WorldWideScience

Sample records for high power production

  1. The SPES High Power ISOL production target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, A.; Corradetti, S.; Ballan, M.; Borgna, F.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Silingardi, R.; Mozzi, A.; Vivian, G.; Boratto, E.; De Ruvo, L.; Sattin, N.; Meneghetti, G.; Oboe, R.; Guerzoni, M.; Margotti, A.; Ferrari, M.; Zenoni, A.; Prete, G.

    2016-11-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is a facility under construction at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro), aimed to produce intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams (RIBs). These will be obtained using the ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method, bombarding a uranium carbide target with a proton beam of 40MeV energy and currents up to 200μA. The target configuration was designed to obtain a high number of fissions, up to 1013 per second, low power deposition and fast release of the produced isotopes. The exotic isotopes generated in the target are ionized, mass separated and re-accelerated by the ALPI superconducting LINAC at energies of 10AMeV and higher, for masses in the region of A = 130 amu , with an expected rate on the secondary target up to 109 particles per second. In this work, recent results on the R&D activities regarding the SPES RIB production target-ion source system are reported.

  2. High RF Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Adli, E; Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous mode. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and delivered to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability and main linac RF power needs. Another requirement is to provide local RF power termination in case of accelerating structure failure (ON/OFF capability). Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design

  3. 30 GHz High Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I V

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous TM01 mode at 30 GHz. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and conveyed to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability along a single decelerator sector (600 m) and the active length of the structure to match the main linac RF power needs and layout. Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design.

  4. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  5. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, Claus; Ropenus, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm 3 . The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  6. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  7. Production price of hydrogen from grid connected electrolysis in a power market with high wind penetration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Claus [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ropenus, Stephanie [Systems Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-10-15

    In liberalized power markets, there are significant power price fluctuations due to independently varying changes in demand and supply, the latter being substantial in systems with high wind power penetration. In such systems, hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis can be cost optimized by operating an electrolyzer part time. This paper presents a study on the minimization of the hydrogen production price and its dependence on estimated power price fluctuations. The calculation of power price fluctuations is based on a parameterization of existing data on wind power production, power consumption and power price evolution in the West Danish power market area. The price for hydrogen is derived as a function of the optimal electrolyzer operation hours per year for four different wind penetration scenarios. It is found to amount to 0.41-0.45 EUR/Nm{sup 3}. The study further discusses the hydrogen price sensitivity towards investment costs and the contribution from non-wind power sources. (author)

  8. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  9. Statistics for products of traces of high powers of the frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Roditty-Gershon, Edva

    2011-01-01

    We study the averages of products of traces of high powers of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves of genus g over a fixed finite field. We show that for increasing genus g, the limiting expectation of these products equals to the expectation when the curve varies over the unitary symplectic group USp(2g). We also consider the scaling limit of linear statistics for eigenphases of the Frobenius class of hyperelliptic curves, and show that their first few moments are Gaussian.

  10. Very High Efficiency Reactor (VHER) Concepts for Electrical Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARMA JR, EDWARD J.; PICKARD, PAUL S.; SUO-ANTTILA, AHTI JORMA

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Very High Efficiency Reactor study was to develop and analyze concepts for the next generation of nuclear power reactors. The next generation power reactor should be cost effective compared to current power generation plant, passively safe, and proliferation-resistant. High-temperature reactor systems allow higher electrical generating efficiencies and high-temperature process heat applications, such as thermo-chemical hydrogen production. The study focused on three concepts; one using molten salt coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry, the other two using high-pressure helium coolant with a prismatic fuel-element geometry and a fuel-pebble element design. Peak operating temperatures, passive-safety, decay heat removal, criticality, burnup, reactivity coefficients, and material issues were analyzed to determine the technical feasibility of each concept

  11. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen Production System with High Temperature Electrolysis for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentaro, Matsunaga; Eiji, Hoashi; Seiji, Fujiwara; Masato, Yoshino; Taka, Ogawa; Shigeo, Kasai

    2006-01-01

    Steam electrolysis with solid oxide cells is one of the most promising methods for hydrogen production, which has the potential to be high efficiency. Its most parts consist of environmentally sound and common materials. Recent development of ceramics with high ionic conductivity suggests the possibility of widening the range of operating temperature with maintaining the high efficiency. Toshiba is constructing a hydrogen production system with solid oxide electrolysis cells for nuclear power plants. Tubular-type cells using YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized- Zirconia) as electrolyte showed good performance of steam electrolysis at 800 to 900 deg C. Larger electrolysis cells with present configuration are to be combined with High Temperature Reactors. The hydrogen production efficiency on the present designed system is expected around 50% at 800 to 900 deg C of operating temperature. For the Fast Reactors, 'advanced cell' with higher efficiency at lower temperature are to be introduced. (authors)

  13. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  14. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui; Sukitpaneenit, Panu; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Design of robust hollow fiber membranes with high power density for osmotic energy production

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sui

    2014-04-01

    This study highlights the design strategy of highly asymmetric hollow fiber membranes that possess both characteristics of high flux and high mechanical strength to effectively reap the osmotic energy from seawater brine with an ultrahigh power density. An advanced co-extrusion technology was employed to fabricate the polyethersulfone (PES) hollow fiber supports with diversified structures from macrovoid to sponge-like. The microstructure of the supports is found critical for the stability and water permeability of the thin film composite (TFC) membranes. A high porosity in the porous layer is needed to reduce internal concentration polarization, while a thick and relatively dense skin layer underneath the TFC layer is required to maintain good mechanical stability and stress dissipation. The pore size of the supporting layer underneath the TFC layer must be small with a narrow pore size distribution to ensure the formation of a less-defective, highly permeable and mechanically stable TFC layer. The newly developed hollow fiber comprising high asymmetry, high porosity, and a thick skin layer with a small and narrow pore size distribution underneath the TFC layer produces a maximum power density of 24.3W/m2 at 20.0bar by using 1M NaCl as the concentrated brine and deionized (DI) water as the feed. The proposed design strategy for ultrahigh power density membranes clearly advances the osmotic energy production close to commercialization with a quite cost-effective and practicable approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. A computer study of radionuclide production in high power accelerators for medical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, K. A.; Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  17. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Computer study of isotope production for medical and industrial applications in high power accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashnik, S. G.; Wilson, W. B.; Van Riper, K. A.

    2001-07-01

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes. These methods are readily applicable both to accelerator and reactor environments and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements that may be expanded to other reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures, is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/.

  19. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  20. Generating power at high efficiency combined cycle technology for sustainable energy production

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, E

    2008-01-01

    Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features - including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification com

  1. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  2. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  3. Production of high power microwaves for particle acceleration with an FEL bunched electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gardelle, J; Marchese, G; Padois, M; Rullier, J L; Donohue, J T

    1999-01-01

    Among the studies in the framework of high gradient linear electron-positron collider research, the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is a very promising concept, and two projects are in progress, the Compact Linear Collider project at CERN (W. Schnell, Report no. CERN SL/92-51 and CLIC note 184; K. Huebner, CERN/PS 92-43, CLIC note 176; S. Van der Meer, CERN/PS 89-50, CLIC note 97.) and the Relativistic Klystron-TBA project at LBNL (Technical Review Committee, International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report 1995, SLAC-R-95-471, 1995). In a TBA an extremely intense low-energy electron beam, called the drive beam, is bunched at the desired operating frequency, and upon passing through resonant cavities generates radio-frequency power for accelerating the main beam. Among the different approaches to the production of a suitable drive beam, the use of an FEL has been proposed and is under active study at CEA/CESTA.

  4. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  5. Considerations in the design of a high power medical isotope production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Russell M.; Nordyke, William H.; Brown, Roy

    2002-01-01

    For the low enriched aqueous homogeneous reactor to be economic in the production of medical isotopes, such as Mo-99 and Sr-89, the power level should be of the order of 100 kWth. This is double the earlier designs and this paper discusses the design changes which must be considered to meet this goal. The topics considered are: 1. Heat removal from the reactor solution; 2. Recombination of radiolytic gases; 3. Adequate radiation shielding; 4. Stability of reactor power with fluctuating reactivity; 5. Adequate cooling of the reflector; 6. Independent shutdown mechanisms; 7. Required volume of the reactor; 8. Economic implementation. (author)

  6. Production of High Intracavity UV Power From a CW Laser Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, R. T.; Chyba, T. H.; Keppel, C. E.; Gaskell, D.; Ent, R.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to create a prototype high power CW source of ultraviolet (UV) photons for photon-electron scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Hall B. The facility will use optical resonant cavities to produce a high photon flux. The technical approach will be to frequency-double the 514.5 mn light from an Argon-Ion Laser to create 0.1 to 1.0 watt in the UV. The produced UV power will be stored in a resonant cavity to generate an high intracavity UV power of 102 to 103 watts. The specific aim of this project is to first design and construct the low-Q doubling cavity and lock it to the Argon-Ion wavelength. Secondly, the existing 514.5 nm high-Q build-up cavity and its locking electronics will be modified to create high intracavity UV power. The entire system will then be characterized and evaluated for possible beam line use.

  7. Thermal electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic principle of a thermal power plant is to heat up water in the pipe system of a boiler to generate steam, which exits the boiler with high pressure and releases its energy to a tandem-arranged turbine. This energy is transmitted to a generator over a common shaft. The generated electricity is fed into the power supply system. The processed steam is condensed to water by means of a condenser and transferred back into the pipe system of the boiler (feed water circuit). In general the following techniques are applied for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels: dry bottom boiler, wet bottom boiler, grate firing, fluidized bed combustion, gasification systems - integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), oil firing technique, gas firing technique. Residues from power plants are generated by the following processes and emission reduction measures: separation of bottom ash or boiler slag in the boiler; separation of fly ash (particulate matter) by means of filters or electric precipitators; desulphurization through lime additive processes, dry sorption or spray absorption processes and lime scrubbing processes; desulphurization according to Wellmann-Lord and to the Walther process; reduction of NO x emissions by selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this case spent catalyst results as a waste unless it is recycled. No residues are generated by the following measures to reduce NO x emissions: minimization of nitrogen by selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR); adaptations of the firing technology to avoid emissions - primary measures (low-NO x burners, CO reduction). However, this may change the quality of fly ash by increasing unburnt carbon. Combustion of fossil fuels (with the exception of gaseous fuels) and biomass generates large quantities of residues - with coal being the greatest contributor - either from the fuel itself in the form of ashes, or from flue gas cleaning measures. In coal-fired power plants huge amounts of inorganic residues

  8. Simultaneous production of high-quality water and electrical power from aqueous feedstock’s and waste heat by high-pressure membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Brouwer, H.; Medevoort, J. van; Jansen, A.; Altena, F.; Vleuten, P. van der; Bak, H.

    2015-01-01

    A new membrane distillation (MD) concept (MemPower) has been developed for the simultaneous production of high-quality water from various aqueous feedstocks with cogeneration of mechanical power (electricity). Driven by low-grade heat (waste, solar, geothermal, etc.) a pressurized distillate can be

  9. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-01-01

    A compact Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as ...

  10. High-power liquid-lithium jet target for neutron production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Eliyahu, I.; Feinberg, G.; Friedman, M.; Hazenshprung, N.; Mardor, I.; Nagler, A.; Shimel, G.; Tessler, M.; Silverman, I.

    2013-12-01

    A compact liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) was built and tested with a high-power electron gun at the Soreq Nuclear Research Center. The lithium target, to be bombarded by the high-intensity proton beam of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), will constitute an intense source of neutrons produced by the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for nuclear astrophysics research and as a pilot setup for accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. The liquid-lithium jet target acts both as neutron-producing target and beam dump by removing the beam thermal power (>5 kW, >1 MW/cm3) with fast transport. The target was designed based on a thermal model, accompanied by a detailed calculation of the 7Li(p,n) neutron yield, energy distribution, and angular distribution. Liquid lithium is circulated through the target loop at ˜200 °C and generates a stable 1.5 mm-thick film flowing at a velocity up to 7 m/s onto a concave supporting wall. Electron beam irradiation demonstrated that the liquid-lithium target can dissipate electron power areal densities of >4 kW/cm2 and volume power density of ˜2 MW/cm3 at a lithium flow of ˜4 m/s while maintaining stable temperature and vacuum conditions. The LiLiT setup is presently in online commissioning stage for high-intensity proton beam irradiation (1.91-2.5 MeV, 1-2 mA) at SARAF.

