm for GWS 2. The simulation results show that the diffraction efficiency in the -1st order can reach a value of 99.99% for TE polarization, whereas it is only about 20% for TM polarization at 1030 nm. The grating was fabricated by standard interference lithography followed by a dry etching process to the desired groove depth. The spectroscopic measurement exhibited a diffraction efficiency of 99.6% for GWS 1 at 1030 nm and 99.7% for GWS 2 at 1048 nm. The devices were placed as end-mirror into the resonator of a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. An output power of up to 110 W could be obtained from the laser in fundamental-mode operation (M2 ~ 1.2) with GWS 1, corresponding to an optical efficiency of ηoo = 36.2%. In multi-mode operation (M2 ~ 6) a power of 325 W with ηoo = 53.2% could be extracted. The spectral bandwidth of the emitted beam was measured using an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) to be less than 20 pm in fundamental-mode. We also showed a continuous wavelength tuning range of 46 nm for GWS 1 and of 38 nm for GWS 2. With a commercially available Stokes polarimeter the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) was measured to be higher than 98.6% over the whole power and wavelength tuning range.

  10. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JTM; Ocelík, Vašek; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T


    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  11. Investigation of Photo Neutralization Efficiency of High Intensity H-Beam with Nd:YAG Laser for J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Tomisawa, T; Hasegawa, K; Kondo, Y; Oigawa, H; Sato, S; Ueno, A


    The photo neutralization method with Nd:YAG laser for negative hydrogen ions has been considered as an available candidate for beam intensity profile monitor and charge exchange procedure for Accelerator-Driven-System (ADS) in J-PARC. An electron of H-beam can be stripped by fast and intense Nd:YAG (1064nm) laser with non-destructive, and laser system have advantages of maintenance and radiation hardness in high intensity proton accelerators. In this paper, an experimental set-up and preliminary results of photo neutralization method for linac H- beam in KEK DTL1 are described.

  12. Compact, high-power, high-beam-quality quasi-CW microsecond five-pass zigzag slab 1319  nm amplifier. (United States)

    Guo, Chuan; Zuo, Junwei; Bian, Qi; Xu, Chang; Zong, Qinshuang; Bo, Yong; Shen, Yu; Zong, Nan; Gao, Hongwei; Lin, Yanyong; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Cui, Dafu; Peng, Qinjun; Xu, Zuyan


    We demonstrate a compact, high-power, quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) end-pumped 1319 nm Nd:YAG slab amplifier laser with good beam quality. The laser is based on a QCW pulse Nd:YAG master oscillator and Nd:YAG slab amplifier with multi-pass zigzag architecture. The amplifier operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 500 Hz and pulse width of ∼105  μs, delivering a maximum output power of 51.5 W under absorbed pump power of 217.8 W and corresponding to an extraction efficiency of 14.2%. The beam quality factor is measured to be Mx2=1.61 and My2=1.81 in the orthogonal directions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first compact, high-power, high-beam-quality QCW Nd:YAG amplifier at 1319 nm based on a multi-pass zigzag slab structure.

  13. Efficient ASE control in cryogenic gas cooled Yb:YAG multislab amplifiers with Cr4+:YAG interlayers (United States)

    Xiao, Kaibo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Yan, Xiongwei; Li, Min; Jiang, Xinying; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Mingzhong; Zheng, Wanguo; Zheng, Jiangang


    A novel approach based on Cr4+:YAG interlayers to break the transmission paths of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a cryogenic gas cooled Yb:YAG multislab amplifier geometry was presented for the suppression of ASE in the power scaling of high energy, high average power laser systems. The benefits of Cr4+:YAG interlayers for the overall performance of an amplifier were illustrated with respect to energy storage capacity, heat generation and amplification of the seed pulses based on the theory of quasi-three-level Yb3+ ions and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorption, the Monte Carlo and ray-tracing methods. For the amplifier with optimized Cr4+:YAG interlayers, it was found that the energy storage efficiency was increased from 39.12% to 47.38% in comparison with the amplifier without interlayers. The maximum output energy of 1119.53 J with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 28.91% in the amplifier with interlayers was obtained, while it reduced to 810.61 J with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 20.94% in the amplifier without interlayers. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative characterization of the performance of a cryogenic gas cooled Yb:YAG multislab amplifier with Cr4+:YAG interlayers.

  14. Comparative performances of CO2 and YAG lasers in the cutting of stainless steel (United States)

    Guillas, Christophe; Le Gall, Christian; Theveney, Sophie; Lefebvre, Philippe


    In the field of the EUREKA program n° 249 which relates to high power YAG lasers, L'AIR LIQUIDE studies the comparative performances of C02 and YAG lasers in the cutting and welding of materials. Stainless steel cutting is the second step of those comparative studies. The experiments have been done on a 1 ,5 kW continuous wave ( CW) C02 laser and on a pulsed 600 W YAG laser, prototype of the 1 kW series that LUMONICS is launching now ( 1) , ( 2) ( see C02 and YAG lasers p . 9 top fig .1).

  15. High reliable and chromaticity-tunable flip-chip w-LEDs with Ce:YAG glass-ceramics phosphor for long-lifetime automotive headlights applications (United States)

    Ma, Chaoyang; Cao, Yongge; Shen, Xiaofei; Wen, Zicheng; Ma, Ran; Long, Jiaqi; Yuan, Xuanyi


    Nowadays, major commercial w-LEDs fabricated by the traditionally gold-wire-welding packaging technology have undergone considerable development as indoor/outdoor lighting sources due to its high-energy utilization efficiency, long service life, environmental friendliness, and excellent chromatic stability. While, new generation applications in projections, automotive lighting, street lighting, plaza lighting, and high-end general lighting need further improvements in power handling and light extraction. Herein, transparent Ce:YAG glass-ceramics (GCs) phosphor was prepared by low-temperature co-sintering polycrystalline Ce:YAG phosphor powder and home-made PbO-B2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glass powder. Thereafter, the flip-chip (FC) w-LEDs were fabricated with the GCs phosphor plates and FC blue chips. The GCs-based FC w-LEDs show not only excellent heat- and humidity-resistance characteristics, but also superior optical performances with an LE of 112.8 lm/W, a CRI of 71.2, a CCT of 6103 K as well as a chromaticity coordinate of (0.3202, 0.3298), under a high operation current of 400 mA. The technology route will open a practically commercial feasible approach to achieve excellent performances for advanced high-power FC w-LEDs.

  16. High-energy nanosecond radially polarized beam output from Nd:YAG amplifiers (United States)

    Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Xudong; Pu, Jixiong


    Radially polarized laser beam amplification up to the 772 mJ using flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers was demonstrated. In the experiments, a nanosecond radially polarized seed beam was converted from a conventional Q-switched Nd:YAG laser output with a polarization converter and then amplified with two Nd:YAG amplifier stages. A maximum amplification output energy up to 772 mJ was achieved at 10 Hz with a 10-ns pulse, corresponding to an amplification factor of 323%. Excellent conservation of polarization was also obtained during the amplification.

  17. 8.2  kW high beam quality quasi-continuous-wave face-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifier. (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Zheng; Xu, Yi-Ting; Guo, Ya-Ding; Wang, Bao-Shan; Xu, Jian; Xu, Jia-Lin; Gao, Hong-Wei; Yuan, Lei; Yuan, Hong-Tao; Lin, Yan-Yong; Xiao, Yun-Sheng; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qin-Jun; Lei, Wen-Qiang; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan


    An 8 kW level quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) face-pumped 1064 nm slab laser with high beam quality was developed by a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. A single-mode fiber seed laser was amplified by two-stage single-pass Nd:YAG rod preamplifiers and four face-pumped Nd:YAG slab amplifiers. The slab amplifiers were well designed with uniform pumping and uniform cooling for well-distributed thermal and stress. A dynamically feedbacked optical aberration compensation device was employed to correct low-order optical aberration, and the residue high-order optical aberration was corrected by an adaptive optics system. The QCW MOPA delivered up to an average power of 8.2 kW with a pulse duration of 200 μs at a repetition rate of 400 Hz. The beam quality factor was measured to be β=3.5.

  18. Diode-pumped large-aperture Nd:YAG slab amplifier for high energy nanosecond pulse laser (United States)

    Guo, Guangyan; Chen, Yanzhong; He, Jianguo; Lang, Ye; Lin, Weiran; Tang, Xiongxin; Zhang, Hongbo; Kang, Zhijun; Fan, Zhongwei


    A high gain, low thermal-induced wavefront distortion, laser diode-pumped Nd: YAG slab amplifier is demonstrated with its active media dimensions of 7 mm ×35 mm ×138.2 mm. Under the 200 Hz, 1440 W pulse pumping condition while no seed light to amplify, the thermal induced wavefront aberration of a He-Ne probe passing through the gain meUdium is 0.165 λ@633 nm (RMS). The amplifier shows stable aberration character with two major low-order terms, defocus and 0° astigmatism. The fluorescence distribution, stored energy, and small-signal gain of the amplifier are measured and have a good agreement with the calculated results. In the amplifier, the fluorescence is uniformly distributed and the maximum stored energy of 3.2 J can be achieved with a plane-concave cavity at 200 Hz pump repetition frequency. For a repetition frequency of 200 Hz, 25 μJ injection polarized seed-light and 1440 W pump power, the small signal gain reaches 9.45. The amplifier has been successfully employed in a 200 Hz, 5 J, MOPA system with 1.7 times diffraction limited output.

  19. CSTI High Capacity Power (United States)

    Winter, Jerry M.


    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  20. High Power Vanadate lasers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, HJ


    Full Text Available This presentation aims at the following: to develop new techniques to mount laser crystals; compare the laser properties of two equally doped, high power Nd:YVO4 and Nd: GdVO4 lasers; build a 1um vanadate laser with average output power exceeding...

  1. Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers; Laser diode reiki Nd:YAG lasear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuasa, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nakayama, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers are expected to be applied to laser processing fields such as welding, cutting, drilling, and marking due to their potential for high efficiency and compactness. We are designing and developing laser-diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers using numerical analysis simulation techniques such as ray tracing and thermal analysis. We have succeeded in achieving a laser power of more than 3 kW with 20% efficiency, which is the best ever obtained. In addition, we have developed a laser-diode pumped green laser by second harmonic generation, for precision machining on silicon wafers. (author)

  2. Two-beam combined 3.36  J, 100  Hz diode-pumped high beam quality Nd:YAG laser system. (United States)

    Qiu, J S; Tang, X X; Fan, Z W; Wang, H C; Liu, H


    In this paper, we develop a diode-pumped all-solid-state high-energy and high beam quality Nd:YAG laser system. A master oscillator power amplifier structure is used to provide a high pulse energy laser output with a high repetition rate. In order to decrease the amplifier working current so as to reduce the impact of the thermal effect on the beam quality, a beam splitting-amplifying-combining scheme is adopted. The energy extraction efficiency of the laser system is 50.68%. We achieve 3.36 J pulse energy at a 100 Hz repetition rate with a pulse duration of 7.1 ns, a far-field beam spot 1.71 times the diffraction limit, and 1.07% energy stability (RMS).

  3. Esthetic treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation with a Nd:YAG laser and high speed rotary instrument: comparative case report (United States)

    Ko, Hyuk-Jin; Park, Jin-Woo; Suh, Jo-Young


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of and patient's satisfaction with treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation with a Nd:YAG laser and a high speed rotary instrument. Methods Three patients with melanin hyperpigmentation in the anterior parts of the gingiva were chosen for this case study. Clinical photographs were taken at the preoperative state and three patients were treated under local anesthesia. In the maxilla, the gingival deepithelization was conducted with a high speed diamond bur, whereas, in the mandible with a Nd:YAG laser. Clinical photographs were taken immediately after the procedures and at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th week to evaluate clinical color changes. A week after the procedure, the patients filled out a questionnaire about any pain or discomfort. At the 4th week after the procedure, the patients filled out questionnaires about esthetic aspects of the results of treatment. Results In all cases, both anterior gingival areas were depigmented with satisfaction and the patients did not complain of severe pain or discomfort. At the 1st week of healing, the gingiva showed moderate to fast epithelization. Two weeks after the procedure, clinically, the gingiva showed almost complete healing. Four weeks after the procedure, there was significant improvement in gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. Conclusions The Nd:YAG laser and the high speed rotary instruments seem to be effective for the esthetic treatment of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. PMID:20827330

  4. Chemical Mechanical Polishing and Direct Bonding of YAG and Y2O3


    McKay, Jeffrey


    Current limitations in both single crystal and polycrystalline (ceramic) solid state laser technologies for high power applications stem from thermal effects that cause degradation in both lasing efficiency and beam quality. YAG and Y2O3 have favorable material properties for producing these high power lasers. The objective of this dissertation was to formulate chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) processes for YAG and Y2O3 resulting in smooth surfaces, (< 1 nm RMS roughness), defect free, a...

  5. High Power Electronics (United States)

    Pendharker, Sameer

    High Power Electronics Future Trends: New process, circuit and packaging technologies over the last 5 years have led to significant innovation and technological developments in high power electronics. In this topic, the trends and performance improvements achieved in the industry will be discussed with focus on gallium-nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC). Both GaN and SiC technologies have been around for many years but have seen limited adoption and proliferation in high power systems. With the improved transistor performance, power conversion efficiencies and densities previously unrealizable are now available leading to new applications and new system. Trends in these technologies will also be reviewed and remaining challenges to overcome before true mass market adoption can be expected.

  6. Delivery of high energy Er:YAG pulsed laser light at 2.94 µm through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre. (United States)

    Urich, A; Maier, R R J; Mangan, B J; Renshaw, S; Knight, J C; Hand, D P; Shephard, J D


    In this paper the delivery of high power Er:YAG laser pulses through a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated. The Er:YAG wavelength of 2.94 µm is well beyond the normal transmittance of bulk silica but the unique hollow core guidance allows silica to guide in this regime. We have demonstrated for the first time the ability to deliver high energy pulses through an all-silica fibre at 2.94 µm. These silica fibres are mechanically and chemically robust, biocompatible and have low sensitivity to bending. A maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ at 2.94 µm was delivered through the fibre. This, to our knowledge, is the first time a silica hollow core photonic crystal fibre has been shown to transmit 2.94 μm laser light at a fluence exceeding the thresholds required for modification (e.g. cutting and drilling) of hard biological tissue. Consequently, laser delivery systems based on these fibres have the potential for the realization of novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures.

  7. Treatment of atrophic facial scars with combined use of high-energy pulsed CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser: a practical guide of the laser techniques for the Er:YAG laser. (United States)

    Cho, S I; Kim, Y C


    Although CO2 laser resurfacing provides substantial clinical improvement for atrophic facial scars, the CO2 laser often results in excessive thermal damage to the skin. It increases complications postoperatively. The Er:YAG laser ablates thinner layers of tissue than the CO2 laser with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding skin. To determine the efficacy of combined treatment of atrophic facial scars with high-energy pulsed CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser. One hundred fifty-eight patients were treated with a combination of high-energy pulsed CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser for atrophic facial scars. All patients were evaluated after 3 months of treatment. The scars improved 80-89% in 65 patients, 70-79% in 56 patients, more than 90% in 32 patients, 60-69% in 2 patients, and less than 60% in 3 patients after laser treatment. Treatment of atrophic facial scars with combined use of high-energy pulsed CO2 laser and Er:YAG laser is a very effective and useful method.

  8. Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers (United States)

    Goodno, G. D.; Komine, H.; McNaught, S. J.; Weiss, S. B.; Redmond, S.; Long, W.; Simpson, R.; Cheung, E. C.; Howland, D.; Epp, P.; Weber, M.; McClellan, M.; Sollee, J.; Injeyan, H.


    We demonstrate a scalable architecture for a high-power, high-brightness, solid-state laser based on coherent combinations of master oscillator power amplifier chains. A common master oscillator injects a sequence of multikilowatt Nd:YAG zigzag slab amplifiers. Adaptive optics correct the wavefront of each amplified beamlet. The beamlets are tiled side by side and actively phase locked to form a single output beam. The laser produces 19 kW with beam quality <2× diffraction limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the brightest cw solid-state laser demonstrated to date.

  9. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy


    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  10. High efficiency laser action in mildly doped Yb:LuYAG ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirri, A.; Toci, G.; Li, J.; Xie, T.; Pan, Y.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin; Vannini, M.


    Roč. 73, Nov (2017), s. 312-318 ISSN 0925-3467 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser ceramics * Yb laser * mixed garnets * LuYAG Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  11. Micro machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high brightness laser system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijhorst, R.A.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Bant, P.


    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are

  12. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O


    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  13. A new procedure for refurbishment of power plant Superalloy 617 by pulsed Nd:YAG laser process (United States)

    Taheri, Naser; Naffakh-Moosavy, Homam; Ghaini, Farshid Malek


    The present study has evaluated the surface rejuvenation of aged Inconel 617 superalloy by both GTAW and pulsed Nd:YAG laser techniques. The gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) by heat input per unit length [Q/V(J/mm)] of 280, 291.67, 309.74 and 225.48 (J/mm), and the pulse Nd:YAG laser process by the 15.71, 19.43 and 22.32 (J/mm), were employed. The Rosenthal equation was used for calculation of mushy zone (MZ) and partially-melted zone (PMZ). Size of MZ and PMZ in GTAW are more than 31 and 6 times than that of formed in pulsed Nd:YAG laser. According to the characterizations, solidification and liquation cracks were observed in these areas produced by GTAW whereas no cracks were identified in laser treated samples. Also, line scan EDS analyses demonstrated the interdendritic chromium and molybdenum segregation, which facilitated formation of hot cracks. With reduction in heat input per unit length, the hardness increased and the size of solidified metal microstructure reduced in pulse Nd:YAG laser. These comparative results showed that pulse Nd:YAG laser can easily be utilized as a new rejuvenation technique for aged Alloy 617 in comparison to the conventional processes due to extremely narrow MZ and HAZ and better surface soundness and mechanical properties.

  14. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich


    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  15. Calculus migration characterization during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera using suspended pendulum method. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian James; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Xuan, Jason Rongwei; Chia, Ray W J; Hasenberg, Thomas


    Calculus migration is a common problem during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy procedure to treat urolithiasis. A conventional experimental method to characterize calculus migration utilized a hosting container (e.g., a "V" grove or a test tube). These methods, however, demonstrated large variation and poor detectability, possibly attributed to the friction between the calculus and the container on which the calculus was situated. In this study, calculus migration was investigated using a pendulum model suspended underwater to eliminate the aforementioned friction. A high-speed camera was used to study the movement of the calculus which covered zero order (displacement), first order (speed), and second order (acceleration). A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 μm, a 365-μm core diameter fiber, and a calculus phantom (Plaster of Paris, 10 × 10 × 10 mm 3 ) was utilized to mimic laser lithotripsy procedure. The phantom was hung on a stainless steel bar and irradiated by the laser at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J energy per pulse at 10 Hz for 1 s (i.e., 5, 10, and 15 W). Movement of the phantom was recorded by a high-speed camera with a frame rate of 10,000 FPS. The video data files are analyzed by MATLAB program by processing each image frame and obtaining position data of the calculus. With a sample size of 10, the maximum displacement was 1.25 ± 0.10, 3.01 ± 0.52, and 4.37 ± 0.58 mm for 0.5, 1, and 1.5 J energy per pulse, respectively. Using the same laser power, the conventional method showed calculus movement and other causes of experimental variation will be conducted as a future study.

  16. High color rendering index WLED based on YAG:Ce phosphor and CdS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (United States)

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Ke


    White LED combining of blue chip and YAG:Ce phosphor suffers from a red spectral deficiency, resulting in a relatively low value of color rendering index (CRI). In our study, for an effort to improve color rendering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor-based white LEDs, highly luminescent red-orange emitting CdS/ZnS QDs were blended with YAG:Ce phosphors. Core/shell CdS/ZnS quantum dots with the emission wavelength of 618nm, was synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. YAG:Ce phosphor was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction at 900-1200°C in a slightly reducing atmosphere for 4 hours. Blends of phosphors and QDs exhibited the prominent spectral evolution with an increasing content of QDs. A hybrid white LED, which combines a blue LED with the blend of YAG phosphor and QDs with a weight ratio of 1.5:1,was demonstrated with an improved CRI value of 86.

  17. High power and high repetition solid state laser for EUV lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H.; Mitra, A.; Wang, T. and the others [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)


    We have been developing a high repetition (5 kHz) and high power (5kW) Nd:YAG laser system for EUV lithography. Key subjects are (1) reliable front-end, (2) uniform and high density pumping of main amplifier rods, and (3) compensation of thermal effects. A stable and reliable front-end based on fiber lasers has been developed. As a cw oscillator using Yb-doped silica fiber operates single longitudinal mode at 1030 nm to 1080nm, various laser materials (Yb:YAG, Nd:YLF, Nd:YAG, Nd:YAP, etc) can be used as main laser medium. A fast LN EO modulator switches out arbitrary pulse shape with response time of 100 ps. Laser pulses from the modulator are amplified by 3 stage fiber amplifiers up to 1 J. We will focus our efforts to attain 1 mJ output from the fiber front-end. Output pulses from the front-end are amplified to 100 mJ level by two 4-mm rod amplifiers (Nd:YAG) and two 6-mm rod amplifiers. Main amplifier chain consists of eight 12-mm rod amplifiers pumped by cw laser diodes. Total output power of the laser diodes is 28.8 kW. Double pass geometry is required to get enough gain and to compensate thermal effects. Spatial filters are installed to adjust thermal lens in the amplifiers and to send an image into just the center of the amplifiers. Ninty degree rotators and faraday rotators are installed in order to compensate thermal birefringence. A test amplifier module was made for investigation on uniform pumping, thermal effects, gain properties, and so on. Six laser diode modules with 4.5 kW total output power are installed in symmetric configuration. Active medium is Nd:YAG rod with 0.6% doping. Diameter and length of the rod are 12 mm and 150 mm, respectively. Peak gain of 1.67 was obtained at 4.2 kW pumping power and 200s pumping duration. Pumping uniformity was measured by both gain distribution and spontaneous emission from the laser rod. Fairly good uniformity was achieved by adjusting pumping geometry. Detail system analysis suggests that 8 amplifier modules

  18. High power coaxial ubitron (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  19. High- vs low-power holmium laser lithotripsy: a prospective, randomized study in patients undergoing multitract minipercutaneous nephrolithotomy. (United States)

    Chen, Shushang; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Liao, Lianming; Tan, Jianming


    To determine the efficacy and safety of high-power holmium: yttrium aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser lithotripsy for multitract modified minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in the treatment of patients with large staghorn renal calculi. A randomized, prospective study was conducted. Two-hundred seventy-three consecutive patients (291 renal units) with large staghorn renal calculi were randomized to undergo multitract MPCNL with 30-W low-power or 70-W high-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. Both groups were compared in terms of perioperative findings and postoperative outcomes, including procedure time, stone-free rate, length of hospital stay, transfusion rates, renal function recovery, and other complications. The average patient age was 49.2 years (range 22-73) and mean stone size was 5.54±0.7 cm. The 2 groups had some comparable perioperative findings and outcome, including tracts required per operated renal unit (n), blood loss, postoperative fever, postoperative hospital stay, stone-free rate, and improvement of operated renal function. The operation time in the high-power group was significantly shorter than that in the low-power group (129.20±17.2 vs 105.18±14.2, Phigh-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy can greatly decrease the operative time without increasing the intraoperative complications or delaying postoperative renal function recovery when compared with low-power Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .uk. Abstract. The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump ...

  1. Efficient electron transfer and reduced recombination with Nd:YAG laser scribing for high-efficiency quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Kim, Hee-Je; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Venkata-Haritha, Mallineni; Son, Min-Kyu; Seo, Hyunwoong


    Inefficient charge transfer and charge recombination are critical but challenging issues that restrict the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). These issues must be addressed to boost the performance of QDSSCs. We present a novel Nd:YAG laser scribing treatment for fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate that reduces electron loss by reducing the moving distance of electrons and strongly inhibiting interfacial recombination processes in QDSSCs. Consequently, TiO2/CdS/CdSe/Mn-ZnSe QDSSCs on the Nd:YAG laser scribed FTO exhibited a PCE of 6.26% under 1 sun (100 mW cm-2) irradiation, while TiO2/CdS/CdSe/Mn-ZnSe QDSSCs on the FTO without Nd:YAG laser scribing exhibited a PCE of 5.51%. The short circuit current density and fill factor are also increased after laser scribing, which arises from increased electron transfer with reduced recombination. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy modeling reveals that the Nd:YAG laser scribed QDSSC has increased charge collection efficiency and reduced interfacial recombination compared with normal QDSSC.

  2. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    and maximum output power. In chapter 3, a detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based....... • If optimally designed, boost converters will be much more efficient than comparable buck type converters for high power low voltage applications. • The use of voltage clamp circuits to protect primary switches in boost converters is no longer needed for device protection. On the other hand...

  3. Single-frequency diode-pumped Nd:YAG prism laser with use of a composite laser crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, P. L.; Buchhave, Preben


    A compact, stable, diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser suitable for high-power single-frequency operation is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Residual spatial hole burning has been eliminated with a unidirectional ring-laser design with a specially designed intracavity prism and a comp...... and a composite YAG laser crystal. A detailed Jones matrix analysis is performed, leading to design criteria for high loss difference and high-frequency stability....

  4. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    . A detailed analysis of dominant loss factors in high power converters for low voltage applications is presented. The analysis concludes that: • Power transformers for low voltage high power, if properly designed, will have extremely low leakage inductance. • If optimally designed, boost converters......The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, if a converter is properly designed, primary side voltage clamp circuits will not even work in low voltage high power converters. • Very high conversion efficiency can be achieved. Peak efficiency of 98% and worst case minimum efficiency of 96.8% are demonstrated on a 1.5 kW converter. The ability...

  5. Laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4/Nd:YAG MOPA burst-mode laser (United States)

    Li, Xudong; Yan, Renpeng; Zhou, Yiping; Yu, Xin; Pan, Hu; Chen, Deying; Zhou, Zhongxiang


    We report a high-repetition-rate, high-peak-power laser diode (LD) pumped burst-mode 1064 nm laser from a Nd:YVO4/Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier. 10-100 kHz pulse burst in a duration up to 2 ms is achieved in LD end-pumped Nd:YVO4 acousto-optically Q-switched laser. After amplification with LD side-pumped Nd:YAG rod amplifiers, the single pulse energy reaches 73 mJ in 10 kHz pulse burst laser with a peak power of 7.8 MW.

  6. High-Efficiency Power Module (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor); Wintucky, Edwin G. (Inventor)


    One or more embodiments of the present invention pertain to an all solid-state microwave power module. The module includes a plurality of solid-state amplifiers configured to amplify a signal using a low power stage, a medium power stage, and a high power stage. The module also includes a power conditioner configured to activate a voltage sequencer (e.g., bias controller) when power is received from a power source. The voltage sequencer is configured to sequentially apply voltage to a gate of each amplifier and sequentially apply voltage to a drain of each amplifier.

  7. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank


    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  8. Ablation rate, caries removal, and restoration using Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers and air abrasion (United States)

    White, Joel M.


    This study evaluated the ablation rate in dentin and enamel of the Nd:YAG laser (1 - 2W, 10Hz) and the Er:YAG laser (1 - 2.5W, 10Hz), compared to the high-speed drill, low-speed drill and air abrasion (fine and extra-fine particle size). Subsequently, the effectiveness of caries removal and restoration in enamel of the Nd:YAG laser at the same powers and pulse repetition rate was compared to the high-speed drill, low-speed drill, and air abrasion. Enamel and dentin of 1mm thick mid-coronal sections from extracted third molars were ablated by Er:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 2.94 micrometer), Nd:YAG laser ((lambda) equals 1.06 micrometer) both with air/water spray, high-speed drill with 300 carbide bur, and low-speed drill with $1/4 round bur and air abrasions at 160 psi, with fine air abrasion at 50 micrometer and extra fine at 27 micrometer particle size. Removal (ablation) rate defined as dentin or enamel thickness divided by time required for perforation of the samples was determined for lasers, drills and air abrasion. Multifactor randomized ANOVA (p less than 0.05) considered removal rate as a function of treatment conditions. Removal Rate (micrometers per second) Enamel Dentin High-speed drill 273 +/- 47.34 493 +/- 1.73 Low-speed drill 0 42 +/- 14.25 Nd:YAG 2W 0 103 +/- 37 Er:YAG 2W 35 +/- 10 348 +/- 101 Air abrasion/fine 220 +/- 27 433 +/- 99 Air abrasion/extra fine 151 +/- 13 203 +/- 30 Er:YAG laser at 2W 10Hz ablated both enamel and dentin faster than the low-speed drill but slower than the high-speed drill, while the Nd:YAG laser at identical power and pulse rate did not ablate healthy enamel but was capable of removing dentin. To determine caries removal rate in enamel, extracted superficial carious molars (n equals 35) that included minimal explorer penetration and radiographic confirmation of caries extent were selected. Samples were randomly distributed into treatment groups: high-speed drill (HS), low-speed drill (LS), Nd:YAG laser (L), Nd:YAG with air

  9. High power evaluation of X-band high power loads

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Syratchev, Igor; Riddone, Germana; Wuensch, Walter


    Several types of X-band high power loads developed for several tens of MW range were designed, fabricated and used for high power tests at X-band facility of KEK. Some of them have been used for many years and few units showed possible deterioration of RF performance. Recently revised-design loads were made by CERN and the high power evaluation was performed at KEK. In this paper, the main requirements are recalled, together with the design features. The high power test results are analysed and presented

  10. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    compact and efficient new devices, it noted increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of electronic ... in electric machines and capacitors,. HIGH POWER FACTOR. HIGH POWER FACTOR HYBRID ...... Auxiliary DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Vehicles ”,. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics vol. 23, no. 6, pp.

  11. Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, M.M.J.W. van; Bisson, S.E.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Harren, F.J.M.


    A new singly resonant, single-frequency optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has been developed for the 2.6-4.7 mum infrared wavelength region, using a high power (>20 W), widely tunable (1024-1034 nm) Yb:YAG pump source. With the OPO frequency stabilized with an intracavity etalon, the OPO achieved

  12. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  13. Water Vapour Propulsion Powered by a High-Power Laser-Diode (United States)

    Minami, Y.; Uchida, S.

    Most of the laser propulsion schemes now being proposed and developed assume neither power supplies nor on-board laser devices and therefore are bound to remote laser stations like a kite via a laser beam “string”. This is a fatal disadvantage for a space vehicle that flies freely though it is often said that no need of installing an energy source is an advantage of a laser propulsion scheme. The possibility of an independent laser propulsion space vehicle that carries a laser source and a power supply on board is discussed. This is mainly due to the latest development of high power laser diode (LD) technology. Both high specific impulse-low thrust mode and high thrust-low specific impulse mode can be selected by controlling the laser output by using vapour or water as a propellant. This mode change can be performed by switching between a high power continuous wave (cw), LD engine for high thrust with a low specific impulse mode and high power LD pumping Q-switched Nd:YAG laser engine for low thrust with the high specific impulse mode. This paper describes an Orbital Transfer Vehicle equipped with the above-mentioned laser engine system and fuel cell that flies to the Moon from a space platform or space hotel in Earth orbit, with cargo shipment from lunar orbit to the surface of the Moon, including the possibility of a sightseeing trip.

  14. High power lasers in manufacturing


    Chatwin, Chris R


    Lecture covers a brief history of lasers and the important beam parameters for manufacturing applications. It introduces the main laser types that are appropriate for manufacturing: carbon dioxide lasers, Nd YAG, Diode and fibre lasers, excimer lasers. It then looks at applications to different products and also micro-engineering

  15. High-powered manoeuvres

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    This week, CERN received the latest new transformers for the SPS. Stored in pairs in 24-tonne steel containers, these transformers will replace the old models, which have been in place since 1981.     The transformers arrive at SPS's access point 4 (BA 4). During LS1, the TE-EPC Group will be replacing all of the transformers for the main converters of the SPS. This renewal campaign is being carried out as part of the accelerator consolidation programme, which began at the start of April and will come to an end in November. It involves 80 transformers: 64 with a power of 2.6 megavolt-amperes (MVA) for the dipole magnets, and 16 with 1.9 MVA for the quadrupoles. These new transformers were manufactured by an Italian company and are being installed outside the six access points of the SPS by the EN-HE Group, using CERN's 220-tonne crane. They will contribute to the upgrade of the SPS, which should thus continue to operate as the injector for the LHC until 2040....

  16. Progress on high-power 808nm VCSELs and applications (United States)

    Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Kovsh, Alexey; Ghosh, Chuni


    High power 808nm semiconductor lasers are widely used for pumping neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal to produce high-brightness lasing at 1064nm. In addition, there are growing interest to use such high power 808nm lasers in the field of automotive infra-red (IR) illumination and medical aesthetic treatment. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have emerged as a promising candidate and attracted increased interests for those applications, due to their combined advantages of high efficiency, low diverging circular beam, narrow emission spectrum with reduced temperature sensitivity, low-cost manufacturability, simpler coupling optics, and increased reliability, especially at high temperatures. They can emit very high power with very high power density as they can be conveniently configured into large two-dimensional arrays and modules of arrays. We report recent development on such high-power, high-efficiency 808nm VCSELs with industrial leading 55% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Top emitting VCSELs were grown by MOCVD and processed into single devices and 2D arrays using selective wet oxidation process and substrate removal technique for efficient current confinement and heat removal. Peak PCE of 51% and peak power of 800W were achieved from 5x5mm array, corresponding to peak power density of 4kW/cm2. Pumped with new generation of 2.3kW VCSEL module, Q-switched laser pulse energy at 1064nm reached 46.9mJ, more than doubled from previously reported results.

  17. Design of a High-Power White Light Source with Colloidal Quantum Dots and Non-Rare-Earth Phosphors (United States)

    Bicanic, Kristopher T.