  11. High temperature corrosion of superheater materials for power production through biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthjaelp, K.; Broendsted, P. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Jansen, P. [FORCE Institute (Denmark); Montgomery, M.; Nielsen, K.; Maahn, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Corrosion and Surface Techn. Inst. of Manufacturing Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures of selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. The experiments using this facility includes corrosion studies of two types of high temperature resistant steels, Sanvik 8LR30 (18Cr 10Ni Ti) and Sanicro 28 (27Cr 31Ni 4Mo), investigated at 600 deg. C in time intervals up to 300 hours. The influence of HCl (200 ppm) and of SO{sub 2} (300 ppm) on the corrosion progress has been investigated. In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525 deg. C, 600 deg. C, and 700 deg. C. The ashes utilised are from a straw fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulphate (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different analysis techniques to characterise the composition of the ash coatings have been investigated in order to judge the reliability and accuracy of the SEM-EDX method. The results are considered as an important step towards a better understanding of the high temperature corrosion under the conditions found in biomass fired power plants. One of the problems to solve in a suggested subsequent project is to combine the effect of the aggressive gases (SO{sub 2} and HCl) and the active ash coatings on high temperature corrosion of materials. (EG) 20 refs.

  12. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen-Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; Sohal, M.S.; O'Brien, J.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  13. Survey on neutron production by electron beam from high power CW electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.

    1999-04-01

    In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, the development of high current CW electron linear accelerator is in progress. It is possible for an accelerator to produce neutrons by means of a spallation and photo nuclear reactions. Application of neutron beam produced by bremsstrahlung is one of ways of the utilization for high current electron accelerator. It is actual that many electron linear accelerators which maximum energy is higher than a few hundreds MeV are used as neutron sources. In this report, an estimate of neutron production is evaluated for high current CW electron linear accelerator. The estimate is carried out by 10 MeV beam which is maximum energy limited from the regulation and rather low for neutron production. Therefore, the estimate is also done by 17 and 35 MeV beam which is possible to be accelerated. Beryllium is considered as a target for lower electron energy in addition to Lead target for higher energy, because Beryllium has low threshold energy for neutron production. The evaluation is carried out in account of the target thickness optimized by the radiation length and neutron cross section reducing the energy loss for both of electron and neutron, so as to get the maximum number of neutrons. The result of the calculations shows neutron numbers 1.9 x 10 10 , 6.1 x 10 13 and 4.8 x 10 13 (n/s), respectively, for 10, 17, and 35 MeV with low duty. The thermal removal from the target is one of critical points. The additional shielding and cooling system is necessary in order to endure radiation. A comparison with other facilities are also carried out. The estimate of neutron numbers suggests the possibility to be applied for neutron radiography and measurement of nuclear data by means of Lead spectrometer, for example. (author)

  14. Time Structure of Particle Production in the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Palm, M; Lettry, J; Haug, F; Pereira, H; Pernegger, H; Steerenberg, R; Grudiev, A; Kirk, H G; Park, H; Tsang, T; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 μs. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  15. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  16. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  17. Investigations on an advanced power system based on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and an organic Rankine cycle for heating and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Jannelli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Energy systems based on fuel cells technology can have a strategic role in the range of small-size power generation for the sustainable energy development. In order to enhance their performance, it is possible to recover the “waste heat” from the fuel cells, for producing or thermal power (cogeneration systems) or further electric power by means of a bottoming power cycle (combined systems). In this work an advanced system based on the integration between a HT-PEMFC (high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) power unit and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) plant, has been proposed and analysed as suitable energy power plant for supplying electric and thermal energies to a stand-alone residential utility. The system can operate both as cogeneration system, in which the electric and thermal loads are satisfied by the HT-PEMFC power unit and as electric generation system, in which the low temperature heat recovered from the fuel cells is used as energy source in the ORC plant for increasing the electric power production. A numerical model, able to characterize the behavior and to predict the performance of the HT-PEMFC/ORC system under different working conditions, has been developed by using the AspenPlus™ code. - Highlights: • The advanced plant can operate both as CHP system and as electric generation system. • The performance prediction of the integrated system is carried out by numerical modeling. • ORC thermodynamic optimization is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. • Thermal coupling between the HT-PEMC system and the ORC plant is analyzed. • Results are very promising in the field of the distributed generation

  18. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  19. High Temperature Corrosion of Superheater Materials for Power Production through Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Nielsen, Karsten agersted

    The aim of the present study has been to establish a fundamental knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms acting on materials for use in biomass fired power plants. The knowledge is created based on laboratory exposures on selected materials in well-defined corrosive gas environments. An experimental...... facility has been established wherein the planned exposures are completed. Specimens were exposed in combined synthetic flue gas at temperatures up to 900C. The specimens could be cooled to 300C below the gas temperature. Gas flow and gas mixture can be varied according to the conditions found in a power......) on the corrosion progress has been investigated.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was investigated after having been exposed under a cover of ash in air in a furnace at temperatures of 525C, 600C and 700C. The ashes utilised are from a straw-fired power plant and a synthetic ash composed...

  20. Look at energy compression as an assist for high power rf production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    The desire to construct electron linacs of higher and higher energies, coupled with the realities of available funding and real estate, has forced machine designers to reassess the limitations in both accelerator gradient (MeV/m) and energy. The gradients achieved in current radio-frequency (RF) linacs are sometimes set by electrical breakdown in the accelerating structure, but are in most cases determined by the RF power level available to drive the linac. In this paper we will not discuss RF power sources in general, but rather take a brief look at several energy compression schemes which might be of service in helping to make better use of the sources we employ. We will, however, diverge for a bit and discuss what the RF power requirements are. 12 references, 21 figures, 3 tables

  1. High power coaxial ubitron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkcum, Adam J.

    In the ubitron, also known as the free electron laser, high power coherent radiation is generated from the interaction of an undulating electron beam with an electromagnetic signal and a static periodic magnetic wiggler field. These devices have experimentally produced high power spanning the microwave to x-ray regimes. Potential applications range from microwave radar to the study of solid state material properties. In this dissertation, the efficient production of high power microwaves (HPM) is investigated for a ubitron employing a coaxial circuit and wiggler. Designs for the particular applications of an advanced high gradient linear accelerator driver and a directed energy source are presented. The coaxial ubitron is inherently suited for the production of HPM. It utilizes an annular electron beam to drive the low loss, RF breakdown resistant TE01 mode of a large coaxial circuit. The device's large cross-sectional area greatly reduces RF wall heat loading and the current density loading at the cathode required to produce the moderate energy (500 keV) but high current (1-10 kA) annular electron beam. Focusing and wiggling of the beam is achieved using coaxial annular periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stacks without a solenoidal guide magnetic field. This wiggler configuration is compact, efficient and can propagate the multi-kiloampere electron beams required for many HPM applications. The coaxial PPM ubitron in a traveling wave amplifier, cavity oscillator and klystron configuration is investigated using linear theory and simulation codes. A condition for the dc electron beam stability in the coaxial wiggler is derived and verified using the 2-1/2 dimensional particle-in-cell code, MAGIC. New linear theories for the cavity start-oscillation current and gain in a klystron are derived. A self-consistent nonlinear theory for the ubitron-TWT and a new nonlinear theory for the ubitron oscillator are presented. These form the basis for simulation codes which, along

  2. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  3. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  4. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  5. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  6. Integrated Production of Ultra-Low Defect GaN Films and Devices for High-Power Amplifiers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality GaN epitaxial films are key to current efforts for development of both high-power/high-speed electronic devices and optoelectronic devices. In fact,...

  7. Integrated Production of Ultra-Low Defect GaN Films and Devices for High-Power Amplifiers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality GaN epitaxial films are one of the keys to current efforts for development of both high-power/high-speed electronic devices and optoelectronic devices....

  8. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  9. High power targets for cyclotron production of 99mTc‡

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisler, S. K.; Hanemaayer, V.; Buckley, K. R.; Hook, B. K.; MeDiarmid, S.; Klug, J.; Corsaut, J.; Kovacs, M.; Cockburn, N.; Exonomou, C.; Harper, R.; Valliant, J. F.; Ruth, T. J.; Schaffer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Technetium-99m, supplied in the form of 99Mo/99mTc generators, is the most widely used radioisotope for nuclear medical imaging. The parent isotope 99Mo is currently produced in nuclear reactors. Recent disruptions in the 99Mo supply chain [1] prompted the development of methods for the direct accelerator-based production of 99mTc. Our approach involves the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction on isotopically enriched molybdenum using small medical cyclotrons (Ep ≤ 20 MeV), which is ...

  10. A 50-kW prototype of the high-power production target for the FRIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail Avilov; Sergey Fadeev; Sandrina Fernandes; Mikhail Golkovsky; Wolfgang Mittig; Frederique Pellemoine; Mike Schein

    2015-01-01

    For the rare isotope production the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will use the thin target that comprises a rotating carbon disk with multiple slices and heat dissipation via radiative cooling. A prototype of such a target was designed, built and successfully tested with an intense electron beam simulating the thermal and mechanical conditions for target operation at FRIB. The experimental data and the results of extensive numeric simulations validate the thermal and mechanical aspects of the multi-slice target design and confirm the chosen concept. (author)

  11. $^{206}$ Po sources for production and release studies relevant for high power spallation targets

    CERN Multimedia

    The knowledge of the evaporation behaviour of Po is of essential importance for several scientific and technological applications, like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the LIEBE project at CERN-ISOLDE. Fundamental investigations on the experimental conditions for the formation of volatile Po species as well as on the chemical composition of the volatile compounds are necessary for a safe operation of such facilities. $^{206}$Po, a mainly $\\gamma$- ray-emitting Po isotope with a half-life of 8.8 d, is best suited for model studies, due to the lower radiation hazard compared to the longer-lived $\\alpha$-emitting isotopes $^{208-210}$Po as well as the easy-to-measure $\\gamma$-ray emission. We propose the production of $^{206}$Po samples in several matrices via the implantation of its precursor $^{210}$Fr into selected metal foils at CERN-ISOLDE. Using these samples, experiments will be carried out at PSI studying the volatilization of Po from different matrices under varying chemical conditions.

  12. High temperature electromagnetic extraction of corrosion products in electronuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.; Chenouard, J.; Fauvet, P.; Darras, R.; Dubourg, M.

    1981-01-01

    The high potential of an electromagnetic filter application, in the peculiar case of a primary circuit at its operating temperature, appears in estimative calculations, and appreciated in relation with the dimensions of an industrial plant. The physical characteristics of the filter which exert the greatest effects on the efficiency factor, on the critical velocity and likewise on the utilizable capacity of the matrix, are determined. A semi-empirical operating equation is derived from systematic measurements with a reduced scale filter, and its relation with the fundamental equation of efficiency is brought out. (author)

  13. On optimization of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltenmark, S.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term optimization of power production is treated. It concerns the problem of determining a production schedule for a power system, which minimizes the total cost of production, while satisfying various constraints. The thesis consists of an introductory chapter, four chapters that each concerns a specific problem area (economic dispatch, unit commitment, hydro power planning and cogeneration optimization), plus a chapter with relevant theory. The emphasis of the thesis is on the mathematical structures that arise in problems in this field, and how to exploit them algorithmically. A recurring theme is convexification, either implicit, by dualization, or explicit, as in our approach to hydro power optimization. 134 refs

  14. Laser-powered dielectric-structures for the production of high-brightness electron and x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travish, Gil; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2011-05-01

    Laser powered accelerators have been under intensive study for the past decade due to their promise of high gradients and leveraging of rapid technological progress in photonics. Of the various acceleration schemes under examination, those based on dielectric structures may enable the production of relativistic electron beams in breadbox sized systems. When combined with undulators having optical-wavelength periods, these systems could produce high brilliance x-rays which find application in, for instance, medical and industrial imaging. These beams also may open the way for table-top atto-second sciences. Development and testing of these dielectric structures faces a number of challenges including complex beam dynamics, new demands on lasers and optical coupling, beam injection schemes, and fabrication. We describe one approach being pursued at UCLA-the Micro Accelerator Platform (MAP). A structure similar to the MAP has also been designed which produces periodic deflections and acts as an undulator for radiation production, and the prospects for this device will be considered. The lessons learned from the multi-year effort to realize these devices will be presented. Challenges remain with acceleration of sub-relativistic beams, focusing, beam phase stability and extension of these devices to higher beam energies. Our progress in addressing these hurdles will be summarized. Finally, the demands on laser technology and optical coupling will be detailed.

  15. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  16. High-power klystrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siambis, John G.; True, Richard B.; Symons, R. S.

    1994-05-01

    Novel emerging applications in advanced linear collider accelerators, ionospheric and atmospheric sensing and modification and a wide spectrum of industrial processing applications, have resulted in microwave tube requirements that call for further development of high power klystrons in the range from S-band to X-band. In the present paper we review recent progress in high power klystron development and discuss some of the issues and scaling laws for successful design. We also discuss recent progress in electron guns with potential grading electrodes for high voltage with short and long pulse operation via computer simulations obtained from the code DEMEOS, as well as preliminary experimental results. We present designs for high power beam collectors.

  17. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  18. High power microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Benford, James; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2016-01-01

    Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: * How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field * The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied * How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations * The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or pot...

  19. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  20. Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J.; Gohar, Y.

    1981-11-01

    This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000 0 C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end

  1. Exergy-based sustainability analysis of a low power, high frequency piezo-based ultrasound reactor for rapid biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Hosseinpour, Soleiman; Khounani, Zahra; Hosseini, Seyed Sina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Piezoultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production was exergetically analyzed. • Alcohol content, sonication time, and temperature affected exergetic parameters. • 6:1 methanol/oil, 10 min sonication, and 60 °C temperature were the best conditions. • The exergetic sustainability index at the favorable conditions was found to be 11. - Abstract: In this work a thermodynamic model was developed to attain enhanced process comprehension of waste cooking oil (WCO) transesterification process in a low power, high frequency piezo-based ultrasound reactor. The reactor performance was assessed using the exergy concept to distinguish the effects of various operational variables, i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio (4:1–8:1), ultrasonic irradiation time (6–10 min), and temperature (40–60 °C) on the efficiency and sustainability factors. The exergetic efficiency of the developed reactor was found to be ranging from 98% to 99% and from 9% to 91% using the universal and functional definitions, respectively. The maximum functional exergetic efficiency as a decision making parameter, was found at 91% for methanol to oil molar ratio of 6:1, ultrasonic irradiation time of 10 min, and temperature of 60 °C. The exergetic sustainability index of the transesterification process at the selected conditions was determined at about 11. Under these conditions, the reactor efficiently converted triglycerides to methyl esters with an acceptable conversion efficiency of 97%, satisfying the ASTM standard. Overall, the outcomes of the current survey manifested that exergy analysis can be a preferred basis for decision making on the efficiency and sustainability of various biodiesel synthesizing systems.

  2. High Power Density Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  3. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  4. High Power Vanadate lasers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3151 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Strauss1_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Laser Research Institute... University of Stellenbosch www.laser-research.co.za High Power Vanadate lasers H.J.Strauss, Dr. C. Bollig, R.C. Botha, Prof. H.M. von Bergmann, Dr. J.P. Burger Aims 1) To develop new techniques to mount laser crystals, 2) compare the lasing properties...

  5. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  6. EURISOL High Power Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Lindroos, M; Ridikas, D; Stora, T; Tecchio, L; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    Modern Nuclear Physics requires access to higher yields of rare isotopes, that relies on further development of the In-flight and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) production methods. The limits of the In-Flight method will be applied via the next generation facilities FAIR in Germany, RIKEN in Japan and RIBF in the USA. The ISOL method will be explored at facilities including ISAC-TRIUMF in Canada, SPIRAL-2 in France, SPES in Italy, ISOLDE at CERN and eventually at the very ambitious multi-MW EURISOL facility. ISOL and in-flight facilities are complementary entities. While in-flight facilities excel in the production of very short lived radioisotopes independently of their chemical nature, ISOL facilities provide high Radioisotope Beam (RIB) intensities and excellent beam quality for 70 elements. Both production schemes are opening vast and rich fields of nuclear physics research. In this article we will introduce the targets planned for the EURISOL facility and highlight some of the technical and safety cha...

  7. Production of high-power CW UV by resonant frequency quadrupling of a Nd:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczewski, A.J.; Thorn, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have constructed a single ring to resonantly double an 18 watt Nd:YLF mode-locked laser and re-double the stored green to produce over 4 watts of power in the ultra-violet (UV). This laser is used to produce a beam of 470 MeV gamma-rays by Compton backscattering the laser beam from 2.8 GeV electrons stored in a synchrotron. Achieving high luminosity of the colliding beams requires very good mode quality and beam stability at the intersection point 22 meters from the laser. The ring consists of six mirrors, with two 25 cm radius of curvature mirrors enclosing each nonlinear crystal. The drive laser is a lamp-pumped Nd:YLF with a 50 ps bunch length at 76 MHz. A pointing stabilizer servo has been constructed as part of the infrared (IR) mode matching telescope. The IR to green conversion is accomplished in a 15 mm long non-critically phased matched LBO crystal located at a 40 micron waist, with an IR conversion efficiency of 70%. A stable, nearly diffraction limited UV beam of up to 4.2 watts is generated in a BBO crystal in the green storage ring. The output power is relatively independent of the efficiency of the LBO and BBO crystals. This fact makes it possible to reduce the amount of non-TEM 00 modes created by walk-off of the UV by using relatively thin BBO crystals. At present, however, the lower bound on the BBO thickness is limited by the loss of conversion efficiency at high power

  8. Nuclear power flies high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power in aircraft, rockets and satellites is discussed. No nuclear-powered rockets or aircraft have ever flown, but ground tests were successful. Nuclear reactors are used in the Soviet Cosmos serles of satellites, but only one American satellite, the SNAP-10A, contained a reactor. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, many of which use plutonium 238, have powered more than 20 satellites launched into deep space by the U.S.A

  9. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  10. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  11. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank

    2003-01-01

    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  12. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  13. High power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, P.; Muckenheim, W.; Basting, D.

    1988-01-01

    Excimer lasers emitting more than 200 W output power are not commercially available. A significant increase requires new technological efforts with respect to both the gas circulation and the discharge system. The authors report how a research project has yielded a laser which emits 0.5 kW at 308 nm when being UV preionized and operated at a repetition rate of 300 Hz. The laser, which is capable of operating at 500 Hz, can be equipped with an x-ray preionization module. After completing this project 1 kW output power will be available

  14. Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...

  15. On fission product retention in the core of the low powered high temperature reactor under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastek, H.

    1984-01-01

    In the core of the high temperature reactor the fuel element and the coated particles contained herein provide the safest enclosure for fission products. The complex process of fission product transport out of the particle kernel, through the particle coating and within the fuel element graphite is described in a simplified form by the Fick's diffusion. The effective diffusion coefficient is used for calculation. Starting from the existing ideas of fission product transport five burn-up and temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients for Cesium in (Th,U)O 2 -kernels are derived in this study. The results have been gained from several fuel element radiation experiments in recent years, which showed extreme variation in regard to burn-up, temperature cycle, neutron flux and operation time. Cs-137 release measurements from single particle kernels were present from all the experiments. Furthermore, annealing tests of AVR-fuel elements were analyzed. Heat-temperatur and heating-time, the fuel element burn-up in the AVR-reactor, as well as the measured Cs-137 inventory of the fuel elements before and after annealing, are included in the investigation as essential parameters. With the aid of the derived diffusion coeffizients and already present data sets the Cs-137 release of fuel elements into a small reactor core is investigated under unrestricted core heat-up. While the released Cs-137 is derived mainly from defective particles at accident temperatures up to 1600 0 C, the main part diffuses through the particle coating at higher accident temperatures. (orig./HP) [de

  16. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  17. Power and LPG production with LNG import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.Y.

    2004-01-01

    When used in power cogeneration, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is both energy efficient and can eliminate seawater or fuel gas consumption as well as the associated environmental impacts of conventional regasification processes. However, some liquefied natural gas (LNG) sources have heating values higher than current North American natural gas pipelines can allow for. LNG from these cannot be injected into gas pipelines without several heating control processing steps. This paper outlines two new technologies developed to address this issue. The first is a power cogeneration process using LNG as a heat sink. The second technology involves a fractionation process removing Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) components from imported LNG, thereby controlling heat value. Both technologies are applicable in grassroots installations as well as being suitable for retrofitting to existing LNG regasification for power generation and LPG production. It was concluded that power cogeneration with a mixed fluid power cycle recovered a significant portion of energy in LNG liquefaction plants. Additionally, it was also possible to fractionate high quality LPG from LNG at a low cost, with the residue being further re-condensed and re-utilized for power generation. It was also concluded that the LNG fractionation process would add flexibility to the LNG receiving terminals, allowing the import of lower quality LNG to North America, while also generating additional revenues from LPG production. 3 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  18. Powering the High-Luminosity Triplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, A.; Burnet, J. P.

    The powering of the magnets in the LHC High-Luminosity Triplets requires production and transfer of more than 150 kA of DC current. High precision power converters will be adopted, and novel High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads and MgB2 based transfer lines will provide the electrical link between the power converters and the magnets. This chapter gives an overview of the systems conceived in the framework of the LHC High-Luminosity upgrade for feeding the superconducting magnet circuits. The focus is on requirements, challenges and novel developments.

  19. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Norton, J.L.; Slack, J.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion has been supplying cobalt-60 sources to industry for industrial and medical purposes since 1946. These cobalt-60 sources are used in many market and product segments, but are primarily used to sterilize single-use medical products including; surgical kits, gloves, gowns, drapes, and cotton swabs. Other applications include sanitization of cosmetics, microbial reduction of pharmaceutical raw materials, and food irradiation. The technology for producing the cobalt-60 isotope was developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) almost 55 years ago using research reactors at the AECL Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The first cobalt-60 source produced for medical applications was manufactured by MDS Nordion and used in cancer therapy. The benefits of cobalt-60 as applied to medical product manufacturing, were quickly realized and the demand for this radioisotope quickly grew. The same technology for producing cobalt-60 in research reactors was then designed and packaged such that it could be conveniently transferred to a utility/power reactor. In the early 1970's, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production for industrial irradiation applications was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology for producing cobalt-60 in additional CANDU reactors. CANDU is unique among the power reactors of the world, being heavy water moderated and fuelled with natural uranium. They are also designed and supplied with stainless steel adjusters, the primary function of which is to shape the neutron flux to optimize reactor power and fuel bum-up, and to provide excess reactivity needed to overcome xenon-135 poisoning following a reduction of power. The reactor is designed to develop full power output with all of the adjuster

  20. Experimental study on the shrinkage properties and cracking potential of high strength concrete containing industrial by-products for nuclear power plant concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIm, Baek Joong; Yi, Chong Ku

    2017-01-01

    In Korea, attempts have been made to develop high strength concrete for the safety and design life improvement of nuclear power plants. In this study, the cracking potentials of nuclear power plant-high strength concretes (NPP-HSCs) containing industrial by-products with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28, which are being reviewed for their application in the construction of containment structures, were evaluated through autogenous shrinkage, unrestrained drying shrinkage, and restrained drying shrinkage experiments. The cracking potentials of the NPP-HSCs with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28 were in the order of 0.34FA25 > 0.34FA25BFS25 > 0.34BFS50 > 0.34BFS65SF5 and 0.28FA25SF5 >> 0.28BFS65SF5 > 0.28BFS45SF5 > 0.28 FA20BFS25SF5, respectively. The cracking potentials of the seven mix proportions excluding 0.28FA25SF5 were lower than that of the existing nuclear power plant concrete; thus, the durability of a nuclear power plant against shrinkage cracking could be improved by applying the seven mix proportions with low cracking potentials

  1. Experimental study on the shrinkage properties and cracking potential of high strength concrete containing industrial by-products for nuclear power plant concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIm, Baek Joong; Yi, Chong Ku [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In Korea, attempts have been made to develop high strength concrete for the safety and design life improvement of nuclear power plants. In this study, the cracking potentials of nuclear power plant-high strength concretes (NPP-HSCs) containing industrial by-products with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28, which are being reviewed for their application in the construction of containment structures, were evaluated through autogenous shrinkage, unrestrained drying shrinkage, and restrained drying shrinkage experiments. The cracking potentials of the NPP-HSCs with W/B 0.34 and W/B 0.28 were in the order of 0.34FA25 > 0.34FA25BFS25 > 0.34BFS50 > 0.34BFS65SF5 and 0.28FA25SF5 >> 0.28BFS65SF5 > 0.28BFS45SF5 > 0.28 FA20BFS25SF5, respectively. The cracking potentials of the seven mix proportions excluding 0.28FA25SF5 were lower than that of the existing nuclear power plant concrete; thus, the durability of a nuclear power plant against shrinkage cracking could be improved by applying the seven mix proportions with low cracking potentials.

  2. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  3. High-powered manoeuvres

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    This week, CERN received the latest new transformers for the SPS. Stored in pairs in 24-tonne steel containers, these transformers will replace the old models, which have been in place since 1981.     The transformers arrive at SPS's access point 4 (BA 4). During LS1, the TE-EPC Group will be replacing all of the transformers for the main converters of the SPS. This renewal campaign is being carried out as part of the accelerator consolidation programme, which began at the start of April and will come to an end in November. It involves 80 transformers: 64 with a power of 2.6 megavolt-amperes (MVA) for the dipole magnets, and 16 with 1.9 MVA for the quadrupoles. These new transformers were manufactured by an Italian company and are being installed outside the six access points of the SPS by the EN-HE Group, using CERN's 220-tonne crane. They will contribute to the upgrade of the SPS, which should thus continue to operate as the injector for the LHC until 2040....