    This thesis describes the design process of a high-power white light source, using novel phosphor and colloidal quantum dot materials. To incorporate multiple light emitters, we generalized and extended a down-converting layer model. We employed a phosphor mixture comprising of YAG:Ce and K2TiF 6:Mn4+ powders to illustrate the effectiveness of the model. By incorporating experimental photophysical results from the phosphors and colloidal quantum dots, we modeled our system and chose the design suitable for high-power applications. We report a reduction in the correlated color temperature by 600K for phosphor and quantum dot systems, enabling the creation of a warm white light emission at power densities up to 5 kW/cm 2. Furthermore, at this high-power, their emission achieves the digital cinema initiative (DCI) requirements with a luminescence efficacy improvement up to 32% over the stand-alone ceramic YAG:Ce phosphor.

  18. Perendoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of colorectal neoplasms (United States)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, R.; Marino, S.; Erroi, F.; Angriman, I.; Donadi, M.; Paratore, S.; Scuderi, G.; D'Amico, D. F.


    The range of application of Nd:YAG laser is now wide and of particular interest in the treatment of neoplastic lesions of the large bowel, both benign and malignant, which, besides the debilitating of vegetative lesions, may also provide a good hemostasis of the bleeding ones. Yag laser treatment of malignancies is indicated in patients not suitable for surgery due to the extent of the disease or to the high anesthesiologic/surgical risk. The treatment of choice for benign neoplasms is represented by endoscopic polypectomy, being Yag laser therapy reserved to patients with very large polyps and with a high anesthesiologic risk. Yag laser therapy is also recommended in teleangiectasies with active or previous bleeding, since it allows the complete ablation of such lesions with subsequent outstanding hemostasis. Furthermore this treatment may be advantageously associated to other operative endoscopic procedures, such as diatermotherapy, dilatation and injection therapy. It is also to be outlined that Yag laser therapy is currently used to cure benign diseases and for the palliation of advanced cancer in inoperable patients. Our laser instrument is an Nd:Yag laser MBB Medilas 2 with maximum power of 100 watts at the tip, with 'non-contact' laser fibers. We use flexible optic fiberendoscopes of several sizes, according to the type of lesion to be treated. Moreover we have employed both Savary dilators of progressive caliber from 5 to 15 mm and Rigiflex pneumatic balloons. Adequate bowel preparation by means of isosmotic solution was achieved in patients with non stenotic neoplasm, or evacuative enemas and fluid diet in patients with bowel neoplastic stenoses. The patients were premedicated with benzodiazepines. Stenotic malignant lesions have been treated with endoscopic dilatation before laser treatment. At each session 4,000 - 8,000 joules of energy were administered; all patients received an average of 5 - 6 laser sessions. Followup laser sessions have then been

  19. Comparative study of the influence of cavity preparation with high-speed rotation or Er:YAG laser on infiltration of aesthetic restorations (United States)

    Costa, D. P. T. S.; Beatrice, L. C. S.; Guerra, L. S. C.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Zanin, F. A. A.; Queiroga, A. S.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.; Gerbi, M. E. M. M.


    The aim of the present study was to compare marginal infiltration in Class V cavities prepared on extracted human premolars with either high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser. Class V cavities were executed on the vestibular and lingual faces of twelve premolars, with high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser (300 mJ, 4 Hz, and 3 W), and cavity surfaces were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid combined with laser treatment (80 mJ, 5 Hz, 3 W) or without laser treatment in the following manner: G1—high-speed rotation + conditioning with phosphoric acid; G2—high-speed rotation + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid; G3—laser + conditioning with phosphoric acid; and G4—laser + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid. Specimens were restored with the composite resin, thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h. Specimens were then cross-cut and analyzed using a stereoscopic magnifying glass. Evaluations were submitted to the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. No significant differences were found between the averages of the groups ( p > 0.05). High-speed rotation and Er:YAG laser for the confection of cavity preparation exhibited a similar performance with regard to marginal infiltration.


    Driver, G.E.


    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  1. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar


    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  2. Integrated and miniaturized endoscopic devices for use during high power infrared fiber laser surgery (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher Ryan

    The Thulium Fiber Laser (TFL) is currently being studied as a potential alternative to the conventional, solid-state Holmium:YAG laser (Ho:YAG) for the treatment of kidney stones. The TFL is an ideal candidate to replace the Ho:YAG for laser lithotripsy due to a higher absorption coefficient in water of the emitted wavelength, an ability to operate at high pulse rates, and a near single mode, Gaussian spatial beam profile. The higher absorption of the TFL wavelength by water translates to a decrease in ablation threshold by a factor of four. High pulse rate operation allows higher ablation rates than the Ho:YAG, thus decreasing operation time necessary to ablate the urinary stone. The Gaussian spatial beam profile allows the TFL to couple higher laser power into smaller optical fibers than those currently being used for Ho:YAG lithotripsy. This decrease in fiber diameter translates into a potential decrease in the size of ureteroscope working channel, higher saline irrigation rates for improved visibility and safety, and may also extend to a decrease in overall ureteroscope diameter. Furthermore, the improved spatial beam profile reduces the risk of damage to the input end of the fiber. Therefore, the trunk fiber, minus the distal fiber tip, may be preserved and re-used, resulting in significant cost savings. This thesis details rapid TFL lithotripsy at high pulse rates up to 500 Hz, both with and without the aid of a stone retrieval basket, in order to demonstrate the TFL's superior ablation rates over the Ho:YAG. Collateral damage testing of the TFL effect on the ureter wall and Nitinol stone baskets were conducted to ensure patient safety for future clinical use. Proximal fiber end damage testing was conducted to demonstrate fiber preservation, critical for permanent fiber integration. Optical fibers were fitted with fabricated hollow steel tips and integrated with stone retrieval baskets for testing. Ball tipped optical fibers were tested to maintain ablation

  3. High-power downhole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Evans, C.R. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Westcott, P.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)


    New high power motors are being developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in an attempt to reduce drilling costs in deep gas wells. Conventional 2 3/8-in. (60-mm) and 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motors operated in overpowered conditions (i.e., high flow rates and high differential pressures) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. A new high-power 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor is being developed that utilizes additional stages and tighter interference between the rotor and stator to increase motor pressure drop, torque, and power output. This new high-power motor delivers up to 238 hp (177 kW) compared to 50 hp (37 kW) for a conventional 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor operating at rated operating conditions. Temperature probes showed that temperatures in different stages of motors vary considerably, showing that some sections do more work than others. A better understanding of temperatures within the stators is needed because thermal degradation and ``chunking`` of the rubber is a leading cause of failures in motors operating at high power levels. These tests were very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of developing reliable, high-power motors.

  4. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department


    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  5. High Power Betavoltaic Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will dramatically improve the performance of tritium-powered betavoltaic batteries through the development of a high-aspect ratio, expanded...

  6. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  7. High Power Amplifier and Power Supply (United States)

    Duong, Johnny; Stride, Scot; Harvey, Wayne; Haque, Inam; Packard, Newton; Ng, Quintin; Ispirian, Julie Y.; Waian, Christopher; Janes, Drew


    A document discusses the creation of a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) that is able to contain voltages up to -20 kV, keep electrical field strengths to below 200 V/mil (approximately equal to 7.87 kV/mm), and can provide a 200-nanosecond rise/fall time focus modulator swinging between cathode potential of 16.3 kV and -19.3 kV. This HVPS can protect the 95-GHz, pulsed extended interaction klystron (EIK) from arcs/discharges from all sources, including those from within the EIK fs vacuum envelope. This innovation has a multi-winding pulse transformer design, which uses new winding techniques to provide the same delays and rise/fall times (less than 10 nanoseconds) at different potential levels ranging from -20 kV to -16 kV. Another feature involves a high-voltage printed-wiring board that was corona-free at -20 kV DC with a 3- kV AC swing. The corona-free multilayer high-voltage board is used to simulate fields of less than 200 V/mil (approximately equal to 7.87 kV/mm) at 20 kV DC. Drive techniques for the modulator FETs (field-effect transistors) (four to 10 in a series) were created to change states (3,000-V swing) without abrupt steps, while still maintaining required delays and transition times. The packing scheme includes a potting mold to house a ten-stage modulator in the space that, in the past, only housed a four-stage modulator. Problems keeping heat down were solved using aluminum oxide substrate in the high-voltage section to limit temperature rise to less than 10 while withstanding -20 kV DC voltage and remaining corona-free.

  8. High power switching and other high power devices (United States)

    Gundersen, Martin


    High power thyratrons and devices such as high power microwave sources have cathode-related performance limits. Research is described of a simple, robust 'super-emissive' cathode that produces greater than 10,000 A/sq cm from a macroscopic area (approx. 1 sq cm), and operates with a low pressure (approx. 0.1 torr), spatially uniform glow plasma (density greater than 1015 cu cm). The cathode also can operate as a hollow cathode, and is at the heart of the operation of the pseudospark and back-lighted thyratron. The physics of this hollow and super-emissive cathode is very rich. The hollow cathode geometry traps electrons in the hollow cathode backspace. The lifetime of these electrons enables them to ionize a spatially homogeneous high density glow, and this hollow cathode mode of operation is responsible for certain types of electron and ion beam behavior. A plasma cathode sheath that is formed during this phase leads to super-emissive behavior, which is responsible for high current emission. Super-emissive cathode thyratron-type switches (with higher peak current, voltage, di/dt) being developed for pulsed power switching of lasers, accelerators, high current and high coulomb transfer, Marx bank operation, transfer of technology to commercial applications, high current electron beams, and millimeter wave generation (1 to 100 GHz) are described.

  9. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T


    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  10. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  11. High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Korobeynikov, G I; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Lukin, A N; Makarov, Ivan; Ostreiko, Gennady; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexey; Tarnetsky, Vladimir V; Tiunov, Michael A


    In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

  12. Effective Fluorescence Lifetime and Stimulated Emission Cross-Section of Nd/Cr:YAG Ceramics under CW Lamplight Pumping (United States)

    Saiki, Taku; Motokoshi, Shinji; Imasaki, Kazuo; Fujioka, Kana; Fujita, Hisanori; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe


    Remarkable improvements in the lifetime of the Nd upper level and in the effective stimulated emission cross-section of Nd/Cr:YAG ceramics have been theoretically and experimentally studied. Until recently, it had been thought that the long energy transition time from Cr ions to Nd ions of Nd/Cr:YAG adversely affects laser action, degrading optical-optical conversion efficiency under CW and flash lamp pumping. However, current research showed that high-efficiency energy transition has a positive effect on laser action. The effective lifetime is increased from 0.23 to 1.1 ms and the emission cross-section is effectively increased to three times for that of the conventional Nd:YAG. A small signal gain is significantly improved, and the saturation power density is reduced to 1/10 that of the Nd:YAG for the same pumping power density. A CW laser light generated in a laser diode (LD)-pumped 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser oscillator was amplified, and the measured output power was saturated. The output laser power calculated using theoretical saturation power density was consistent with the experimental results.

  13. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  14. Bullet Design and Fabrication of Dual Mode Pyroelectric Sensor: High Sensitive Energymeter for Nd: YAG Laser and Detector for Chopped He-Ne Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pyroelectric sensor using TGS has been designed and fabricated which can be operated in laser energy meter mode as well as pyroelectric detector mode. The amplifying circuit configuration has very good signal to noise ratio, very high input impedance and low drift. The pyroelectric sensor has been tested using Q-switched Nd: YAG laser and chopped He-Ne laser. The sensitivity of pyroelectric sensor in energymeter mode is 421.7V/J and the voltage responsivity of the pyroelectric sensor is 3.27 V/W in detector mode.

  15. High power gas laser amplifier (United States)

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.


    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  16. Cladding single crystal YAG fibers grown by laser heated pedestal growth (United States)

    Bera, Subhabrata; Nie, Craig D.; Harrington, James A.; Chick, Theresa; Chakrabarty, Ayan; Trembath-Reichert, Stephen; Chapman, James; Rand, Stephen C.


    Rare-earth doped single-crystal (SC) Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) fibers are excellent candidates for high power lasers. These SC fiber optics combine the favorable low Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) gain coefficient and excellent thermal properties to make them an attractive alternative to glass fiber lasers and amplifiers. Various rare-earth doped SC fibers have been grown using the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) technique. Several cladding methods, including in-situ and post-growth cladding techniques, are discussed in this paper. A rod-in-tube approach has been used by to grow a fiber with an Erbium doped SC YAG fiber core inserted in a SC YAG tube. The result is a radial gradient in the distribution of rare-earth ions. Post cladding methods include sol-gel deposited polycrystalline.

  17. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.


    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  18. High-power, high-fracture-strength, eye-safe Er:glass laser (United States)

    Tilleman, Michael M.; Jackel, Steven M.; Moshe, Innon


    We develop a high-power Er:strengthened-glass laser emitting at the eye-safe 1.535 micrometers wavelength. To maximize the output parameters of an Er:glass laser, whose power supply must also be used with Nd:YAG, a two-lamp laser head with parallel power forming networks that could be fired with an internal delay is used. The system operates at a slope efficiency of 0.45%, yielding a maximum pulse energy of 330 mJ. Thermal effects are measured, indicating strong thermal lensing, of 16 diopter/kW and mild birefringence induced depolarization of 5% at 200 W electrical power. From this data we determine the radial-tangential average and birefringence elasto-optical coefficients, Cr,(phi ) equals 0.075 +/- 0.002 and CB equals 0.0094, respectively. A TEM00 beam is achieved for a hemispherical resonator configuration. Based on the measurements, a design is presented for improved high-power TEM00 performance using principles based on dynamic compensation of thermal focusing and birefringence correction using a reentrant resonator.

  19. GaSb-based VECSEL for high-power applications and Ho-pumping (United States)

    Holl, P.; Rattunde, M.; Adler, S.; Scholle, K.; Lamrini, S.; Fuhrberg, P.; Diwo-Emmer, E.; Aidam, R.; Bronner, W.; Wagner, J.


    The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system has been shown to be ideally suited to realize VECSELs for the 2-3 μm wavelength range. In this report we will present results on increasing the output power of the SDL chips with special emphasis on the 2.8 μm emission wavelength by means of low quantum defect pumping. Further on we have investigated concepts for a VECSEL-pumped Q-switched Ho:YAG laser in order to convert the high cw-power of the VECSEL into pulses with a high peak power. Up to 3.3 mJ of pulse energy were achieved with a compact setup (corresponding to a peak power of 30 kW at 110 ns pulse length) combined with stable pulsing behavior.

  20. Zig-zag active-mirror laser with cryogenic Yb3+:YAG/YAG composite ceramics. (United States)

    Furuse, Hiroaki; Kawanaka, Junji; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Saiki, Taku; Imasaki, Kazuo; Fujita, Masayuki; Takeshita, Kenji; Ishii, Shinya; Izawa, Yasukazu


    We report on a novel amplifier configuration concept for a 10 kW laser system using a zig-zag optical path based on a cryogenic Yb:YAG Total-Reflection Active-Mirror (TRAM) laser. The laser material is a compact composite ceramic, in which three Yb:YAG TRAMs are combined in series to increase the output power. Output powers of up to 214 W with a slope efficiency of 63% have been demonstrated for CW operation, even at a quite low pump intensity of less than 170 W/cm2. Further scaling could achieve output powers of more than 10 kW.

  1. Influence of temperature on Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG microchip laser operation (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Eisenschreiber, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav


    The goal of this work was an investigation of the temperature influence (in range from 80 up to 320 K) on the laser properties of Yb:YAG/Cr:YAG Q-switched diode-pumped microchip laser. This laser was based on monolith crystal (diameter 3mm) which combines in one piece an active laser part (Yb:YAG crystal, 10 at.% Yb/Y, 3mm long) and saturable absorber (Cr:YAG crystal, 1.36mm long, initial transmission 90% @ 1031 nm). The laser resonator pump mirror (HT for pump radiation, HR for generated radiation) was directly deposited on the Yb:YAG monolith part. The output coupler with reflection 55% for the generated wavelength was placed on the Cr:YAG part. The microchip laser was placed in the temperature controlled cupreous holder inside vacuum chamber of the liquid nitrogen cryostat. For Yb:YAG part longitudinal pulsed pumping (pumping pulse length 2.5 ms, rep-rate 20 Hz, power amplitude 21W) a fibre coupled (core diameter 400 μm, NA= 0:22) laser diode, operating at wavelength 933 nm, was used. The microchip laser mean output power, pulse duration, repetition rate, emission wavelength, and laser beam profile were measured in dependence on temperature. The generated pulse length was in range from 2.2 ns to 1.1 ns (FWHM) with the minimum at 230 K. The single pulse energy was peaking (0.4 mJ) at 180 K. The highest peak power (325 kW) was obtained at 220 K. The highest pulse repetition rate (38 kHz) and output mean power (370mW) was reached for temperature 80 K.

  2. High power laser pulse circulation experiment for compact quasi-monochromatic tunable X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, De [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Sakamoto, Fumito [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomohiko [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Dobashi, Katsuhiro [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Nose, Hiroyuki [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Ishida, Daisuke [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Kaneko, Namio [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan); Sakai, Yasuo [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Toyosu Ihi Building, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan)


    Laser electron Compton scattering monochromatic tunable X-ray source using X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser is under construction at Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo. To enhance the X-ray intensity, we installed a laser circulation system. Now, we are performing the circulation experiment by using a high power laser (1.4 J, 532 nm). We confirmed the laser pulse circulated in the optical circuit more than 15 times and the laser intensity is enhanced about 3.5 times.

  3. Efficient and high-power green beam generation by frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fundamental laser is a diode-side-pumped acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser producing 84 W of average power at 1064 nm at 8 kHz repetition rate. Type-II phase-matched polished KTP crystal is used as the nonlinear crystal for second-harmonic generation. The individual green pulse width is 50 ns and ...

  4. Power scaling of supercontinuum seeded megahertz-repetition rate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers. (United States)

    Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F


    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.

  5. A novel "gain chip" concept for high-power lasers (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Zhenguo; Yan, Xiongwei; Jiang, Xinying; Zheng, Jiangang; Cui, Xudong; Zhang, Xiaomin


    High-power lasers, including high-peak power lasers (HPPL) and high-average power lasers (HAPL), attract much interest for enormous variety of applications in inertial fusion energy (IFE), materials processing, defense, spectroscopy, and high-field physics research. To meet the requirements of high efficiency and quality, a "gain chip" concept is proposed to properly design the pumping, cooling and lasing fields. The gain chip mainly consists of the laser diode arrays, lens duct, rectangle wave guide and slab-shaped gain media. For the pumping field, the pump light will be compressed and homogenized by the lens duct to high irradiance with total internal reflection, and further coupled into the gain media through its two edge faces. For the cooling field, the coolant travels along the flow channel created by the adjacent slabs in the other two edge-face direction, and cool the lateral faces of the gain media. For the lasing field, the laser beam travels through the lateral faces and experiences minimum thermal wavefront distortions. Thereby, these three fields are in orthogonality offering more spatial freedom to handle them during the construction of the lasers. Transverse gradient doping profiles for HPPL and HAPL have been employed to achieve uniform gain distributions (UGD) within the gain media, respectively. This UGD will improve the management for both amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and thermal behavior. Since each "gain chip" has its own pump source, power scaling can be easily achieved by placing identical "gain chips" along the laser beam axis without disturbing the gain and thermal distributions. To detail our concept, a 1-kJ pulsed amplifier is designed and optical-to-optical efficiency up to 40% has been obtained. We believe that with proper coolant (gas or liquid) and gain media (Yb:YAG, Nd:glass or Nd:YAG) our "gain chip" concept might provide a general configuration for high-power lasers with high efficiency and quality.

  6. Wavelength diversification of high-power external cavity diamond Raman lasers using intracavity harmonic generation. (United States)

    Jasbeer, Hadiya; Williams, Robert J; Kitzler, Ondrej; McKay, Aaron; Mildren, Richard P


    We report a high power quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) 620 nm laser from an external cavity diamond Raman laser utilizing intracavity frequency doubling in lithium triborate. Output power of 30 W for durations of 0.25 ms at 15% conversion efficiency was achieved with a beam quality factor M2 = 1.1 from a free-running Nd:YAG pump laser of M2 = 1.5. The critical design parameters that affect conversion efficiency and power were analysed with the aid of an analytical model. By adaptation to other pump technologies, the diamond approach provides a novel pathway towards high brightness CW beam generation in the visible and ultraviolet regions.

  7. Q-switched Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip 1338 nm laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav


    Q-switched microchip laser emitting radiation at wavelength 1338nm was tested as a radiation source for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This laser used sandwich crystal which combined in one piece the cooling part (undoped YAG crystal 4mm long), the active laser part (Nd:YAG crystal 12mm long), and the saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal 0.7mm long). The diameter of this crystal was 5 mm. The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith crystal surfaces. The pump mirror (HT @ 808 nm, HR @ 1.3 ¹m) was placed on the undoped YAG part. The output coupler (R = 90% @ 1338 nm) was placed on the V:YAG part. The fibre-coupled 808nm pumping laser diode was operating in pulsed regime (rep. rate 250 Hz, pulse width 300 ¹s, pulse energy 6 mJ). Using this pumping, stable and high reproducible Q-switched pulses were generated at wavelength 1338 nm. Pulse length was 6.2 ns (FWHM) and the mean output power was 33mW. The single pulse energy and peak power was 0.13mJ and 21kW, respectively. Laser was operating in fundamental TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was focused on a tested sample using single plano-convex lens (focal length 75 mm). The focal spot radius was 40 ¹m. The corresponding peak-power density was 0.83GW/cm2. The laser induced break-down was successfully reached and corresponding laser-induced plasma spectra were recorded for set of metallic elements (Cu, Ag, Au, In, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Cr) and alloys (Sn-Pb solder, duralumin, stainless-steel, brass). To record the spectra, StellarNet BLACK-Comet concave grating CCD-based spectrometer was used without any special collimation optics. Thanks to used laser wavelength far from the detector sensitivity, no special filtering was needed to overcome the CCD dazzling. The constructed laser could significantly improve repletion-rate of up-to-date LIBS devices.

  8. YAG laser in ophthalmology (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Pasta, Jiri; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji


    A summary of using near (Nd) and middle (Er) infrared YAG laser systems in ophthalmology surgery is given in the paper. The report on twelve years of clinical experience with the ophthalmic Nd:YAG laser system (λ=1.06 μm) operating alternatively on Q-switched or mode-locked regimes is accomplished. From statistical data processing of more than 1000 interventions it follows that better results in a posterior capsule opacification cure are achieved with the use of short, near-infrared mode-locked 25 ps long pulses, while 4 ns long giant pulses of the same wavelength are useful for iridectomy creations. Middle infrared radiation generated by the Er:YAG laser system (λ-2.94 μm) was used for pre-clinical interaction experiments (in vitro). Differences in results of cornea, lens and sclera ablation by a free running (110 μs long) and Q-switched (250 ns long) mid-infrared pulses are presented. The radiation was delivered to the interaction place either by a system of reflected mirrors (used for Nd:YAG laser), or by a special sealed waveguide (in the case of Er:YAG system).

  9. Optics assembly for high power laser tools (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.


    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  10. Quantum noise measurements in a continuous-wave laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG saturated amplifier. (United States)

    Saraf, Shally; Urbanek, Karel; Byer, Robert L; King, Peter J


    We present measurements of the power noise due to optical amplification in a Nd:YAG free-space traveling-wave amplifier as the amplifier transitions from the linear regime into the heavily saturated regime. The quantum noise behavior is demonstrated by saturating the gain of a 100-W class zigzag slab amplifier with a high-power beam and measuring the power noise detected by a single-spatial-mode probe beam traversing the same optical path through the amplifier.

  11. Quantum noise measurements in a continuous-wave laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG saturated amplifier


    Saraf, Shally; Urbanek, Karel; Byer, Robert L.; King, Peter J


    We present measurements of the power noise due to optical amplification in a Nd:YAG free-space traveling-wave amplifier as the amplifier transitions from the linear regime into the heavily saturated regime. The quantum noise behavior is demonstrated by saturating the gain of a 100-W class zigzag slab amplifier with a high-power beam and measuring the power noise detected by a single-spatial-mode probe beam traversing the same optical path through the amplifier.

  12. Fracture Forces of Dentin after Surface Treatment with High Speed Drill Compared to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Franzen


    Full Text Available Dental tooth restorative procedures may weaken the structural integrity of the tooth, with the possibility of leading to fracture. In this study we present findings of coronal dentin strength after different techniques of surface modification. The fracture strength of dentin beams after superficial material removal with a fine diamond bur high speed drill hand piece, Er:YAG (2.94 μm, 8 J/cm2, and Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 μm, 7.8 J/cm2 laser irradiation slightly above the ablation threshold was measured by a four-point bending apparatus. Untreated dentin beams served as a control. A total of 58 dentin beams were manufactured from sterilized human extracted molars using the coronal part of the available dentin. Mean values of fracture strength were calculated as 82.0±27.3 MPa for the control group (n=10, 104.5±26.3 MPa for high speed drill treatment (n=10, 96.1±28.1 MPa for Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (n=20, and 89.1±36.3 MPa for Er:YAG laser irradiation (n=18. Independent Student’s t-tests showed no significant difference between each two groups (p>0.05. Within the parameter settings and the limits of the experimental setup used in this study, both lasers systems as well as the high speed drill do not significantly weaken coronal dentin after surface treatment.

  13. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe


    This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  14. High-power compact laser with segmented longitudinal pumping of coupled laser channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamonov, D N; Il' ichev, N N; Sirotkin, A A; Pivovarov, P A; Derzhavin, S I; Klimentov, S M [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rebrov, S G [State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation — Federal State Unitary Enterprise Research Centre named after M V Keldysh (SSC FSUE Keldysh Research Centre) (Russian Federation)


    The characteristics of a compact Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG laser with segmented end pumping using a bundle of seven optical fibres are presented. In the regime of optical coupling of thus formed seven laser channels, 3-ns pulses with an energy up to 20 mJ, as well as their trains, are obtained. The used method makes it possible to scale the energy and power of lasers of this type with controlled spatial beam profile. (lasers)

  15. 2D SiNx photonic crystal coated Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic plate phosphor for high-power white light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Jeong Rok; Do, Young Rag


    This paper reports the optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL) on Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) yellow ceramic plate phosphor (CPP) in order to enhance the forward emission of YAG:Ce CPP-capped high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). By adding the 2D SiNx PCL with a 580 nm lattice constant, integrated yellow emission was improved by a factor of 1.72 compared to that of a conventional YAG:Ce CPP capped on a blue LED cup. This enhanced forward yellow emission is attributed to increased extraction of yellow emission light and improved absorption of blue excitation light through Bragg scattering and/or the leaky modes produced by the 2D PCLs. The introduction of 2D PCL can also reduce the wide variation of optical properties as a function of both ambient temperature and applied current, compared to those of a high-power YAG:Ce CPP-capped LED.

  16. Wound healing after irradiation of bone tissues by Er:YAG laser (United States)

    Watanabe, Hisashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Aoki, Akira; Ishikawa, Isao


    Clinical applications of Er:YAG laser are now developing in periodontics and restorative dentistry. To date, there have been few studies indicating safety criteria for intraoral usage of the Er:YAG laser. The present study examined the effects of the Er:YAG laser on bone tissues, supposing mis- irradiation in the oral cavity during dental application, especially periodontal surgery. The experiments were performed using the newly-developed Er:YAG laser apparatus equipped with a contact probe. In experiment 1, 10 pulses of laser irradiation were administered to the parietal bone of a rat at 50, 150 and 300 mJ/pulse with and without water irrigation, changing the irradiation distance to 0, 5, 10 and 20 mm, respectively. As a control, electric knife was employed. Macroscopic and SEM observations of the wound surface were performed. In experiment 2, laser irradiation in a straight line was performed at 150 mJ/pulse, 1- pps and 0,5, 10 mm irradiation distance without water irrigation. Wound healing was observed histologically at 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after laser irradiation and compared with that of the control. Non-contact irradiation by Er:YAG laser did not cause severe damage to the parietal bone tissue under water irrigation. Contact irradiation induced a limited wound, however, new bone formation was observed 28 days after laser irradiation, while osseous defect with thermal degenerative tissue remained at the control site. In conclusion, irradiation with an Er:YAG laser would not cause severe damage to surrounding bone tissues in the oral cavity when used within the usual power settings for dental treatment. Furthermore, this laser may be applicable for osseous surgery because of its high ablation efficiency and good wound healing after irradiation.

  17. Every Good Virtue You Ever Wanted in a Q-switched Solid-state Laser and More: Monolithic, Diode-pumped, Self-q-switched, Highly Reproducible, Diffraction-limited Nd:yag Laser (United States)

    Chen, Y. C.; Lee, K. K.


    The applications of Q-switched lasers are well known, for example, laser radar, laser remote sensing, satellite orbit determination, Moon orbit and 'moon quake' determination, satellite laser communication, and many nonlinear optics applications. Most of the applications require additional properties of the Q-switched lasers, such as single-axial and/or single-transverse mode, high repetition rate, stable pulse shape and pulse width, or ultra compact and rugged oscillators. Furthermore, space based and airborne lasers for lidar and laser communication applications require efficient, compact, lightweight, long-lived, and stable-pulsed laser sources. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) have recently shown the potential for satisfying all of these requirements. We will report on the operating characteristics of a diode-pumped, monolithic, self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser where the chromium ions act as a saturable absorber for the laser emission at 1064 nm. The pulse duration is 3.5 ns and the output is highly polarized with an extinction ratio of 700:1. It is further shown that the output is single-longitudinal-mode with transform-limited spectral line width without pulse-to-pulse mode competition. Consequently, the pulse-to-pulse intensity fluctuation is less than the instrument resolution of 0.25 percent. This self-stabilization mechanism is because the lasing mode bleaches the distributed absorber and establishes a gain-loss grating similar to that used in the distributed feedback semiconductor lasers. A repetition rate above 5 KHz has also been demonstrated. For higher power, this laser can be used for injection seeding an amplifier (or amplifier chain) or injection locking of a power oscillator pumped by diode lasers. We will discuss some research directions on the master oscillator for higher output energy per pulse as well as how to scale the output power of the diode-pumped amplifier(s) to multi-kilowatt average power.

  18. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.


    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  19. High Power Fiber Laser Test Bed (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, unique within DoD, power-combines numerous cutting-edge fiber-coupled laser diode modules (FCLDM) to integrate pumping of high power rare earth-doped...

  20. High power RF solid state power amplifier system (United States)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)


    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  1. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben


    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....

  2. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping


    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  3. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease: Comparison of outcomes with the cold-knife technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atak


    Full Text Available In this prospective randomized clinical trial, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endourethrotomy with holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (HO:YAG laser and compare the outcomes with the conventional cold-knife urethrotomy. Fifty-one male patients with single, iatrogenic, annular strictures of the urethra were randomly divided into two groups; 21 patients who underwent direct-vision endoscopic urethrotomy with Ho:YAG laser (15 W; 1,200–1,400 mJ; 8–12 Hz at 12 o’clock position (laser group and 30 patients who underwent direct-vision endoscopic urethrotomy with cold-knife incision at 12 o’clock position (cold-knife group. The results obtained were analyzed and compared at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months postoperatively by clinical evaluation, uroflowmetry, and retrograde urethrographies. Variables were compared among groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann Whitney U tests. There were no differences between two groups in terms of patient age, preoperative Qmax value, stricture location, and length. Operative time was shorter in laser group (16.4±8.04 minutes when compared with cold-knife group (23.8±5.47 minutes (p<0.001. Recurrence-free rate at 3 months was similar between two groups (p=0.122. However, recurrence-free rates at 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months were significantly higher in laser group when compared with cold-knife group (p values were 0.045, 0.027, and 0.04, respectively. No intra- or postoperative complications were encountered. Use of Ho:YAG laser in the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and effective method. In addition, it provides shorter operative time and lower recurrence rate when compared with the conventional technique.



    Sainte-Catherine, C.; Jeandin, Michel; Kechemair, D.; Ricaud, J.-P.; Sabatier, L.


    One of the main advantages of Nd-YAG lasers compared to CO2 lasers consists of easy beam handling using optical silica fibers. However, up to now Nd-YAG applications for material processing were limited due to a rather low available mean output power (less than about 500 W). A Eureka project (termed "EU-226") which consequently aimed at developing the so called "High Power Solid State Laser (HPSSL)" capable of 1 to 3 kW, involved absorptivity studies results of which are given in this contrib...

  5. 80-W cw TEM{sub 00} IR beam generation by use of a laser-diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Susumu; Fujikawa, Shuichi; Yasui, Koji [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Advanced Technology R and D Center


    We have demonstrated high-efficient and high-power operation of a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser. The laser has a simple and scalable configuration consisting of a diffusive pumping reflector and an advanced cavity configuration for polarization-dependent bifocusing compensation. (author)

  6. Er:YAG Laser: A New Technical Approach to Remove Torus Palatinus and Torus Mandibularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Rocca


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove by excision torus mandibularis and to smooth torus palatinus exostosis. Materials and Methods. Torus mandibularis (TM and torus palatinus (TP were surgically eliminated via the Er:YAG laser using the following parameters: TM: output power ranging from 500 to 1000 mJ, frequency from 20 to 30 Hz, sapphire tips (diameter 0.8 mm, air-water spray (ratio 5/5, pulse duration 150 μsec, fluence ranging from 99592 J/cm2 to 199044,586 J/cm2. TP: a peeling technique was used to eliminate TP, as excision by slicing being impossible here. Results. TM: excision was obtained after 12730 pulses. TP: smoothing technique took more time compared with excision. Once peeling was considered to be accomplished, the use of a surgical rasp was necessary to eliminate bone spicules that could delay the wound to heal in good conditions. Conclusion. Er:YAG excision (TM or Er:YAG peeling (TP are safe clinical techniques easy to practice even if the time required for excision or surface smoothing is more than the time required with bony burs and high speed instruments.

  7. The possibility of clinical application of the solid state lasers: Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG, and Er:YAG in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M.; Kukwa, A.; Tulibacki, M.; Wójtowicz, P.; Olędzka, I.; Jeżewska, E.