  4. Calculations of high-power production target and beamdump for the GSI future Super-FRS for a fast extraction scheme at the FAIR Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N A; Weick, H; Iwase, H

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) is being designed for the production and separation of radioactive isotopes at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research) facility at Darmstadt. This paper discusses various aspects and requirements for the high-power production target that will be used in the Super-FRS experiments. The production target must survive over an extended period of time as it will be used during the course of many experiments. The specific power deposited by the high intensity beam that will be generated at the future FAIR facility will be high enough to destroy the target in most of the cases as a result of a single shot from the new heavy ion synchrotrons SIS100/300. By using an appropriate beam intensity and focal spot parameters, the target would survive after being irradiated once. However, the heat should be dissipated efficiently before the same target area is irradiated again. We have considered a wheel shaped solid carbon target that rotates around its axis so that different areas of the target are irradiated successively. This allows for cooling of the beam heated region by thermal conduction before the same part of the target is irradiated a second time. Another attractive option is to use a liquid jet target at the Super-FRS. First calculations of a possible liquid lithium target are also presented in this paper. One of the advantages of using lithium as a target is that it will survive even if one uses a smaller focal spot, which has half the area of that used for a solid carbon target. This will significantly improve the isotope resolution. A similar problem associated with these experiments will be safe deposition of the beam energy in a beamdump after its interaction with the production target. We also present calculations to study the suitability of a proposed beamdump

  5. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  6. Development of high-power diode lasers with beam parameter product below 2 mm×mrad within the BRIDLE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, P.; Decker, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2015-03-01

    High power broad-area diode lasers are the most efficient source of optical energy, but cannot directly address many applications due to their high lateral beam parameter product BPP = 0.25 × ΘL 95%× W95% (ΘL95% and W95% are emission angle and aperture at 95% power content), with BPP > 3 mm×mrad for W95%~90μm. We review here progress within the BRIDLE project, that is developing diode lasers with BPP BPP. TPLs monolithically combine a single mode region at the rear facet with a tapered amplifier, restricting the device to one lateral mode for lowest BPP. TPLs fabricated using ELoD (Extremely Low Divergence) epitaxial designs are shown to operate with BPP below 2mm×mrad, but at cost of low efficiency (BPP 50% to output of > 7 W, so are currently the preferred design. In studies to further reduce BPP, lateral resonant anti-guiding structures have also been assessed. Optimized anti-guiding designs are shown to reduce BPP by 1 mm×mrad in conventional 90 μm stripe BA-lasers, without power penalty. In contrast, no BPP improvement is observed in NBA lasers, even though their spectrum indicates they are restricted to single mode operation. Mode filtering alone is therefore not sufficient, and further measures will be needed for reduced BPP.

  7. Applications of high power microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.; Swegle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors address a number of applications for HPM technology. There is a strong symbiotic relationship between a developing technology and its emerging applications. New technologies can generate new applications. Conversely, applications can demand development of new technological capability. High-power microwave generating systems come with size and weight penalties and problems associated with the x-radiation and collection of the electron beam. Acceptance of these difficulties requires the identification of a set of applications for which high-power operation is either demanded or results in significant improvements in peRFormance. The authors identify the following applications, and discuss their requirements and operational issues: (1) High-energy RF acceleration; (2) Atmospheric modification (both to produce artificial ionospheric mirrors for radio waves and to save the ozone layer); (3) Radar; (4) Electronic warfare; and (5) Laser pumping. In addition, they discuss several applications requiring high average power than border on HPM, power beaming and plasma heating

  8. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  9. A new infiltration method for coating highly permeable matrices with compound materials for high-power isotope-separator-on-line production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Stracener, Daniel W; Alton, Gerald D

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration coating method has been conceived for uniform and controlled thickness deposition of target materials onto highly permeable, complex-structure matrices to form short-diffusion-length isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) production targets for radioactive ion beam research applications. In this report, the infiltration technique is described in detail and the universal character of the technique illustrated in the form of SEMs of several metal-carbide, metal-oxide and metal-sulfide targets for potential use at present or future radioactive ion beam research facilities

  10. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  11. Power production at minimum risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary, including extensive quotations, is given of the main themes of a lecture by Prof. Fremlin in which he assessed the risks inherent in the use of various power systems. Considering only hazards which affect members of the public, the methods used to quantify such risks are examined. Both so-called inconspicuous hazards from radiation effects and conspicuous risks from accidents which could arise from nuclear power stations are compared to those from other types of power generation. The small risk arising from nuclear wastes is stressed. The lecturer concluded that he would not let 'tiny differences of risk' affect his decisions on energy planning. (U.K.)

  12. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  13. Chip-carrier thermal barrier and its impact on lateral thermal lens profile and beam parameter product in high power broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieprich, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers with high optical power density in a small focus spot are in strong commercial demand. For this purpose, the beam quality, quantified via the beam parameter product (BPP), has to be improved. Previous studies have shown that the BPP is strongly affected by current-induced heating and the associated thermal lens formed within the laser stripe. However, the chip structure and module-assembly related factors that regulate the size and the shape of the thermal lens are not well known. An experimental infrared thermographic technique is used to quantify the thermal lens profile in diode lasers operating at an emission wavelength of 910 nm, and the results are compared with finite element method simulations. The analysis indicates that the measured thermal profiles can best be explained when a thermal barrier is introduced between the chip and the carrier, which is shown to have a substantial impact on the BPP and the thermal resistance. Comparable results are observed in further measurements of samples from multiple vendors, and the barrier is only observed for junction-down (p-down) mounting, consistent with the barrier being associated with the GaAs-metal transition.

  14. The power of product integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K B; Fujimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    In the dictionary, integrity means wholeness, completeness, soundness. In products, integrity is the source of sustainable competitive advantage. Products with integrity perform superbly, provide good value, and satisfy customers' expectations in every respect, including such intangibles as their look and feel. Consider this example from the auto industry. In 1987, Mazda put a racy four-wheel steering system in a five-door family hatchback. Honda introduced a comparable system in the Prelude, a sporty, two-door coupe. Most of Honda's customers installed the new technology; Mazda's system sold poorly. Potential customers felt the fit--or misfit--between the car and the new component, and they responded accordingly. Companies that consistently develop products with integrity are coherent, integrated organizations. This internal integrity is visible at the level of strategy and structure, in management and organization, and in the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individual designers, engineers, and operators. Moreover, these companies are integrated externally: customers become part of the development organization. Integrity starts with a product concept that describes the new product from the potential customer's perspective--"pocket rocket" for a sporty, subcompact car, for example. Whether the final product has integrity will depend on two things: how well the concept satisfies potential customers' wants and needs and how completely the concept has been embodied in the product's details. In the most successful development organizations, "heavyweight" product managers are responsible for leading both tasks, as well as for guiding the creation of a strong product concept.

  15. Pulsed high-power beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.; Birx, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The marriage of induction linac technology with nonlinear magnetic modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It is now possible to produce short-pulse electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients approaching 1-MeV/m, and with power efficiencies exceeding 50%. This paper reports on a 70-MeV, 3-kA induction accelerator (ETA II) constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that incorporates the pulse technology concepts that have evolved over the past several years. The ETA II is a linear induction accelerator and provides a test facility for demonstration of the high-average-power components and high-brightness sources used in such accelerators. The pulse drive of the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak-power capability, repetition rates exceeding 1 kHz, and excellent reliability

  16. High power laser exciter accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments in untriggered oil and water switching now permit the construction of compact, high energy density pulsed power sources for laser excitation. These accelerators, developed principally for electron beam fusion studies, appear adaptable to laser excitation and will provide electron beams of 10 13 to 10 14 W in the next several years. The accelerators proposed for e-beam fusion essentially concentrate the available power from the outside edge of a disk into the central region where the electron beam is formed. One of the main problem areas, that of power flow at the vacuum diode insulator, is greatly alleviated by the multiplicity of electron beams that are allowable for laser excitation. A proposal is made whereby the disk-shaped pulsed power sections are stacked vertically to form a series of radially flowing electron beams to excite the laser gas volume. (auth)

  17. Power to Production: Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This field trip program consists of a 90-minute interpretive tour and a 90-minute hands-on workshop. The tour and workshop explore the role of water power in the Industrial Revolution. On the tour, students discover firsthand the unique resources of Lowell, Massachusetts, and the Park, while the workshop brings these historic resources to life as…

  18. High power fast ramping power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  19. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  20. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  1. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  2. High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Korobeynikov, G I; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Lukin, A N; Makarov, Ivan; Ostreiko, Gennady; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexey; Tarnetsky, Vladimir V; Tiunov, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

  3. Utilization of agricultural waste in power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.C. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Rasmussen, I. [MIDTKRAFT Power Co., Aarhus (Denmark)

    1993-12-31

    It is a goal of the Danish energy policy for the last decade to reduce energy consumption and to introduce fuels for power production with less CO{sub 2} emission than coal. This measure has caused a considerable effort by the Danish utilities to develop technologies that reduce CO{sub 2} emissions without causing heavy cost increases of power. Agricultural waste in the form of surplus straw is available in an amount equivalent to 20% of the annual coal imports to Denmark. Straw firing is difficult due to its significant contents of alkaline components. Consequently, its utilization presupposes the development of new technologies. The biomass development program is concentrated on two ways which are (1) co-firing of existing coal fired power station with a modest amount of straw and (2) development of CFB technology that allows a high share of biomass as well as coal only. These options were tested in a coal fired 70 MW spreader stoker unit and a 125 MW PF unit. Approx. 4000 t of straw were burned. Additional tests will be launched this autumn, burning 35,000 t of straw at rates up to 20% straw. The CFB option is pursued from the platform of a 80 MWth unit, operational early `92. This plant burns a mix of 50% straw and 50% coal and consumes annually 70.000 t of straw. Future development is aiming towards CFBs of 250 MW(e), burning in excess of 50% biomass.

  4. High prices on electric power now again?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power market has yielded low prices for the consumers throughout the 1990s. Consumption has now increased considerably, but little new production has been added. This results in high prices in dry years, but to understand this one must understand price formation in the Nordic spot market. The high prices are a powerful signal to the consumers to reduce consumption, but they are also a signal to the producers to seize any opportunity to increase production. However, the construction of new dams etc. stirs up the environmentalists. Ordinary consumers may protect themselves against high prices by signing fixed-price contracts. For those who can tolerate price fluctuations, spot prices are a better alternative than the standard contract with variable price

  5. Optimal Operation of Plug-In Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with High Wind Power Penetrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the integration of plug-in electric vehicles in the power systems with high wind power penetrations is proposed and discussed. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV......The Danish power system has a large penetration of wind power. The wind fluctuation causes a high variation in the power generation, which must be balanced by other sources. The battery storage based Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) may be a possible solution to balance the wind power variations...... owners. Furthermore, the application of battery storage based aggregated PEV is analyzed as a regulation services provider in the power system with high wind power penetrations. The western Danish power system where the total share of annual wind power production is more than 27% of the electrical energy...

  6. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  8. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers, uncert...... depending on the rival’s wind generation, given that its own expected generation is not high. Finally, as anticipated, expected system cost is higher when both wind power producers are expected to have low wind power generation......In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...

  9. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  10. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CADDET UK National Team.

    1997-01-01

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic power production figures in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide figures of photovoltaic power production (in Mw) along 1992 are presented. Worldwide production of modules per manufacturing technology and per manufacturing companies in Europe, USA and Japan are provided as well. The review has used the following sources: ''PV News'', ''PV insider's report'' and ''systems solars''. (Author)

  12. An effective heuristic for combined heat-and-power production planning with power ramp constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto

    2007-01-01

    Combined heat-and-power (CHP) production is an increasingly important technology for its efficient utilization of primary-energy resources and for reducing CO 2 emissions. In the CHP plant, the generation of heat-and-power follows a joint characteristic, which makes the determination of both the marginal power production cost (MPPC) and the feasible operating region for the plant more complicated than for the power-only generation plant. Due to the interdependence between heat and power production, the power-ramp constraints, which limit how much the power production of a CHP plant may increase or decrease between two successive periods, may also imply constraints on the heat production. In this paper, we investigate the impact of power-ramp constraints on CHP production planning and develop a robust heuristic for dealing with the power-ramp constraints based on the solution to the problem with relaxed ramp-constraints (RRC). Numerical results based on realistic production models show that the heuristic can generate high-quality solutions efficiently. (author)

  13. Atmospheric science and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  14. Electricity production by advanced biomass power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantausta, Y [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; Bridgwater, T [Aston Univ. Birmingham (United Kingdom); Beckman, D [Zeton Inc., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    This report gives the results of the Pyrolysis Collaborative Project organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) under Biomass Agreement. The participating countries or organizations were Canada, European Community (EC), Finland, United States of America, and the United Kingdom. The overall objective of the project was to establish baseline assessments for the performance and economics of power production from biomass. Information concerning the performance of biomass-fuelled power plants based on gasification is rather limited, and even less data is available of on pyrolysis based power applications. In order to gain further insight into the potential for these technologies, this study undertook the following tasks: (1) Prepare process models to evaluate the cost and performance of new advanced biomass power production concepts, (2) Assess the technical and economic uncertainties of different biomass power concepts, (3) Compare the concepts in small scale and in medium scale production (5 - 50 MW{sub e}) to conventional alternatives. Processes considered for this assessment were biomass power production technologies based on gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion technologies were employed as a reference for comparison to the processes assessed in this study. Wood was used a feedstock, since the most data was available for wood conversion

  15. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  16. High power microwave source development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, James N.; Miller, Gabriel; Potter, Seth; Ashby, Steve; Smith, Richard R.

    1995-05-01

    The requirements of this project have been to: (1) improve and expand the sources available in the facility for testing purposes and (2) perform specific tasks under direction of the Defense Nuclear Agency about the applications of high power microwaves (HPM). In this project the HPM application was power beaming. The requirements of this program were met in the following way: (1) We demonstrated that a compact linear induction accelerator can drive HPM sources at repetition rates in excess of 100 HZ at peak microwave powers of a GW. This was done for the relativistic magnetron. Since the conclusion of this contract such specifications have also been demonstrated for the relativistic klystron under Ballistic Missile Defense Organization funding. (2) We demonstrated an L band relativistic magnetron. This device has been used both on our single pulse machines, CAMEL and CAMEL X, and the repetitive system CLIA. (3) We demonstrated that phase locking of sources together in large numbers is a feasible technology and showed the generation of multigigawatt S-band radiation in an array of relativistic magnetrons.

  17. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The ideas that led to the successful construction and operation of large multibeam fusion lasers at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reviewed. These lasers are based on the use of Nd:glass laser materials. However, most of the concepts are applicable to any laser being designed for fusion experimentation. This report is a summary of lectures given by the author at the 20th Scottish University Summer School in Physics, on Laser Plasma Interaction. This report includes basic concepts of the laser plasma system, a discussion of lasers that are useful for short-pulse, high-power operation, laser design constraints, optical diagnostics, and system organization

  18. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, M; Fehér, S; Huang, Y; Orris, D F; Pischalnikov, Y; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sylvester, C D; Zbasnik, J

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under "standard" and "extreme" operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles.

  19. Production LHC HTS power lead test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglia, M.A.; Carcagno, R.H.; Feher, S.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rabehl, R.J.; Sylvester, C.; Zbasnik, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Fermilab Magnet test facility has built and operated a test stand to characterize the performance of HTS power leads. We report here the results of production tests of 20 pairs of 7.5 kA HTS power leads manufactured by industry for installation in feed boxes for the LHC Interaction Region quadrupole strings. Included are discussions of the thermal, electrical, and quench characteristics under ''standard'' and ''extreme'' operating conditions, and the stability of performance across thermal cycles

  20. Status of hydrogen production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Wa; Yoo, Kun Joong; Park, Chang Kue

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen production methods, such as electrolysis, thermochemical method, biological method, and photochemical method, are introduced in this report. Also reviewed are current status of the development of High Temperatrue Gas Coooled Reactor, and it application for hydrogen production

  1. High power ultrashort pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    Small scale terawatt and soon even petawatt (1000 terawatt) class laser systems are made possible by application of the chirped-pulse amplification technique to solid-state lasers combined with the availability of broad bandwidth materials. These lasers make possible a new class of high gradient accelerators based on the large electric fields associated with intense laser-plasma interactions or from the intense laser field directly. Here, we concentrate on the laser technology to produce these intense pulses. Application of the smallest of these systems to the production of high brightness electron sources is also introduced

  2. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  3. Maintenance in nuclear production power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights the importance and quality of maintenance in the complete phases of development, in a sector which has been often questioned by the public opinion, and that is always subject to national and international standards. The aim of maintenance is to guarantee the production of electric power in a reliable, safe, economic and friendly environmentally way, assuring a long-term production. (Author)

  4. Synfuel (hydrogen) production from fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Cox, K.E.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A potential use of fusion energy for the production of synthetic fuel (hydrogen) is described. The hybrid-thermochemical bismuth-sulfate cycle is used as a vehicle to assess the technological and economic merits of this potential nonelectric application of fusion power

  5. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  6. Optimization of wind farm power production using innovative control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Thomas

    Wind energy has experienced a very significant growth and cost reduction over the past decade, and is now able to compete with conventional power generation sources. New concepts are currently investigated to decrease costs of production of electricity even further. Wind farm coordinated control...... deficit caused by the wake downstream, or yawing the turbine to deflect the wake away from the downwind turbine. Simulation results found in the literature indicate that an increase in overall power production can be obtained. However they underline the high sensitivity of these gains to incoming wind...... aligned wind turbines. The experimental results show that the scenarios implemented during the first measurement campaign did not achieve an increase in overall power production, which confirms the difficulty to realize wind farm power optimization in real operating conditions. In the curtailment field...

  7. Wind farm electrical power production model for load flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Heras, Isidoro; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of renewable energy increases in activities relating to new forms of managing and operating electrical power: especially wind power. Wind generation is increasing its share in the electricity generation portfolios of many countries. Wind power production in Spain has doubled over the past four years and has reached 20 GW. One of the greatest problems facing wind farms is that the electrical power generated depends on the variable characteristics of the wind. To become competitive in a liberalized market, the reliability of wind energy must be guaranteed. Good local wind forecasts are therefore essential for the accurate prediction of generation levels for each moment of the day. This paper proposes an electrical power production model for wind farms based on a new method that produces correlated wind speeds for various wind farms. This method enables a reliable evaluation of the impact of new wind farms on the high-voltage distribution grid. (author)

  8. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  9. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  10. high power facto high power factor high power factor hybrid rectifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    increase in the number of electrical loads that some kind of ... components in the AC power system. Thus, suppl ... al output power; assuring reliability in ... distribution systems. This can be ...... Thesis- Califonia Institute of Technology, Capitulo.

  11. New production of electric power when accelerating nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This investigation states that it is possible to eliminate nuclear power to the beginning of the year 2000. In this case the time for planning and construction of large coal power plants with condenser turbines should be set at seven years. The production cost excluding fuel will be 0.12 to 0.19 SEK per kWh. Investment cost is estimated to 5 500 to 8 200 SEK per kW. When using wood chips the cost will be 0.30 SEK and 11 300 SEK, respectively. A large part of the increased cost will include substantial flue gas purification. The existing plant of Karlshamn should be maintained with a minimum of charges and extensions

  12. Industrial application of high power disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David

    2008-02-01

    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  13. High power gyrotrons: a close perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartikeyan, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Gyrotrons and their variants, popularly known as gyrodevices are millimetric wave sources provide very high powers ranging from long pulse to continuous wave (CW) for various technological, scientific and industrial applications. From their conception (monotron-version) in the late fifties until their successful development for various applications, these devices have come a long way technologically and made an irreversible impact on both users and developers. The possible applications of high power millimeter and sub-millimeter waves from gyrotrons and their variants (gyro-devices) span a wide range of technologies. The plasma physics community has already taken advantage of the recent advances of gyrotrons in the areas of RF plasma production, heating, non-inductive current drive, plasma stabilization and active plasma diagnostics for magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion research, such as lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) (8 GHz), electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) (28-170-220 GHz), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), collective Thomson scattering (CTS), heat-wave propagation experiments, and space-power grid (SPG) applications. Other important applications of gyrotrons are electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges for the generation of multi- charged ions and soft X-rays, as well as industrial materials processing and plasma chemistry. Submillimeter wave gyrotrons are employed in high frequency, broadband electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Additional future applications await the development of novel high power gyro-amplifiers and devices for high resolution radar ranging and imaging in atmospheric and planetary science as well as deep space and specialized satellite communications, RF drivers for next generation high gradient linear accelerators (supercolliders), high resolution Doppler radar, radar ranging and imaging in atmospheric and planetary science, drivers for next-generation high-gradient linear accelerators

  14. High power ubitron-klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkcum, A.J.; McDermott, D.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A coaxial ubitron is being considered as the rf driver for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Prior simulation of a traveling-wave ubitron using a self-consistent code found that 200 MW of power and 53 dB of gain could be achieved with 37% efficiency. In a ubiron-klystron, a series of cavities are used to obtain an even tighter electron bunch for higher efficiency. A small-signal theory of the ubitron-klystron shows that gain scales with the square of the cavity separation distance. A linear stability theory has also been developed. Verification of the stability theory has been achieved using the 2-12-D PIC code, MAGIC, and the particle-tracing code. Saturation characteristics of the amplifier will be presented using both MAGIC and a simpler self-consistent slow-timescale code currently under development. The ubitron can also operate as a compact, highly efficient oscillator. Cavities only two wiggler periods in length have yielded up to 40% rf conversion efficiency in simulation. An initial oscillator design for directed energy applications will also be presented

  15. VARIATION IN RESISTIVE FORCE SELECTION DURING BRIEF HIGH INTENSITY CYCLE ERGOMETRY: IMPLICATIONS FOR POWER ASSESSMENT AND PRODUCTION IN ELITE KARATE PRACTITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Steven Baker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure power values generated in elite karate fighters during brief high intensity cycle ergometry when resistive forces were derived from total - body mass (TBM or fat - free mass (FFM. Male international karate practitioners volunteered as participants (n = 11. Body density was calculated using hydrostatic weighing procedures with fat mass ascertained from body density values. Participants were required to pedal maximally on a cycle ergometer (Monark 864 against randomly assigned loads ranging from 70 g·kg-1 - 95 g·kg-1 (using a TBM or FFM protocol for 8 seconds. The resistive force that produced the highest peak power output (PPO for each protocol was considered optimal. Differences (p 0.05 were observed between time to PPO, or heart rate when the TBM and FFM protocols were compared. The findings of this study suggest that when high intensity cycle ergometer resistive forces are derived from FFM, greater peak powers can be obtained consistently in karate athletes. Resistive forces that relate to the active muscle tissue utilised during this type of exercise may need to be explored in preference to protocols that include both lean and fat masses. The findings have implications for both exercise prescription and the evaluation of experimental results concerning karate athletes

  16. Simplified High-Power Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. B.; Rippel, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-state inverter simplified by use of single gate-turnoff device (GTO) to commutate multiple silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). By eliminating conventional commutation circuitry, GTO reduces cost, size and weight. GTO commutation applicable to inverters of greater than 1-kilowatt capacity. Applications include emergency power, load leveling, drives for traction and stationary polyphase motors, and photovoltaic-power conditioning.

  17. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  18. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  19. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  20. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  1. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  2. Power production and energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The main electrical resource of Norway comes from its rivers: 99% of the electric power is produced by hydroelectric power plants. Other sources, like wind and natural gas, are envisaged for the enhancement of Norway's energy production capacity. In this document, the part devoted to power production presents the different electricity production sources and their impact on the Norwegian economy. The energy consumption is detailed in the third part with an historical review of its evolution and a description of the main sectors involved in this consumption. The forth part describes the main actors of the energy sector with their industrial structure, the research institutes and universities performing R and D in this domain, and the energy trades with surrounding countries. The fifth part stresses on the research projects, on the government promoting actions through the Norwegian Research Council, and gives some examples of todays research projects. The sixth part deals with international cooperation in the R and D domain with a particular attention given to the relations between Norway, France and Europe. (J.S.)