    The purpose of this study was to summarize our experiences in clinical application of Nd:YAG, Ho:YAG and Er:YAG in otolaryngology- head and neck surgery. Choosing the laser type and parameters for the particular procedures was based on our previous research on tissue effects of those lasers. During the period of 1993-2006 we performed 3988 surgical procedures with the Nd:YAG laser. Over 87% of those were made for the nasal cavity pathologies as polyps, hyperplasia of inferior nasal turbinate, granulation tissue, postoperative adhesions, vascular malformations, under the local anesthesia conditions. In our experience Nd:YAG laser gives the possibility of good clinical control and low risk of side effects for disorders of high recurrence and frequent interventions necessity, as nasal polyps or respiratory papillomatosis. Nd:YAG assisted uvulopalatoplasty gives an interesting alternative for surgical procedures for snoring and slight/mild OSA-recognized patients. Due to its good hemostatic properties, it is a perfect tool for removal of the chemodectoma from meddle ear. During the period of 1995-2006 we performed 229 surgical procedures with the Ho:YAG laser, mostly for larynx pathologies (adhesion and scar tissue removal). In our experience Ho:YAG laser can serve as a precise laser knife for both soft and bony tissue. The ER:YAG laser still remain under clinical trial. Since 2001 year we performed 24 procedures of removing stone deposits from salivary glands. We believe it may become a promising method to cope with sialolithiasis which allows for glandule function preservation. All of the laser types mentioned above, can be easily coupled with endoscopes, what makes them available for all of the head and necklocalized disorders.

  8. High power laser perforating tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  9. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui


    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  10. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.


    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  11. High-power optics lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonov, Victor V


    This book covers the basics, realization and materials for high power laser systems and high power radiation interaction with  matter. The physical and technical fundamentals of high intensity laser optics and adaptive optics and the related physical processes in high intensity laser systems are explained. A main question discussed is: What is power optics? In what way is it different from ordinary optics widely used in cameras, motion-picture projectors, i.e., for everyday use? An undesirable consequence of the thermal deformation of optical elements and surfaces was discovered during studies of the interaction with powerful incident laser radiation. The requirements to the fabrication, performance and quality of optical elements employed within systems for most practical applications are also covered. The high-power laser performance is generally governed by the following: (i) the absorption of incident optical radiation (governed primarily by various absorption mechanisms), (ii) followed by a temperature ...

  12. High Power Spark Delivery System Using Hollow Core Kagome Lattice Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dumitrache


    Full Text Available This study examines the use of the recently developed hollow core kagome lattice fibers for delivery of high power laser pulses. Compared to other photonic crystal fibers (PCFs, the hollow core kagome fibers have larger core diameter (~50 µm, which allows for higher energy coupling in the fiber while also maintaining high beam quality at the output (M2 = 1.25. We have conducted a study of the maximum deliverable energy versus laser pulse duration using a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. Pulse energies as high as 30 mJ were transmitted for 30 ns pulse durations. This represents, to our knowledge; the highest laser pulse energy delivered using PCFs. Two fiber damage mechanisms were identified as damage at the fiber input and damage within the bulk of the fiber. Finally, we have demonstrated fiber delivered laser ignition on a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine.

  13. Evaluation of high-voltage, high-power, solid-state remote power controllers for amps (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.


    The Electrical Power Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center has a Power System Development Facility where various power circuit breadboards are tested and evaluated. This project relates to the evaluation of a particular remote power controller (RPC) energizing high power loads. The Facility equipment permits the thorough testing and evaluation of high-voltage, high-power solid-state remote power controllers. The purpose is to evaluate a Type E, 30 Ampere, 200 V dc remote power controller. Three phases of the RPC evaluation are presented. The RPC is evaluated within a low-voltage, low-power circuit to check its operational capability. The RPC is then evaluated while performing switch/circuit breaker functions within a 200 V dc, 30 Ampere power circuit. The final effort of the project relates to the recommended procedures for installing these RPC's into the existing Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard/test facility at MSFC.

  14. Comparative histopathological analysis of human pulps after class I cavity preparation with a high-speed air-turbine handpiece or Er:YAG laser (United States)

    Kina, J. F.; Benitez, P. C.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Bagnato, V. S.; Martinez, T. C.; Oliveira, C. F.; Hebling, J.; Costa, C. A. S.


    The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the response of human pulps after cavity preparation with different devices. Deep class I cavities were prepared in sound mandibular premolars using either a high-speed air-turbine handpiece (Group 1) or an Er:YAG laser (Group 2). Following total acid etching and the application of an adhesive system, all cavities were restored with composite resin. Fifteen days after the clinical procedure, the teeth were extracted and processed for analysis under optical microscopy. In Group 1 in which the average for the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) between the cavity floor and the coronal pulp was 909.5 μm, a discrete inflammatory response occurred in only one specimen with an RDT of 214 μm. However, tissue disorganization occurred in most specimens. In Group 2 (average RDT = 935.2 μm), the discrete inflammatory pulp response was observed in only one specimen (average RDT = 413 μm). It may be concluded that the high-speed air-turbine handpiece caused greater structural alterations in the pulp, although without inducing inflammatory processes.

  15. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, M.D.


    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced.

  16. Scanning electron microscope comparative surface evaluation of glazed-lithium disilicate ceramics under different irradiation settings of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers. (United States)

    Viskic, Josko; Jokic, Drazen; Jakovljevic, Suzana; Bergman, Lana; Ortolan, Sladana Milardovic; Mestrovic, Senka; Mehulic, Ketij


    To evaluate the surface of glazed lithium disilicate dental ceramics after irradiation under different irradiation settings of Nd:YAG and Er:YAG lasers using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three glazed-press lithium disilicate ceramic discs were treated with HF, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG, respectively. The laser-setting variables tested were laser mode, repetition rate (Hz), power (W), time of exposure (seconds), and laser energy (mJ). Sixteen different variable settings were tested for each laser type, and all the samples were analyzed by SEM at 500× and 1000× magnification. Surface analysis of the HF-treated sample showed a typical surface texture with a homogenously rough pattern and exposed ceramic crystals. Er:YAG showed no effect on the surface under any irradiation setting. The surface of Nd:YAG-irradiated samples showed cracking, melting, and resolidifying of the ceramic glaze. These changes became more pronounced as the power increased. At the highest power setting (2.25 W), craters on the surface with large areas of melted or resolidified glaze surrounded by globules were visible. However, there was little to no exposure of ceramic crystals or visible regular surface roughening. Neither Er:YAG nor Nd:YAG dental lasers exhibited adequate surface modification for bonding of orthodontic brackets on glazed lithium disilicate ceramics compared with the control treated with 9.5% HF.

  17. Compact, passively Q-switched, all-solid-state master oscillator-power amplifier-optical parametric oscillator (MOPA-OPO) system pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser generating high-brightness, tunable, ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Peuser, Peter; Platz, Willi; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Meister, Alexander; Haag, Matthias; Zolichowski, Paul


    We report on a compact, tunable ultraviolet laser system that consists of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA). The pump energy for the whole laser system is supplied via a single delivery fiber. Nanosecond pulses are produced by an oscillator that is passively Q-switched by a Cr(4+):YAG crystal. The OPO is pumped by the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG MOPA. Continuously tunable radiation is generated by an intracavity sum-frequency mixing process within the OPO in the range of 245-260 nm with high beam quality. Maximum pulse energies of 1.2 mJ were achieved, which correspond to an optical efficiency of 3.75%, relating to the pulse energy of the MOPA at 1064 nm.

  18. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar


    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  19. Heatsink Design of High Power Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Ki [Chungang University (Korea)


    Various ways of designing heat sink are available for commercial high power converters and among them, the method of air cooling is the most popular and practical method than any other ones. In this paper, a practical method of cooling high power converter, which includes a method of reducing noise and vibration caused by the fan and a method of estimating the gap and contact resistances existing between the thyristor and heat sink, is presented. Finally, the heat transfer analysis and implementation methods of heat sink for high power converter is presented. (author). 14 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Broadly tunable high-power operation of an all-solid-state titanium-doped sapphire laser system (United States)

    Steele, T. R.; Gerstenberger, D. C.; Drobshoff, A.; Wallace, R. W.


    Broadly tunable and high-power operation of a Ti-doped sapphire laser is obtained with a diode-laser-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser as the pump source. A maximum broadband (FWHM = 25 nm) output pulse energy of 720 microJ at 795 nm in a TEM00 mode is obtained for 1850 microJ of energy of 532-nm pump light. A minimum pulse duration of 7 nsec is obtained from a 40-mm-long cavity. With the use of an intracavity prism, the Ti:sapphire laser is tunable continuously over the 696-1000-nm spectral range (with three different mirror sets).

  1. High current and high power superconducting rectifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Bunk, P.B.; Britton, R.B.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.


    Results on three experimental superconducting rectifiers are reported. Two of them are 1 kA low frequency flux pumps, one thermally and magnetically switched. The third is a low-current high-frequency magnetically switched rectifier which can use the mains directly.

  2. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.


    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers and ultrasonic instrumentation on root surfaces. (United States)

    Gómez, Clara; Bisheimer, Marcela; Costela, Angel; García-Moreno, Immaculada; García, Ana; García, Juan Antonio


    Evaluate the effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers on the morphology and chemical composition of root surfaces and compare them with those produced by using ultrasonic instrumentation (US). The benefits of the use of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy have not yet been determined. The radicular surfaces of 18 extracted human multi-radicular teeth were treated for 1 min on the right side of the root either with laser (Er:YAG, 2940 nm, 10 Hz, output 80 mJ/pulse, 100 mJ/pulse, and 120 mJ/pulse, 250 mus pulse length, spot size 0.8 mm, or Nd:YAG; 1064 nm; 10 Hz; output 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W; 150 micros pulse length; spot size 0.6 mm) or on the left side of the root with US (28,500 Hz, medium power, and standard tip). Subsequently, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometric analysis. SEM examination of the areas treated with US showed a smooth appearance. In all specimens from the experimental groups treated with Er:YAG laser, entire cementum layers were removed and dentinal tubules were exposed. EDX analysis of root surfaces treated by Er:YAG laser at 120 mJ/pulse showed an increase in the peak intensities of calcium and phosphorus more than that seen with US treatment. When Nd:YAG laser irradiation was utilized, SEM examination showed effects such as melting, and fissuring of the root surface. EDX analysis of root surfaces treated by the Nd:YAG laser at 1.5 W revealed some changes in the elemental composition, with the peak intensities of calcium and phosphorus decreased in relation to the levels obtained by US treatment. US treatment better preserves the original morphology of cementum compared with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser treatment.

  4. An introduction to high power microwaves (United States)

    Benford, James; Swegle, John


    The area of high power microwaves has emerged in recent years as a new technology allowing new applications and offering innovative approaches to existing applications. The great leap in microwave power levels has been driven by a mix of sources that either push conventional microwave device physics in new directions or employ altogether new interaction mechanisms. Running counter to the trend in conventional microwave electronics toward miniaturization with solid-state devices intrinsically limited in their peak power capability, high power microwave generation taps the immense power and energy reservoirs of modern intense relativistic electron beam technology. The term high power microwaves (HPM) is used to denote devices that exceed 100 MW in peak power and span the cm- and mm-wave range of frequencies between 1 and 300 GHz. This definition is arbitrary, but does cleanly divide the conventional microwave devices, which do not exceed 100 MW, from a collection of microwave-generating devices that have now reached powers as high as 15 GW.

  5. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.


    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  6. Highly-efficient high-power pumps for fiber lasers (United States)

    Gapontsev, V.; Moshegov, N.; Berezin, I.; Komissarov, A.; Trubenko, P.; Miftakhutdinov, D.; Berishev, I.; Chuyanov, V.; Raisky, O.; Ovtchinnikov, A.


    We report on high efficiency multimode pumps that enable ultra-high efficiency high power ECO Fiber Lasers. We discuss chip and packaged pump design and performance. Peak out-of-fiber power efficiency of ECO Fiber Laser pumps was reported to be as high as 68% and was achieved with passive cooling. For applications that do not require Fiber Lasers with ultimate power efficiency, we have developed passively cooled pumps with out-of-fiber power efficiency greater than 50%, maintained at operating current up to 22A. We report on approaches to diode chip and packaged pump design that possess such performance.

  7. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)


    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  8. High power regenerative laser amplifier (United States)

    Miller, John L.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.; Zapata, Luis E.


    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  9. Piezoelectric Transformers for a High Power Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezaki, T


    .... Here, in order to obtain compact and high-power AC-DC adaptors, we explored suitable designs for a multi-layered piezoelectric transformer, by taking into account the effect of the mechanical quality...

  10. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work seeks to develop and optimize an electrode-less plasma propulsion system that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) that is being developed...

  11. High Power Helicon Plasma Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new thruster has been conceived and tested that is based on a high power helicon (HPH) plasma wave. In this new method of propulsion, an antenna generates and...

  12. Potential applications of Erbium:YAG laser in periodontics. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Isao; Aoki, Akira; Takasaki, Aristeo Atsushi


    Since lasers were introduced for the treatment of oral diseases, there has been considerable advancement in technology. As a result, numerous laser systems are currently available for oral use. Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum:Garnet (Nd:YAG), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser and the semiconductor Diode lasers have already been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue treatment in oral cavity. The Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser was approved in 1997 for hard tissue treatment in dentistry and recent studies have reported positive results. This suggests that the Er:YAG laser system is a promising apparatus, which will be able to revolutionize and improve dental practice, in particular periodontal treatment. In this mini-review, we would like to describe the positive characteristics of the Er:YAG laser which indicate its potential as a new treatment modality in periodontics. Recent findings are summarized briefly to evaluate the potential of the Er:YAG laser for clinical application in periodontics. The Er:YAG laser possesses suitable characteristics for oral soft and hard tissue ablation. Recently, it has been applied for effective elimination of granulation tissue, gingival melanin pigmentation and gingival discoloration. Contouring and cutting of bone with minimal damage and even or faster healing can also be performed with this laser. In addition, irradiation with the Er:YAG laser has a bactericidal effect with reduction of lipopolysaccharide, high ability of plaque and calculus removal, with the effect limited to a very thin layer of the surface and is effective for implant maintenance. The Er:YAG laser seems to be an effective tool for periodontal therapy, however, further clinical and basic investigations are required to confirm its clinical application. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  13. 10J water-cooled DPSSL system based on Yb:YAG crystal edge-cladded by Cr:YAG ceramics (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-Gang; Yan, Xiongwei; Jiang, Xinying; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Mingzhong; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo


    Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) has been attracting the interests of the researchers around the world, because of the promising to the future energy. The Yb:YAG was broadly used in the research field of high-peak power and large energy laser with repetition-rate for IFE because of its outstanding performance, including significant thermal and mechanical capacities, long upper energy level lifetime, high quantum efficiency and highly doping capacity. But it exhibits high saturation fluence at room temperature because of the small emission and absorption cross-section. And at the same time this gain material exhibits self-absorption of laser because of the thermal population at lower laser level at room temperature. Ant it appears to have been solved by means of the cryogenic temperature, but the total efficiency of the laser system will be decreased as the use of cryogenic temperature. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) effect of the amplifier can be relaxed by means of edge-cladded absorption material. And the difficulties of edge cladding can be will solved as the emergence of ceramics. But at present the ceramics exhibits high scattering and many disfigurements, which limited the application in the high-power large-energy laser system. So the edge-cladding of Yb:YAG crystal will be a key issue for solution the ASE in amplifier. In this paper, we will introduce a 10J water-cooled DPSSL system, based on Yb:YAG crystal at room temperature. In this system a new edge cladding method has been used, that the Yb:YAG crystal was edge cladded by Cr:YAG ceramics, which was used as the absorption material of ASE. The amplifier was an active mirror water-cooled room temperature amplifier. With the help of this edge cladding the ASE has been lowered, and about 5 times small signal gain has been obtained in a single pass amplification, which was much higher than the earlier of 2 times. And the wavefront aberrance of the laser beam was also reduced due to the thermal

  14. All solid-state high power microwave source with high repetition frequency (United States)

    Bragg, J.-W. B.; Sullivan, W. W.; Mauch, D.; Neuber, A. A.; Dickens, J. C.


    An all solid-state, megawatt-class high power microwave system featuring a silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and a ferrimagnetic-based, coaxial nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) is presented. A 1.62 cm2, 50 kV 4H-SiC PCSS is hard-switched to produce electrical pulses with 7 ns full width-half max (FWHM) pulse widths at 2 ns risetimes in single shot and burst-mode operation. The PCSS resistance drops to sub-ohm when illuminated with approximately 3 mJ of laser energy at 355 nm (tripled Nd:YAG) in a single pulse. Utilizing a fiber optic based optical delivery system, a laser pulse train of four 7 ns (FWHM) signals was generated at 65 MHz repetition frequency. The resulting electrical pulse train from the PCSS closely follows the optical input and is utilized to feed the NLTL generating microwave pulses with a base microwave-frequency of about 2.1 GHz at 65 MHz pulse repetition frequency (prf). Under typical experimental conditions, the NLTL produces sharpened output risetimes of 120 ps and microwave oscillations at 2-4 GHz that are generated due to damped gyromagnetic precession of the ferrimagnetic material's axially pre-biased magnetic moments. The complete system is discussed in detail with its output matched into 50 Ω, and results covering MHz-prf in burst-mode operation as well as frequency agility in single shot operation are discussed.

  15. The NASA CSTI high capacity power project (United States)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.


    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  16. Detection and Analytical Capabilities for Trace Level of Carbon in High-Purity Metals by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy with a Frequency Quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ohata


    Full Text Available The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS with a frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser was examined to the analysis of trace level of carbon (C in high-purity metals and its detection and analytical capabilities were evaluated. Though C signal in a wavelength of 247.9 nm, which showed the highest sensitivity of C, could be obtained from Cd, Ti, and Zn ca. 7000 mg kg−1 C in Fe could not be detected due to the interferences from a lot of Fe spectra. Alternative C signal in a wavelength of 193.1 nm could not be also detected from Fe due to the insufficient laser output energy of the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser. The depth analysis of C by LIBS was also demonstrated and the C in Cd and Zn was found to be contaminated in only surface area whereas the C in Ti was distributed in bulk. From these results, the frequency quintupled 213 nm Nd:YAG laser, which was adopted widely as a commercial laser ablation (LA system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS for trace element analysis in solid materials, could be used for C analysis to achieve simultaneous measurements for both C and trace elements in metals by LIBS and LA-ICPMS, respectively.

  17. Protection Related to High-power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.


    Target protection is an important part of machine protection. The beam power in high-intensity accelerators is high enough that a single wayward pulse can cause serious damage. Today's high-power targets operate at the limit of available technology, and are designed for a very narrow range of beam parameters. If the beam pulse is too far off centre, or if the beam size is not correct, or if the beam density is too high, the target can be seriously damaged. We will start with a brief introduction to high-power targets and then move to a discussion of what can go wrong, and what are the risks. Next we will discuss how to control the beam-related risk, followed by examples from a few different accelerator facilities. We will finish with a detailed example of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source target tune up and target protection.

  18. High power diode laser Master Oscillator-Power Amplifier (MOPA) (United States)

    Andrews, John R.; Mouroulis, P.; Wicks, G.


    High power multiple quantum well AlGaAs diode laser master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA) systems were examined both experimentally and theoretically. For two pass operation, it was found that powers in excess of 0.3 W per 100 micrometers of facet length were achievable while maintaining diffraction-limited beam quality. Internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies as high as 25 percent were observed at an internal amplifier gain of 9 dB. Theoretical modeling of multiple quantum well amplifiers was done using appropriate rate equations and a heuristic model of the carrier density dependent gain. The model gave a qualitative agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the model allowed exploration of a wider design space for the amplifiers. The model predicted that internal electrical-to-optical conversion efficiencies in excess of 50 percent should be achievable with careful system design. The model predicted that no global optimum design exists, but gain, efficiency, and optical confinement (coupling efficiency) can be mutually adjusted to meet a specific system requirement. A three quantum well, low optical confinement amplifier was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxial growth. Coherent beam combining of two high power amplifiers injected from a common master oscillator was also examined. Coherent beam combining with an efficiency of 93 percent resulted in a single beam having diffraction-limited characteristics. This beam combining efficiency is a world record result for such a system. Interferometric observations of the output of the amplifier indicated that spatial mode matching was a significant factor in the less than perfect beam combining. Finally, the system issues of arrays of amplifiers in a coherent beam combining system were investigated. Based upon experimentally observed parameters coherent beam combining could result in a megawatt-scale coherent beam with a 10 percent electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency.

  19. Advances in Very High Frequency Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Milovan

    . Excellent performance and small size of magnetic components and capacitors at very high frequencies, along with constant advances in performance of power semiconductor devices, suggests a sizable shift in consumer power supplies market into this area in the near future. To operate dc-dc converter power...... devices at very high frequencies, switching loss needs to reduced or eliminated, as it would become prohibitively large. In addition, as the frequency increases, hard-switched gate driving becomes less and less of an option, as it embodies the same loss mechanism. A low-loss gate drive methods may need...... drive solution, which is applicable in cases when there are at least two power stages, and with minimal additional hardware requirements. It is experimentally confirmed that the method is suitable for both parallel and serial input configurations. Compared to state-of-the-art solutions, the proposed...

  20. Simulation of medical Q-switch flash-pumped Er:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanlin; Huang Chuyun; Yao Yucheng; Zou Xiaolin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics school, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, China 430068 (China)


    Er: YAG laser, the wavelength is 2940nm, can be absorbed strongly by water. The absorption coefficient is as high as 13000 cm{sup -1}. As the water strong absorption, Erbium laser can bring shallow penetration depth and smaller surrounding tissue injury in most soft tissue and hard tissue. At the same time, the interaction between 2940nm radiation and biological tissue saturated with water is equivalent to instantaneous heating within limited volume, thus resulting in the phenomenon of micro-explosion to removal organization. Different parameters can be set up to cut enamel, dentin, caries and soft tissue. For the development and optimization of laser system, it is a practical choice to use laser modeling to predict the influence of various parameters for laser performance. Aim at the status of low Erbium laser output power, flash-pumped Er: YAG laser performance was simulated to obtain optical output in theory. the rate equation model was obtained and used to predict the change of population densities in various manifolds and use the technology of Q-switch the simulate laser output for different design parameters and results showed that Er: YAG laser output energy can achieve the maximum average output power of 9.8W under the given parameters. The model can be used to find the potential laser systems that meet application requirements.

  1. Simulation of medical Q-switch flash-pumped Er:YAG laser (United States)

    -Yan-lin, Wang; Huang-Chuyun; Yao-Yucheng; Xiaolin, Zou


    Er: YAG laser, the wavelength is 2940nm, can be absorbed strongly by water. The absorption coefficient is as high as 13000 cm-1. As the water strong absorption, Erbium laser can bring shallow penetration depth and smaller surrounding tissue injury in most soft tissue and hard tissue. At the same time, the interaction between 2940nm radiation and biological tissue saturated with water is equivalent to instantaneous heating within limited volume, thus resulting in the phenomenon of micro-explosion to removal organization. Different parameters can be set up to cut enamel, dentin, caries and soft tissue. For the development and optimization of laser system, it is a practical choice to use laser modeling to predict the influence of various parameters for laser performance. Aim at the status of low Erbium laser output power, flash-pumped Er: YAG laser performance was simulated to obtain optical output in theory. the rate equation model was obtained and used to predict the change of population densities in various manifolds and use the technology of Q-switch the simulate laser output for different design parameters and results showed that Er: YAG laser output energy can achieve the maximum average output power of 9.8W under the given parameters. The model can be used to find the potential laser systems that meet application requirements.

  2. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program (United States)

    Winter, Jerry M.


    NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) has as its primary goal the improvement of space nuclear power-related technologies and their interactions with the given mission environment. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program supports and advances all nonnuclear aspects of the national SP-100 Space Nuclear Reactor Program, including the demonstration of a 1050 K Stirling Space Power System capable of employing the full output capability of the SP-100 reactor. Thermoelectric technology capable of reaching Z values of 0.001/K with SiGe/GaP will be demonstrated in the course of the program.

  3. High-voltage power supply unit

    CERN Document Server

    Garipov, G K; Silaev, A A; Shirokov, A V


    A unit comprising four high-voltage power sources (HPS) is designed for power supply of four independent photomultipliers. Each HPS comprises a pulse-width modulator, digital-to-analog converter, base voltage source and digital interface. HPS unit supplies up to 2000 V output voltage, up to 2.5 mA current and long-term stability equal to +- 0.03%

  4. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant


    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  5. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce


    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  6. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart


    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG laser debonding of ceramic brackets on the bond strength and the amount of adhesive resin remnant. Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular incisors were randomly divided into two groups of 10 and polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA were bonded on enamel surfaces. Group 1 was the control group in which no laser application was performed prior to the shear bond strength (SBS testing. In Group 2, Er:YAG was applied in 3W power for 6 seconds using the scanning method. The brackets were tested for SBS with an Instron universal testing machine and results were expressed in megapascals (MPa. The amount of adhesive remnant was evaluated with Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean ± standard deviation of SBS values in the control group was 13.42 ±1.23 MPa and 8.47 ±0.71 MPa in the Er:YAG group and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. The evaluation of ARI scores demonstrated more adhesive was left on the enamel surface with Er:YAG group. Conclusion: 3W power Er:YAG laser application with the scanning method to polycrystalline ceramic brackets demonstrated lower bond strengths and higher ARI scores during the debonding procedure.

  8. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems and the electron deflection systems. Power operational amplifiers have ... approach is cost and availability of high voltage devices in chip form. 2.2 Amplifier with opamp input stage .... power opamp, using chip passive components, semiconductor bare dice minimizes the size while increasing the reliability.

  9. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter


    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio....... Experimentally, we generate transverse current profiles by using standard lithography to define a digitated contact pad. Experimental results confirm that the current density is significantly altered and show completely filamentation-free operation up to 34 times threshold....

  10. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)


    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  11. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft


    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  12. Germanate Glass Fiber Lasers for High Power (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0020 Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power David Lancaster THE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE Final Report 01/04/2016...COVERED (From - To) 01-07-2014 to 30-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Germanate glass fiber lasers for high power 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER...germanate based glasses with a specific focus on glass stability during thermal-cycling which is representative of the steps required to fabricate a doped

  13. High-intracavity-power thin-disk laser for the alignment of molecules. (United States)

    Deppe, Bastian; Huber, Günter; Kränkel, Christian; Küpper, Jochen


    We propose a novel approach for strong alignment of gas-phase molecules for experiments at arbitrary repetition rates. A high-intracavity-power continuous-wave laser will provide the necessary ac electric field of 10(10)-10(11) W/cm(2). We demonstrate thin-disk lasers based on Yb:YAG and Yb:Lu(2)O(3) in a linear high-finesse resonator providing intracavity power levels in excess of 100 kW at pump power levels on the order of 50 W. The multi-longitudinal-mode operation of this laser avoids spatial-hole burning even in a linear standing-wave resonator. The system will be scaled up as in-vacuum system to allow for the generation of fields of 10(11) W/cm(2). This system will be directly applicable for experiments at modern X-ray light sources, such as synchrotrons or free-electron lasers, which operate at various very high repetition rates. This would allow to record molecular movies through temporally resolved diffractive imaging of fixed-in-space molecules, as well as the spectroscopic investigation of combined X-ray-NIR strong-field effects of atomic and molecular systems.

  14. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium (United States)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan


    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  15. Fabrication, optical properties and laser outputs of Nd:YAG ceramics based on laser ablated and pre-calcined powders (United States)

    Osipov, V. V.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Toci, G.; Vannini, M.; Ciofini, M.; Lapucci, A.


    Transparent Nd:YAG ceramic was fabricated by the solid-state reaction method with an additional round of pre-calcining using nanopowders of 1 at.% Nd:Y2O3 and Al2O3 synthesized by laser ablation. The pre-calcining step and addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate was found crucial for fabricating high optical quality Nd:YAG ceramic from such nanoparticles. The transmittance of the obtained 2-mm-thick Nd:YAG ceramic was 83.6% at the wavelength of 1064 nm, which is very close to the theoretical value. The uniformity of the optical quality of ceramic was mapped by analyzing the point-by-point transmission of a focused laser beam. The average volume of the scattering centers in the obtained ceramic was evaluated by direct count method to be 17 ppm. The Nd distribution was determined by fluorescence imaging to be homogeneous throughout the sample. Output power of 4.9 W with a slope efficiency of 52.7% was obtained in 1.5-mm-thick Nd:YAG ceramic under a quasi-continuous wave (QCW) laser diode end pumping at 805 nm.

  16. Comparison of Microleakage of Glass Ionomer Restoration in Primary Teeth Prepared by Er: YAG Laser and the Conventional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghandehari


    Full Text Available Objective: One of the main criteria in evaluating the restorative materials is the degree of microleakage. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of glass ionomer restored cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or turbine and bur.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted caries-free deciduous posterior teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups for cavity preparation. Cavities in group one were prepared by high speed turbine and bur. In the second group, Er:YAG laser with a 3W output power, 300 mJ energy and 10 Hz frequency was used. Cavities were restored with GC Fuji II LC. After thermocycling, the samples were immersed into 0.5% methylene blue solution. They were sectioned for examination under optic microscope.Results: The Wilcoxon signed ranks test showed no significant difference between microleakage of the laser group and the conventional group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Er:YAG laser with its advantages in pediatric dentistry may be suggested as an alternative device for cavity preparation.Key Words: Er:YAG laser, Glass ionomer, Microleakage

  17. High impact data visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI

    CERN Document Server

    Aspin, Adam


    High Impact Data Visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI helps you take business intelligence delivery to a new level that is interactive, engaging, even fun, all while driving commercial success through sound decision-making. Learn to harness the power of Microsoft's flagship, self-service business intelligence suite to deliver compelling and interactive insight with remarkable ease. Learn the essential techniques needed to enhance the look and feel of reports and dashboards so that you can seize your audience's attention and provide them with clear and accurate information. Al

  18. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neethling, PH


    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  20. High power Ar-Xe laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Gielkens, S.W.A.; Tskhai, V.N.; Peters, P.J.M.


    The discharge conditions of the multi-atmospheric e-beam sustained Ar-Xe laser are investigated. It is observed that the quasi-stationary period of a laser pulse depends on the e-beam current, the discharge power deposition and the gas density. The laser efficiency can be as high as 8%. The pulse

  1. High power beta electron device - Beyond betavoltaics. (United States)

    Ayers, William M; Gentile, Charles A


    Developing watt level power sources with beta emitting radioisotopes has been limited by the inability to utilize high energy (> 100KeV) beta emitters at high radioisotope loadings without damaging the energy conversion materials. A new type of beta electron power source is described that removes those restrictions. The approach contains the radioisotope in a beta transparent titanium tube and confines beta electrons emitted through the tube wall to spiral trajectories around the tube with an axial magnetic field. The confined beta electrons dissipate energy though multiple interactions with surrounding excimer precursor gas atoms to efficiently generate photons. Photovoltaic cells convert the photons to electrical power. Since the beta electrons dissipate energy in the excimer precursor gas, the device can be loaded with more than 1013Bq of radioisotope to generate 100 milliwatt to watt levels of electrical power without damaging the device materials or degrading its performance. The power source can use a variety of beta radioisotopes and scales by stacking the devices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. InGaAs quantum-well saturable absorbers for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1123 nm. (United States)

    Huang, J Y; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Lai, H C; Chen, Y-F; Huang, K F


    A low-loss semiconductor saturable absorber based on InGaAs quantum wells was developed for highly efficient Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1123 nm. With an incident pump power of 16 W, an average output power of 3.1 W with a Q-switched pulse width of 77 ns at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz was obtained.

  3. Efficient diode-pumped nd:LuYAG lasers on 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition using a YAG etalon (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxu; Lan, Jinglong; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun


    We report diode-pumped Nd:LuYAG mixed crystal lasers around 1.06 μm. In free running mode, single wavelength laser at 1063.88 nm is obtained with maximum output power of 8.71 W and slope efficiency of 60.4%. The laser result represents the best laser performance of Nd:LuYAG laser so far. Using an undoped YAG thin plate to act as intracavity etalon, four simultaneous dual-wavelength lasers can be yielded, i.e. 1064.12 and 1060.95 nm with maximum output power of 4.32 W and slope efficiency of about 31.6%, 1064.37 and 1072.89 nm with maximum output power of 2.06 W and slope efficiency of about 15.0%, 1063.88 and 1052.41 nm with maximum output power of 1.82 W and slope efficiency of about 14.4%, as well as 1063.88 and 1068.26 nm with maximum output power of 1.51 W and slope efficiency of about 13.1%. These dual-wavelength lasers are all generated for the first time to our knowledge in Nd:LuYAG crystal. The multiple peak structure of the Nd:LuYAG mixed crystal like Nd:YAG single crystal could be a potential laser source for THz wave generation.

  4. Laminar composite structures for high power actuators (United States)

    Hobosyan, M. A.; Martinez, P. M.; Zakhidov, A. A.; Haines, C. S.; Baughman, R. H.; Martirosyan, K. S.


    Twisted laminar composite structures for high power and large-stroke actuators based on coiled Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) composite yarns were crafted by integrating high-density Nanoenergetic Gas Generators (NGGs) into carbon nanotube sheets. The linear actuation force, resulting from the pneumatic force caused by expanding gases confined within the pores of laminar structures and twisted carbon nanotube yarns, can be further amplified by increasing NGG loading and yarns twist density, as well as selecting NGG compositions with high energy density and large-volume gas generation. Moreover, the actuation force and power can be tuned by the surrounding environment, such as to increase the actuation by combustion in ambient air. A single 300-μm-diameter integrated MWNT/NGG coiled yarn produced 0.7 MPa stress and a contractile specific work power of up to 4.7 kW/kg, while combustion front propagated along the yarn at a velocity up to 10 m/s. Such powerful yarn actuators can also be operated in a vacuum, enabling their potential use for deploying heavy loads in outer space, such as to unfold solar panels and solar sails.

  5. CW ND:YAG laser welding of dissimilar sheet metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, M


    Full Text Available A 4kW CW Nd:YAG laser was used for lap welding of three different dissimilar sheet metal combinations, namely 316L S/S - Ti64, 316L S/S - Al 5251 and Al 1200 – Cu (99.85%). A welding matrix of laser power, travel speed and spot sizes...