  3. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  4. High power CW linac in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.; Wang, Y.L.; Emoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) is developing a high power electron linac for various applications. The electron beam is accelerated in CW operation to get maximum beam current of 100 mA and energy of 10 MeV. Crucial components such as a high power L-band klystron and a high power traveling wave resonant ring (TWRR) accelerator guides were designed and manufactured and their performance were examined. These design and results from the recent high power RF tests were described in this paper. (author)

  5. Utilizing Solar Power Technologies for On-Orbit Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit may be reduced if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The cost of access to low Earth orbit may also be reduced by launching oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the form of water. To achieve this reduction in costs of access to low Earth orbit and beyond, a propellant depot is considered that electrolyzes water in orbit, then condenses and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Power requirements for such a depot require Solar Power Satellite technologies. A propellant depot utilizing solar power technologies is discussed in this paper. The depot will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit. It receives tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth, converts the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and stores up to 500 metric tons of cryogenic propellants. This requires a power system that is comparable to a large Solar Power Satellite capable of several 100 kW of energy. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotates once per orbit to track the Sun. The majority of the power is used to run the electrolysis system. Thermal control is maintained by body-mounted radiators; these also provide some shielding against orbital debris. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. Emphasis is placed on the Water-Ice to Cryogen propellant production facility. A very high power system is required for cracking (electrolyzing) the water and condensing and refrigerating the resulting oxygen and hydrogen. For a propellant production rate of 500 metric tons (1,100,000 pounds) per year, an average electrical power supply of 100 s of kW is required. To make the most efficient use of space solar power, electrolysis is performed only during the portion of the orbit that the Depot is in sunlight, so roughly twice this power level is needed for operations in sunlight

  6. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  7. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  8. The JLab high power ERL light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, G.R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160MeV electron beam and an average current of 10mA in 75MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ∼ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100fs pulses with >200W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14μm in 400fs pulses at up to 74.85MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000nm light at up to 3kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and

  9. The JLab high power ERL light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  10. High Power Fiber Laser Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility, unique within DoD, power-combines numerous cutting-edge fiber-coupled laser diode modules (FCLDM) to integrate pumping of high power rare earth-doped...

  11. Analyzing power in inclusive π+ and π- production at high xF with a 200 GeV polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Belikov, N.I.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Grachov, O.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; Lesquen, A. de; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; En'yo, H.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Iwatani, K.; Krueger, K.W.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Van Rossum, L.; Salvato, G.; Villari, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeutchi, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, N.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in χ F is observed in which A N increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing χ F for the π + data and decreases from 0 to -0.38 with increasing χ F for π - data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2≤χ F ≤0.9 and 0.2≤p T ≤2.0 GeV/c. In a simple model our data indicate that at large χ F the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents. (orig.)

  12. Analyzing power in inclusive. pi. sup + and. pi. sup - production at high x sub F with a 200 GeV polarized proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D L; Bonner, B E; Buchanan, J A; Clement, J M; Corcoran, M D; Cranshaw, J; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Nessi, M; Nguyen, C; Phillips, G C; Roberts, J B; Skeens, J; White, J L [T.W. Bonner Nuclear Lab., Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Akchurin, N; Langland, J; Onel, Y [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Belikov, N I; Derevschikov, A A; Grachov, O A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Nurushev, S B; Patalakha, D I; Rykov, V L; Solovyanov, V L; Vasiliev, A N [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (USSR); Bystricky, J; Lehar, F; Lesquen, A de [CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cossairt, J D; Read, A L [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); En' yo, H; Funahashi, H; Goto, Y; Imai, K; Itow, Y; Makino, S; Masaike, A; Miyake, K; Nagamine, T; Saito, N; Yamashita, S [Dept. of Physics, Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Grosnick, D P; Hill, D A; Lopiano, D; Ohashi, Y; Spinka, H; Stanek, R; FNAL E704 Collaboration

    1991-08-01

    The analyzing power in inclusive charged pion production has been measured using the 200 GeV Fermilab polarized proton beam. A striking dependence in {chi}{sub F} is observed in which A{sub N} increases from 0 to 0.42 with increasing {chi}{sub F} for the {pi}{sup +} data and decreases from 0 to -0.38 with increasing {chi}{sub F} for {pi}{sup -} data. The kinematic range covered is 0.2{<=}{chi}{sub F}{<=}0.9 and 0.2{<=}p{sub T}{<=}2.0 GeV/c. In a simple model our data indicate that at large {chi}{sub F} the transverse spin of the proton is correlated with that of its quark constituents. (orig.).

  13. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  14. Wind power. Production in 2012; Vindkraft. Produksjon i 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, David Edward; Nybakke, Karen

    2013-02-01

    In 2012 it was installed more wind power in Norway than in any year before. There was also production record with a total power generation from wind energy at ca. 1.57 TWh, equivalent to 1.1% of Norway's electricity production. 2012 was a relatively good 'wind year', with a production index of 107% for Norwegian wind farms as a whole. The length of time for wind was also relatively high compared to previous years with a national average of 2734 full load hours, corresponding to a capacity factor of 31%. Turbine availability also reached a record value of 95.6% in 2012 indicating more efficient operation of wind power plants in Norway.(eb)

  15. High Power Wireless Transfer : For Charging High Power Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Himmat

    2017-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is developing with emerging of new technologies that has made it possible to transfer electricity over certain distances without any physical contact, offering significant benefits to modern automation systems, medical applications, consumer electronic, and especially in electric vehicle systems. The goal of this study is to provide a brief review of existing compensation topologies for the loosely coupled transformer. The technique used to simulate a co...

  16. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  17. Superconducting high frequency high power resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbis, C.; Vardiman, R.; Weinman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A niobium superconducting quarter-wave helical resonator has been designed and built. The resonator has been electron-beam welded and electropolished to produce a smooth flaw-free surface. This has been followed by an anodization to produce a 1000 A layer of Nb 2 0 5 . At the resonant frequency of approximately 15 MHz the unloaded Q was approximately equal to 4.6x10 6 with minimal dielectric support. With the resonator open to the helium bath to provide cooling, and rigidly supported by a teflon cylinder, 350 V of power were transferred at a doubly loaded Q of 3500. The extrapolation of the results to a Qsub(DL) of 1000 meet the power handling criteria of one kilowatt for the intended application. (author)

  18. Design of measurement equipment for high power laser beam shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Olsen, F. O.; Kristiansen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To analyse advanced high power beam patterns, a method, which is capable of analysing the intensity distribution in 3D is needed. Further a measuring of scattered light in the same system is preferred. This requires a high signal to noise ratio. Such a system can be realised by a CCD-chip impleme...... by a commercial product has been done. The realised system might suffer from some thermal drift at high power; future work is to clarify this....

  19. Torrefaction of biomass for power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleh, Suriyati Binti

    In order to increase the share of biomass for sustainable energy production, it will be an advantage to utilize fuels as straw, wood and waste on large suspension fired boilers. On a European scale, currently large straw resources are available that are not fully utilized for energy production...... rates, relatively low superheater temperatures have to be applied, which in turn lower the power efficiency. The idea for this Ph.D. project is to develop a biomass pretreatment method that could provide the heating value of the fuel for the boiler, but in a way such that the fuel is easily pulverized.......D. thesis focus on the following subjects: 1) the development of experimental procedures for a novel laboratory scale reactor (simultaneous torrefaction and grinding) and a study on the torrefaction of straw and wood; 2) study the influence of biomass chemical properties such as ash content, ash composition...

  20. The problems of using a high-temperature sodium coolant in nuclear power plants for the production of hydrogen and other innovative applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. P.; Alexeev, V. V.; Kuzina, Ju. A.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The intensity of the hydrogen sources arriving from the third contour of installation in second in comparison with the hydrogen sources on NPP BN-600 increases by two - three order at using of high-temperature nuclear power plants with the sodium coolant (HT-NPP) for drawing of hydrogen and other innovative applications (gasification and a liquefaction of coal, profound oil refining, transformation of biomass to liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, the food-processing industry etc.). For these conditions basic new technological solutions are offered. The main condition of their implementation is raise of hydrogen concentration in the sodium coolant on two - three order in comparison with the modern NPP, in a combination to hydrogen removal from sodium and its pumping out through membranes from vanadium or niobium. The researches with use diffusive model have shown possibility to expel a casium inflow in sodium through a leakproof shell of fuel rods if vary such parameters as a material of fuel rods shell, its thickness and maintenance time at design of fuel rods for high-temperature NPP. However maintenance of high-temperature NPP in the presence of casium in sodium is inevitable at loss of leakproof of a fuel rods shell. In these conditions for minimisation of casium diffusion in structural materials it is necessary to provide deep clearing of sodium from cesium.

  1. The sustainability indicators of power production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onat, Nevzat [Vocational School of Technical Studies, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Bayar, Haydar [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important elements of economical and social development is to provide uninterrupted electric energy to consumers. The increasing world population and technological developments rapidly increase the demand on electric energy. In order to meet the increasing demand for sustainable development, it is necessary to use the consumable resources of the world in the most productive manner and minimum level and to keep its negative effects on human health and environment in the lowest level as much as possible. In this study, alignment of hydrogen fuel cells, hydroelectric, wind, solar and geothermal sourced electric energy systems, in addition to fossil fueled coal, natural gas and nuclear power plants, in respect to sustainability parameters such as CO{sub 2} emission, land use, energy output, fresh water consumption and environmental and social effects is researched. Consequently, it has been determined that the wind and nuclear energy power plants have the highest sustainability indicators. The fuel cells that use hydrogen obtained by using coal and natural gas are determined as the most disadvantageous transformation technologies in respect to sustainability. This study contains an alignment related to today's technologies. Using of renewable energy resources especially in production of hydrogen, output increases to be ensured with nanotechnology applications in photovoltaic systems may change this alignment. (author)

  2. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  3. QED studies using high-power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattias Marklund

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The event of extreme lasers, which intensities above 10 22 W/cm 2 will be reached on a routine basis, will give us opportunities to probe new aspects of quantum electrodynamics. In particular, the non-trivial properties of the quantum vacuum can be investigated as we reach previously unattainable laser intensities. Effects such as vacuum birefringence and pair production in strong fields could thus be probed. The prospects of obtaining new insights regarding the non-perturbative structure of quantum field theories shows that the next generation laser facilities can be important tool for fundamental physical studies. Here we aim at giving a brief overview of such aspects of high-power laser physics.

  4. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  5. The present power production system would meet only 60% of the power demand in 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    According to the head of EDF, H. Proglio, the power consumption in France would increase by 40% by 2025 because of the expected growth of the population (+9%) and of the economic growth and despite the efforts for energy sparing. The government's objective of only 50% of nuclear power in 2025 instead of today's 75% would be reached naturally without decommissioning other plant than Fessenheim. Nuclear power has shown its efficiency since electricity price in France is 40% less high than the European average price. EDF has launched a 50 billion euros investment program in order to replace main components of nuclear power plants by 2025. This program will generate 20.000 new jobs in addition to the 30.000 people hired to replace retired staff. For the head of EDF, the real question is more how to produce the future needed power than how to suppress existing means of production. (A.C.)

  6. Inclined solar chimney for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panse, S.V.; Jadhav, A.S.; Gudekar, A.S.; Joshi, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solar energy harnessing using inclined face of high mountains as solar chimney. → Solar chimneys with structural stability, ease of construction and lower cost. → Mathematical model developed, using complete (mechanical and thermal) energy balance. → Can harness wind power also, as wind velocities at mountain top add to power output. → Air temperature and velocity increase, as air rises in inclined chimney. - Abstract: The present concept of solar chimney is a tall vertical chimney constructed at the center of a large area, which is the collector. This creates questions about stability and economic viability of the chimney and also demands elaborate engineering techniques for constructing a tall chimney. We suggest geometry of 'Inclined Solar Chimney' (ISC), which is constructed along the face of a high rising mountain, on which maximum solar insolation is incident throughout the year. The chimney and the collector get merged here. This makes the structure stable, cost effective and easy for construction. A mathematical model has been developed considering the total energy balance. It predicts the temperature and velocity and kinetic power of the emerging air draft for some chosen values of other parameters. The model also shows the proportion in which absorbed solar energy is divided into different forms, and hence predicts the dependence of kinetic of emerging air draft upon dimensions of the chimney and properties of materials used. Further, it is shown that external winds enhance the kinetic power of the emerging air. Thus ISC can also harness the wind energy, available at the top of the mountain.