  6. Nd:YAG Pulsed Laser Assisted Machining of AMS 5708 Waspaloy Alloy (United States)

    Sharifi, Zahra; Shoja-Razavi, Reza; Vafaei, Reza; Hashemi, Sayed Hamid


    Due to very high strenght, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening rate, the machinability of nickel-based superalloys is poor at room temperature. Laser-assisted machining (LAM) can provide a better aspect of machining such alloys. Since the wavelength of Nd:YAG laser is about 1/10th of that of CO2 laser, absorption and heating efficiency of Nd:YAG laser is much higher on metals and especially superalloys. Transmission of Nd:YAG laser through fiber optics to the heating point on the workpiece is a simple task during machining. This makes the LAM process more convenient and practical than the CM process. In this study a model is introduced for LAM of waspaloy, and its machinability is evaluated in terms of ease of material removal. Also, a temperature generation model is introduced for the Nd:YAG laser beam. Furthemore, wear behavior of an uncoated tungsten carbide and the formed chips were compared during the LAM and the CM of waspolay. To study the wear mechanism, the worn cutting tool was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The formed chips were also evaluated via SEM and optical microscopy. Based on the results, the optimum LAM conditions were obtained at a cutting speed of 24 m/min and a feed rate of 0.06 mm/rev when a 400 W laser mean power and 80 Hz frequency are applied. Under these conditions, the temperature ahead of the cutting tool edge on the surface of workpiece was estimated to be 524°C. In comparison with CM, a significant improvement in tool wear and a better chip morphology were achieved through LAM, and also specific cutting energy and surface roughness were reduced by 25 and 20%, respectively.

  7. High specific power lithium polymer rechargeable battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.Y.; De Jonghe, L.; Visco, S. [PolyPlus Battery Co., Berkeley, CA (United States)


    PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on its proprietary positive electrode. This battery offers high steady-state (> 250 W/kg) and peak power densities (3,000 W/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. This PolyPlus lithium polymer battery also delivers high specific energy. The first generation battery has an energy density of 100 Wh/kg (120 Wh/l) and subsequent generations increases the performance in excess of 500 Wh/kg (600 Wh/l). The high power and energy densities, along with the low toxicity and low cost of materials used in the PolyPlus solid-state cell makes this battery exceptionally attractive for both hybrid and electric vehicle applications.

  8. Fabrication of Nd:YAG transparent ceramics with both TEOS and MgO additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Qin Xianpeng [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhang Jian, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang Shiwei [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ma Jan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang Lixi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang Qitu, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu Nanjing 210009 (China)


    Research highlights: > It is well known that the use of TEOS as sintering aid is required to reach fully dense and transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. However, it is difficult to produce high quality transparent Nd:YAG ceramics only using TEOS as sintering aid. In this present work, high quality transparent Nd:YAG ceramic was fabricated using both TEOS and MgO as sintering aids. There have been few reports that both TEOS and MgO were co-added as sintering aids in YAG or Nd:YAG transparent ceramics to date. The transmittance of Nd:YAG ceramic is 83.8% at 1064 nm. The effect of MgO on the optical properties of transparent ceramics was also studied. - Abstract: Neodymium doped YAG transparent ceramics were fabricated by vacuum reactive sintering method using commercial {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders as the starting materials with both tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and MgO as sintering aids. The morphologies and microstructure of the powders and Nd:YAG transparent ceramics were investigated. Fully dense Nd:YAG ceramics with average grain size of {approx}10 {mu}m were obtained by vacuum sintering at 1780 deg. C for 8 h. No pores and grain-boundary phases were observed. The in-line transmittance of the ceramic was 83.8% at 1064 nm.

  9. Website Design Guidelines: High Power Distance and High Context Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed


    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the question of offering a culturally adapted website for a local audience. So far, in the website design arena the vast majority of studies examined mainly Western and the American (low power distance and low context culture disregarding possible cultural discrepancies. This study fills this gap and explores the key cultural parameters that are likely to have an impact on local website design for Asian-Eastern culture high power distance and high context correlating with both Hofstede’s and Hall’s cultural dimensions. It also reviews how website localisation may be accomplished more effectively by extracting the guidelines from two different yet compatible cultural dimensions: high power distance and high context.

  10. Use of high-power diode lasers for hardening and thermal conduction welding of metals (United States)

    Klocke, Fritz; Demmer, Axel; Zaboklicki, A.


    CO2 and Nd:YAG high power lasers have become established as machining tools in industrial manufacturing over the last few years. The most important advantages compared to conventional processing techniques lie in the absence of forces introduced by the laser into the workpiece and in the simple arid highly accurate control in terms ofpositioning and timing making the laser a universally applicable, wear-free and extremely flexible tool /1,2/. The laser can be utilised costeffectively in numerous manufacturing processes but there are also further applications for the laser which produce excellent results from a technical point of view, but are not justified in terms of cost. The extensive use of lasers, particularly in small companies and workshops, is hindered by two main reasons: the complexity and size ofthe laser source and plant and the high investment costs /3/. A new generation of lasers, the high power diode lasers (HDL), combines high performance with a compact design, making the laser a cheap and easy to use tool with many applications /3,4,5,6/. In the diode laser, the laser beam is generated by a microelectronic diode which transforms electrical energy directly into laser energy. Diode lasers with low power outputs have, for some time, been making their mark in our everyday lives: they are used in CD players, laser printers and scanners at cash tills. Modern telecommunications would be impossible without these lasers which enable information to be transmitted in the form oflight impulses through optical fibres. They can also be found in compact precision measurement instrumentation - range fmders, interferometers and pollutant analysis devices /3,6/. In the field of material processing, the first applications ofthe laser, such as for soldering, inscribing, surface hardening and plastic or heat conduction welding, will exceed the limits ofthe relatively low performance output currently available. The diode laser has a shorter wavelength than the CO2 and

  11. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip


    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  12. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert


    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  13. Power balance in highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, G G [Osram Sylvania, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Curry, J J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    Discrepancies reported in the literature between numerical predictions and experimental measurements in low-pressure Hg discharges at high current densities are considered. Elements of a one-dimensional fluid model and recent spectroscopic and Langmuir probe measurements are combined in a semi-empirical way to individually examine components of the positive column power balance and the discharge conductivity. At a Hg vapour pressure of 0.81 Pa (6.1 mTorr) and a current density of 300 mA cm{sup -2}, previous discrepancies in the power balance and discharge conductivity are simultaneously resolved by assuming a higher electron density than that obtained from the Langmuir probe measurements. This conclusion is supported by independent measurements of ion density reported in a companion paper. The importance of radial cataphoresis under these conditions, particularly with regard to radiation transport, is highlighted. This work is of particular interest for the design of fluorescent lamps operating at high current densities.

  14. Methods for High Power EM Pulse Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiala


    Full Text Available There are some suitable methods for the measurement of ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses that can be generated by high power pulsed generators. The measurement methods properties have to correspond to the fact whether we want to measure pulses of voltage, current or free-space electromagnetic wave. The need for specific measurement methods occurred by the development of high power microwave pulse generator. Applicable methods are presented in this paper. The method utilizing Faraday's induction law allows the measurement of generated current. For the same purpose the magneto-optic method can be utilized, with its advantages. For measurement of output microwave pulse of the generator the calorimetric method was designed and realized.

  15. Creep of polycrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) at elevated temperature in air and in steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armani, C.J. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B., E-mail: [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7765 (United States); Hay, R.S.; Fair, G.E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7817 (United States); Keller, K.A. [UES Inc., Dayton, OH 45432 (United States)


    Compressive creep of high-purity polycrystalline yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was investigated at 1300 °C and 50–200 MPa in air and in steam. Compressive creep behavior of silica-doped polycrystalline YAG (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}–0.14 wt% SiO{sub 2}) was also studied. Creep specimens were microstructurally characterized by optical microscopy and TEM before and after creep. Steam slightly increased creep rates of material with grain size less than 1 μm (the undoped YAG), but otherwise had little effect. The flow stress exponent was n≈1 for both SiO{sub 2}-doped YAG and undoped YAG. Creep rates and microstructural observations are consistent with the Nabarro-Herring creep mechanism, with creep rate limited by lattice diffusion of yttrium cations (Y{sup 3+}). Silica-doped YAG had a larger grain size of 2.41 μm and lower creep rates than undoped YAG with 0.92 μm grain size. However, creep rates normalized by grain size for Nabarro-Herring creep were higher in SiO{sub 2}-doped YAG. Possible effects of SiO{sub 2} doping and steam on creep of YAG are discussed.

  16. Present and Future Trends in High Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijster, R.M.E.M. van; Schouten, J.M.


    Modern warfare requires high levels of microwave power for various applications. Semiconductors are only suitable for low and medium power levels, for high power generation microwave tubes are still the most effective solution.

  17. Modeling of a CW Nd:YVO4 laser longitudinally pumped by high power VCSEL modules at 808 nm (United States)

    Alimohammadian, E.; Major, A.


    In this work longitudinal pumping of a continuous wave (CW) Nd:YVO4 laser by high power VCSEL modules was numerically studied. Two VCSEL pump modules (6 W and 15 W) were compared. The maximum output power from a Nd:YVO4 crystal using these pump modules was calculated to be 2.5 W and 6 W, respectively, using a 10 % output coupler. The slope and optical-to-optical efficiencies in both cases were around 47% and 40%, respectively. The performance of Nd:YVO4 crystal was found to be better than that of Nd:YAG crystal. Our numerical results indicate that VCSELs can serve as efficient pump sources for the end-pumped CW Nd:YVO4 lasers.

  18. Development of laser diode pumped solid state green laser for the pumping of wavelength tunable laser. 1. Development of single-pass Nd:YAG MOPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Kato, Masaaki; Oba, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    For the pumping of wavelength tunable laser, a high repetition rate, high average power solid state laser pumped by a high duty laser diode (LD) array has been developed. The solid state laser using Nd:YAG zigzag slab crystals consists of an oscillator and an amplifier. Using this Nd:YAG MOPA system, the maximum fundamental average power of 33 W is obtained. The wavefront distortion of amplified laser beam is within 0.3 wavelength. M{sup 2} measured is about 1.5 which means the laser beam is near diffraction limited. By using nonlinear crystals, fundamental laser radiation is converted to second, third and fourth harmonics. The average power is 15.5 W at 532 nm, 1.2 W at 355 nm and 2.3 W at 266 nm. The beam quality of the second harmonic is good. With the measurement of the laser parameters, it is confirmed that the high repetition rate, high power and high quality second harmonic can be produced by the LD pumped Nd:YAG laser MOPA system. (author)

  19. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar


    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish......, is provided by the hour-ahead power balancing model, i.e. Simulation power Balancing model (SimBa. The regulating power plan is prepared from day-ahead power production plan and hour-ahead wind power forecast. The wind power (forecasts and available) are provided by the Correlated Wind power fluctuations (Cor...

  20. Soldadura de aleaciones de aluminio con láseres de Nd:YAG de alta potencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Orza, J. A.


    Full Text Available Aluminium alloys have good mechanical properties (high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance and good workability. Their applications are growing up, specially in the transportation industry. Weldability is however poorer than in other materials; recent advances in high power YAG lasers are the key to obtain good appearance welds and higher penetration, at industrial production rates. Results of the combination of high power YAG beams with small fiber diameters and specific filler wires are presented. It is also characterized the airborne particulated material, by-product of the laser process: emission rates, size distribution and chemical composition are given for several aluminium alloys.

    El uso del Al y sus aleaciones es creciente en la fabricación de vehículos de transporte. Su soldabilidad es menor que la de otros materiales y las aleaciones presentan cierta disminución de propiedades por pérdida de aleantes y/o de su tratamiento térmico. Se revisa brevemente el uso de láseres de Nd:YAG de potencia en soldeo de aleaciones de aluminio y se presentan resultados de la combinación de haces de potencia guiados por fibras de pequeño diámetro, con focos ligeramente superpuestos en la pieza. Finalmente, se caracterizan los humos producidos en la soldadura con láser continuo de 2 kW.

  1. High Power Argon, Nitrogen Plasma Torches (United States)

    Hakki, A.; Kashapov, N.; Sadikov, K.


    The paper describes a high power supply for Argon and Nitrogen plasma torches. A high frequency was used in order to drive the pulse width modulation circuit. The average output current consumption (AOCC) was modified from 20A up to 80A by increasing the pulse width from 2μsec up to 3μsec for Argon gas plasma torches. The (AOCC) was reduced from 70A down to 25A by increasing the pulse width from 6μsec up to 8μsec in the case of Nitrogen gas plasma torches.

  2. High Voltage Power Supply With High Output Current and Low Power Consumption for Photomultiplier Tubes (United States)

    Cunha, José Paulo V. S.; Begalli, Marcia; Bellar, Maria Dias


    In some applications, photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are powered by battery based circuits, where the available energy is severely limited. The most simple approach to design high voltage power supplies (HVPS) for PMTs has considered resistive voltage dividers in order to bias the dynodes. However, this approach usually results in high power losses and, consequently, this undermines the PMT performance. In this work, the proposed solution is the use of a power circuit based on the forward converter connected to a transformer built with several secondary windings. Each secondary voltage is rectified and filtered to eliminate voltage ripple. Each dynode voltage is supplied by a rectified secondary voltage. The proposed topology provides low power consumption as well as low sensitivity of the PMT gain with respect to the dynode currents. Taking into account the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE), this HVPS has been designed to allow the recycling of old PMTs.

  3. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg


    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  4. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D


    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  5. Optimized VCSELs for high-power arrays (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Kolb, Johanna S.; Engelhardt, Andreas P.; Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, Roland; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Weichmann, Ulrich; Witzigmann, Bernd


    High-power VCSEL systems with multi kilowatt output power require a good electro-optical efficiency at the point of operation i.e. at elevated temperature. The large number of optimization parameters can be structured in a way that separates system and assembly considerations from the minimization of electrical and optical losses in the epitaxially grown structure. Temperature dependent functions for gain parameters, internal losses and injection efficiency are derived from a fit to experimental data. The empirical description takes into account diameter dependent effects like current spreading or temperature dependent ones like voltage drops over hetero-interfaces in the DBR mirrors. By evaluating experimental measurements of the light output and voltage characteristics over a large range of temperature and diameter, wafer-characteristic parameters are extracted allowing to predict the performance of VCSELs made from this material in any array and assembly configuration. This approach has several beneficial outcomes: Firstly, it gives a general description of a VCSEL independent of its geometry, mounting and detuning, secondly, insights into the structure and the underlying physics can be gained that lead to the improvement potential of the structure and thirdly the performance of the structure in arrays and modules can be predicted. Experimental results validate the approach and demonstrate the significantly improved VCSEL efficiency and the benefit in high power systems.

  6. Conformal optical elements for correcting wavefront distortions in YAG : Nd{sup 3+} active elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolkov, V P; Nasyrov, R K; Poleshchuk, A G; Arapov, Yu D; Ivanov, A F


    Correction of the wavefront is studied for the light beam passing wide-aperture YAG : Nd3+ single-crystal rods, which are used as active elements in high-power solid-state lasers. A nonideal character of the crystal structure is responsible for the deformation of the wavefront of passing radiation. By using the halftone technology we have developed conformal aberration correctors capable of compensating rod nonuniformities and reducing the laser radiation divergence by an order of magnitude. The results obtained make it possible to employ optically nonuniform active elements in laser constructions. (laser optics 2012)

  7. Digitally Controlled High Availability Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNair, David; /SLAC


    This paper reports the design and test results on novel topology, high-efficiency, and low operating temperature, 1,320-watt power modules for high availability power supplies. The modules permit parallel operation for N+1 redundancy with hot swap capability. An embedded DSP provides intelligent start-up and shutdown, output regulation, general control and fault detection. PWM modules in the DSP drive the FET switches at 20 to 100 kHz. The DSP also ensures current sharing between modules, synchronized switching, and soft start up for hot swapping. The module voltage and current have dedicated ADCs (>200 kS/sec) to provide pulse-by-pulse output control. A Dual CAN bus interface provides for low cost redundant control paths. Over-rated module components provide high reliability and high efficiency at full load. Low on-resistance FETs replace conventional diodes in the buck regulator. Saturable inductors limit the FET reverse diode current during switching. The modules operate in a two-quadrant mode, allowing bipolar output from complimentary module groups. Controllable, low resistance FETs at the input and output provide fault isolation and allow module hot swapping.

  8. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses (United States)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir


    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  9. Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism. (United States)

    Chan, Kin Foong; Lee, Ho; Teichman, Joel M H; Kamerer, Angela; McGuff, H Stan; Vargas, Gracie; Welch, Ashley J


    We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of long pulse erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy is photothermal. Human urinary calculi were placed in deionized water and irradiated with erbium:YAG laser energy delivered through a sapphire optical fiber. Erbium:YAG bubble dynamics were visualized with Schlieren flash photography and correlated to acoustic emissions measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride needle hydrophone. The sapphire fiber was placed either parallel or perpendicular to the calculus surface to assess the contribution of acoustic transients to fragmentation. Stones were irradiated using desiccated stone irradiated in air, hydrated stone irradiated in air and hydrated stone irradiated in water. Ablation crater sizes were compared. Uric acid stones were irradiated in water and the water was assayed for cyanide. During the early phase of vapor bubble expansion, acoustic transients had minimal effects on calculus fragmentation. Fragmentation occurred due to direct absorption of laser energy transmitted to the calculus through the vapor channel between the sapphire fiber tip and calculus. The forward axial expansion of the bubble occurred more rapidly than the radial expansion. A parallel oriented fiber on the calculus surface produced no fragmentation but generated larger amplitude acoustic transients compared to perpendicular orientation. In perpendicular orientation the erbium:YAG laser did not generate any collapse acoustic waves but fragmentation occurred. Crater width was greatest for desiccated stones irradiated in air (p <0.03). Cyanide production increased as erbium:YAG irradiation of uric acid calculi increased, (r2 = 0.98). The erbium:YAG laser fragments stones through a photothermal mechanism.

  10. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...... to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...

  11. High power singlemode edge-emitting master oscillator power amplifier (United States)

    O'Brien, S.; Parke, R.; Welch, D. F.; Mehuys, D.; Scifres, D.


    An edge-emitting monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier (M-MOPA) has been fabricated by integrating a distributed Bragg reflector laser with a 500 microns long single mode amplifier. The M-MOPA contains a strained InGaAs quantum well in the active region and operates at about 981.5 nm in an edge-emitting fashion with maximum powers in excess of 175 mW. Single longitudinal and transverse mode operation is maintained to powers in excess of 110 mW CW.

  12. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.


    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  13. Recent progress in high power ultrafast MIXSELs (United States)

    Alfieri, C. G. E.; Waldburger, D.; Link, S. M.; Gini, E.; Golling, M.; Tilma, B. W.; Mangold, M.; Keller, U.


    The modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL) is the most compact technology of ultrafast semiconductor disk laser, combining in the same epitaxial structure an active region and a saturable absorber for stable and self-starting passive modelocking in a linear straight cavity. Here we present the first MIXSEL structure able to produce sub-300-fs pulses at an average output power of 235 mW and 3.35 GHz pulse repetition rate, resulting in a record-high peak power of 240 W. At 10 GHz repetition rate the same MIXSEL generated 279-fs pulses with 310 mW of average output power. An optimized antireflection coating for dispersion minimization together with a reduced field enhancement inside the structure enabled the sensible improvement and the record performances of this novel MIXSEL. Furthermore, thanks to the development of suitable saturable absorbers with fast recovery dynamics and low saturation fluence, we demonstrate the first entirely MOVPE-grown MIXSEL.

  14. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin


    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  15. Low power, scalable multichannel high voltage controller (United States)

    Stamps, James Frederick [Livermore, CA; Crocker, Robert Ward [Fremont, CA; Yee, Daniel Dadwa [Dublin, CA; Dils, David Wright [Fort Worth, TX


    A low voltage control circuit is provided for individually controlling high voltage power provided over bus lines to a multitude of interconnected loads. An example of a load is a drive for capillary channels in a microfluidic system. Control is distributed from a central high voltage circuit, rather than using a number of large expensive central high voltage circuits to enable reducing circuit size and cost. Voltage is distributed to each individual load and controlled using a number of high voltage controller channel switches connected to high voltage bus lines. The channel switches each include complementary pull up and pull down photo isolator relays with photo isolator switching controlled from the central high voltage circuit to provide a desired bus line voltage. Switching of the photo isolator relays is further controlled in each channel switch using feedback from a resistor divider circuit to maintain the bus voltage swing within desired limits. Current sensing is provided using a switched resistive load in each channel switch, with switching of the resistive loads controlled from the central high voltage circuit.

  16. LD-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched burst-mode Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Pan, Hu; Yan, Renpeng; Li, Xudong; Ma, Yufei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying


    A high-repetition-rate, high-peak-power burst-mode laser for laser-based measurement applications is presented by using a master oscillator power amplifier structure. An laser diode arrays (LDA) side-pumped Nd:YAG acousto-optical (A-O) Q-switched laser serves as the master oscillator. Under pulsed pumping, pulse trains with 2-25 pulses are obtained when the repetition rate changes from 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The maximum pulse burst energy of 31.2 mJ is achieved in the A-O Q-switched pulse burst laser oscillator at 10 kHz. Two LDA side pumped Nd:YAG modules are employed in the amplification stage. After the amplification, the pulse burst energy at 10 kHz reaches ~170 mJ with a single pulse energy of 85.2 mJ and a pulse width of 14.5 ns, generating a peak power of 6.1 MW. At 100 kHz, the total burst energy reaches 220 mJ with a single pulse energy of 8.8 mJ in the pulse burst laser system.

  17. Cooperative Clinical Trial of Photodynamic Therapy for Early Gastric Cancer With Photofrin Injection and YAG-OPO Laser. (United States)

    Mimura, S; Narahara, H; Hirashima, T; Fukutomi, H; Nakahara, A; Kashimura, H; Matsui, H; Tanimura, H; Nagai, Y; Suzuki, S; Murata, Y; Yoshida, K; Isono, K; Kozu, T; Ide, H; Kato, H


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treats malignant tumors using photosensitizers and light. We employed a new pulse laser as the excitation light source for PDT, i.e. an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, because it provides extremely high peak power. The effects of PDT using the photosensitizer Photofrin((R)) and the new laser were evaluated in 12 patients with early gastric cancer. Complete responses (CR) were obtained in 75% of 12 assessable patients, CR was observed in all cases with mucosal carcinoma (response rate 100%).Regarding toxicity, mild photosensitivity was seen in one case and it lasted several weeks. The other major side effect was decrease of total protein, which was observed in six patients (40%), lasting several months. There were no serious abnormalities in symptoms or laboratory tests. We conclude that the YAG-OPO laser is suitable as an excitation light source for PDT.

  18. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries (United States)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  19. High Pressure Microwave Powered UV Light Sources (United States)

    Cekic, M.; Frank, J. D.; Popovic, S.; Wood, C. H.


    Industrial microwave powered (*electrodeless*) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of 300 Torr of buffer gas and metal- halide fills. Recently developed multi-atmospheric electronegative bu lb fills (noble gas-halide excimers, metal halide) require electric field s for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. For these fills an auxiliary ignition system is necessary. The most successful scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to it's operating poin t Standard diagnostic techniques of high density discharges are inapplicable to the excimer bulbs, because of the ionic molecular exci ted state structure and absence of self-absorption. The method for temperature determination is based on the equilibrium population of certain vibrational levels of excimer ionic excited states. Electron d ensity was determined from the measurements of Stark profiles of H_β radiation from a small amount of hydrogen mixed with noble gas and halogens. At the present time, high pressure (Te 0.5eV, ne 3 x 10^17 cm-3) production bulbs produce over 900W of radiation in a 30nm band, centered at 30nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce 1 kW of radiation in 30nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  20. Platelet derived growth factor secretion and bone healing after Er:YAG laser bone irradiation. (United States)

    Kesler, Gavriel; Shvero, Dana Kesler; Tov, Yariv Siman; Romanos, George


    Er:YAG laser irradiation has been reported to enhance wound healing. However, no studies have evaluated the synthesis of growth factors after laser irradiation. The present study investigated the effects of laser irradiation on the amount of secretion of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) in the wound, clarifying the effects of the Er:YAG laser on the bone healing. Osteotomies were prepared in the tibiae of 28 rats using an Er:YAG laser (test group). Maximum power of 8 watts, energy per pulse of 700 mJ, and frequency up to 50 Hz were used. The laser was used with external water irrigation, a spot size of 2 mm, energy per pulse of 500 to 1000 mJ/pulse, and energy density of 32 J/cm(2). Twenty eight additional rats served as a control group and their osteotomies were prepared with a drill 1.3 mm in diameter at 1000 rpm, with simultaneous saline irrigation. Two rats from the tested group and 2 from the control group were sacrificed on each day following surgery (1-14 days), and the tissue specimens were prepared for histologic evaluation. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-PDGF was performed after histologic examination. The difference between the PDGF staining intensities of the 2 treatment groups was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression test. A significant rise in PDGF staining occurred in both groups 2-3 days following surgery. However, while high PDGF counts remained for the 2-week experimental period in the laser group, PDGF levels in the control group returned to baseline levels 8 days post surgery. The 2 groups (laser and control) were found to be different throughout the experiment, and the rat type was found to be a significant predictor (P  =  .000011). The present study demonstrated that Er:YAG laser irradiation seems to stimulate the secretion of PDGF in osteotomy sites in a rat model. It is possible that the high levels of PDGF are part of the mechanism that Er:YAG irradiation enhances and improves the healing of

  1. Design and characterization of a novel power over fiber system integrating a high power diode laser (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsein; Zahuranec, Terry


    High power 9xx nm diode lasers along with MH GoPower's (MHGP's) flexible line of Photovoltaic Power Converters (PPCs) are spurring high power applications for power over fiber (PoF), including applications for powering remote sensors and sensors monitoring high voltage equipment, powering high voltage IGBT gate drivers, converters used in RF over Fiber (RFoF) systems, and system power applications, including powering UAVs. In PoF, laser power is transmitted over fiber, and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells (packaged into Photovoltaic Power Converters, or PPCs) which efficiently convert the laser light. In this research, we design a high power multi-channel PoF system, incorporating a high power 976 nm diode laser, a cabling system with fiber break detection, and a multichannel PPC-module. We then characterizes system features such as its response time to system commands, the PPC module's electrical output stability, the PPC-module's thermal response, the fiber break detection system response, and the diode laser optical output stability. The high power PoF system and this research will serve as a scalable model for those interested in researching, developing, or deploying a high power, voltage isolated, and optically driven power source for high reliability utility, communications, defense, and scientific applications.

  2. High-Voltage, High-Power Gaseous Electronics Switch For Electric Grid Power Conversion (United States)

    Sommerer, Timothy J.


    We are developing a high-voltage, high-power gas switch for use in low-cost power conversion terminals on the electric power grid. Direct-current (dc) power transmission has many advantages over alternating current (ac) transmission, but at present the high cost of ac-dc power interconversion limits the use of dc. The gas switch we are developing conducts current through a magnetized cold cathode plasma in hydrogen or helium to reach practical current densities > 1 A/cm2. Thermal and sputter damage of the cathode by the incident ion flux is a major technical risk, and is being addressed through use of a ``self-healing'' liquid metal cathode (eg, gallium). Plasma conditions and cathode sputtering loss are estimated by analyzing plasma spectral emission. A particle-in-cell plasma model is used to understand various aspects of switch operation, including the conduction phase (where plasma densities can exceed 1013 cm-3), the switch-open phase (where the high-voltage must be held against gas breakdown on the left side of Paschen's curve), and the switching transitions (especially the opening process, which is initiated by forming an ion-matrix sheath adjacent to a control grid). The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000298.

  3. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    assessments of these specific VSCs so that their power densities and reliabilities are quantitatively determined, which requires extensive utilization of the electro-thermal models of the VSCs under investigation. In this thesis, the three-level neutral-point-clamped VSCs (3L-NPC-VSCs), which are classified...

  4. High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV40 Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)


    TIAX has developed long-life lithium-ion cells that can meet and exceed the energy and power targets (200Wh/kg and 800W/kg pulse power) set out by DOE for PHEV40 batteries. To achieve these targets, we selected and scaled-up a high capacity version of our proprietary high energy and high power CAM-7® cathode material. We paired the cathode with a blended anode containing Si-based anode material capable of delivering high capacity and long life. Furthermore, we optimized the anode blend composition, cathode and anode electrode design, and selected binder and electrolyte compositions to achieve not only the best performance, but also long life. By implementing CAM-7 with a Si-based blended anode, we built and tested prototype 18650 cells that delivered measured specific energy of 198Wh/kg total energy and 845W/kg at 10% SOC (projected to 220Wh/kg in state-of-the-art 18650 cell hardware and 250Wh/kg in 15Ah pouch cells). These program demonstration cells achieved 90% capacity retention after 500 cycles in on-going cycle life testing. Moreover, we also tested the baseline CAM-7/graphite system in 18650 cells showing that 70% capacity retention can be achieved after ~4000 cycles (20 months of on-going testing). Ultimately, by simultaneously meeting the PHEV40 power and energy targets and providing long life, we have developed a Li-ion battery system that is smaller, lighter, and less expensive than current state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries.

  5. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens


    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  6. High-Power Helicon Double Gun Thruster (United States)

    Murakami, Nao

    While chemical propulsion is necessary to launch a spacecraft from a planetary surface into space, electric propulsion has the potential to provide significant cost savings for the orbital transfer of payloads between planets. Due to extended wave particle interactions, a plasma thruster that can operate in the 100 kW to several MW power regime can only be attained by increasing the size of the thruster, or by using an array of plasma thrusters. The High-Power Helicon (HPH) Double Gun thruster experiment examines whether firing two helicon thrusters in parallel produces an exhaust velocity higher than the exhaust velocity of a single thruster. The scaling law that relates the downstream plasma velocity with the number of helicon antennae is derived, and compared with the experimental result. In conjunction with data analysis, two digital filtering algorithms are developed to filter out the noise from helicon antennae. The scaling law states that the downstream plasma velocity is proportional to square root of the number of helicon antennae, which is in agreement with the experimental result.

  7. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei


    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.



    Hristina Lalabonova; Stefka Peycheva; Petrov, P.


    High energy lasers are used as an alternative to conventional surgery for treatment of oral leukoplakia. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effectiveness of Nd-YAG laser as treatment for oral leukoplakia. Seventeen patients were followed-up with oral leukoplakia for the period 2005-2011. Nd–YAG laser was used with following parameters: λ - 1 064 nm, 10 - 15 W, Т 40 - 70 sec. Early postoperative results were monitored considering criteria pain, redness, swelling each 1, 3, 7 days. The...

  9. Innovations in high power fiber laser applications (United States)

    Beyer, Eckhard; Mahrle, Achim; Lütke, Matthias; Standfuss, Jens; Brückner, Frank


    Diffraction-limited high power lasers represent a new generation of lasers for materials processing, characteristic traits of which are: smaller, cost-effective and processing "on the fly". Of utmost importance is the high beam quality of fiber lasers which enables us to reduce the size of the focusing head incl. scanning mirrors. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a lot of new applications. In the field of remote cutting and welding the beam quality is the key parameter. By reducing the size of the focusing head including the scanning mirrors we can reach scanning frequencies up to 1.5 kHz and in special configurations up to 4 kHz. By using these frequencies very thin and deep welding seams can be generated experienced so far with electron beam welding only. The excellent beam quality of the fiber laser offers a high potential for developing new applications from deep penetration welding to high speed cutting. Highly dynamic cutting systems with maximum speeds up to 300 m/min and accelerations up to 4 g reduce the cutting time for cutting complex 2D parts. However, due to the inertia of such systems the effective cutting speed is reduced in real applications. This is especially true if complex shapes or contours are cut. With the introduction of scanner-based remote cutting systems in the kilowatt range, the effective cutting speed on the contour can be dramatically increased. The presentation explains remote cutting of metal foils and sheets using high brightness single mode fiber lasers. The presentation will also show the effect of optical feedback during cutting and welding with the fiber laser, how those feedbacks could be reduced and how they have to be used to optimize the cutting or welding process.

  10. Evaluation of microleakage occurred in class V restoration prepared with Er:YAG laser and also with high speed, restored using composite; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao em cavidades classe V preparada com laser de Er:YAG ou alta rotacao, jateadas ou nao com bicarbonato de sodio e restauradas com resina composta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Angelo Maercio Finochio


    The microleakage is one of the great problems found in restoring dentistry. In spite of adhesive system evolution, several materials have been studied intending to minimize or to eliminate the microleakage occurred between the tooth and restorative material. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal microleakage in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or high speed and restored with composite resin. One of the groups received the sodium bicarbonate jet while the other group have not received. Twenty teeth third extracted molars were sectioned in the sense medial-distal being obtained forty samples that were divided in four groups: Group I (G1): prepared with Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), E= 350 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 112,5 J/cm{sup 2}. Preparing occlusion margin slice with 250 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 80,3 J/cm{sup 2}. The prepared total area was irradiated with E=80 mJ/p, F=2 Hz and fluency of 25,75 J/cm{sup 2}. Every prepared area was finally submitted to sodium bicarbonate jet. Group 2 (G2): it was employed the same parameters used on group 1, except the sodium carbonate jet application. Group 3 (G3): the cavities' prepare were executed with high speed rotation using diamond cylindrical point. The slice confection has been made with the same point with 45 degrees inclined, utilizing also the sodium carbonate jet in all prepared area. Group 4 (G4): it was executed similarly prepared to group 3, without the sodium bicarbonate jet. In all the groups the cavities were washed with water spray and drought with air jet. Dentin and enamel surfaces have been conditioned with phosphoric acid at 35%. All the samples of all groups were restored using the single bond system adhesive and composite resin Z250, kept at 37 deg C in stove during 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in silver nitrate solution at 50% for 24 hours while kept in darkness. The specimens were soaked in photo developing solution and exposed to fluorescent

  11. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.10.091001


    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  12. High power solid state laser modulator (United States)

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.


    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  13. Luminescence properties in the visible of Dy:YAG/YAG planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimczak, M., E-mail: [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowski, M. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sarnecki, J. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Telekomunikacja Polska Research and Development Centre, Obrzezna 7, 02-691 Warsaw (Poland)


    In this work, we investigate visible emission properties of dysprosium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) waveguides prepared by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method, which allowed obtaining samples of activator concentrations ranging from 0.2 at% up to ca. 18 at%. This unique set of Dy:YAG/YAG waveguides has been carefully examined by means of highly resolved laser spectroscopy to explore the luminescence properties in the visible (yellow-blue) part of spectrum. In particular, the low-temperature absorption spectra have been recorded and analyzed, giving a more detailed information on energy levels' positions in these crystals. The concentration-dependant emission spectra and fluorescence dynamics profiles have been collected under direct excitation, enabling analysis of multi-ion processes responsible for concentration quenching. This, in turn, enabled optimization of activator concentration with respect to yellow emission efficiency. Additionally, the possible IR to visible up-conversion pathways have been discussed, giving a starting point for further investigations.

  14. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.


    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  15. Facet engineering of high power single emitters (United States)

    Yanson, Dan; Levi, Moshe; Shamay, Moshe; Tesler, Renana; Rappaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Karni, Yoram; Schnitzer, Itzhak; Sicron, Noam; Shusterman, Sergey


    The ever increasing demand for high-power, high-reliability operation of single emitters at 9xx nm wavelengths requires the development of laser diodes with improved facet regions immune to both catastrophic and wear-out failure modes. In our study, we have evaluated several laser facet definition technologies in application to 90 micron aperture single emitters in asymmetric design (In)GaAs/AlGaAs based material emitting at 915, 925 and 980nm. A common epitaxy and emitter design makes for a straightforward comparison of the facet technologies investigated. Our study corroborates a clear trend of increasing difficulty in obtaining reliable laser operation from 980nm down to 915nm. At 980nm, one can employ dielectric facet passivation with a pre-clean cycle delivering a device lifetime in excess of 3,000 hours at increasing current steps. At 925nm, quantum-well intermixing can be used to define non-absorbing mirrors giving good device reliability, albeit with a large efficiency penalty. Vacuum cleaved emitters have delivered excellent reliability at 915nm, and can be expected to perform just as well at 925 and 980nm. Epitaxial regrowth of laser facets is under development and has yet to demonstrate an appreciable reliability improvement. Only a weak correlation between start-of-life catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) levels and reliability was established. The optimized facet design has delivered maximum powers in excess of 19 MW/ (rollover limited) and product-grade 980nm single emitters with a slope efficiency of >1 W/A and a peak efficiency of >60%. The devices have accumulated over 1,500 hours of CW operation at 11W. A fiber-coupled device emits 10W ex-fiber with 47% efficiency.

  16. Robust modeling and performance analysis of high-power diode side-pumped solid-state laser systems. (United States)

    Kashef, Tamer; Ghoniemy, Samy; Mokhtar, Ayman


    In this paper, we present an enhanced high-power extrinsic diode side-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) model to accurately predict the dynamic operations and pump distribution under different practical conditions. We introduce a new implementation technique for the proposed model that provides a compelling incentive for the performance assessment and enhancement of high-power diode side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers using cooperative agents and by relying on the MATLAB, GLAD, and Zemax ray tracing software packages. A large-signal laser model that includes thermal effects and a modified laser gain formulation and incorporates the geometrical pump distribution for three radially arranged arrays of laser diodes is presented. The design of a customized prototype diode side-pumped high-power laser head fabricated for the purpose of testing is discussed. A detailed comparative experimental and simulation study of the dynamic operation and the beam characteristics that are used to verify the accuracy of the proposed model for analyzing the performance of high-power DPSSLs under different conditions are discussed. The simulated and measured results of power, pump distribution, beam shape, and slope efficiency are shown under different conditions and for a specific case, where the targeted output power is 140 W, while the input pumping power is 400 W. The 95% output coupler reflectivity showed good agreement with the slope efficiency, which is approximately 35%; this assures the robustness of the proposed model to accurately predict the design parameters of practical, high-power DPSSLs.

  17. Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter


    The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits use...

  18. Overview of the HiLASE project: high average power pulsed DPSSL systems for research and industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divoký, Martin; Smrž, Martin; Chyla, Michal; Sikocinski, Pawel; Severová, Patricie; Novák, Ondřej; Huynh, Jaroslav; Nagisetty, Siva S.; Miura, Taisuke; Pilař, Jan; Slezák, Jiří; Sawicka, Magdalena; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Vanda, Jan; Endo, Akira; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mason, P.D.; Phillips, P.J.; Ertel, K.; Banerjee, S.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Collier, J.L.; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 2, SI (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : DPSSL * Yb3C:YAG * thin-disk * multi-slab * pulsed high average power laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. The effect of process parameters on keyhole welding with a 400 W Nd : YAG pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkamany, M J [Paya Partov Laser Research Centre, PO Box 14665-576, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedi, M J [Metallurgical Engineering Group, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Malek, F [Metallurgical Engineering Group, Tarbiat Modares University, PO Box 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabbaghzadeh, J [Paya Partov Laser Research Centre, PO Box 14665-576, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A low average power pulsed Nd : YAG laser is used for bead-on-plate welding of low carbon steel plate. The criterion for welding in the conduction and keyhole regime together with the effect of laser process parameters on weld quality is studied. It is established that for a weld with full penetration and velocities viable for industrial applications, welding in the conduction mode would not be suitable. The formation of a keyhole is found to be highly dependent on laser pulse parameters. With an average power in the range 220-240 W and a peak power of 1.8 kW, full penetration through keyhole generation of a 0.7 mm thick st14 sheet metal is achieved.

  20. The effect of process parameters on keyhole welding with a 400 W Nd : YAG pulsed laser (United States)

    Torkamany, M. J.; Hamedi, M. J.; Malek, F.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.


    A low average power pulsed Nd : YAG laser is used for bead-on-plate welding of low carbon steel plate. The criterion for welding in the conduction and keyhole regime together with the effect of laser process parameters on weld quality is studied. It is established that for a weld with full penetration and velocities viable for industrial applications, welding in the conduction mode would not be suitable. The formation of a keyhole is found to be highly dependent on laser pulse parameters. With an average power in the range 220-240 W and a peak power of 1.8 kW, full penetration through keyhole generation of a 0.7 mm thick st14 sheet metal is achieved.

  1. Switching transients in high-frequency high-power converters using power MOSFET's (United States)

    Sloane, T. H.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.


    The use of MOSFETs in a high-frequency high-power dc-to-dc converter is investigated. Consideration is given to the phenomena associated with the paralleling of MOSFETs and to the effect of stray circuit inductances on the converter circuit performance. Analytical relationships between various time constants during the turning-on and turning-off intervals are derived which provide estimates of plateau and peak levels during these intervals.

  2. Effects of Nd:YAG laser pulse frequency on the surface treatment of Ti 6Al 4V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursel, Ali [International University of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    The desirable properties of titanium and titanium alloys, including excellent corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio and high operating temperature, have led to their successful application in various fields such as the medical and aerospace industries. Among the reliable treatment techniques, laser welding can provide significant advantages for the titanium alloys because of its precision, rapid processing capability and ability to control the welding parameters and their effects. The morphology and the quality of pulsed seam welds are directly or synergistically influenced by the Nd:YAG laser parameters of pulse shape, energy, duration, travel speed, peak power and frequency of repetition. In this study, a 1.5 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheet surface was treated by SigmaLaser {sup registered} 300 Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The influence of the pulse frequency on seam morphology and surface effects was then investigated. The seam and surface quality were characterized in terms of weld morphology and microhardness. The results showed that, for Nd:YAG laser seams used for surface treatment, pulse repetition was more effective on the cooling rate than had been expected.

  3. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.


    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  4. High RF Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Adli, E; Taborelli, M


    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous mode. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and delivered to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability and main linac RF power needs. Another requirement is to provide local RF power termination in case of accelerating structure failure (ON/OFF capability). Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design

  5. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines


    Postolati V.; Bycova Е.; Suslov V.; Timashova L.; Shakarian Yu.; Kareva S.


    Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL) constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL), appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced ...

  6. Nd:YAG laser treatment of tumors of the oropharynx (United States)

    Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.; Werner, Jochen A.


    laser for the excision of tumors in highly vascularized regions like e.g. the tongue, the floor of the mouth and the oropharynx. The functional and oncologic results which were achieved with this method in the treatment of carcinomas of the tongue are so convincing that the CO2 laser has been replaced in our department by the Nd:YAG laser for the indications mentioned above. Tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx on the other hand remain to stay a domain of CO2 laser surgery.

  7. High-Speed Low Power Design in CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Arfan; Usmani, S. H.; Stassen, Flemming


    Static CMOS design displays benefits such as low power consumption, dominated by dynamic power consumption. In contrast, MOS Current Mode Logic (MCML) displays static rather than dynamic power consumption. High-speed low-power design is one of the many application areas in VLSI that require...

  8. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation


    Hojong Choi; Park Chul Woo; Jung-Yeol Yeom; Changhan Yoon


    A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA) used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reduci...

  9. Power Moves Beyond Complementarity: A Staring Look Elicits Avoidance in Low Power Perceivers and Approach in High Power Perceivers (United States)

    Weick, Mario; McCall, Cade; Blascovich, Jim


    Sustained, direct eye-gaze—staring—is a powerful cue that elicits strong responses in many primate and nonprimate species. The present research examined whether fleeting experiences of high and low power alter individuals’ spontaneous responses to the staring gaze of an onlooker. We report two experimental studies showing that sustained, direct gaze elicits spontaneous avoidance tendencies in low power perceivers and spontaneous approach tendencies in high power perceivers. These effects emerged during interactions with different targets and when power was manipulated between-individuals (Study 1) and within-individuals (Study 2), thus attesting to a high degree of flexibility in perceivers’ reactions to gaze cues. Together, the present findings indicate that power can break the cycle of complementarity in individuals’ spontaneous responding: Low power perceivers complement and move away from, and high power perceivers reciprocate and move toward, staring onlookers. PMID:28903712

  10. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia


    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  11. The SPES High Power ISOL production target (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.


    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  12. High Precision Current Measurement for Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira Bastos, M


    The accurate measurement of power converter currents is essential to controlling and delivering stable and repeatable currents to magnets in particle accelerators. This paper reviews the most commonly used devices for the measurement of power converter currents and discusses test and calibration methods.

  13. Laboratory Astrophysics on High Power Lasers and Pulsed Power Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remington, B A


    Over the past decade a new genre of laboratory astrophysics has emerged, made possible by the new high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as large lasers, z-pinch generators, and high current particle accelerators. (Remington, 1999; 2000; Drake, 1998; Takabe, 2001) On these facilities, macroscopic collections of matter can be created in astrophysically relevant conditions, and its collective properties measured. Examples of processes and issues that can be experimentally addressed include compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiative shocks, radiation flow, high Mach-number jets, complex opacities, photoionized plasmas, equations of state of highly compressed matter, and relativistic plasmas. These processes are relevant to a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as supernovae and supernova remnants, astrophysical jets, radiatively driven molecular clouds, accreting black holes, planetary interiors, and gamma-ray bursts. These phenomena will be discussed in the context of laboratory astrophysics experiments possible on existing and future HED facilities.

  14. Radiation of long and high power arcs (United States)

    Cressault, Y.; Bauchire, J. M.; Hong, D.; Rabat, H.; Riquel, G.; Sanchez, F.; Gleizes, A.


    The operators working on electrical installations of low, medium and high voltages can be accidentally exposed to short-circuit arcs ranging from a few kA to several tens of kA. To protect them from radiation, according to the exposure limits, we need to characterize the radiation emitted by the powerful arc. Therefore, we have developed a general experimental and numerical study in order to estimate the spectral irradiance received at a given distance from the arc. The experimental part was based on a very long arc (up to 2 m) with high ac current (between 4 and 40 kA rms, duration 100 ms) using 3 kinds of metallic contacts (copper, steel and aluminium). We measured the irradiance received 10m from the axis of the arc, and integrated on 4 spectral intervals corresponding to the UV, visible, IRA  +  B and IRC. The theoretical part consisted of calculating the radiance of isothermal plasmas in mixtures of air and metal vapour, integrated over the same spectral intervals as defined in the experiments. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental results has allowed the defining of three isothermal radiation sources whose combination leads to a spectral irradiation equivalent to the experimental one. Then the calculation allowed the deduction of the spectral description of the irradiance over all the wavelength range, between 200 nm and 20 μm. The final results indicate that the influence of metal is important in the visible and UVA ranges whereas the IR radiation is due to the air plasma and surrounding hot gas and fumes.

  15. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I V


    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  16. High-power converters for space applications (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy


    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  17. Development of laser diode-pumped high average power solid-state laser for the pumping of Ti:sapphire CPA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoichiro; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Harayama, Sayaka; Oba, Masaki; Matoba, Tohru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    Laser diode pumped all solid state, high repetition frequency (PRF) and high energy Nd:YAG laser using zigzag slab crystals has been developed for the pumping source of Ti:sapphire CPA system. The pumping laser installs two main amplifiers which compose ring type amplifier configuration. The maximum amplification gain of the amplifier system is 140 and the condition of saturated amplification is achieved with this high gain. The average power of fundamental laser radiation is 250 W at the PRF of 200 Hz and the pulse duration is around 20 ns. The average power of second harmonic is 105 W at the PRF of 170 Hz and the pulse duration is about 16 ns. The beam profile of the second harmonic is near top hat and will be suitable for the pumping of Ti:sapphire laser crystal. The wall plug efficiency of the laser is 2.0 %. (author)

  18. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'; Analise comparativa da reducao bacteriana com irradiacao do laser Er:YAG ou ponta montada em alta rotacao apos remocao de tecido cariado em dentina: estudo in anima nobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blay, Claudia Campos


    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 {mu}m, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and

  19. Continuous-wave yellow laser generation at 578 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Ma, Gangfei; Yang, Jianming; Tan, Huiming; Tian, Yubing; Yao, Wenming; Ju, Qiaojun; Zhang, Long; Chen, Jiansheng; Wu, Xiaodong; Gao, Jing


    We report a continuous-wave yellow laser at 578 nm obtained by doubly resonant intracavity sum-frequency mixing of thin disk Yb:YAG laser and Nd:YAG laser with a LBO nonlinear crystal. Single-wavelength laser operation at 578 nm by using a silica etalon as a wavelength selector and dual-wavelength operation at 578 nm and 582 nm are obtained with maximum output powers of 100 mW and 136 mW, respectively. The single wavelength operating power stability value in 30 min was 4.7%, which was improved ∼21.6%, compared with that of dual-wavelength operation.

  20. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopez


    Full Text Available For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position, to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO2 and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  1. High-power fiber laser cutting parameter optimization for nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ana Beatriz; Assuncao, Eurico; Quintino, Luisa [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Khan, Ali; Blackbun, Jonathan [TWI Ltd., Cambridge (United States)


    For more than 10 years, the laser process has been studied for dismantling work; however, relatively few research works have addressed the effect of high-power fiber laser cutting for thick sections. Since in the nuclear sector, a significant quantity of thick material is required to be cut, this study aims to improve the reliability of laser cutting for such work and indicates guidelines to optimize the cutting procedure, in particular, nozzle combinations (standoff distance and focus position), to minimize waste material. The results obtained show the performance levels that can be reached with 10 kW fiber lasers, using which it is possible to obtain narrower kerfs than those found in published results obtained with other lasers. Nonetheless, fiber lasers appear to show the same effects as those of CO{sub 2} and ND:YAG lasers. Thus, the main factor that affects the kerf width is the focal position, which means that minimum laser spot diameters are advised for smaller kerf widths.

  2. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence (United States)


    power. The PPSLT chip was placed in a home-made mount whose temperature was controlled with a thermo- electric cooler (TEC) and monitored with a...main optical damage mechanisms need to be assessed when dealing with cw lasers, namely (1) optical surface damage arising from the high electric ...Yuen, H. P. Bae, M. A. Wistey, A. Moto , and J. S. Harris Jr., "Enhanced Luminescence in GaInNAsSb Quantum Wells Through Variation of the Arsenic and

  3. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe


    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... demand is chosen as the studied case. The results show that an optimal operation of PEV in both spot market and regulation market can not only decrease the energy costs for PEV owners, but also significantly decrease the power deviations between West Denmark and Union for the Coordination of Electricity...

  4. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam drilling: A review (United States)

    Gautam, Girish Dutt; Pandey, Arun Kumar


    Laser beam drilling (LBD) is one of non contact type unconventional machining process that are employed in machining of stiff and high-strength materials, high strength temperature resistance materials such as; metal alloys, ceramics, composites and superalloys. Most of these materials are difficult-to-machine by using conventional machining methods. Also, the complex and precise holes may not be obtained by using the conventional machining processes which may be obtained by using unconventional machining processes. The laser beam drilling in one of the most important unconventional machining process that may be used for the machining of these materials with satisfactorily. In this paper, the attention is focused on the experimental and theoretical investigations on the pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different categories of materials such as ferrous materials, non-ferrous materials, superalloys, composites and Ceramics. Moreover, the review has been emphasized by the use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials in order to enhance productivity of this process without adverse effects on the drilled holes quality characteristics. Finally, the review is concluded with the possible scope in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling. This review work may be very useful to the subsequent researchers in order to give an insight in the area of pulsed Nd:YAG laser drilling of different materials and research gaps available in this area.

  5. A 380 V High Efficiency and High Power Density Switched-Capacitor Power Converter using Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger


    to compose the proposed power stage. Their switching and loss characteristics are analyzed with transient waveforms and thermal images. Different isolated driving circuits are compared and a compact isolated halfbridge driving circuit is proposed. The full-load efficiencies of 98.3% and 97.6% are achieved......State-of-the-art switched-capacitor DC-DC power converters mainly focus on low voltage and/or high power applications. However, at high voltage and low power levels, new designs are anticipated to emerge and a power converter that has both high efficiency and high power density is highly desirable....... This paper presents such a high voltage low power switched-capacitor DC-DC converter with an input voltage upto 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and an output power experimentally validated up to 21.3 W. The wideband gap semiconductor devices of GaN switches and SiC diodes are combined...

  6. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting–receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few MHz) ...

  7. Thermoelectric Powered High Temperature Wireless Sensing (United States)

    Kucukkomurler, Ahmet

    This study describes use of a thermoelectric power converter to transform waste heat into electrical energy to power an RF receiver and transmitter, for use in harsh environment wireless temperature sensing and telemetry. The sensing and transmitting module employs a DS-1820 low power digital temperature sensor to perform temperature to voltage conversion, an ATX-34 RF transmitter, an ARX-34 RF receiver module, and a PIC16f84A microcontroller to synchronize data communication between them. The unit has been tested in a laboratory environment, and promising results have been obtained for an actual automotive wireless under hood temperature sensing and telemetry implementation.

  8. Unique Power Dense, Configurable, Robust, High-Voltage Power Supplies Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Princeton Power will develop and deliver three small, lightweight 50 W high-voltage power supplies that have a configurable output voltage range from 500 to 50 kVDC....

  9. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.


    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  10. A High Power Frequency Doubled Fiber Laser (United States)

    Thompson, Rob; Tu, Meirong; Aveline, Dave; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute


    This slide presentation reviews the power frequencies for the doubled fiber laser. It includes information on the 780 nm laser, second harmonic generation in one crystal, cascading crystals, the tenability of laser systems, laser cooling, and directions for future work.

  11. Advanced Capacitors for High-Power Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a...

  12. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei


    Power system restoration is very significant for the operation reliability. Although a totally blackout in today's power system rarely happens, the operators still have to make the restoration strategies in advance by using their experience or some strategy supportive systems. Nowadays, as distri...... System. The testing system was modified by replacing traditional generators with wind farms to create a high wind penetration system....... and relatively low cost. Thus, many countries are increasing the wind power penetration in their power system step by step, such as Denmark, Spain and Germany. The incremental wind power penetration brings a lot of new issues in operation and programming. The power system sometimes will operate close to its...... stable limits. Once the blackout happens, a well-designed restoration strategy is significant. This paper focuses on how to ameliorate the power system restoration procedures to adapt the high wind power penetration and how to take full advantages of the wind power plants during the restoration...

  13. Systematic Approach for Design of Broadband, High Efficiency, High Power RF Amplifiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohadeskasaei, Seyed Alireza; An, Jianwei; Chen, Yueyun; Li, Zhi; Abdullahi, Sani Umar; Sun, Tie


    ...‐AB RF amplifiers with high gain flatness. It is usually difficult to simultaneously achieve a high gain flatness and high efficiency in a broadband RF power amplifier, especially in a high power design...

  14. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Normally power opamps can deliver current more than 50 mA and can operate on the supply voltage more than ±25 V. This paper gives the details of one of the power opamps developed to drive the Piezo Actuators for Active Vibration Control (AVC) of aircraft/aerospace structures. The designed power opamp will work on ...

  15. Effect of Er:YAG laser energy on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface (United States)

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka


    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of Er:YAG laser energy variation to cavity preparation on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface, using SEM. Eighteen molars were used and the buccal surfaces were flattened without dentine exposure. The specimens were randomly assigned to two groups, according to the adhesive system (conventional total-etching or self-etching), and each group was divided into three subgroups (bur carbide in turbine of high rotation, Er:YAG laser 250 mJ/4 Hz and Er:YAG laser 300 mJ/4 Hz) containing six teeth each. The enamel/adhesive system interface was serially sectioned and prepared for SEM. The Er:YAG laser, in general, produced a more irregular adhesive interface than the control group. For Er:YAG laser 250 mJ there was formation of a more regular hybrid layer with good tag formation, mainly in the total-etching system. However, Er:YAG laser 300 mJ showed a more irregular interface with amorphous enamel and fused areas, for both adhesive systems. It was concluded that cavity preparation with Er:YAG laser influenced on the morphology of enamel/adhesive system interface and the tissual alterations were more evident when the energy was increased.

  16. Growth, optical and EPR studies of {sup 151}Eu{sup 2+}:YAG single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, A.G., E-mail: [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia); Asatryan, H.R. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Hovhannesyan, K.L.; Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia); Feofilov, S.P. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya ul. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Eganyan, A.V.; Sargsyan, R.S. [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak, 0203 (Armenia)


    Single crystals of {sup 151}Eu:YAG were grown by the vertical Bridgman method using Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} with isotopic enrichment of {sup 151}Eu of 97.5%. Additional Hf{sup 4+}or Si{sup 4+} ions were introduced to favor a high concentrations of Eu{sup 2+}. As compared to Eu:YAG with natural isotope composition, the EPR spectra of YAG doped with {sup 151}Eu isotope show a reduced number of hyperfine structure components and a well-resolved structure of a bigger number of electronic transitions. Optical properties of obtained crystals and the effects of heat treatments under oxidizing and reducing conditions are reported. Based on the analysis of Eu{sup 3+} distribution in oxidized Eu,Hf:YAG, in comparison to that in Eu:YAG, the concentration of Eu{sup 2+} in as-grown Eu,Hf:YAG is determined. - Highlights: • YAG:Eu,Hf single crystals containing only {sup 151}Eu isotopes were prepared. • isotopic enriched crystals gave a well-resolved EPR hyperfine structure of Eu{sup 2+} centers. • the redox ratio was followed through the Eu{sup 2+} associated absorption band at 250 nm. • the band intensities at 378 nm correlate with the Eu{sup 2+} concentration.

  17. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift. (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa


    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. New high power CW klystrons at TED

    CERN Document Server

    Beunas, A; Marchesin, R


    Thales Electron Devices (TED) has been awarded a contract by CERN to develop and produce 20 units of the klystrons needed to feed the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). Each of these delivers 300 kW of CW RF power at 400 MHz. Three klystrons have been delivered to CERN up to now.

  19. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes


    -Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data not available in the datasheets to the model is described....

  20. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    -Port-Converters respectively for 1-10Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, a modelling tool for L2L products has been developed and a laboratory for feeding in component data not available in the datasheets to the model is described....

  1. High power for rotors; Rotor unter Starkstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, H.J.


    Tidal energy is going strong: A new tidal power plant is projected off the coast of southern England. Of the envisaged underwater rotors, one has been installed for test purposes. (orig.) [German] Wellenenergie ist en vogue: Vor der Kueste Suedenglands wird ein neuartiges Tidenkraftwerk getestet. Die starke Stroemung soll maechtige Unterwasser-Rotoren antreiben. Zum Test dreht sich erst einmal nur einer. (orig.)

  2. Amplification of picosecond pulses to 100 W by an Yb:YAG thin-disk with CVBG compressor (United States)

    Smrž, Martin; Chyla, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Miura, Taisuke; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáś


    High average power picosecond lasers have become an import tool in many fields of science and industry. We report on progress in development of 100 kHz, 100 W picosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser amplifier with fundamental spatial mode at the HiLASE laser center. More efficient direct pumping to an upper laser level has been employed in order to suppress thermal loading of the thin disk active medium and to increase system stability. We also carefully analyzed and described all benefits of this so called zero phonon line pumping (ZPL) for fundamental spatial mode cavity design and successfully increased extraction efficiency of the amplifier to > 28 %. A novel approach of high-power picosecond pulse compression using a space saving and easy-to-align chirped-volume Bragg grating (CVBG) with high dispersion and high net efficiency approaching 88 % allowed us to build a robust and highly compact pulse compressor. A 100 kHz train of sub-1-milijoule pulses compressed bellow 2 ps (FWHM) in almost diffraction limited Gaussian beam has been successfully generated from this highly compact (900 x 1200 mm) thin-disk-based Yb:YAG regenerative amplifier.

  3. Neodymium:YAG laser therapy for recurrent chronic polypous sinusitis: is it safe? (United States)

    Ilgner, Justus F. R.; Emmerling, Oliver; Westhofen, Martin


    Using a self-regulated power delivery system at low power rate in contact mode, the Nd:YAG-laser is a safe tool even in such delicate regions as the paranasal sinuses. patients profile from early ablation of local recurrences, before extensive revision surgery becomes inevitable.

  4. 101 W of average green beam from diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A single pump head comprised of Nd:YAG rod, diffusive reflectors and linear array laser diode bars is used. 101 W of average green power at a total diode pumping power of 700 W is obtained corresponding to 14.4% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. The pulse repetition rate is 30 kHz with an individual pulse duration ...

  5. High specific power flexible integrated IMM photovoltaic blanket Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Originally designed for space applications, multi-junction solar cells have a high overall power conversion efficiency (>30%) which compares favorably to...

  6. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  7. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole


    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  8. Design High Efficiency PWM Boost Converter for Wind Power Generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ...; it is offer high efficiency performance andprovides power management circuit designers with theability to approach a broad range of designapplications with flexible and easy-to-implementsolutions...

  9. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed; Saber, Hamed; Caillat, Thierry


    The work performed and whose results presented in this report is a joint effort between the University of New Mexico s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies (ISNPS) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. In addition to the development, design, and fabrication of skutterudites and skutterudites-based segmented unicouples this effort included conducting performance tests of these unicouples for hundreds of hours to verify theoretical predictions of the conversion efficiency. The performance predictions of these unicouples are obtained using 1-D and 3-D models developed for that purpose and for estimating the actual performance and side heat losses in the tests conducted at ISNPS. In addition to the performance tests, the development of the 1-D and 3-D models and the development of Advanced Radioisotope Power systems for Beginning-Of-Life (BOM) power of 108 We are carried out at ISNPS. The materials synthesis and fabrication of the unicouples are carried out at JPL. The research conducted at ISNPS is documented in chapters 2-5 and that conducted at JP, in documented in chapter 5. An important consideration in the design and optimization of segmented thermoelectric unicouples (STUs) is determining the relative lengths, cross-section areas, and the interfacial temperatures of the segments of the different materials in the n- and p-legs. These variables are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with one-dimensional analytical model of STUs that is developed in chapter 2. Results indicated that when optimized for maximum conversion efficiency, the interfacial temperatures between various segments in a STU are close to those at the intersections of the Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), ZT, curves of the thermoelectric materials of the adjacent segments. When optimizing the STUs for maximum electrical power density, however, the interfacial temperatures are different from those at the intersections of the ZT curves, but

  10. Sexual aggression when power is new: Effects of acute high power on chronically low-power individuals. (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Guillory, Lucia E


    Previous theorists have characterized sexually aggressive behavior as an expression of power, yet evidence that power causes sexual aggression is mixed. We hypothesize that power can indeed create opportunities for sexual aggression-but that it is those who chronically experience low power who will choose to exploit such opportunities. Here, low-power men placed in a high-power role showed the most hostility in response to a denied opportunity with an attractive woman (Studies 1 and 2). Chronically low-power men and women given acute power were the most likely to say they would inappropriately pursue an unrequited workplace attraction (Studies 3 and 4). Finally, having power over an attractive woman increased harassment behavior among men with chronic low, but not high, power (Study 5). People who see themselves as chronically denied power appear to have a stronger desire to feel powerful and are more likely to use sexual aggression toward that end. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Design High Efficiency PWM Boost Converter for Wind Power Generation




    The uses of renewable power source toprovide electric power as an alternative become amajor consideration than the costly classical powersources. However, due to research on very lowmaintenancedesigns, small wind turbines becomingmore popularity than economical ways to bring thebenefits of power production to home.The efficiency, size, and cost are the primaryadvantages of switching DC-DC boost powerconverters; it is offer high efficiency performance andprovides power management circuit desig...

  12. Digital laser mode amplification using ND: YAG amplifier

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho


    Full Text Available amplification using Nd: YAG amplifier T. Bell1,2,* , & S. Ngcobo1 1CSIR-NLC, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, RSA. 2UKZN, Westville Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000, RSA. *Email: ABSTRACT In this work we demonstrate the output power amplification... ranging from white to black, in 256 levels (8-bit encoding). . was used to measure the amplified LG beam power. RESULTS The seed intensity profiles of the input LGp,l modes are shown in Fig. 3(a). The amplified seed intensity profiles are also illustrated...

  13. High-power CSI-fed induction motor drive with optimal power distribution based control (United States)

    Kwak, S.-S.


    In this article, a current source inverter (CSI) fed induction motor drive with an optimal power distribution control is proposed for high-power applications. The CSI-fed drive is configured with a six-step CSI along with a pulsewidth modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) and capacitors. Due to the PWM-VSI and the capacitor, sinusoidal motor currents and voltages with high quality as well as natural commutation of the six-step CSI can be obtained. Since this CSI-fed drive can deliver required output power through both the six-step CSI and PWM-VSI, this article shows that the kVA ratings of both the inverters can be reduced by proper real power distribution. The optimal power distribution under load requirements, based on power flow modelling of the CSI-fed drive, is proposed to not only minimise the PWM-VSI rating but also reduce the six-step CSI rating. The dc-link current control of the six-step CSI is developed to realise the optimal power distribution. Furthermore, a vector controlled drive for high-power induction motors is proposed based on the optimal power distribution. Experimental results verify the high-power CSI-fed drive with the optimal power distribution control.

  14. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen


    High frequency power losses in power electronic components and systems are very difficult to measure. The same applies to the efficiency of high-efficiency systems and components. An important method to measure losses with high accuracy is the calorimetric measuring systems. This paper describes...... two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...

  15. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  16. Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier


    Nemova, Galina


    A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence ...

  17. General machining concept for producing micro-optics with high-power UV lasers (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Overmeyer, Ludger; Ostendorf, Andreas; Wais, Johannes


    The development of new processes for the micro-treatment of material is the basis for increasing integration and miniaturization of mechanical, optical and electronic components. Pulsed high power excimer lasers offer in combination with a micro-machining system, the possibility of manufacturing highly complex components in different materials like ceramics, glass or metals, Because of the increasing number of technical applications, the need for automatic processing has grown in the last few years. While complete working stations are available for Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, there is a lack for automatic micro-removal with excimer lasers. For complex microstructures like micro- optics, manual programming of the workpiece handling system becomes uneconomic because of the very high number of laser pulses required. Especially for prototypes and small batches where the workpiece geometries change quickly, the development of a universal and automatic machining concept plays a key role for this technology. For this reason, a general machining concept based on excimer laser removal has been realized beginning with the possibility to construct the workpiece geometry by CAD-design tools. A preprocessor allows to calculate the removal volume based on laser specific ablation volumes. The superposition of each laser pulse removal leads to complex 3D surface structures. Moreover, a general movement strategy optimizes the processing speed. For closing the process chain the realized preprocessor automatically generates the necessary NC-data for the implemented CNC-control system. Functionality of this concept has been proven by manufacturing different two and three dimensional micro-structures like micro-optical components.

  18. Self-commutating converters for high power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J


    For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr

  19. Thermal profiles of electrocauteries, the Nd:YAG laser, and the electromagnetic-field focusing system. (United States)

    Yamanashi, W S; Hudkins, B; Dempewolf, S; Patil, A A; Clingan, F A; McGee, J M


    Electromagnetic-field focusing (EFF) is a method of converging induced eddy current onto a pointed tip of a tuned length return circuit in the near field of a resonator, which results in the production of high temperature. Previously reported applications of this method include various devices for local hyperthermia and a precision surgical device. The latter is currently being used in human clinical trials under two investigational device exemptions from the Food and Drug Administration. In the present work, the thermal profile produced in a uniform, tissue-simulating phantom by the hand-held probe of the surgical EFF system is compared with those produced by mono- and bipolar electrocauteries and by a contact Nd:YAG laser. At the equivalent power setting and 2-cm insertion depth, the EFF probe was shown to have a tighter thermal profile than the monopolar electrocautery or the contact Nd:YAG laser. This finding is consistent with earlier histologic evidence that brain cortical tissue cut by the surgical EFF probe had minimal thermal damage in the tissue surrounding the incision.