  7. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  9. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  10. The competitiveness of biofuels in heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, P.; Leino, P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper showed that natural gas is the most competitive fuel in all the energy production alternatives under review, ie both in separate heat production and electricity generation and in combined heat and power production. Even though the heavy fuel oil taxes have grown more rapidly than taxes on domestic fuels, oil continues to be cheaper than solid fuels in heating and steam plants. According to the feasibility calculations made, combined heat and power production is the least-cost production form of electricity, and the larger the plant unit, the lower the cost. Looking to the future, in respect of merely the development in fuel taxes the competitiveness of domestic fuels will improve markedly if the taxation structure remains unchanged. It seems that at smaller points of consumption, such as heating and steam plants and small-scale power plants, fuel chips would be the most competitive fuel. In larger units, such as heat and power production plants and condensing power plants, fuel peat, primarily milled peat, would be the most competitive. The competitiveness of fuel chips at larger plants will probably be limited by the supply of sufficient volumes from such an area where the delivery costs would not raise the price of fuel chips too high. Coal would remain competitive only if the real import price of coal rose clearly more slowly than the real prices of domestic fuels. It seems that heavy fuel oil will be used only as a start-up, support and back-up fuel. Evaluating the future competitiveness of natural gas is difficult, since the impact of new pipeline investments on the price of natural gas is not known

  11. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  12. High current and high power superconducting rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kate, H.H.J. ten; Bunk, P.B.; Klundert, L.J.M. van de; Britton, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results on three experimental superconducting rectifiers are reported. Two of them are 1 kA low frequency flux pumps, one thermally and magnetically switched. The third is a low-current high-frequency magnetically switched rectifier which can use the mains directly. (author)

  13. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  14. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, J.; Norton, J.L.; Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    therapy machines. Today the majority of the cancer therapy cobalt-60 sources used in the world are manufactured using material from the NRU reactor in Chalk River. The same technology that was used for producing cobalt-60 in a research reactor was then adapted and transferred for use in a CANDU power reactor. In the early 1970s, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors located east of Toronto. This was the first full scale production of millions of curies of cobalt-60 per year. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology in additional CANDUs. Over the years MDS Nordion has partnered with CANDU reactor owners to produce cobalt-60 at various sites. CANDU reactors that have, or are still producing cobalt-60, include Pickering A, Pickering B, Gentilly 2, Embalse in Argentina, and Bruce B. In conclusion, the technology for cobalt-60 production in CANDU reactors, designed and developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada, has been safely, economically and successfully employed in CANDU reactors with over 195 reactor years of production. Today over forty percent of the world's disposable medical supplies are made safer through sterilization using cobalt-60 sources from MDS Nordion. Over the past 40 years, MDS Nordion with its CANDU reactor owner partners, has safely and reliably shipped more than 500 million curies of cobalt-60 sources to customers around the world. MDS Nordion is presently adding three more CANDU power reactors to its supply chain. These three additional cobalt producing CANDU's will help supplement the ability of the health care industry to provide safe, sterile, medical disposable products to people around the world. As new applications for cobalt-60 are identified, and the demand for bulk cobalt-60 increases, MDS Nordion and AECL

  15. Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...... in radio frequency transmission equipment helps to overcome those. However those circuits were not designed to meet the same requirements as power converters. This paper summarizes the contributions in recent years in application of very high frequency (VHF) technologies in power electronics, shows results...... of the recent advances and describes the remaining challenges. The presented results include a self-oscillating gate-drive, air core inductor optimizations, an offline LED driver with a power density of 8.9 W/cm3 and a 120 MHz, 9 W DC powered LED driver with 89 % efficiency as well as a bidirectional VHF...

  16. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the elements of NASA's CSTI High Capacity Power Project which include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timeliness recently developed

  17. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  18. This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Frederic [2742 Sturges Highway, Westport, CT 06880 (United States); Shapiro, Judith N. [796 Sport Hill Road, Easton, CT 06612 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)

  19. ACIGA's high optical power test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L; Aoun, M; Barriga, P

    2004-01-01

    Advanced laser interferometer detectors utilizing more than 100 W of laser power and with ∼10 6 W circulating laser power present many technological problems. The Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) is developing a high power research facility in Gingin, north of Perth, Western Australia, which will test techniques for the next generation interferometers. In particular it will test thermal lensing compensation and control strategies for optical cavities in which optical spring effects and parametric instabilities may present major difficulties

  20. High average-power induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.; Turner, W.C.; Watson, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of ∼ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper the authors report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

  1. High average-power induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.

    1989-01-01

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

  2. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  3. ICAN: High power neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustaizis, S.D.; Lalousis, P.; Perrakis, K.; Auvray, P.; Larour, J.; Ducret, J.E.; Balcou, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years there is an increasing interest on the development of alternative high power new negative ion source for Tokamak applications. The proposed new neutral beam device presents a number of advantages with respect to: the density current, the acceleration voltage, the relative compact dimension of the negative ion source, and the coupling of a high power laser beam for photo-neutralization of the negative ion beam. Here we numerically investigate, using a multi- fluid 1-D code, the acceleration and the extraction of high power ion beam from a Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID). The diode configuration will be coupled to a high power device capable of extracting a current up to a few kA with an accelerating voltage up to MeV. An efficiency of up to 92% of the coupling of the laser beam, is required in order to obtain a high power, up to GW, neutral beam. The new high energy, high average power, high efficiency (up to 30%) ICAN fiber laser is proposed for both the plasma generation and the photo-neutralizer configuration. (authors)

  4. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  5. Power technology complex for production of motor fuel from brown coals with power supply from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Sidorov, G.I.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Chushkin, V.N.; Karabash, A.A.; Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    With the present-day challenge of efficient use of low-grade coals and current restructuring of coal industry in the Russian Federation, it is urgent to organise the motor fuel production by the synthesis from low grade coals and heavy petroleum residues. With this objective in view, the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of RF Minatom and Combustible Resources Institute of RF Mintopenergo proposed a project of a standard nuclear power technology complex for synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) production using fast neutron reactors for power supply. The proposed project has two main objectives: (1) Engineering and economical optimization of the nuclear power supply for SLF production; and (2) Engineering and economical optimization of the SLF production by hydrogenisation of brown coals and heavy petroleum residues with a complex development of advanced coal chemistry. As a first approach, a scheme is proposed with the use of existing reactor cooling equipment, in particular, steam generators of BN-600, limiting the effect on safety of reactor facility operation at minimum in case of deviations and abnormalities in the operation of technological complex. The possibility to exclude additional requirements to the equipment for nuclear facility cooling was also taken into account. It was proposed to use an intermediate steam-water circuit between the secondary circuit sodium and the coolant to heat the technological equipment. The only change required for the BN-600 equipment will be the replacement of sections of intermediate steam superheaters at the section of main steam superheaters. The economic aspects of synthetic motor fuel production proposed by the joint project depend on the evaluation of integral balances: thermal power engineering, chemical technology, the development of advanced large scale coal chemistry of high profitability; utilisation of ash and precious microelements in waste-free technology; production of valuable isotopes; radical solution of

  6. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  7. Gingin High Optical Power Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C; Blair, D G; Barrigo, P

    2006-01-01

    The Australian Consortium for Gravitational Wave Astronomy (ACIGA) in collaboration with LIGO is developing a high optical power research facility at the AIGO site, Gingin, Western Australia. Research at the facility will provide solutions to the problems that advanced gravitational wave detectors will encounter with extremely high optical power. The problems include thermal lensing and parametric instabilities. This article will present the status of the facility and the plan for the future experiments

  8. Science opportunities at high power accelerators like APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents applications of high power RF proton linear accelerators to several fields. Radioisotope production is an area in which linacs have already provided new isotopes for use in medical and industrial applications. A new type of spallation neutron source, called a long-pulse spallation source (LPSS), is discussed for application to neutron scattering and to the production and use of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The concept of an accelerator-driven, transmutation of nuclear waste system, based on high power RF linac technology, is presented along with its impact on spent nuclear fuels

  9. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  10. Enhanced Passive Cooling for Waterless-Power Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Recent advances in the literature and at SNL indicate the strong potential for passive, specialized surfaces to significantly enhance power production output. Our exploratory computational and experimental research indicates that fractal and swirl surfaces can help enable waterless-power production by increasing the amount of heat transfer and turbulence, when compared with conventional surfaces. Small modular reactors, advanced reactors, and non-nuclear plants (e.g., solar and coal) are ideally suited for sCO2 coolant loops. The sCO2 loop converts the thermal heat into electricity, while the specialized surfaces passively and securely reject the waste process heat in an environmentally benign manner. The resultant, integrated energy systems are highly suitable for small grids, rural areas, and arid regions.

  11. Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and chemical looping combustion (CLC) for ultra-high efficiency power generation and CO2 production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Nocerino, Pasquale; Romano, Matteo C.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Campanari, Stefano; Gallucci, Fausto

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of the integration of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with chemical looping combustion (CLC) in natural gas power plants. The fundamental idea of the proposed process integration is to use a dual fluidized-bed CLC process to complete the oxidation of the

  12. Small high cooling power space cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Raab, J.; Durand, D.; Tward, E. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, Ca, 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The small High Efficiency pulse tube Cooler (HEC) cooler, that has been produced and flown on a number of space infrared instruments, was originally designed to provide cooling of 10 W @ 95 K. It achieved its goal with >50% margin when limited by the 180 W output ac power of its flight electronics. It has also been produced in 2 stage configurations, typically for simultaneously cooling of focal planes to temperatures as low as 35 K and optics at higher temperatures. The need for even higher cooling power in such a low mass cryocooler is motivated by the advent of large focal plane arrays. With the current availability at NGAS of much larger power cryocooler flight electronics, reliable long term operation in space with much larger cooling powers is now possible with the flight proven 4 kg HEC mechanical cooler. Even though the single stage cooler design can be re-qualified for those larger input powers without design change, we redesigned both the linear and coaxial version passive pulse tube cold heads to re-optimize them for high power cooling at temperatures above 130 K while rejecting heat to 300 K. Small changes to the regenerator packing, the re-optimization of the tuned inertance and no change to the compressor resulted in the increased performance at 150 K. The cooler operating at 290 W input power achieves 35 W@ 150 K corresponding to a specific cooling power at 150 K of 8.25 W/W and a very high specific power of 72.5 W/Kg. At these powers the cooler still maintains large stroke, thermal and current margins. In this paper we will present the measured data and the changes to this flight proven cooler that were made to achieve this increased performance.

  13. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  14. High throughput protein production screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Peter T [Walnut Creek, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Segelke, Brent W [San Ramon, CA

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  15. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

  16. High power neutral beam injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Nagaoka, K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of high power injection with a neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the large helical device (LHD) are reported. The system consists of three beam-lines, and two hydrogen negative ion (H - ion) sources are installed in each beam-line. In order to improve the injection power, the new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed and applied to one of the beam-lines. Using the accelerator, the maximum powers of 5.7 MW were achieved in 2003 and 2004, and the energy of 189 keV reached at maximum. The power and energy exceeded the design values of the individual beam-line for LHD. The other beam-lines also increased their injection power up to about 4 MW, and the total injection power of 13.1 MW was achieved with three beam-lines in 2003. Although the accelerator had an advantage in high power beam injection, it involved a demerit in the beam focal condition. The disadvantage was resolved by modifying the aperture shapes of the steering grid. (author)

  17. High Flux Isotope Reactor power upgrade status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Hale, R.E.; Cheverton, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A return to 100-MW operation is being planned for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Recent improvements in fuel element manufacturing procedures and inspection equipment will be exploited to reduce hot spot and hot streak factors sufficiently to permit the power upgrade without an increase in primary coolant pressure. Fresh fuel elements already fabricated for future use are being evaluated individually for power upgrade potential based on their measured coolant channel dimensions

  18. Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Baliga, B Jayant

    2012-01-01

    Advanced High Voltage Power Device Concepts describes devices utilized in power transmission and distribution equipment, and for very high power motor control in electric trains and steel-mills. Since these devices must be capable of supporting more than 5000-volts in the blocking mode, this books covers operation of devices rated at 5,000-V, 10,000-V and 20,000-V. Advanced concepts (the MCT, the BRT, and the EST) that enable MOS-gated control of power thyristor structures are described and analyzed in detail. In addition, detailed analyses of the silicon IGBT, as well as the silicon carbide MOSFET and IGBT, are provided for comparison purposes. Throughout the book, analytical models are generated to give a better understanding of the physics of operation for all the structures. This book provides readers with: The first comprehensive treatment of high voltage (over 5000-volts) power devices suitable for the power distribution, traction, and motor-control markets;  Analytical formulations for all the device ...