  20. Studi Analisis Serbuk dengan Teknik Krim Silikon Menggunakan Plasma Tekanan Tinggi yang Diinduksi oleh Laser Nd: YAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrun Nur Madjid


    Full Text Available Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS is a technique that used for quantitative elemental analysis of various samples in different forms. In this technique, a laser light is focused on the surface of sample yielding a plasma just above the sample surface that used for analytical source. Nowadays, rapid powder analysis in tiny amount (mg has been carried out using plasma induced by high power laser of  Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet at atmospheric pressure. However, powder analysis using high power laser is still difficult to be carried out  due to blow of powder when irradiated laser beam focused on a powder sample. In general, the powder must be transformed into pellet form prior to analysis. Pellet sample requires a lot of powder and it takes time for preparation. In this study, we developed a technique of powder sample with its size about  30 µm (± 5 mg that mixed with silicon grease (± 5 mg that act as a binder. The mixed sample then thinly painted on the metal plate as sub-target. The study showed that by employing sillicon grease technique, a semiquantitative analysis of several elements contain in coal, rock, and  water  can be conducted. Meanwhile heavy metal in soils is still not able to detect. This results showed that sillicon grease technique using  Nd:YAG laser can be applied for rapid semi-quantitative analysis of powder samples available only in tiny amounts. Keywords: high pressured plasma, Nd:YAG laser, powder analysis, silicon grease technique

  1. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr


    are developed through this methodology. Furthermore, the probability of reducing this frequency containment reserve requirement is investigated through this methodology with activation of different volumes and speed of frequency restoration reserve. Wind power generation for 2020 and 2030 scenarios......In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...... imbalances caused due to high penetration of wind power. An algorithm is proposed and developed to estimate the power imbalances due to wind power forecast error following activation of different operating reserves. Frequency containment reserve requirements for mitigating these power imbalances...

  2. Radially-polarised beam amplification in an Yb:YAG thin-slab architecture (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Smith, Callum R.; Beecher, Stephen J.; Mackenzie, Jacob I.; Clarkson, W. Andrew


    Radially-polarised beams are attracting growing interest owing to their unique properties and numerous applications. Power-scaling whilst preserving the polarisation-purity of radially-polarised beams is challenging, with efforts predominantly focused on cylindrically-symmetric systems. We explore an alternative strategy for power-scaling radially-polarised beams using a thin-slab amplifier geometry, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously investigated. We show that very high radial polarisation-purity can be maintained in an architecture that can be operated at high powers. A radially-polarised seed-source was constructed using an Yb:YAG rod in a plane-parallel configuration, pumped by a capillary delivery-fiber which provided effective overlap with the LG01 mode. By tuning the cavity length and utilising thermally-induced birefringence, a robust multi-Watt LG01 mode was generated with an excellent radial polarisation-purity of 15dB and good beam quality M2=2.2. The Yb:YAG slab was pumped by a diode-bar producing a highly-elongated inversion region. The seed was amplified in a double-pass configuration, using a cylindrical lens to spatially-match the inversion. The output beam was re-collimated by the cylindrical lens, and compensation for the Gouy phase-shift was made using a half-waveplate. At 50W of incident pump power we obtained a small-signal gain of 7.5dB and a power gain of 4.5dB for 1.45W seed power. At maximum pump power the radial polarisation-purity was maintained at 15dB, and the beam quality only degraded slightly to M2=2.3. Further optimisation of slab design and pump geometry will be discussed in addition to power-scaling the system to higher output powers necessary for a range of applications.

  3. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.


    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  4. 3-D Printed High Power Microwave Magnetrons (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas; Greening, Geoffrey; Exelby, Steven; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.; Hoff, Brad


    The size, weight, and power requirements of HPM systems are critical constraints on their viability, and can potentially be improved through the use of additive manufacturing techniques, which are rapidly increasing in capability and affordability. Recent experiments on the UM Recirculating Planar Magnetron (RPM), have explored the use of 3-D printed components in a HPM system. The system was driven by MELBA-C, a Marx-Abramyan system which delivers a -300 kV voltage pulse for 0.3-1.0 us, with a 0.15-0.3 T axial magnetic field applied by a pair of electromagnets. Anode blocks were printed from Water Shed XC 11122 photopolymer using a stereolithography process, and prepared with either a spray-coated or electroplated finish. Both manufacturing processes were compared against baseline data for a machined aluminum anode, noting any differences in power output, oscillation frequency, and mode stability. Evolution and durability of the 3-D printed structures were noted both visually and by tracking vacuum inventories via a residual gas analyzer. Research supported by AFOSR (grant #FA9550-15-1-0097) and AFRL.

  5. Linear and nonlinear filters under high power microwave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brauer


    Full Text Available The development of protection circuits against a variety of electromagnetic disturbances is important to assure the immunity of an electronic system. In this paper the behavior of linear and nonlinear filters is measured and simulated with high power microwave (HPM signals to achieve a comprehensive protection against different high power electromagnetic (HPEM threats.

  6. Terahertz radiation source using a high-power industrial electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose that high-power electron beam from such an industrial linac can first pass through an undulator to generate useful terahertz (THz) radiation, and the spent electron beam coming out of the undulator can still be used for the intended industrial applications. This will enhance the utilization of a high-power industrial ...

  7. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.


    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  8. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove


    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  9. Power Constrained High-Level Synthesis of Battery Powered Digital Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Madsen, Jan


    We present a high-level synthesis algorithm solving the combined scheduling, allocation and binding problem minimizing area under both latency and maximum power per clock-cycle constraints. Our approach eliminates the large power spikes, resulting in an increased battery lifetime, a property...... of utmost importance for battery powered embedded systems. Our approach extends the partial-clique partitioning algorithm by introducing power awareness through a heuristic algorithm which bounds the design space to those of power feasible schedules. We have applied our algorithm on a set of dataflow graphs...

  10. Low power, high voltage power supply with fast rise/fall time (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B. (Inventor)


    A low power, high voltage power supply system includes a high voltage power supply stage and a preregulator for programming the power supply stage so as to produce an output voltage which is a predetermined fraction of a desired voltage level. The power supply stage includes a high voltage, voltage doubler stage connected to receive the output voltage from the preregulator and for, when activated, providing amplification of the output voltage to the desired voltage level. A first feedback loop is connected between the output of the preregulator and an input of the preregulator while a second feedback loop is connected between the output of the power supply stage and the input of the preregulator.

  11. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  12. Er:YAG laser: clinical experience based upon scientific evidence: clinical cases (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Vieira de Medeiros, Urubatan


    The aim of this work was to demonstrate, based upon scientific evidence, the efficacy of dental treatment using the Er:YAG laser. The Er:YAG laser is able of quick cavitation of dental structure with minimal thermal effect. It is also well known that most treatment is carried out without the need of local anesthesia. It is also recognized that its work with no vibration and in a non-contact mode. This paper reports the clinical results of 590 dental procedures carried out with the Er:YAG laser on selected patients. The laser was used for composite removal, cavity enamel preparation, carious dentine removal and conditioning of both dentin and enamel. Dental treatment with the Er:YAG laser as a secure and efficient method of treatment with more comfort for the patients, high acceptance form patients and less need of using local anesthesia.

  13. High power UV and VUV pulsed excilamps (United States)

    Tarasenko, V.; Erofeev, M.; Lomaev, M.; Rybka, D.


    Emission characteristics of a nanosecond discharge in inert gases and its halogenides without preionization of the gap from an auxiliary source have been investigated. A volume discharge, initiated by an avalanche electron beam (VDIAEB) was realized at pressures up to 12 atm. In xenon at pressure of 1.2 atm, the energy of spontaneous radiation in the full solid angle was sim 45 mJ/cm^3, and the FWHM of a radiation pulse was sim 110 ns. The spontaneous radiation power rise in xenon was observed at pressures up to 12 atm. Pulsed radiant exitance of inert gases halogenides excited by VDIAEB was sim 4.5 kW/cm^2 at efficiency up to 5.5 %.

  14. Eighth CW and High Average Power RF Workshop

    CERN Document Server


    We are pleased to announce the next Continuous Wave and High Average RF Power Workshop, CWRF2014, to take place at Hotel NH Trieste, Trieste, Italy from 13 to 16 May, 2014. This is the eighth in the CWRF workshop series and will be hosted by Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. ( CWRF2014 will provide an opportunity for designers and users of CW and high average power RF systems to meet and interact in a convivial environment to share experiences and ideas on applications which utilize high-power klystrons, gridded tubes, combined solid-state architectures, high-voltage power supplies, high-voltage modulators, high-power combiners, circulators, cavities, power couplers and tuners. New ideas for high-power RF system upgrades and novel ways of RF power generation and distribution will also be discussed. CWRF2014 sessions will start on Tuesday morning and will conclude on Friday lunchtime. A visit to Elettra and FERMI will be organized during the workshop. ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (OC): Al...

  15. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  16. Study of all-solid-state high-power continuous-wave tunable blue laser (United States)

    Wang, Shou-peng; Wang, Li; Mao, Li-qin; Tian, Hong-bin; Shan, Song; Dai, Jian-guang


    During the past few years, study of the all-solid-state blue laser has been focused on laser field applications in many fields and potential value of commerce. There has been much work done in order to obtain an efficient and simple solid-state blue laser source, this device being of interest for applications such as display technologies, production of high-density optical disk systems, high-resolution printing, or medical diagnostics. This paper discusses three means to realize all-solid-state blue lasers, including blue-emitting diode laser, direct frequency doubling of infrared laser diode (LD), diode-laser pumped all-solid-state blue lasers, respectively. However, direct emitters based on II - VI semiconductors are limited by the lifetime of laser diode. A practical and the most used way is the frequency-doubling of the 946-nm in Nd:YAG. In the field of nonlinear frequency conversion, we compare some different frequency-doubling crystals with improved optical characteristics, including higher nonlinear coefficient, wider transmission range, and more flexible phase-matching (PM) properties. Some nonlinear optical crystals usually used in solid-state laser are analyzed and compared, including KNbO 3, LBO, BBO, BiBO, CBO (CsB 3O 5), KBBF (KBe IIBO 3F II). The recent progress on solid-state blue laser has resulted research in from gain media, frequency-doubled crystals, and configurations of the cavities. Two difficulties which are the coating techniques and the blue noise problem (the fluctuation of the laser output power) in the development of solid-state lasers are pointed out, and the techniques of solving blue noise problem that have been usually used in the past research are presented.

  17. Analysis of the thermal effect in diode end-pumped Er:YAG lasers by using Finite Element Method (United States)

    Wang, Yujia; Wang, Qing; Na, QuanXin; Zhang, Yixuan; Gao, Mingwei; Zhang, Meng


    A new method for combining Finite Element Method (FEM) thermal analysis and thermo-mechanical coupling method for calculating the thermal lensing values in diode end-pumped Er:YAG lasers is proposed. A finite-element model is used to simulate the thermal effects in different Er:YAG crystals with pumping scenarios. The influences of pump powers, crystal absorption coefficients and crystal sizes on the Er:YAG thermal effects are discussed, and the relationship between the thermal effects and thermal lensing effects is analysed. A thermo-mechanical coupling model is also constituted for finite-element analysis based on the above results, and the focal length of the Er:YAG crystal with different pump powers are obtained by using this thermo-mechanical coupling model. The predicted thermal lensing values are compared with experimental results, which agree well with the simulated results.

  18. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology (United States)

    Liu, Jingru


    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  19. High-power femtosecond Raman frequency shifter. (United States)

    Vicario, Carlo; Shalaby, Mostafa; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr; Losev, Leonid; Hauri, Christoph P


    We report on the generation of broadband, high-energy femtosecond pulses centered at 1.28 μm by stimulated Raman scattering in a pressurized hydrogen cell. Stimulated Raman scattering is performed by two chirped and delayed pulses originating from a multi-mJ Ti:sapphire amplifier. The Stokes pulse carries record-high energy of 4.4 mJ and is recompressed down to 66 fs by a reflective grating pair. We characterized the short-wavelength mid-infrared source in view of energy stability, beam profile, and conversion efficiency at repetition rates of 100 and 10 Hz. The demonstrated high-energy frequency shifter will benefit intense THz sources based on highly nonlinear organic crystals.

  20. High-Power Triggered Gas Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giri, David


    .... There are several reasons to build triggered versions of the basic high-voltage spark gap. They include synchronization with an external event, timed-array antenna for steering directed energy systems etc...

  1. An overview of the reliability prediction related aspects of high power IGBTs in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca, Christian; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede


    Reliability is becoming more and more important as the size and number of installed Wind Turbines (WTs) increases. Very high reliability is especially important for offshore WTs because the maintenance and repair of such WTs in case of failures can be very expensive. WT manufacturers need...... to consider the reliability aspect when they design new power converters. By designing the power converter considering the reliability aspect the manufacturer can guarantee that the end product will ensure high availability. This paper represents an overview of the various aspects of reliability prediction...... of high power Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in the context of wind power applications. At first the latest developments and future predictions about wind energy are briefly discussed. Next the dominant failure mechanisms of high power IGBTs are described and the most commonly used lifetime...

  2. Support for High Power Laser Ablation 2010 (United States)


    Spaces from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport , Science and Technology, Japan. 27 [24] An Analytical Model of Ablation in Gas Flow Leonid...Targets at 0.1-10 TW/cm2 John L. Remo Dept. of Astronomy and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St. and Harvard...modeling of planetary cores and high velocity impact. [43] Laser and Z-pinch Simulation of High Energy Density Planetary Interactions John L. Remo

  3. Thrust stand for high-power electric propulsion devices (United States)

    Haag, T. W.


    This paper describes a new high-power thrust stand developed for use with high-power (up to 250 kW) magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, which is installed in a high-vacuum MPD facility at Lewis Research Center. The design of the stand is based on inverted pendulum configuration, with the result of large displacements and high resolution. Calibration results showed that thrust measurements were linear and repeatable to within a fraction of 1 percent. The thrust stand was used for testing water-cooled MPD thrusters at power levels up to 125 kW. The thruster, however, is quite well suited for testing other types of electric propulsion devices.

  4. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency...

  5. Effectiveness of Er:YAG and CO2 lasers in the management of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. (United States)

    Kishore, A; Kathariya, R; Deshmukh, V; Vaze, S; Khalia, N; Dandgaval, R


    Although clinical melanin pigmentation does not present itself as a medical problem or a disease entity, "black gums" is a major esthetic complaint for many people, who often requests cosmetic corrections. Gingival depigmentation can be carried out using many procedures; lasers of various types being a new addition. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers for the treatment of gingival melanin hyper pigmentation. Twenty young age and gender matched subjects were selected for a randomized split mouth depigmentation procedure using Er:YAG (Group A) and CO2 laser (Group B). Parameters evaluated were: Dummet index, Hedin melanin Index, Gingival and Plaque Index, time taken for the procedure, bleeding during the procedure, VAS scale for pain perception and wound healing and patient preference for the procedure. Wilcoxon signed rank test, Chi-square test, paired t test were used to analyze statistical significance between different variables. CO2 laser treatment caused increased pain and delayed wound healing when compared to Er:YAG laser treatment. Although both treatment modalities are highly effective depigmentation procedures, giving excellent esthetics results; when pain, wound healing and patient preferences were considered Er:YAG outscored CO2 Laser. The effectiveness of the Er:YAG and CO2 laser for the treatment of gingival melanin depigmentation was evaluated clinically and histologically, although both treatment modalities are highly effective, giving excellent esthetics results, however, when pain and wound healing were considered Er:YAG was better than CO2 laser.

  6. A battery-powered high-current power supply for superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wake, M; Suda, K


    Since superconductors do not require voltages, a high-current power supply could run with low power if the voltage is sufficiently reduced. Even a battery-powered power supply could give as much as 2,000A for a superconductor. To demonstrate this hypothesis, a battery-powered 2,000A power supply was constructed. It uses an IGBT chopper and Schottky diode together with a specially arranged transformer to produce a high current with low voltage. Testing of 2,000A operation was performed for about 1.5 hr using 10 car batteries. Charging time for this operation was 8 hr. Ramping control was smooth and caused no trouble. Although the IGBT frequency ripple of 16.6 kHz was easily removed using a passive filter, spike noise remained in the output voltage. This ripple did not cause any trouble in operating a pancake-type inductive superconducting load. (author)

  7. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  8. Synergistic effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound and low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of the aging neck and décolletage. (United States)

    Nam, Jae-Hui; Choi, Young-Jun; Lim, Jae Yun; Min, Joon Hong; Kim, Won-Serk


    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as an effective skin-lifting device; however, literature regarding treatment of the aging neck and décolletage with HIFU is scarce. Our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combination with HIFU and low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG (LQSNY) laser on the aging neck and décolletage. Nineteen women were assessed. HIFU at two visits and LQSNY laser at six visits were used to irradiate the neck and chest. At week 16, improvements were rated using the Dedo classification, Fabi/Bolton Chest Wrinkle Scale (FBCWS), and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scales (GAIS). Erythema and melanin indices (EMIs) and cervicomental angle were measured. Subject GAIS and satisfaction were evaluated at follow-up visits. At week 16, neck sagging and chest rhytides were improved on Dedo classification and FBCWS, respectively. Pigmentation and rhytides of the neck and chest were rated as improved in 30 % or more of the subjects by physician GAIS and in approximately 80 % of the subjects by subject GAIS. The above differences seemed to be attributable to the initial expectation level and mild severity pertaining to dress custom in Korea. Eighty-four percent of subjects were satisfied with treatment outcomes. EMIs were decreased on the chest. The combination of HIFU and LQSNY is an effective treatment option to mitigate rhytides and pigmentation of the neck and décolletage.

  9. UV by the fourth harmonic generation of compact side-pumped Yb:YAG laser emission (United States)

    Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; Hays, Alan; Dilazaro, Tom; Goldberg, Lew


    We present a compact, side pumped passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser that was operated in a burst mode with pump durations of 2-4 ms at low duty cycles. Intra-pump pulse Q-switched pulse repetition frequencies varied from 5-20 kHz depending on the transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber, which was varied from 70% to 94%. Pump duration, pulse repetition frequency and output coupler reflectivity were optimized to yield maximum Yb:YAG laser average power and laser efficiency, while providing sufficient peak intensity, typically 0.3-1 MW, to enable efficient forth harmonic generation (FHG). Pulse energies and durations were in ranges of 0.3-1.8 mJ and 1.5-7ns, respectively, dependent on the unbleached transmission of the Cr:YAG saturable absorber. We achieved an optical efficiency of greater than 15% for the Yb:YAG laser. Extra-cavity 515 nm second harmonic generation (SHG) was achieved using a 5mm long KTP crystal. The 515 nm light was then frequency doubled by focusing it into a 7mm long BBO crystal, resulting in a 15% conversion efficiency from 1030nm to 257.5 nm, with an average UV power greater than 100 mW.

  10. Analysis of chaos in high-dimensional wind power system (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hongli; Fan, Wenhui; Ma, Ping


    A comprehensive analysis on the chaos of a high-dimensional wind power system is performed in this study. A high-dimensional wind power system is more complex than most power systems. An 11-dimensional wind power system proposed by Huang, which has not been analyzed in previous studies, is investigated. When the systems are affected by external disturbances including single parameter and periodic disturbance, or its parameters changed, chaotic dynamics of the wind power system is analyzed and chaotic parameters ranges are obtained. Chaos existence is confirmed by calculation and analysis of all state variables' Lyapunov exponents and the state variable sequence diagram. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the wind power system chaos will occur when parameter variations and external disturbances change to a certain degree.

  11. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development (United States)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  12. Primary reserve studies for high wind power penetrated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela


    With high penetration of non-synchronous wind generations replacing conventional generators, the inertia of power system will reduce. A large disturbance in such a power system can cause faster frequency change in this power system and might invoke emergency defence strategies like underfrequency....... This paper further explores the capabilities of wind turbines to provide support during underfrequency to prevent load shedding. Maximum wind penetration possible without causing load shedding following a large disturbance is also investigated....

  13. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA


    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  14. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.


    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  15. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan


    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  16. High color rendering index white LED based on nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphor hybrid with CdSe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots (United States)

    Shen, Changyu; Chu, Jinlei; Qian, Feng; Zou, Xin; Zhong, Chuan; Li, Ke; Jin, Shangzhong


    To improve the poor color rendering index (CRI) of YAG:Ce-based white light-emitting diode (LED) due to the lack of red spectral component, core/shell/shell CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized and blended into nano-YAG:Ce3+ phosphors. Prominent spectral evolution has been achieved by increasing the content of QDs. A white LED combining a blue LED with the blends of nano-YAG phosphors and orange- and red-emission QDs with a weight ratio of 1:1:1 was obtained. This kind of white LED showed excellent white light with luminescent efficiency, color coordinates, CRI and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 82.5 lm/W, (0.3264, 0.3255), 91 and 4580 K, respectively.

  17. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.


    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.

  18. High-power arrays of quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifiers. (United States)

    Rauter, Patrick; Menzel, Stefan; Goyal, Anish K; Wang, Christine A; Sanchez, Antonio; Turner, George; Capasso, Federico


    We report on multi-wavelength arrays of master-oscillator power-amplifier quantum cascade lasers operating at wavelengths between 9.2 and 9.8 μm. All elements of the high-performance array feature longitudinal (spectral) as well as transverse single-mode emission at peak powers between 2.7 and 10 W at room temperature. The performance of two arrays that are based on different seed-section designs is thoroughly studied and compared. High output power and excellent beam quality render the arrays highly suitable for stand-off spectroscopy applications.

  19. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo


    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  20. CSTI high capacity power. [Civil Space Technology Initiative (United States)

    Winter, Jerry M.


    In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Converrsion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems.

  1. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  2. The Study on the Reliability of High Power LED Streetlights (United States)

    Dong-Ge, Yao; Jian-Xin, Chen


    This paper was about a reliable research on high-power LED lighting. Based on the samples of the self-developed high-power LED streetlights, an electrical stress ageing test was carried out and thermocouple method was used in the temperature test. The ageing test showed that the initial flux reduction was mainly due to the absorption of the light lamp or the block by some parts of the lighting. And the late light decling was mainly caused by the decay of the high-power LED light source itself. Some suggestions on improving the design of streetlights will be given according to my research.

  3. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications (United States)

    Tudoran, Cristian D.; Dǎdârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan


    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a "sensor" or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  4. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail:; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)


    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :YAG laser lithotripsy of distal lower ureteral calculi with respect to efficacy, safety, postoperative pain and hospital stay. Patients and Methods Thirty-five patients with distal lower ureteral calculi underwent ureteroscopy without prior ureteral ...

  6. Liquid state DNP using a 260 GHz high power gyrotron. (United States)

    Denysenkov, Vasyl; Prandolini, Mark J; Gafurov, Marat; Sezer, Deniz; Endeward, Burkhard; Prisner, Thomas F


    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at high magnetic fields (9.2 T, 400 MHz (1)H NMR frequency) requires high microwave power sources to achieve saturation of the EPR transitions. Here we describe the first high-field liquid-state DNP results using a high-power gyrotron microwave source (20 W at 260 GHz). A DNP enhancement of -29 on water protons was obtained for an aqueous solution of Fremy's Salt; in comparison the previous highest value was -10 using a solid-state microwave power source (maximum power 45 mW). The increased enhancements are partly due to larger microwave saturation and elevated sample temperature. These experimentally observed DNP enhancements, which by far exceed the predicted values extrapolated from low-field DNP experiments, demonstrate experimentally that DNP is possible in the liquid state also at high magnetic fields.

  7. Predicting High-Power Performance in Professional Cyclists. (United States)

    Sanders, Dajo; Heijboer, Mathieu; Akubat, Ibrahim; Meijer, Kenneth; Hesselink, Matthijs K


    To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists. Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model. The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model. This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

  8. Supporting Control Room Operators in Highly Automated Future Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Minjiang; Catterson, Victoria; Syed, Mazheruddin


    Operating power systems is an extremely challenging task, not least because power systems have become highly interconnected, as well as the range of network issues that can occur. It is therefore a necessity to develop decision support systems and visualisation that can effectively support the hu...

  9. In vitro fragmentation efficiency of holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripsy--a comprehensive study encompassing different frequencies, pulse energies, total power levels and laser fibre diameters. (United States)

    Kronenberg, Peter; Traxer, Olivier


    To assess the fragmentation (ablation) efficiency of laser lithotripsy along a wide range of pulse energies, frequencies, power settings and different laser fibres, in particular to compare high- with low-frequency lithotripsy using a dynamic and innovative testing procedure free from any human interaction bias. An automated laser fragmentation testing system was developed. The unmoving laser fibres fired at the surface of an artificial stone while the stone was moved past at a constant velocity, thus creating a fissure. The lithotripter settings were 0.2-1.2 J pulse energies, 5-40 Hz frequencies, 4-20 W power levels, and 200 and 550 μm core laser fibres. Fissure width, depth, and volume were analysed and comparisons between laser settings, fibres and ablation rates were made. Low frequency-high pulse energy (LoFr-HiPE) settings were (up to six times) more ablative than high frequency-low pulse energy (HiFr-LoPE) at the same power levels (P fragmentation volume, fissure width, and fissure depth (all P fragmentation measurements. Laser fibre diameter did not affect fragmentation volume (P = 0.81), except at very low pulse energies (0.2 J), where the large fibre was less efficient (P = 0.015). At the same total power level, LoFr-HiPE lithotripsy was most efficient. Pulse energy was the key variable that drove fragmentation efficiency. Attention must be paid to prevent the formation of time-consuming bulky debris and adapt the lithotripter settings to one's needs. As fibre diameter did not affect fragmentation efficiency, small fibres are preferable due to better scope irrigation and manoeuvrability. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  10. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.


    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Anokhin


    Full Text Available Introduction. Determination of power quality indices in high-voltage power grids allows to find the reasons for the deterioration of the power quality. The relevant national and International Standards for power quality contain relevant norms of quality indices and requirements for their accuracy measurement. Problem. The most complicated part in the process of measuring the power quality indices at high voltage is the selection of the corresponding high-voltage scale voltage converters. Therefore, comparing the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 to high voltage scale voltage converters is an important task. Goal. Analysis of the International Standard IEC 61000-4-30 requirements feasibility for measuring the indices of power quality in high-voltage electrical networks using different types of high-voltage scale voltage converters. Methodology. Comparison of the requirements of IEC 61000-4-30 Standard to high-voltage scale voltage converters, when measuring power quality indices, with the characteristics of high voltage electromagnetic transformers used in Ukraine, and with promising developments of high-voltage converters of other types. Results. It is shown in the study that in order to fulfill some of the requirements for class A of IEC 61000-4-30, the characteristics of electromagnetic voltage transformers should be determined in the substation conditions using mobile calibration high-voltage laboratories. To meet all the requirements for Class A IEC 61000-4-30, it is recommended to use broadband high-voltage dividers of resistive-capacitive type. Originality. In study it is shown firstly that all the requirements of the IEC 61000-4-30 Standard for high-voltage scale voltage converters can be performed on the basis of the use of broadband resistive-capacitive damped voltage dividers. Practical value. Expositions of specific types of resistive-capacitive high-voltage dividers are presented, their parameters are confirmed by the results of state

  12. Wavelength tunable parametric mid-IR source pumped by a high power picosecond thin-disk laser (United States)

    Vyvlečka, Michal; Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš


    High average power wavelength tunable picosecond mid-IR source based on parametric down-conversion is being developed. The conversion system is pumped by a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser delivering 100 W of average power at 100 kHz repetition rate, 1030 nm wavelength, and 3 ps pulse width. First, part of the beam pumps an optical parametric generator (OPG) consisting of a PPLN crystal. The generated wavelength is determined by PPLN's poling period and temperature. Signal beam covered wavelength range between 1.46 mμ and 1.95 mμ. The corresponding idler wavelengths are 3.5 mμ and 2.18 mμ, respectively. Signal beam of about 20 mW was generated at 2 W pumping and double pass arrangement of the OPG stage. The signal pulse energy is further boosted in an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) consisting of two KTP crystals. The signal beam was amplified to 2 W at pumping of 38 W. The idler beam is taken out of the OPA stage as well. Wavelength tuning by KTP crystals' phase-matching angle change was achieved in ranges and 1.7 - 1.95 μm and 2.18 - 2.62 mμ for signal and idler beam, respectively.

  13. Development of highly compact and low power consumption athermal military laser designators (United States)

    Sijan, A.


    The utility of military lasers, particularly in the area of laser designation for laser-guided weapons, is well understood. Laser systems based on Nd:YAG have been fielded since the 1980's and over the last three decades have introduced incremental technology steps to improve performance and weight. The most recent technology step has been the introduction of athermal lasers based on laser-diode pumping of Nd:YAG and products are now emerging for use on the battlefield. The technical performance, efficiency, size, weight and power for these lasers, has been key to driving the new production designs. In this paper, we review the development of the laser designs and their introduction since the advent of laser designation. In particular, we compare the relative performance and characteristics over the evolution of fielded laser designators. Moreover, we will review the key building blocks for the design of athermal lasers and describe some critical design issues for engineering and productionisation of a military laser system, including removal of thermal lensing, novel diode-pumping schemes and robustness over the environment. These will be exemplified using results from the development of the SELEX Galileo Type 163 Laser Target Designators. These will cover not only technical performance, power and efficiency, but also thermal management, mass, volume, cost and overall complexity for manufacture.

  14. Integrated Very High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies: Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Jens Christian; Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold


    This paper presents a power supply using an increased switching frequency to minimize the size of energy storing components, thereby addressing the demands for increased power densities in power supplies. 100 MHz and higher switching frequencies have been used in resonant power converters, which...... simulations. The required spiral inductors was modeled, and simulations show Q values of as high as 14 at a switching frequency of 250 MHz. Simulations of the converter show an efficiency of 55 % with a self oscillating gate drive. However the modeled inductor was not adequate for operating with the self...

  15. High power target developments at ISAC

    CERN Document Server

    Bricault, P G; Dowling, A; Lane, M


    TRIUMF, Canada's national research facility for particle and nuclear physics is currently operating the ISAC facility. A high-energy proton beam from the H sup - TRIUMF cyclotron is used to generate short-lived radioactive species in a thick target. An ion source at the target creates a radioactive beam, which is then injected into the ISAC beam lines and accelerator system. The ISAC facility is designed to accept proton beam intensity up to 100 mu A at 500 MeV. At present our target design can only sustains 40 mu A at maximum. Beyond this point the target has to be cooled. A new target equipped with fins has been developed that may sustain proton beam up to 100 mu A. The fined target has been tested off-line and a thermal simulation using ANSYS[reg] has been conducted and the results are reported here.

  16. On-Chip Power-Combining for High-Power Schottky Diode-Based Frequency Multipliers (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lee, Choonsup; Siles, Jose V.; Maestrini, Alain E.; Thomas, Bertrand; Jung, Cecile D.


    A 1.6-THz power-combined Schottky frequency tripler was designed to handle approximately 30 mW input power. The design of Schottky-based triplers at this frequency range is mainly constrained by the shrinkage of the waveguide dimensions with frequency and the minimum diode mesa sizes, which limits the maximum number of diodes that can be placed on the chip to no more than two. Hence, multiple-chip power-combined schemes become necessary to increase the power-handling capabilities of high-frequency multipliers. The design presented here overcomes difficulties by performing the power-combining directly on-chip. Four E-probes are located at a single input waveguide in order to equally pump four multiplying structures (featuring two diodes each). The produced output power is then recombined at the output using the same concept.

  17. Study of structural and optical properties of YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostić, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 68, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Lazarević, Z.Ž., E-mail: [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 68, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Radojević, V. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Milutinović, A.; Romčević, M.; Romčević, N.Ž. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 68, Pregrevica 118, Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia); Valčić, A. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)


    Highlights: • Transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced by the Czochralski technique. • Growth mechanisms and shape of the liquid/solid interface and incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} were studied. • The structure of the crystals was investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. • The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. • The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. - Abstract: Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and yttrium aluminum garnet doped with neodymium (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. The critical diameter and the critical rate of rotation were calculated. Suitable polishing and etching solutions were determined. As a result of our experiments, the transparent YAG and pale pink Nd:YAG single crystals were produced. The obtained crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure was confirmed by XRD. The 15 Raman and 17 IR modes were observed. The Raman and IR spectroscopy results are in accordance with X-ray diffraction analysis. The obtained YAG and Nd:YAG single crystals were without core and of good optical quality. The absence of a core was confirmed by viewing polished crystal slices. Also, it is important to emphasize that the obtained Nd:YAG single crystal has a concentration of 0.8 wt.% Nd{sup 3+} that is characteristic for laser materials.

  18. High-power lasers for directed-energy applications. (United States)

    Sprangle, Phillip; Hafizi, Bahman; Ting, Antonio; Fischer, Richard


    In this article, we review and discuss the research programs at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications in the atmosphere. Physical processes affecting propagation include absorption/scattering, turbulence, and thermal blooming. The power levels needed for DE applications require combining a number of lasers. In atmospheric turbulence, there is a maximum intensity that can be placed on a target that is independent of the initial beam spot size and laser beam quality. By combining a number of kW-class fiber lasers, scientists at the NRL have successfully demonstrated high-power laser propagation in a turbulent atmosphere and wireless recharging. In the NRL experiments, four incoherently combined fiber lasers having a total power of 5 kW were propagated to a target 3.2 km away. These successful high-power experiments in a realistic atmosphere formed the basis of the Navy's Laser Weapon System. We compare the propagation characteristics of coherently and incoherently combined beams without adaptive optics. There is little difference in the energy on target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams for multi-km propagation ranges and moderate to high levels of turbulence. Unlike incoherent combining, coherent combining places severe constraints on the individual lasers. These include the requirement of narrow power spectral linewidths in order to have long coherence times as well as polarization alignment of all the lasers. These requirements are extremely difficult for high-power lasers.

  19. Atmospheric propagation and combining of high-power lasers. (United States)

    Nelson, W; Sprangle, P; Davis, C C


    In this paper, we analyze beam combining and atmospheric propagation of high-power lasers for directed-energy (DE) applications. The large linewidths inherent in high-power fiber and slab lasers cause random phase and intensity fluctuations that occur on subnanosecond time scales. Coherently combining these high-power lasers would involve instruments capable of precise phase control and operation at rates greater than ∼10  GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase lock high-power lasers that is not encountered when phase locking low-power lasers, for example, at milliwatt power levels. Regardless, we demonstrate that even if instruments are developed that can precisely control the phase of high-power lasers, coherent combining is problematic for DE applications. The dephasing effects of atmospheric turbulence typically encountered in DE applications will degrade the coherent properties of the beam before it reaches the target. Through simulations, we find that coherent beam combining in moderate turbulence and over multikilometer propagation distances has little advantage over incoherent combining. Additionally, in cases of strong turbulence and multikilometer propagation ranges, we find nearly indistinguishable intensity profiles and virtually no difference in the energy on the target between coherently and incoherently combined laser beams. Consequently, we find that coherent beam combining at the transmitter plane is ineffective under typical atmospheric conditions.

  20. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael


    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  1. Space qualified Nd:YAG laser (phase 1 - design) (United States)

    Foster, J. D.; Kirk, R. F.


    Results of a design study and preliminary design of a space qualified Nd:YAG laser are presented. A theoretical model of the laser was developed to allow the evaluation of the effects of various parameters on its performance. Various pump lamps were evaluated and sum pumping was considered. Cooling requirements were examined and cooling methods such as radiation, cryogenic and conductive were analysed. Power outputs and efficiences of various configurations and the pump and laser lifetime are discussed. Also considered were modulation and modulating methods.

  2. Simulation of High Power Amplifier Calculation in VSAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Neforawati


    Full Text Available Arithmatical simulation of High Power Amplifier (HPA on VSAT system is a program which used to calculate the capacity of HPA as a working test of maximum power on each remote station of the VSAT network system, afterward can be obtained the available capacity value and power capacity used, therefore able to reallocate residual power below its available power spare. VSAT system can be used for several telecommunication application such as video broadcast, data broadcast,audio broadcast, banking operation, ATM and others. Due to the easy operational, maintanance and its instalment, VSAT system is more prifitable compare to ordinary terestrial band, its capability for multiservice application become more flexible in using its network. The software used is Visual Basic 6.0 version and database Microsoft Access. These software take a role as visualization and planning for remote station development and also power capasity needed for each remote in the calculation of HPA.

  3. Beyond blue pico laser: development of high power blue and low power direct green (United States)

    Vierheilig, Clemens; Eichler, Christoph; Tautz, Sönke; Lell, Alfred; Müller, Jens; Kopp, Fabian; Stojetz, Bernhard; Hager, Thomas; Brüderl, Georg; Avramescu, Adrian; Lermer, Teresa; Ristic, Jelena; Strauss, Uwe


    There is a big need on R&D concerning visible lasers for projection applications. The pico-size mobile projection on the one hand awaits the direct green lasers with sufficiently long lifetimes at optical powers above 50mW. In this paper we demonstrate R&D-samples emitting at 519nm with lifetimes up to 10.000 hours. The business projection on the other hand requires high power operation and already uses blue lasers and phosphor conversion, but there is a strong demand for higher power levels. We investigate the power limits of R&D laser structures. In continuous wave operation, the power is limited by thermal roll-over. With an excellent power conversion efficiency of up to 29% the thermal roll-over is as high as 2.5W for a single emitter in TO56 can. We do not observe significant leakage at high currents. Driven in short pulse operation to prevent the laser from self heating, linear laser characteristics of optical power versus electrical current are observed up to almost 8W of optical power.

  4. A high-power versatile wireless power transfer for biomedical implants. (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Jun Min; Liou, Shy Shenq; Fechter, Richard; Hirose, Shinjiro; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo


    Implantable biomedical actuators are highly desired in modern medicine. However, how to power up these biomedical implants remains a challenge since most of them need more than several hundreds mW of power. The air-core based radio-frequency transformer (two face-to-face inductive coils) has been the only non-toxic and non-invasive power source for implants for the last three decades [1]. For various technical constraints, the maximum delivered power is limited by this approach. The highest delivered power reported is 275 mW over 1 cm distance [2]. Also, the delivered power is highly vulnerable to the coils' geometrical arrangement and the electrical property of the medium around them. In this paper, a novel rotating-magnets based wireless power transfer that can deliver ∼10 W over 1 cm is demonstrated. The delivered power is significantly higher than the existing start-of-art. Further, the new method is versatile since there is no need to have the impedance matching networks that are highly susceptible to the operating frequency, the coil arrangement and the environment.

  5. A feasibility study of H{sup -} beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aoki, Nobutada [Toshiba Power System Co., Ltd. (Japan); Nakagawa, Satoshi [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small portion of the beam precisely from the high intensity beam by using a laser beam. By a laser beam, H{sup -} in the beam from LINAC is partially changed to H{sup 0} beam so that a low current H{sup 0} beam can be obtained. As the cross section of the charge exchange reaction for H{sup -} ions has a peak around at a wave length of 1 {mu}m for photons, YAG laser is suitable for this charge exchange because of its 1.06 {mu}m wave length. It is derived that 10 W beam for 600-MeV proton can be extracted by the YAG laser with power of 2 J for each pulse of 25 Hz. By this technique, the pulse width for the extracted beam can be controlled by changing the time width of laser irradiation. When a charge exchanger having the beam collide point existing in straight section, a background beam current of projectile, however, will be increased due to the interaction with the residual gas in the beam duct. Thus, a charge exchanger is devised having the beam collide point in a

  6. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang


    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  7. High power laser-matter interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mulser, Peter


    This book intended as a guide for scientists and students who have just discovered the field as a new and attractive area of research, and for scientists who have worked in another field and want to join now the subject of laser plasmas. In the first chapter the plasma dynamics is described phenomenologically by a two fluid model and similarity relations from dimensional analysis. Chapter 2 is devoted to plasma optics and collisional absorption in the dielectric and ballistic model. Linear resonance absorption at the plasma frequency and its mild nonlinearities as well as the self-quenching of high amplitude electron plasma waves by wave breaking are discussed in Chapter 3. With increasing laser intensity the plasma dynamics is dominated by radiation pressure, at resonance producing all kinds of parametric instabilities and out of resonance leading to density steps, self-focusing and filamentation, described in Chapters 4 and 5. A self-contained treatment of field ionization of atoms and related phenomena ar...

  8. High Power Uplink Amplifier for Deep Space Communications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Critical to the success of delivering on the promise of deep space optical communications is the creation of a stable and reliable high power multichannel optical...

  9. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The motivation of the proposed SBIR is to develop, demonstrate and commercialize a compact, low-mass, high output power (1-10 milliwatt), tunable source of CW THz...

  10. High Power Room Temperature Terahertz Local Oscillator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build a high-power, room temperature compact continuous wave terahertz local oscillator for driving heterodyne receivers in the 1-5 THz frequency...

  11. Analysis, simulation, and experimental studies of YAG and CO2 laser-produced plasma for EUV lithography sources (United States)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Harilal, S. S.; Sizyuk, T.


    Efficient laser systems are essential for the realization of high volume manufacturing in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Solid-state Nd:YAG lasers usually have lower efficiency and source suppliers are alternatively investigating the use of high power CO2 laser systems. However, CO2 laser-produced plasmas (LPP) have specific characteristics and features that should be taken into account when considering them as the light source for EUVL. The analysis of recent experimental and theoretical work showed significant differences in the properties of plasma plumes produced by CO2 and the Nd:YAG lasers including EUV radiation emission, source formation, debris generation, and conversion efficiency. The much higher reflectivity of CO2 laser from liquid, vapor, and plasma of a tin target results in the production of optically thinner plumes with higher velocity and in a better formation of plasma properties (temperature and density values) towards more efficient EUV source. However, the spikes in the temporal profiles of current CO2 laser will additionally affect the properties of the produced plasma. We have developed unique combination of state-of-the-art experimental facilities (CMUXE Laboratory) and advanced computer simulation (HEIGHTS) package for studying and optimizing various lasers, discharge produced plasmas (DPP), and target parameters as well as the optical collection system regarding EUV lithography. In this work, detailed characteristics of plasmas produced by CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers were analyzed and compared both experimentally and theoretically for optimizing EUV from LPP sources. The details of lower overheating of plasma produced by CO2 laser are given with time and explain how to utilize the high reflectivity of such lasers in plasmas produced in different target geometries to significantly enhance the conversion efficiency of EUV radiation.

  12. High-Power Liquid-Metal Heat-Transfer Loop (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Fujita, Toshio


    Proposed closed-loop system for transfer of thermal power operates at relatively high differential pressure between vapor and liquid phases of liquid-metal working fluid. Resembles "capillary-pumped" liquid-metal heat-transfer loop except electric field across permselective barrier of beta alumina keeps liquid and vapor separate at heat-input end. Increases output thermal power, contains no moving parts, highly reliable and well suited to long-term unattended operation.

  13. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  14. Apparatus for advancing a wellbore using high power laser energy (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.


    Delivering high power laser energy to form a borehole deep into the earth using laser energy. Down hole laser tools, laser systems and laser delivery techniques for advancement, workover and completion activities. A laser bottom hole assembly (LBHA) for the delivery of high power laser energy to the surfaces of a borehole, which assembly may have laser optics, a fluid path for debris removal and a mechanical means to remove earth.

  15. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  16. Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling in high power fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.


    Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W.......Thermally induced nonlinear mode coupling leads to transverse mode instability (TMI) in high power fiber amplifiers. A numerical model including altering mode profiles from thermal effects and waveguide perturbations predicts a TMI threshold of ~200W....

  17. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal


    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  18. Hollow-core fibers for high power pulse delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michieletto, Mattia; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Jakobsen, Christian


    We investigate hollow-core fibers for fiber delivery of high power ultrashort laser pulses. We use numerical techniques to design an anti-resonant hollow-core fiber having one layer of non-touching tubes to determine which structures offer the best optical properties for the delivery of high power......-core fiber. The three fibers are characterized experimentally for the delivery of 22 picosecond pulses at 1032nm. We demonstrate flexible, diffraction limited beam delivery with output average powers in excess of 70W. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  19. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser (United States)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.


    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  20. Status of the High Average Power Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser Development at HiLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Novák


    Full Text Available An overview of the latest developments of kilowatt-level diode pumped solid state lasers for advanced applications at the HiLASE Centre is presented. An overview of subcontracted and in-house-developed laser beamlines is presented. The aim of development is to build kW-class beamlines delivering picosecond pulses between 1- and 100-kHz repetition rates and high-energy nanosecond pulses at 10 Hz. The picosecond beamlines are based on Yb:YAG thin-disk amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification. The current status of the beamlines’ performance is reported. The advantages of zero-phonon line and pulsed pumping are demonstrated with respect to efficiency, thin disk temperature and beam quality. New diagnostics methods supporting the high average power lasers’ development, such as the high-resolution spectroscopy of Yb-doped materials, in situ thin disk deformation measurements, single-shot M2 measurement, realization of wavefront correction by a deformable mirror and the laser performance of a new mixed garnet ceramics, are described. The energetic, thermal and fluid-mechanical numerical modeling for the optimization of the multi-slab amplifiers is also described.

  1. High Efficiency, High Linearity, Switch Mode Power Amplifiers for Varying envelop Signal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Tian; Sira, Daniel; Nielsen, Michael


    using switch-mode power amplifier aided by various linearization techniques can present a feasible way to achieve both high linearity and high power efficiency. In this paper two different implementations of the switch-mode power amplifier a re p resented for varying envelop applications: the RF pulse...

  2. Analysis of thermal distribution in two end pumping Nd: YAG laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 3. Analysis of ... Abstract. There is a strong need for the optimized management of the thermal problem in Nd:YAG laser rod and for a powerful, fast, and accurate modelling tool capable of treating the heat source distribution very close to what it actually is.

  3. Passively Q-switched VCSEL-pumped Nd:YAG laser with 47 mJ pulse energy (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Robert; Xu, Bing; Wang, Qing; Xu, Guoyang; Zhou, Delai; Kovsh, Alexey; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Ghosh, Chuni


    A compact passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was end-pumped by a water-cooled 808 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) pump module comprising four high power, high brightness VCSEL chips with a combined 10 mm diameter circular emitting area and 2.3 kW total peak power, resulting in 47 mJ laser pulse energy at 1064 nm with 16% optical efficiency at 15 Hz repetition frequency. A laser package comprising an air-cooled 1.6 kW VCSEL pump module produced 37 mJ laser pulse energy, while more than 13 mJ laser pulse energy was demonstrated in a bench-top experiment with a very compact laser set-up using a single 5 mm x 5 mm VCSEL chip.

  4. Comparison between the perfomance of Nd:YAG, Nd/Cr:GSGG and Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic lasers with quasi-solar pumping (United States)

    Bouadjemine, R.; Louhibi, D.; Kellou, A.


    Recent developments in laser materials, such as Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic with a broad absorption spectrum in the visible, have been applied to achieve highly-efficient and low-cost optical pumping by conventional sources. Our simulator based on the implementation of a mathematical model under Matlab Simulink allowed us to show the correlation between the characteristics of the laser mode of operation (such as Relaxation, Quasi-continuous wave (QCW), Continuous wave, Burst, Q-switched) and the various physical parameters of the oscillator. This model was applied to the Nd:YAG crystal, Nd/Cr:GSGG crystal and Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic. The simulation results demonstrated that Nd/Cr:YAG ceramic is an excellent candidate for solar and quasi-solar pumping, as its pumping efficiency exceeds by a factor of four that of the Nd:YAG crystal medium, and by a factor of two that of Nd/Cr:GSGG crystal. A pumping by a light guide was considered in this simulation.

  5. Dentin bond strength: influence of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carolina Ferraz; Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo de Paiva; Yui, Karen Cristina Kazue; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Brayner, Ricardo


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin. The coronal portion of 56 human molars was divided into three parts, and the dentin thickness was standardized at 2 mm. A 3-mm hole was marked in the center of each tooth with sealing tape paper. The specimens (n = 14) were then divided into four groups: (1) acid etching + Single Bond (SB) (control), (2) acid etching + SB + Nd:YAG laser irradiation (before adhesive curing), (3) thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser + SB, and (4) thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser + SB + Nd:YAG laser irradiation (before adhesive curing). A composite resin cylinder was built into the delimited area for conducting the shear bond strength test on the universal testing machine. The means ± standard deviations were: group 1, 17.05 ± 4.15 MPa; group 2, 16.90 ± 3.36 MPa; group 3, 12.12 ± 3.85 MPa; and group 4, 12.92 ± 2.73 MPa. Groups 1 and 2 presented significantly higher values than groups 3 and 4. It was concluded that conventional etching with 37% phosphoric acid yielded significantly higher bond strength values compared to thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser. The Nd:YAG laser did not significantly influence the bond strength.

  6. Broadly tunable mode-locked Ho:YAG ceramic laser around 2.1 µm. (United States)

    Wang, Yicheng; Lan, Ruijun; Mateos, Xavier; Li, Jiang; Hu, Chen; Li, Chaoyu; Suomalainen, Soile; Härkönen, Antti; Guina, Mircea; Petrov, Valentin; Griebner, Uwe


    A passively mode-locked Ho:YAG ceramic laser around 2.1 µm is demonstrated using GaSb-based near-surface SESAM as saturable absorber. Stable and self-starting mode-locked operation is realized in the entire tuning range from 2059 to 2121 nm. The oscillator operated at 82 MHz with a maximum output power of 230 mW at 2121 nm. The shortest pulses with duration of 2.1 ps were achieved at 2064 nm. We also present spectroscopic properties of Ho:YAG ceramics at room temperature.

  7. Use of high-power lasers in oral surgery (United States)

    Gaspar, Lajos


    The treatment of 2989 patients with different type of lasers was described. The argon laser beam was used in 57 cases (portwine stains, telangiectasias, angiofibromas and other vascular lesions) and 84 operations were performed by Nd:YAG laser (leukoplakia, hemangioma etc.) furthermore 53 operations by combined laser beam. 2795 operations by carbon dioxide laser were performed in precancerous states and other white lesions, benign tumors and tumor-like states, malignant tumors and other lesions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Lalabonova


    Full Text Available High energy lasers are used as an alternative to conventional surgery for treatment of oral leukoplakia. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effectiveness of Nd-YAG laser as treatment for oral leukoplakia. Seventeen patients were followed-up with oral leukoplakia for the period 2005-2011. Nd–YAG laser was used with following parameters: λ - 1 064 nm, 10 - 15 W, Т 40 - 70 sec. Early postoperative results were monitored considering criteria pain, redness, swelling each 1, 3, 7 days. The effect from the treatment was determined by recording the changes in size of the lesions each 1, 2, 3 months. The results which reflect effectiveness of treatment within the observed period showed that twelve patients were complete respondents, two responded partially, and three did not respond. The treatment of oral leukoplakia through the application of Nd-YAG laser is characterized with good therapeutic effect and smooth postoperative period, without significant pain and discomfort, making it appropriate clinical solution.

  9. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact


    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  10. High Performance Low Cost Digitally Controlled Power Conversion Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes


    suited for digital control schemes involving multiple control loops such as digital control of a switch-mode power supply with several converter stages. Customised digital control solutions implemented in application specific integrated circuits are the best solution for high bandwidth digital control......Digital control of switch-mode power supplies and converters has within the last decade evolved from being an academic subject to an emerging market in the power electronics industry. This development has been pushed mainly by the computer industry that is looking towards digital power management...... of non-isolated DC-DC converters. A customised digital control solution for a voltage mode control scheme should include a digital pulse width modulator which can generate a pulse width modulated signal with high switching frequency and high resolution, a digital compensator with a short execution time...

  11. High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...

  12. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems are anticipated for various planetary surface human base applications with power levels of 30?100+ kWe. The development of high...

  13. Resonance tracking and vibration stablilization for high power ultrasonic transducers. (United States)

    Kuang, Y; Jin, Y; Cochran, S; Huang, Z


    Resonant frequency shift and electrical impedance variation are common phenomena in the application of high power ultrasonic transducers, e.g. in focused ultrasound surgery and in cutting. They result in low power efficiency and unstable vibration amplitude. To solve this problem, a driving and measurement system has been developed to track the resonance of high power transducers and to stabilise their vibration velocity. This has the ability to monitor the operating and performance parameters of the ultrasonic transducers in real time. The configuration of the system, with its control algorithm implemented in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Newbury, UK), ensures flexibility to suit different transducers and load conditions. In addition, with different programs, it can be utilised as a high power impedance analyser or an instantaneous electrical power measurement system for frequencies in the MHz range. The effectiveness of this system has been demonstrated in detailed studies. With it, high transducer performance at high power can be achieved and monitored in real time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Er:YAG triangular ring laser resonantly pumped by a 1470-nm laser diode (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Chunqing; Shi, Yang; Ye, Qing; Wang, Qing


    An Er:YAG triangular ring laser resonantly pumped by a 1470 nm laser diode was reported. 7.28 W continuous-wave output power at 1645 nm was obtained by using a triangular ring resonator. In the Q-switched mode, the Er:YAG laser generated pulse energies from 6.05 mJ to 16.6 mJ at 1645 nm when pulse repetition rates change from 1 kHz to 200 Hz. By inserting an etalon into the resonator, the Er:YAG laser yielded Q-switched energies from 1.714 mJ to 5.1 mJ at 1617 nm when pulse repetition rates change from 1 kHz to 200 Hz.

  15. E-beam high voltage switching power supply (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.


    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  16. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...

  17. High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. At high specific...

  18. Enhanced stability of magnetoelectric gyrators under high power conditions (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Zhuang, Xin; Gao, Min; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Junran; Li, Jiefang; Zhang, Jitao; Srinivasan, G.; Viehland, D.


    In this study, three different coil-based magnetoelectric (ME) gyrators of different geometries, including gyrators with high power output, have been designed and characterized. These included two magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive (M-P-M) and one piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric (P-M-P) type ME gyrators, which consisted of nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic plates. Compared with M-P-M ME gyrators, the P-M-P ones exhibited a higher power efficiency (η) of 85% when operated at resonance under an optimal magnetic bias field (HBias) of 40 Oe at low power conditions. It retained a relatively high efficiency of η = 79% under a high input power density of 2.87 W/cm3. A low reduction in the magnetomechanical coupling and mechanical quality (k33,m and Qm) factors of the NZFO ferrite layer in the ME gyrator explains the resilience of the P-M-P type structure with increasing power drive. The findings open the possibility of using ME gyrators in high power applications.

  19. Toward High-Power Klystrons With RF Power Conversion Efficiency on the Order of 90%

    CERN Document Server

    Baikov, Andrey Yu; Syratchev, Igor


    The increase in efficiency of RF power generation for future large accelerators is considered a high priority issue. The vast majority of the existing commercial high-power RF klystrons operates in the electronic efficiency range between 40% and 55%. Only a few klystrons available on the market are capable of operating with 65% efficiency or above. In this paper, a new method to achieve 90% RF power conversion efficiency in a klystron amplifier is presented. The essential part of this method is a new bunching technique - bunching with bunch core oscillations. Computer simulations confirm that the RF production efficiency above 90% can be reached with this new bunching method. The results of a preliminary study of an L-band, 20-MW peak RF power multibeam klystron for Compact Linear Collider with the efficiency above 85% are presented.

  20. Electric Vehicles for Improved Operation of Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Esben; Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob


    vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible economical incentives for the vehicle owners will be shown. By control of EDV charging through a price......In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive...

  1. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  2. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications (United States)

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.


    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  3. Iron loss in high-power arc steelmaking furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Karasyov


    Full Text Available There is considered the power operating mode of a high-power arc steelmaking furnaces (ASMF in the period of the flat bath. It is revealed that electric energy is mainly spent for heating and overheating the foamed slag. Heat transferring from slag to metal is carried out by the convective agitation of the bath. For agitation there is used intensive purging of the bath with oxygen that causes increased iron losses with the running foamed slag. There are noted the negative points of working with the foamed slag. It is recommended to expand R&D in the field of optimizing the power operating mode of high-power ASMF.

  4. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    , 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation......This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  5. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.


    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  6. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.


    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  7. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies.:Miniaturization of Power Electronics.


    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold


    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply these electronic devices. This calls for new technologies in order to miniaturize the power electronics of today. One way to do this is by increasing the switching frequency dramatically and develop ve...

  8. Multiple-pass amplifiers for high-power laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackel, S.; Givon, M.; Ludmirsky, A.; Eliezer, S.; Borowitz, J.L.; Arad, B.; Zigler, A.; Gazit, Y.


    Multiple-pass amplifiers were configured from Nd:glass rods using polarization and angular coupling techniques. Very high gain (>600) single beam triple-pass booster stages and high gain (30 or 15) single or double-beam double-pass amplifiers were combined to construct a very cost effective high-power (50 GW) pulsed laser system. These techniques were also effectively applied to smaller compact high repetition-rate systems.

  9. High power test of a 30 GHz planar accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich; Henke, H; Wuensch, Walter; Yu, D


    A 30-GHz muffin-tin, traveling-wave accelerating structure consisting of 37 cells was tested at high power using the CTF2 at CERN. The structure was fabricated with conventional milling and brazing, including tuning holes at cavity roofs. No special surface preparation or treatment was done to the structure. A maximum peak power in excess of 100 MW at a pulse width of 4 ns was transported through the structure before electron bursts were initiated. A maximum accelerating gradient of 60 MV/m was achieved with a peak RF power of 40 MW at a pulse width of 8 ns.

  10. Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers (United States)

    2015-01-01 Microfabricated Millimeter-Wave High-Power Vacuum Electronic Amplifiers Figure 2. Results from the 220 GHz TWT . (a) Small signal...Completed tube under hot test. 220 GHz TWT Demonstration The 220 GHz TWT device was based on spare parts from a commercially available CPI VKY2444T G...existing parts, our TWT bested this COTS EIK performance by a factor of 12x in power and 50x in bandwidth for the same size, weight and prime power

  11. High-power non linear frequency converted laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Hansen, Anders Kragh


    We present different methods of generating light in the blue-green spectral range by nonlinear frequency conversion of tapered diode lasers achieving state-of-the-art power levels. In the blue spectral range, we show results using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as cavity...... enhanced sum frequency generation (SFG) with watt-level output powers. SHG and SFG are also demonstrated in the green spectral range as a viable method to generate up to 4 W output power with high efficiency using different configurations....

  12. Active Photonic crystal fibers for high power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    . This plays an important role in high power lasers and ampliers with respect to efficiency, packaging, and thermal handling. The third part of the work has involved developing tools for characterizing the mode quality and stability of large core bers. Stable, single-mode bers with larger cores are essential...... records have been set using this ber. An output power of 167 W has been achieved, which, at the time of writing, is the highest output power generated from ytterbium bers in this wavelength region and from photonic bandgap bers in general. The 1178 nm light has subsequently been frequency doubled to 589...

  13. High Power Operation of the JLab IR FEL Driver Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hovater; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Rui Li; Steven Moore; George Neil; Benard Poelker; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Robert Rimmer; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Gwyn Williams; Shukui Zhang


    Operation of the JLab IR Upgrade FEL at CW powers in excess of 10 kW requires sustained production of high electron beam powers by the driver ERL. This in turn demands attention to numerous issues and effects, including: cathode lifetime; control of beamline and RF system vacuum during high current operation; longitudinal space charge; longitudinal and transverse matching of irregular/large volume phase space distributions; halo management; management of remnant dispersive effects; resistive wall, wake-field, and RF heating of beam vacuum chambers; the beam break up instability; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (both on beam quality and the performance of laser optics); magnetic component stability and reproducibility; and RF stability and reproducibility. We discuss our experience with these issues and describe the modus vivendi that has evolved during prolonged high current, high power beam and laser operation.

  14. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre

    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply...... band gap semiconductors and integrated power supplies. Afterwards a wide range of topologies suited for operation at very high frequencies is investigated and the most promising ones are tested experimentally. Through a comparison of these topologies the class DE inverter is found to be superior...... to the other alternatives, at least for converters with hundreds of volts as input and a few tens of watts output power. A class DE inverter does however require a high side gate drive, which have never been presented before for these frequencies and voltages. This thesis presents the worlds first high side...

  15. Reliability and Characterization of High Voltage Power Capacitors (United States)


    permittivity EVCS electric vehicle charging system GPIB general-purpose interface bus GW giga-watt HVST high voltage stress test IV current voltage...traditional fossil fuel . The typical solar power system requires multiple subsystems as well as the physical infrastructure to support the solar panels. The...that will last, reducing the militaries overall dependence on traditional fossil fuel . B. CONVERTER OVERVIEW The typical solar power system

  16. Highly Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer (United States)


    Journal Publications (under review) 1. A Pattanayak and SP Duttagupta, “A Novel Broadband Reflect-array Design with sub-wavelength ring resonators...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0033 Highly Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer Siddhartha Prakash Duttagupta INDIAN INSTITUTE...Directive Reflect Array Antenna Design for Wireless Power Transfer 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4076 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  17. Programmatic status of NASA`s CSTI high capacity power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoefer, J.E.


    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA`s Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. This paper will discuss the status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs have been completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. This paper also provides an update of progress in these technologies.

  18. Cr-ZnSe passively Q-switched fiber-bulk Ho:YAG hybrid laser (United States)

    Terekhov, Yuri; Moskalev, Igor S.; Martyshkin, Dmitri V.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Mirov, Sergey B.


    The objective of this work was to develop a compact and efficient Tm-fiber-Ho:YAG, hybrid laser passively Q-switched by Cr:ZnSe saturable absorber. We used a folded semi-hemispherical 10 cm long cavity with a plane output coupler and a 0.5 m concave high reflector. In these experiments we studied the performance of two high optical quality Cr:ZnSe crystals as saturable absorbers with initial transmissions of 93.9% and 70% at 2.1 μm. With the 93.9% transmission crystal, passive Q-switching was realized with a maximum output power of 5 W, pulse energy of 0.5 mJ, pulse duration of 150 ns, and Q-switched-to-CW-mode extraction efficiency of 60%. With the 70% transmission crystal, passive Qswitching was achieved with a 75% Q-switched-to-CW-mode extraction efficiency, pulse energy of 3 mJ, and duration of 7ns. The laser demonstrated sustained damage-free, TEM000 operation with 0.5 MW of peak power showing promise for applications requiring high-peak-power, diffraction-limited beams, and single-frequency regimes of operation.

  19. Energy Efficient and Compact RF High-Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvillo Cortés, D.A.


    The main objectives of this thesis are to improve the energy efficiency and physical form-factor of high-power amplifiers in base station applications. As such, the focus of this dissertation is placed on the outphasing amplifier concept, which can offer high-efficiency, good linearity and excellent

  20. Quantum dot amplifiers with high output power and low noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper


    Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers have been theoretically investigated and are predicted to achieve high saturated output power, large gain, and low noise figure. We discuss the device dynamics and, in particular, show that the presence of highly inverted barrier states does not limit...

  1. Cryostat for a high-temperature superconducting power cable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; Smit, J.J.; Geschiere, A.


    Cryostat for a high-temperature superconducting power cable, comprising concentric tubes, an annular region between said tubes, wherein a multilayer thermal insulation and getter material for supporting high vacuum conditions are provided in said annular region, and wherein the multilayer insulation

  2. High-Temperature, Wirebondless, Ultracompact Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Modules (United States)

    Elmes, John


    Silicon carbide (SiC) and other wide bandgap semiconductors offer great promise of high power rating, high operating temperature, simple thermal management, and ultrahigh power density for both space and commercial power electronic systems. However, this great potential is seriously limited by the lack of reliable high-temperature device packaging technology. This Phase II project developed an ultracompact hybrid power module packaging technology based on the use of double lead frames and direct lead frame-to-chip transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding that allows device operation up to 450 degC. The new power module will have a very small form factor with 3-5X reduction in size and weight from the prior art, and it will be capable of operating from 450 degC to -125 degC. This technology will have a profound impact on power electronics and energy conversion technologies and help to conserve energy and the environment as well as reduce the nation's dependence on fossil fuels.

  3. Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of colorectal cancer (United States)

    Horak, Ladislav; Dvorak, K.; Fanta, J.


    Nd:YAG laser has been used in the treatment of colorectal cancer since the 80s. Since January of 1988 our clinic uses laser in therapeutic program. In clinical treatments laser with the wavelength of 1064 micrometer and power of 40 - 50 W is used. Only in rare cases do we use power over 50 W. the ratio of energy for one treatment depends only on clinical effect, there are no other limits. In the first period of our clinical practice, from 1988 to 1991, all the laser treatments were held under short-term anesthesia. Our patients were hospitalized for 2 or 3 days. For the actual treatments, we used the rigid endoscopic technique and also the flexible technique (coloscop). We preferred the flexible technique definitely. Since January of 1991 we practice almost all treatments in ambulant schedule without general anesthesia. Only in the cases where treatments reach under linea dentata, we choose short-term inhale anesthesia. The patients are hospitalized for one day. In the actual treatments we take advantage of Nd:YAG laser. We try to vaporize most of the tumor masses during great hemostasis. The hemostasis is defined by the zone of coagulation.

  4. Sodium temperature/wind lidar based on laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers deployed at Tromsø, Norway (69.6°N, 19.2°E). (United States)

    Kawahara, T D; Nozawa, S; Saito, N; Kawabata, T; Tsuda, T T; Wada, S


    An Nd:YAG laser-based sodium temperature/wind lidar was developed for the measurement of the northern polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere at Tromsø (69.6N, 19.2E), Norway. Coherent light at 589 nm is produced by sum frequency generation of 1064 nm and 1319 nm from two diode laser end-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. The output power is as high as 4W, with 4 mJ/pulse at 1000 Hz repetition rate. Five tilting Cassegrain telescopes enable us to make five-direction (zenith, north, south, east, west) observation for temperature and wind simultaneously. This highly stable laser system is first of its kind to operate virtually maintenance-free during the observation season (from late September to March) since 2010.

  5. High-power density miniscale power generation and energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyshevski, Sergey Edward [Department of Electrical and Microelectronics Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623-5603 (United States)


    This paper reports design, analysis, evaluations and characterization of miniscale self-sustained power generation systems. Our ultimate objective is to guarantee highly-efficient mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion, ensure premier wind- or hydro-energy harvesting capabilities, enable electric machinery and power electronics solutions, stabilize output voltage, etc. By performing the advanced scalable power generation system design, we enable miniscale energy sources and energy harvesting technologies. The proposed systems integrate: (1) turbine which rotates a radial- or axial-topology permanent-magnet synchronous generator at variable angular velocity depending on flow rate, speed and load, and, (2) power electronic module with controllable rectifier, soft-switching converter and energy storage stages. These scalable energy systems can be utilized as miniscale auxiliary and self-sustained power units in various applications, such as, aerospace, automotive, biotechnology, biomedical, and marine. The proposed systems uniquely suit various submersible and harsh environment applications. Due to operation in dynamic rapidly-changing envelopes (variable speed, load changes, etc.), sound solutions are researched, proposed and verified. We focus on enabling system organizations utilizing advanced developments for various components, such as generators, converters, and energy storage. Basic, applied and experimental findings are reported. The prototypes of integrated power generation systems were tested, characterized and evaluated. It is documented that high-power density, high efficiency, robustness and other enabling capabilities are achieved. The results and solutions are scalable from micro ({proportional_to}100 {mu}W) to medium ({proportional_to}100 kW) and heavy-duty (sub-megawatt) auxiliary and power systems. (author)

  6. High-power 95 GHz pulsed electron spin resonance spectrometer (United States)

    Hofbauer, W.; Earle, K. A.; Dunnam, C. R.; Moscicki, J. K.; Freed, J. H.


    High-field/high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) offers improved sensitivity and resolution compared to ESR at conventional fields and frequencies. However, most high-field/high-frequency ESR spectrometers suffer from limited mm-wave power, thereby requiring long mm-wave pulses. This precludes their use when relaxation times are short, e.g., in fluid samples. Low mm-wave power is also a major factor limiting the achievable spectral coverage and thereby the multiplex advantage of Fourier transform ESR (FTESR) experiments. High-power pulses are needed to perform two-dimensional (2D) FTESR experiments, which can unravel the dynamics of a spin system in great detail, making it an excellent tool for studying spin and molecular dynamics. We report on the design and implementation of a high-power, high-bandwidth, pulsed ESR spectrometer operating at 95 GHz. One of the principal design goals was the ability to investigate dynamic processes in aqueous samples at physiological temperatures with the intent to study biological systems. In initial experiments on aqueous samples at room temperature, we achieved 200 MHz spectral coverage at a sensitivity of 1.1×1010√s spins and a dead time of less than 50 ns. 2D-electron-electron double resonance experiments on aqueous samples are discussed to demonstrate the practical application of such a spectrometer.

  7. Modular High-Energy Systems for Solar Power Satellites (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Carrington, Connie K.; Marzwell, Neville I.; Mankins, John C.


    Modular High-Energy Systems are Stepping Stones to provide capabilities for energy-rich infrastructure located in space to support a variety of exploration scenarios as well as provide a supplemental source of energy during peak demands to ground grid systems. Abundant renewable energy at lunar or other locations could support propellant production and storage in refueling scenarios that enable affordable exploration. Renewable energy platforms in geosynchronous Earth orbits can collect and transmit power to satellites, or to Earth-surface locations. Energy-rich space technologies also enable the use of electric-powered propulsion systems that could efficiently deliver cargo and exploration facilities to remote locations. A first step to an energy-rich space infrastructure is a 100-kWe class solar-powered platform in Earth orbit. The platform would utilize advanced technologies in solar power collection and generation, power management and distribution, thermal management, electric propulsion, wireless avionics, autonomous in space rendezvous and docking, servicing, and robotic assembly. It would also provide an energy-rich free-flying platform to demonstrate in space a portfolio of technology flight experiments. This paper summary a preliminary design concept for a 100-kWe solar-powered satellite system to demonstrate in-flight a variety of advanced technologies, each as a separate payload. These technologies include, but are not limited to state-of-the-art solar concentrators, highly efficient multi-junction solar cells, integrated thermal management on the arrays, and innovative deployable structure design and packaging to enable the 100-kW satellite feasible to launch on one existing launch vehicle. Higher voltage arrays and power distribution systems (PDS) reduce or eliminate the need for massive power converters, and could enable direct-drive of high-voltage solar electric thrusters.

  8. High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power. (United States)

    Rudin, B; Wittwer, V J; Maas, D J H C; Hoffmann, M; Sieber, O D; Barbarin, Y; Golling, M; Südmeyer, T; Keller, U


    High-power ultrafast lasers are important for numerous industrial and scientific applications. Current multi-watt systems, however, are based on relatively complex laser concepts, for example using additional intracavity elements for pulse formation. Moving towards a higher level of integration would reduce complexity, packaging, and manufacturing cost, which are important requirements for mass production. Semiconductor lasers are well established for such applications, and optically-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) are most promising for higher power applications, generating the highest power in fundamental transverse mode (>20 W) to date. Ultrashort pulses have been demonstrated using passive modelocking with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), achieving for example 2.1-W average power, sub-100-fs pulse duration, and 50-GHz pulse repetition rate. Previously the integration of both the gain and absorber elements into a single wafer was demonstrated with the MIXSEL (modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser) but with limited average output power (power scaling concept of the MIXSEL using optimized quantum dot saturable absorbers in an antiresonant structure design combined with an improved thermal management by wafer removal and mounting of the 8-µm thick MIXSEL structure directly onto a CVD-diamond heat spreader. The simple straight cavity with only two components has generated 28-ps pulses at 2.5-GHz repetition rate and an average output power of 6.4 W, which is higher than for any other modelocked semiconductor laser.

  9. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques (United States)

    Raghunathan, Anand


    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  10. Optical Fiber for High-Power Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kurokawa


    Full Text Available We examined optical fibers suitable for avoiding such problems as the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input. We found that the threshold power for fiber fuse propagation in photonic crystal fiber (PCF and hole-assisted fiber (HAF can exceed 18 W, which is more than 10 times that in conventional single-mode fiber (SMF. We considered this high threshold power in PCF and HAF to be caused by a jet of high temperature fluid penetrating the air holes. We showed examples of two kinds of failures at bends in conventional SMF when the input power was 9 W. We also observed the generation of a fiber fuse under a condition that caused a bend-loss induced failure. We showed that one solution for the failures at bends is to use optical fibers with a low bending loss such as PCF and HAF. Therefore, we consider PCF and HAF to be attractive solutions to the problems of the fiber fuse phenomenon and failures at bends with a high power input.

  11. High Power Fiber Lasers and Applications to Manufacturing (United States)

    Richardson, Martin; McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas


    We summarize recent developments in high power fiber laser technologies and discuss future trends, particularly in their current and future use in manufacturing technologies. We will also describe our current research programs in fiber laser development, ultra-fast and new lasers, and will mention the expectations in these areas for the new Townes Laser Institute. It will focus on new core laser technologies and their applications in medical technologies, advanced manufacturing technologies and defense applications. We will describe a program on large mode area fiber development that includes results with the new gain-guiding approach, as well as high power infra-red fiber lasers. We will review the opportunities for high power fiber lasers in various manufacturing technologies and illustrate this with applications we are pursuing in the areas of femtosecond laser applications, advanced lithographies, and mid-IR technologies.

  12. Semiconductor quantum-well saturable absorbers for efficient passive Q switching of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser. (United States)

    Huang, Y P; Liang, H C; Huang, J Y; Su, K W; Li, A; Chen, Y F; Huang, K F


    InGaAs quantum wells and a Bragg mirror structure are grown on a GaAs substrate to simultaneously serve as a low-loss saturable absorber and an output coupler for highly efficient Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. With an incident pump power of 9.2 W, the laser produces pulses of 38 ns duration with average pulse energy of as much as 20 microJ at a pulse repetition rate of 55 kHz.

  13. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark


    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  14. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps (United States)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.


    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  15. High Power High Thrust Ion Thruster (HPHTion): 50 CM Ion Thruster for Near-Earth Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in high power, photovoltaic technology has enabled the possibility of reasonably sized, high specific power, high power, solar arrays. New thin film solar...

  16. High-Performance Control in Radio Frequency Power Amplification Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod

    This thesis presents a broad study of methods for increasing the efficiency of narrow-band radio transmitters. The study is centered around the base station application and TETRA/TEDS networks. The general solution space studied is that of envelope tracking applied to linear class-A/B radio...... frequency power amplifiers (RFPAs) in conjunction with cartesian feedback (CFB) used to linearize the overall transmitter system. On a system level, it is demonstrated how envelope tracking is particularly useful for RF carriers with high peak-to-average power ratios, such as TEDS with 10dB. It is also...... and ripple voltage. It is found that the simple fourth-order filter buck converter is ideal for TETRA and TEDS envelope tracking power supplies. The problem of extracting maximum control bandwidth from a given power topology is given particular attention, with a range of, arguably new, insights resulting...

  17. Power quality in high-tech campus: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Redel, M.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain). Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electronica


    This paper presents preliminary results from a power-quality audit conducted at a high-tech campus over the last year. Voltage and current were measured at various R and D buildings; it was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags and surges. The paper examines the causes and effects of power disturbances that affect computer or any other microprocessor-based equipment and analyses the auto-protection capabilities of modern power supplies. The convenience of 'enhanced power supply' or 'low-cost customer-side' protection solutions is also discussed. Finally, it addresses the role of the standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final customer. (author)

  18. Urological applications of Ho/Nd:Yag laser (United States)

    Grifoni, Riccardo; Pierangeli, Tiziana; Gioacchini, Andrea; Muraro, Giovanni B.


    The introduction of Ho:Yag laser has brought many advantages in urology. By this work we want show you our experience with this technology. Between April 1998 and May 2000 we treated 137 patients. Of these 28 had urinary lithiasis (18 bladder and 10 ureteral stones 3 in the upper, 2 in the middle and 5 in the distal tract), 40 were affected by enlargement of prostatic gland: 32 had B.P.H., 8 P.C.; 36 had T.C.C. and 33 strictures of urethra (27) or bladder neck (6). For ureteral lithiasis we used 200 micrometer fiber, energy of 0.5 - 1.4 J with 10 Hz of frequency. In case of bladder stones a 550 or 1000 micrometer using a power of 80 W. The prostatic gland were resected by a 550 micrometer fiber, 2.2 - 2.8 J, 25 - 30 Hz and 70 -80 W. The superficial bladder tumors were removed by 1.4 J with 10 - 15 Hz and 10 - 14 W. In the large tumors we completed the procedure by Nd:YAG at the base of the tumor. Urethra and bladder neck strictures were treated by 1.2 - 1.8 J and 10 - 30 Hz. We successful treated 26 patients with urinary lithiasis obtained the complete vaporization of the stones, 2 had endoscopic ancillary procedures. Out of 32 patients with B.P.H. 41% had the complete resection of the gland the others the resection of the 3d lobe. We removed 114 superficial bladder tumors and only 4 patients had a local recurrence. Of the patients with the strictures 4 had more than one treatment and about 87% had good result. From our experience the use of Holmium:Yag laser has been very efficacy to treat different urological diseases, also in patients with important comorbid disorders and its use reduce the stay in hospital and so the costs.

  19. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)


    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  20. Using high-power light emitting diodes for photoacoustic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Skov

    The preliminary result of using a high-power light emitting diode, LED, for photoacoustic imaging is presented. The pulsed light source is created by a 1Watt red Luxeon LED. The LED delivers light pulses with 25W peak power when supplied by 40A peak, 60ns wide current pulses. The phantom used...... for the experiment consists of a 3mm high x 5mm wide slice of green colored gelatine overlaid by a 3cm layer of colorless gelatine. The light pulses from the LED is focused on the green gelatine. The photoacoustic response from the green gelatine is detected by a single transducer on the opposite (top) surface...

  1. High-power FEL design issues - a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.; O`Shea, P.G. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)


    The high-average power capability of FELs has been much advertised but little realized. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the technological and economic issues associated with high-average power FEL operation from the UV to near IR. The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  2. Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.

  3. Flyer acceleration experiments using high-power laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadono T.


    Full Text Available Flyer acceleration technique using high-power lasers has several advantages such as the achieved velocities higher than 10 km/s and non-contamination to the products generated by impacts. In this study, we show that a high-power laser can achieve flyer velocities higher than 10 km/s up to 60 km/s using spherical projectiles with a diameter of 0.1 − 0.3mm. We discuss the projectile condition during the flight based on the results of numerical simulations.

  4. Nd:Yag laser em catarata infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giovanni Maria Elizabeth


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e avaliar a utilização do Nd:Yag laser em crianças pseudofácicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 24 olhos de 22 pacientes pseudofácicos no Serviço de Catarata Congênita da Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina, no período de junho de 2001 a março de 2003, com opacidade da cápsula posterior, submetidos à capsulotomia posterior com Nd:Yag laser. Analisamos a idade na cirurgia, tipo de cirurgia, tipo e localização da lente intra-ocular, tempo entre a cirurgia e a opacidade capsular posterior, o número de sessões, energia utilizada, lateralidade, acuidade visual pré e pós- Nd:Yag laser. RESULTADOS: Todos os 24 olhos pseudofácicos foram submetidos a capsulotomia posterior com Nd:Yag laser. Destes, quatro (16,6% apresentavam lente intra-ocular acrílica e 18 (75% de PMMA. Sendo 12 LIOs no saco capsular e nove no sulco ciliar. A energia utilizada foi de 0,8mJ a 2mJ por disparo, total de 100mJ por sessão. A utilização do Nd:Yag laser mostrou-se viável em 22 (91,6% olhos. Em dois (8,3% olhos houve necessidade de capsulotomia cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a capsulotomia com Nd:Yag laser possa ser boa opção para a obtenção da transparência do eixo visual e melhora da qualidade visual em crianças pseudofácicas.

  5. High efficiency switching power amplifiers for multi-band radar (United States)

    Lawler, Jarred; Wells, Justin; Mendez, Sal; Wurth, Tim


    The reduction of size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) of radio frequency (RF) components is becoming increasingly important to meet industry requirements. In meeting the SWaP-C objectives, RF components will be required to be smaller and more power efficient than the current state- of- the- art while sustaining high performance functionality. In compliance with SWaP-C and high performance functionality is a High Efficiency Switching Power Amplifier. This study focuses on the more efficient breed of switching power amplifiers (PAs), particularly the Class F PA with new techniques to operate broadband on multiple radar bands. Efficiencies in the range of 60% to 80% for Class F PAs have been reported in literature; however, this efficiency is only attainable over narrow bandwidths on the order of 10%. Several innovative techniques have been identified to increase the efficiency and operational bandwidth of RF power amplifiers (PAs) for radar applications. The amplifier design also incorporates fast turn on and turn off circuits to achieve switching times of less than one microsecond (μs). This enables the PA to be switched off during the receive period to prevent self-generated noise from corrupting the received signal. Also, high-power transmit and receive (T/R) switches at the antenna feed can be eliminated. A wideband PA enables the design of a multi-band radar, reducing the number of components needed for operation in the L and X bands. A high efficiency PA is also key to reducing battery size and cooling requirements in radar applications.

  6. BBO sapphire compound for high-power frequency conversion (United States)

    Rothhardt, Carolin; Rothhardt, Jan; Klenke, Arno; Peschel, Thomas; Eberhardt, Ramona; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    Lasers used for diverse applications from industry to fundamental science tend to increasing output powers. Some applications require frequency conversion via nonlinear optical crystals, which suffer from the formation of temperature gradients at high power operation which causes thermal lensing or destruction of the crystal due to tensile stresses. To avoid these unwanted effects we joined a beta barium borate (BBO) crystal with sapphire disks serving as effective heat spreaders due to their high thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity κ = 42 W/Km). Therefore, smooth and flat crystal surfaces were joined by plasma-activated bonding. The joining relies on covalent bonds, which are formed via a condensation reaction of the surfaces which are first connected by Van der Waals forces. The cleaned surfaces are activated by plasma and brought into contact, pressed together and heat treated at a temperature of about 100°C. Special attention has been paid to the cleaning of the surfaces. Therefor the surfaces have been evaluated before and after treatment by means of atomic force microscopy. A stable connection has been formed successfully, which has been tested in a proof of principle experiment and demonstrated efficient second harmonic generation at up to 253 W of input power. Compared to a bare single BBO crystal it could be shown that the temperature within the crystal compound is significantly reduced. Such hybrid structures pave the way for frequency conversion at kilowatts of average power for future high power lasers.

  7. Design of Plasma Generator Driven by High-frequency High-voltage Power Supply


    Yong-Nong, C.; K. Chih-Ming


    In this research, a high-frequency high-voltage power supply designed for plasma generator is presented. The power supply mainly consists of a series resonant converter with a high-frequency high-voltage boost transformer. Due to the indispensable high-voltage inheritance in the operation of plasma generator, the analysis of transformer need considering not only winding resistance, leakage inductance, magnetizing inductance, and core-loss resistance, but also parasitic capacitance resulted fr...

  8. High efficiency GaP power conversion for Betavoltaic applications (United States)

    Sims, Paul E.; Dinetta, Louis C.; Barnett, Allen M.


    AstroPower is developing a gallium phosphide (GaP) based energy converter optimized for radio luminescent light-based power supplies. A 'two-step' or 'indirect' process is used where a phosphor is excited by radioactive decay products to produce light that is then converted to electricity by a photovoltaic energy converter. This indirect conversion of beta-radiation to electrical energy can be realized by applying recent developments in tritium based radio luminescent (RL) light sources in combination with the high conversion efficiencies that can be achieved under low illumination with low leakage, gallium phosphide based devices. This tritium to light approach is inherently safer than battery designs that incorporate high activity radionuclides because the beta particles emitted by tritium are of low average energy and are easily stopped by a thin layer of glass. GaP layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy and p/n junction devices were fabricated and characterized for low light intensity power conversion. AstroPower has demonstrated the feasibility of the GaP based energy converter with the following key results: 23.54 percent conversion efficiency under 968 muW/sq cm 440 nm blue light, 14.59 percent conversion efficiency for 2.85 muW/sq cm 440 nm blue light, and fabrication of working 5 V array. We have also determined that at least 20 muW/sq cm optical power is available for betavoltaic power systems. Successful developments of this device is an enabling technology for low volume, safe, high voltage, milliwatt power supplies with service lifetimes in excess of 12 years.

  9. Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology[8470 High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Since the discovery of the first high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in the late 1980s, many materials and families of materials have been discovered that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures well above 20 K. Of these, several families of HTSs have been developed for use in electrical power applications. Demonstration of devices such as motors, generators, transmission lines, transformers, fault-current limiters, and flywheels in which HTSs and bulk HTSs have been used has proceeded to ever larger scales. First-generation wire, made from bismuth-based copper oxides, was used in many demonstrations. The rapid development of second-generation wire, made by depositing thin films of yttrium-based copper oxide on metallic substrates, is expected to further accelerate commercial applications. Bulk HTSs, in which large single-grain crystals are used as basic magnetic components, have also been developed and have potential for electrical power applications.

  10. A safe, high-power-density lithium battery (United States)

    Walsh, F.


    The Li/SOCl2 battery has received attention because of its high theoretical energy/power density. However, practical Li/SOCl2 cells have not provided the desired power density and have suffered from concerns with cell safety on discharge. In previous work, ECO has shown that the use of a TAA-type catalyst significantly improves the safety of the Li/S0Cl2 cell at high rate. The objective of this Phase 1 program was to determine whether a stacked disk electrode configuration with TAA-catalyzed cathodes would meet a high power-density design goal. Under the program, the effects of cathode thickness, preparation pressure, electrolyte gap and solute concentration on stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity were measured. The results of the Phase 1 program included the demonstration of stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity at levels suitable to meet a design goal of 400 W/kg with high energy density. Further work in a Phase 2 program will be required to demonstrate in laser-sealed fully-packaged cells that the results of Phase 1 can be practically applied to provide a safe high-rate, energy-dense power source for military applications.

  11. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation. (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Woo, Park Chul; Yeom, Jung-Yeol; Yoon, Changhan


    A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA) used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reducing the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers. In order to verify the performance improvement of the HVPA implementing the power MOSFET linearizer, we measured and found that the gain deviation of the power MOSFET linearizer integrated with HVPA under 10 V DC bias voltage was reduced (-1.8 and -0.96 dB, respectively) compared to that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-2.95 and -3.0 dB, respectively) when 70 and 80 MHz, three-cycle, and 26 dBm input pulse waveforms are applied, respectively. The input 1-dB compression point (an index of linearity) of the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (24.17 and 26.19 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively) at 10 V DC bias voltage was increased compared to that of HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (22.03 and 22.13 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively). To further verify the reduction of the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers, the pulse-echo responses in the pulse-echo instrumentation were compared when using HVPA with and without the power MOSFET linearizer. When three-cycle 26 dBm input power was applied, the second, third, fourth, and fifth harmonic distortion components of a 75 MHz transducer driven by the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (-48.34, -44.21, -48.34, and -46.56 dB, respectively) were lower than that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-45.61, -41.57, -45.01, and -45.51 dB, respectively). When five-cycle 20 dBm input

  12. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojong Choi


    Full Text Available A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reducing the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers. In order to verify the performance improvement of the HVPA implementing the power MOSFET linearizer, we measured and found that the gain deviation of the power MOSFET linearizer integrated with HVPA under 10 V DC bias voltage was reduced (−1.8 and −0.96 dB, respectively compared to that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (−2.95 and −3.0 dB, respectively when 70 and 80 MHz, three-cycle, and 26 dBm input pulse waveforms are applied, respectively. The input 1-dB compression point (an index of linearity of the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (24.17 and 26.19 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively at 10 V DC bias voltage was increased compared to that of HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (22.03 and 22.13 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively. To further verify the reduction of the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers, the pulse-echo responses in the pulse-echo instrumentation were compared when using HVPA with and without the power MOSFET linearizer. When three-cycle 26 dBm input power was applied, the second, third, fourth, and fifth harmonic distortion components of a 75 MHz transducer driven by the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (−48.34, −44.21, −48.34, and −46.56 dB, respectively were lower than that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (−45.61, −41.57, −45.01, and −45.51 d

  13. 16.7 W 885 nm diode-side-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser at 1176 nm (United States)

    Jiang, Pengbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Liu, Jian; Ding, Xin; Sheng, Quan; Yu, Xuanyi; Sun, Bing; Shi, Rui; Wu, Liang; Wang, Rui; Yao, Jianquan


    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated the generation of high-power 1176 nm Stokes wave by frequency shifting of a 885 nm diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a YVO4 crystal in a Z-shaped cavity configuration. Employing the 885 nm diode-side-pumped scheme and the Z-shaped cavity, for the first time to our knowledge, we realized the thermal management effectively, achieving excellent 1176 nm Stokes wave consequently. With an incident pump power of ~190.0 W, a maximum average output power of 16.7 W was obtained at the pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The pulse duration and spectrum linewidth of the Stokes wave at the maximum output power were 20.3 ns and ~0.08 nm, respectively.

  14. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu


    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  15. Highly efficient and high-power diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser (United States)

    Tian, Wenlong; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zheng, Lihe; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi


    A diode-pumped high-power femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser with high efficiency is demonstrated. With a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passive mode-locking and a Gires-Tournois interferometer mirror for intracavity dispersion compensation, stable mode-locking pulses of 297 fs duration at 1042 nm were obtained. The maximum average power of 3.07 W was realized under 5.17 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to as high as 59.4% opt-opt efficiency. The single pulse energy and peak power are about 35.5 nJ and 119.5 kW, respectively.

  16. Pulse generation, spectroscopy, and transitions dynamics of Er 3+ ions in YAG host (United States)

    Konieczny, Piotr; Świderski, Jacek; Zając, Andrzej


    In Er:YAG, Er:YSGG and Er:YLF lasers the most important are the three lowest energy levels of Er 3+ ion. Transitions between these levels decide about wavelength of generated laser radiation. In Er:YAG laser these levels are: 4I 15/2 (energy: 280 cm -1), 4I 13/2 (6710 cm -1), 4I 11/2 (10330 cm -1) [1]. Er:YAG has many absorption lines mainly in visual and near infrared wavelength spectrum. This laser may generate optical radiation at two wavelengths: 1,6 μm and 2,94μm. For the first one Er:YAG works as a three level quantum system and the for the second one it works as a four level quantum system. In this case the top laser level is 4I 11/2 and the down laser level is 4I 13/2. Both the wavelength generated and the work mode may be selected by dopant concentration. In lasers such as Er:YAG an analysis of transitions between levels during optical radiation absorption and generation the Boltzman distribution of energy levels occupation and thermalization effects must be taken into consideration [2]. Authors have developed computer software, which allows analysing transitions dynamics, laser output power/energy and rod's temperature increase (during pulse generation) which depends on: pump properties, initial temperature, and dopant concentration. Analysis may be carried on for monopulse generation as well as for pulse generation. This software allows simplifying Er:YAG laser application designing.

  17. Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers. (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas


    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.

  18. High-Power ZBLAN Glass Fiber Lasers: Review and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiushan Zhu


    Full Text Available ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF, considered as the most stable heavy metal fluoride glass and the excellent host for rare-earth ions, has been extensively used for efficient and compact ultraviolet, visible, and infrared fiber lasers due to its low intrinsic loss, wide transparency window, and small phonon energy. In this paper, the historical progress and the properties of fluoride glasses and the fabrication of ZBLAN fibers are briefly described. Advances of infrared, upconversion, and supercontinuum ZBLAN fiber lasers are addressed in detail. Finally, constraints on the power scaling of ZBLAN fiber lasers are analyzed and discussed. ZBLAN fiber lasers are showing promise of generating high-power emissions covering from ultraviolet to mid-infrared considering the recent advances in newly designed optical fibers, beam-shaped high-power pump diodes, beam combining techniques, and heat-dissipating technology.

  19. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, Silviu D. [JLAB


    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 {micro}A rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 {micro}A beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  20. Designing high power targets with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covrig, S. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    High power liquid hydrogen (LH2) targets, up to 850 W, have been widely used at Jefferson Lab for the 6 GeV physics program. The typical luminosity loss of a 20 cm long LH2 target was 20% for a beam current of 100 μA rastered on a square of side 2 mm on the target. The 35 cm long, 2500 W LH2 target for the Qweak experiment had a luminosity loss of 0.8% at 180 μA beam rastered on a square of side 4 mm at the target. The Qweak target was the highest power liquid hydrogen target in the world and with the lowest noise figure. The Qweak target was the first one designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. A CFD facility is being established at Jefferson Lab to design, build and test a new generation of low noise high power targets.

  1. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Ronald J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  2. Oscillating Thermionic Conversion For High-Density Space Power (United States)

    Jacobson, Dean L.; Morris, James F.


    Space nuclear reactors adapt admirably to compact maneuverable multimegawatt power generation. The compactness, maneuverability and productive weight utilization benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperatures. These modular static generators reduce waste-heat-radiator weights which loom large in high-power space systems. But greater space-power levels test even thermionic conversion because of its high current densities at low voltages: Relatively low-temperature power conditioning also contributes to large waste-heat-radiator weights. Therefore electromagnetic-wave outputs from thermionic conversion offer important advantages over its traditional direct-current power. In this advantageous operating mode thermionic-conversion lasing yet occupies a theoretic niche. Pulsing and switching with triode thermionic converters appear ready for development guided by continuing applied research. And power-producing thermionic-diode oscillators are excellent prospects for United States research exploitation. This direct thermal power oscillator continues to receive intense experimental and theoretical attention in the USSR--under the aegis of the State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy. Now the SDIO through AFWAL has funded a three-year program at Arizona State University to investigate high-temperature oscillatory thermionic conversion. Ascending toward its thermal limits enables thermionic conversion to produce more power at higher voltages and lower currents with greater efficiencies. These gains accrue with minimal collisional damping afforded by surface ionization and Knudsen-arc-mode operation. Here at high neutralization ratios p actual ionization JEXP greatly outstrips the equilibrium ion currents JISL predicted by Saha and Langmuir. In fact for large values of p the value of EXP can exceed JSL by 100-150 times" (Babanin, Ender et alii). And here high neutralization ratios with low collisional damping at reduced cesium pressures favor

  3. In vitro bond strength of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin irradiated with high-power lasers and adhesive interface analyses. (United States)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa C; Cruvinel, Pedro Basto; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the influence of high-power lasers (Nd:YAG and diode 980 nm) associated with mineral coal as fotopotencializer on bond strength of an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer to root dentin, using the pushout test, and on the dentin/filling material interface, using confocal laser microscopy. For this purposes, 50 canines were instrumented with Mtwo rotary system up to #50.04 instrument and randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10): group I-control EDTAC; group II-EDTAC and Nd:YAG laser; group III-EDTAC and diode laser 980 nm; group IV-EDTAC, Nd:YAG laser and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL; and group V-EDTAC, diode laser 980 nm and mineral coal 5 g/100 mL. All data were analyzed by ANOVA (at 5% significance level) following the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Tukey tests. The group I increased more bond strength of the sealer to root dentin that treated with only EDTAC 17% (17.21 ± 21.75 MPa), similar to the group II (12.21 ± 18.20 MPa) and group IV (14.92 ± 28.06 MPa), both treated with Nd:YAG laser, with the exception of group IV, which was added to mineral coal. The group V (8.75 ± 13.42 MPa) had similar results to the groups II and IV, but the same similarity were found when compared with group III (7.11 + 11.28 MPa), with lower results. Regarding the root thirds, the apical third (23.27 ± 29.21 MPa) presented a statistically higher value on bond strength than the cervical third (5.92 ± 5.33 MPa) and middle third (6.93 ± 7, 11 MPa) (p > 0.05). Group II (86.27 μm) showed the highest tags penetration values, with a statistically difference to the group III (51.57 μm), IV (36.77 μm) and V (32.37 μm) (p  0.05). Group IV had the lowest values and was statistically similarity to groups III and V (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the treatment with Nd:YAG laser provides better results than the diode 980 nm laser, except when was added mineral coal. The control and diode 980 nm laser

  4. In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrero, E.; Rosenthal, D.; Otis, J.B.


    Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in free hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a hot tip rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris micro-embolization up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds.

  5. Performance of improved magnetostrictive vibrational power generator, simple and high power output for practical applications (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiyuki


    Vibration based power generation technology is utilized effectively in various fields. Author has invented novel vibrational power generation device using magnetostrictive material. The device is based on parallel beam structure consisting of a rod of iron-gallium alloy wound with coil and yoke accompanied with permanent magnet. When bending force is applied on the tip of the device, the magnetization inside the rod varies with induced stress due to the inverse magnetostrictive effect. In vibration, the time variation of the magnetization generates voltage on the wound coil. The magnetostrictive type is advantageous over conventional such using piezoelectric or moving magnet types in high efficiency and high robustness, and low electrical impedance. Here, author has established device configuration, simple, rigid, and high power output endurable for practical applications. In addition, the improved device is lower cost using less volume of Fe-Ga and permanent magnet compared to our conventional, and its assembly by soldering is easy and fast suitable for mass production. Average power of 3 mW/cm3 under resonant vibration of 212 Hz and 1.2 G was obtained in miniature prototype using Fe-Ga rod of 2 × 0.5× 7 mm3. Furthermore, the damping effect was observed, which demonstrates high energy conversion of the generator.

  6. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. (Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)); Murakami, M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P[sub rf] [approximately] 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  7. Modeling of high power ICRF heating experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Majeski, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Skinner, C.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wong, K.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Khudaleev, A.; Petrov, M.P. [Ioffe Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Over the past two years, ICRF heating experiments have been performed on TFTR in the hydrogen minority heating regime with power levels reaching 11.2 MW in helium-4 majority plasmas and 8.4 MW in deuterium majority plasmas. For these power levels, the minority hydrogen ions, which comprise typically less than 10% of the total electron density, evolve into la very energetic, anisotropic non-Maxwellian distribution. Indeed, the excess perpendicular stored energy in these plasmas associated with the energetic minority tail ions is often as high as 25% of the total stored energy, as inferred from magnetic measurements. Enhanced losses of 0.5 MeV protons consistent with the presence of an energetic hydrogen component have also been observed. In ICRF heating experiments on JET at comparable and higher power levels and with similar parameters, it has been suggested that finite banana width effects have a noticeable effect on the ICRF power deposition. In particular, models indicate that finite orbit width effects lead to a reduction in the total stored energy and of the tail energy in the center of the plasma, relative to that predicted by the zero banana width models. In this paper, detailed comparisons between the calculated ICRF power deposition profiles and experimentally measured quantities will be presented which indicate that significant deviations from the zero banana width models occur even for modest power levels (P{sub rf} {approximately} 6 MW) in the TFTR experiments.

  8. Drag power kite with very high lift coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, F.; Kennel, R.M.; Hackl, C.M.; Campagnolo, F.; Patt, M.; Schmehl, R.


    As an alternative to conventional wind turbines, this study considered kites with onboard wind turbines driven by a high airspeed due to crosswind flight (“drag power”). The hypothesis of this study was, that if the kite's lift coefficient is maximized, then the power, energy yield, allowed costs

  9. High Powered Rocketry: Design, Construction, and Launching Experience and Analysis (United States)

    Paulson, Pryce; Curtis, Jarret; Bartel, Evan; Cyr, Waycen Owens; Lamsal, Chiranjivi


    In this study, the nuts and bolts of designing and building a high powered rocket have been presented. A computer simulation program called RockSim was used to design the rocket. Simulation results are consistent with time variations of altitude, velocity, and acceleration obtained in the actual flight. The actual drag coefficient was determined…

  10. High Power Factor Hybrid Rectifier | Odeh | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the analysis of a new single-phase hybrid rectifier with high power factor (PF) and low harmonic distortion current. The proposed rectifier structure is composed of an ordinary single-phase diode rectifier with parallel connection of a switched converter. It is outlined that the switched converter is capable of ...

  11. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Bratman, V. L.; Bongers, W. A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G. G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A. A. M.; Poelman, A. J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A. V.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.


    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 mus.

  12. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during

  13. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Zeki Demir. Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Düzce University. Konuralp, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. E-mail: Tel: +90-380-5421136. Fax: +90-380-5421136. Accepted 18 August, 2010. The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress.

  14. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power (United States)

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  15. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...

  16. High-power thulium lasers on a silicon photonics platform. (United States)

    Li, Nanxi; Purnawirman, P; Su, Zhan; Salih Magden, E; Callahan, Patrick T; Shtyrkova, Katia; Xin, Ming; Ruocco, Alfonso; Baiocco, Christopher; Ippen, Erich P; Kärtner, Franz X; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Watts, Michael R


    Mid-infrared laser sources are of great interest for various applications, including light detection and ranging, spectroscopy, communication, trace-gas detection, and medical sensing. Silicon photonics is a promising platform that enables these applications to be integrated on a single chip with low cost and compact size. Silicon-based high-power lasers have been demonstrated at 1.55 μm wavelength, while in the 2 μm region, to the best of our knowledge, high-power, high-efficiency, and monolithic light sources have been minimally investigated. In this Letter, we report on high-power CMOS-compatible thulium-doped distributed feedback and distributed Bragg reflector lasers with single-mode output powers up to 267 and 387 mW, and slope efficiencies of 14% and 23%, respectively. More than 70 dB side-mode suppression ratio is achieved for both lasers. This work extends the applicability of silicon photonic microsystems in the 2 μm region.

  17. High efficiency solar cells for laser power beaming applications (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Landis, G. A.


    Understanding solar cell response to pulsed laser outputs is important for the evaluation of power beaming applications. The time response of high efficiency GaAs and silicon solar cells to a 25 nS monochromatic pulse input is described. The PC-1D computer code is used to analyze the cell current during and after the pulse for various conditions.

  18. In-situ strain observation in high power laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Bosgra, J.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.


    The modern experimental technique - so called Digital Image Correlation - is applied during high power laser surface treatments for in-situ observation of displacements and strains near the processing area during and a short time after laser processing. An experimental setup has been designed and

  19. Device for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser (United States)

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.


    A system for wavefront correction in an ultra high power laser. As the laser medium flows past the optical excitation source and the fluid warms its index of refraction changes creating an optical wedge. A system is provided for correcting the thermally induced optical phase errors.

  20. Single-stage electronic ballast with high-power factor (United States)

    Park, Chun-Yoon; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kwon, Bong-Hwan


    This article proposes a single-stage electronic ballast circuit with high-power factor. The proposed circuit was derived by sharing the switches of the power factor correction (PFC) and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter. This integration of switches forms the proposed single-stage electronic ballast, which provides an almost unity power factor and a ripple-free input current by using a coupled inductor without increasing the voltage stress. In addition, it realises zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) by employing the self-oscillation technique. The saturable transformer constituting the self-oscillating drive limits the lamp current and dominates the switching frequency of the ballast. Therefore, the proposed single-stage ballast has the advantage of high-power factor, high efficiency, low cost and high reliability. Steady-state analysis of the PFC and the half-bridge LCC resonant inverter are described. The results of experiments performed using a 30 W fluorescent lamp are also presented to confirm the performance of the proposed ballast.