  19. Optimizing the design of very high power, high performance converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.J.; Tiagha, E.A.; Ganetis, G.; Nawrocky, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes how various technologies are used to achieve the desired performance in a high current magnet power converter system. It is hoped that the discussions of the design approaches taken will be applicable to other power supply systems where stringent requirements in stability, accuracy and reliability must be met

  20. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  1. High power infrared QCLs: advances and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2012-01-01

    QCLs are becoming the most important sources of laser radiation in the midwave infrared (MWIR) and longwave infrared (LWIR) regions because of their size, weight, power and reliability advantages over other laser sources in the same spectral regions. The availability of multiwatt RT operation QCLs from 3.5 μm to >16 μm with wall plug efficiency of 10% or higher is hastening the replacement of traditional sources such as OPOs and OPSELs in many applications. QCLs can replace CO2 lasers in many low power applications. Of the two leading groups in improvements in QCL performance, Pranalytica is the commercial organization that has been supplying the highest performance QCLs to various customers for over four year. Using a new QCL design concept, the non-resonant extraction [1], we have achieved CW/RT power of >4.7 W and WPE of >17% in the 4.4 μm - 5.0 μm region. In the LWIR region, we have recently demonstrated QCLs with CW/RT power exceeding 1 W with WPE of nearly 10 % in the 7.0 μm-10.0 μm region. In general, the high power CW/RT operation requires use of TECs to maintain QCLs at appropriate operating temperatures. However, TECs consume additional electrical power, which is not desirable for handheld, battery-operated applications, where system power conversion efficiency is more important than just the QCL chip level power conversion efficiency. In high duty cycle pulsed (quasi-CW) mode, the QCLs can be operated without TECs and have produced nearly the same average power as that available in CW mode with TECs. Multiwatt average powers are obtained even in ambient T>70°C, with true efficiency of electrical power-to-optical power conversion being above 10%. Because of the availability of QCLs with multiwatt power outputs and wavelength range covering a spectral region from ~3.5 μm to >16 μm, the QCLs have found instantaneous acceptance for insertion into multitude of defense and homeland security applications, including laser sources for infrared

  2. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems: Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability, and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operations as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed

  3. High-power VCSELs for smart munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; MacDougal, Michael; Cole, Garrett; Snyder, Donald

    2006-08-01

    The next generation of low-cost smart munitions will be capable of autonomously detecting and identifying targets aided partly by the ability to image targets with compact and robust scanning rangefinder and LADAR capabilities. These imaging systems will utilize arrays of high performance, low-cost semiconductor diode lasers capable of achieving high peak powers in pulses ranging from 5 to 25 nanoseconds in duration. Aerius Photonics is developing high-power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) to meet the needs of these smart munitions applications. The authors will report the results of Aerius' development program in which peak pulsed powers exceeding 60 Watts were demonstrated from single VCSEL emitters. These compact packaged emitters achieved pulse energies in excess of 1.5 micro-joules with multi kilo-hertz pulse repetition frequencies. The progress of the ongoing effort toward extending this performance to arrays of VCSEL emitters and toward further improving laser slope efficiency will be reported.

  4. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  5. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  6. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  7. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  8. Reactor G1: high power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G.

    1957-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  9. Compact high-power terahertz radiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new type of THz radiation source, based on recirculating an electron beam through a high gradient superconducting radio frequency cavity, and using this beam to drive a standard electromagnetic undulator on the return leg, is discussed. Because the beam is recirculated and not stored, short bunches may be produced that radiate coherently in the undulator, yielding exceptionally high average THz power for relatively low average beam power. Deceleration from the coherent emission, and the detuning it causes, limits the charge-per-bunch possible in such a device.

  10. High power RF transmission line component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I.

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant ε=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  11. High power RF transmission line component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant {epsilon}=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  12. High voltage superconducting switch for power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.; Ferendeci, A.; Gattozzi, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a novel interrupter which meets the requirements of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) power switch and at the same time doubles as a current limiter. The basic concept of the interrupter makes use of a fast superconducting, high capacity (SHIC) switch that carries the full load current while in the superconducting state and reverts to the normal resistive state when triggered. Typical design parameters are examined for the case of a HVDC transmission line handling 2.5KA at 150KVDC. The result is a power switch with superior performance and smaller size than the ones reported to date

  13. Advances in Very High Frequency Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Milovan

    Resonant and quasi-resonant converters operated at frequencies above 30 MHz have attracted special attention in the last two decades. Compared to conventional converters operated at ~100 kHz, they offer significant advantages: smaller volume and weight, lower cost, and faster transient performance....... Excellent performance and small size of magnetic components and capacitors at very high frequencies, along with constant advances in performance of power semiconductor devices, suggests a sizable shift in consumer power supplies market into this area in the near future. To operate dc-dc converter power...... method provides low complexity and low gate loss simultaneously. A direct design synthesis method is provided for resonant SEPIC converters employing this technique. Most experimental prototypes were developed using low cost, commercially available power semiconductors. Due to very fast transient...

  14. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  15. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  17. Towards a more efficient energy use in photovoltaic powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, S.Y.; Strijk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy saving and power management solutions necessary to improve the energy consumption efficiency in photovoltaic powered products. Important in the design of such products is not only the energy supply optimization required to deliver the actual energy to fulfil their

  18. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  19. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystronlike interaction with the accelerating cavities, leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, we describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  20. High power switches for ion induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Savage, M.; Saylor, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    The success of linear induction ion accelerators for accelerator inertial fusion (AIF) applications depends largely on innovations in pulsed power technology. There are tight constraints on the accuracy of accelerating voltage waveforms to maintain a low momentum spread. Furthermore, the non-relativistic ion beams may be subject to a klystron-like interaction with the accelerating cavities leading to enhanced momentum spread. In this paper, the author describe a novel high power switch with a demonstrated ability to interrupt 300 A at 20 kV in less than 60 ns. The switch may allow the replacement of pulse modulators in linear induction accelerators with hard tube pulsers. A power system based on a hard tube pulser could solve the longitudinal instability problem while maintaining high energy transfer efficiency. The problem of longitudinal beam control in ion induction linacs is reviewed in Section 2. Section 3 describes the principles of the plasma flow switch. Experimental results are summarized in Section 4

  1. High power RF oscillator with Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    A method to maintain RF oscillation by using many Marx generators was proposed and studied experimentally. Many charging circuits were connected to an oscillator circuit, and successive pulsed charging was made. This successive charging amplified and maintained the RF oscillation. The use of vacuum gaps and high power silicon diodes improved the characteristics of RF current cut-off of the circuit. The efficiency of the pulsed charging from Marx generators to a condenser was theoretically investigated. The theoretical result showed the maximum efficiency of 0.98. The practical efficiency obtained by using a proposed circuit with a high power oscillator was in the range 0.50 to 0.56. The obtained effective output power of the RF pulses was 11 MW. The maximum holding time of the RF pulses was about 21 microsecond. (Kato, T.)

  2. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  3. Operation of Power Grids with High Penetration of Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awami, Ali Taleb

    The integration of wind power into the power grid poses many challenges due to its highly uncertain nature. This dissertation involves two main components related to the operation of power grids with high penetration of wind energy: wind-thermal stochastic dispatch and wind-thermal coordinated bidding in short-term electricity markets. In the first part, a stochastic dispatch (SD) algorithm is proposed that takes into account the stochastic nature of the wind power output. The uncertainty associated with wind power output given the forecast is characterized using conditional probability density functions (CPDF). Several functions are examined to characterize wind uncertainty including Beta, Weibull, Extreme Value, Generalized Extreme Value, and Mixed Gaussian distributions. The unique characteristics of the Mixed Gaussian distribution are then utilized to facilitate the speed of convergence of the SD algorithm. A case study is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Then, the SD algorithm is extended to simultaneously optimize the system operating costs and emissions. A modified multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is suggested to identify the Pareto-optimal solutions defined by the two conflicting objectives. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to study the effect of changing load level and imbalance cost factors on the Pareto front. In the second part of this dissertation, coordinated trading of wind and thermal energy is proposed to mitigate risks due to those uncertainties. The problem of wind-thermal coordinated trading is formulated as a mixed-integer stochastic linear program. The objective is to obtain the optimal tradeoff bidding strategy that maximizes the total expected profits while controlling trading risks. For risk control, a weighted term of the conditional value at risk (CVaR) is included in the objective function. The CVaR aims to maximize the expected profits of the least profitable scenarios, thus

  4. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  5. Optical engineering for high power laser applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, M.

    1993-01-01

    Laser facilities for Inertial Confinement Fusion (I.C.F.) experiments require laser and X ray optics able to withstand short pulse conditions. After a brief recall of high power laser system arrangements and of the characteristics of their optics, the authors will present some X ray optical developments

  6. Development of a high power femtosecond laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neethling, PH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Research Institute and the CSIR National Laser Centre are developing a high power femtosecond laser system in a joint project with a phased approach. The laser system consists of an fs oscillator and a regenerative amplifier. An OPCPA...

  7. Targets for high power neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs

  8. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  9. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  10. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhiche, Mike [Principal Investigator; Dufera, Hiz [Project Manager; Montagna, Deb [Business Point of Contact

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  11. Toward High-Power Klystrons With RF Power Conversion Efficiency on the Order of 90%

    CERN Document Server

    Baikov, Andrey Yu; Syratchev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The increase in efficiency of RF power generation for future large accelerators is considered a high priority issue. The vast majority of the existing commercial high-power RF klystrons operates in the electronic efficiency range between 40% and 55%. Only a few klystrons available on the market are capable of operating with 65% efficiency or above. In this paper, a new method to achieve 90% RF power conversion efficiency in a klystron amplifier is presented. The essential part of this method is a new bunching technique - bunching with bunch core oscillations. Computer simulations confirm that the RF production efficiency above 90% can be reached with this new bunching method. The results of a preliminary study of an L-band, 20-MW peak RF power multibeam klystron for Compact Linear Collider with the efficiency above 85% are presented.

  12. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...

  13. Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

    2012-09-13

    Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  14. Thermal Heat and Power Production with Models for Local and Regional Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Sturla

    1999-07-01

    The primary goal of this thesis is the description and modelling of combined heat and power systems as well as analyses of thermal dominated systems related to benefits of power exchange. Large power plants with high power efficiency (natural gas systems) and heat production in local heat pumps can be favourable in areas with low infrastructure of district heating systems. This system is comparable with typical combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on natural gas with respect to efficient use of fuel energy. The power efficiency obtainable from biomass and municipal waste is relatively low and the advantage of CHP for this system is high compared to pure power production with local heat pumps for heat generation. The advantage of converting pure power systems into CHP systems is best for power systems with low power efficiency and heat production at low temperature. CHP systems are divided into two main groups according to the coupling of heat and power production. Some CHP systems, especially those with strong coupling between heat and power production, may profit from having a thermal heat storage subsystem. District heating temperatures direct the heat to power ratio of the CHP units. The use of absorption chillers driven by district heating systems are also evaluated with respect to enhancing the utilisation of district heating in periods of low heat demand. Power exchange between a thermal dominated and hydropower system is found beneficial. Use of hydropower as a substitute for peak power production in thermal dominated systems is advantageous. Return of base load from the thermal dominated system to the hydropower system can balance in the net power exchange.

  15. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  16. Investigation of pressure retarded osmosis power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taousanidis Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major source of energy exists where there is mixing between aqueous solutions of different salinities. This energy source is particularly concentrated where fresh water rivers flow on to the ocean. The power, represented by the osmotic pressure difference between fresh water and salt water, may be called salinity gradient power. In this study the pressure retarded osmosis method for the extraction of salinity gradients’ energy is investigated, main problems and difficulties are pointed out and finally the whole subject is justified with experimental results.

  17. Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells for Synergistically Enhanced Power Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A new type of bioelectrochemical system for producing electrical power, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis cell (MRC), was developed to increase voltages and power densities compared to those generated individually by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems. In RED systems, electrode overpotentials create significant energy losses due to thermodynamically unfavorable electrode reactions, and therefore a large number of stacked cells must be used to have significant energy recovery. This results in high capital costs for the large number of membranes, and increases energy losses from pumping water through a large number of cells. In an MRC, high overpotentials are avoided through oxidation of organic matter by exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode and oxygen reduction on the cathode. An MRC containing only five pairs of RED cells, fed solutions typical of seawater (600 mM NaCl) and river water (12 mM NaCl) at 0.85 mL/min, produced up to 3.6 W/m2 (cathode surface area) and 1.2-1.3 V with acetate as a substrate. Pumping accounted for <2% of the produced power. A higher flow rate (1.55 mL/min) increased power densities up to 4.3 W/m2. COD removal was 98% with a Coulombic efficiency of 64%. Power production by the individual components was substantially lower with 0.7 W/m2 without salinity driven energy, and <0.015 W/m2 with reduced exoelectrogenic activity due to substrate depletion. These results show that the combination of an MFC and a RED stack synergistically increases performance relative to the individual systems, producing a new type of system that can be used to more efficiently capture salinity driven energy from seawater and river water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, David; Liratzis, Theocharis

    2010-01-01

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  19. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    address this challenge, a) Designing a discrete power opamp with high .... the use of high-impedance feedback networks, thus minimizing their output loading ... Spice simulation is done for the circuit and results are given in figures 4a–c.

  20. Synthetic-fuel production using Texas lignite and a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor for process heat and electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    This report presents two alternatives to increased reliance on foreign energy sources; each method utilizes the abundant domestic resources of coal, uranium, and thorium. Two approaches are studied in this report. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished with Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50,000 barrel per day facility, consuming 15 million tons of lignite coal per year, is used. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This is a preliminary report presenting background data and a means of comparison for the two approaches considered

  1. High impact data visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI

    CERN Document Server

    Aspin, Adam

    2014-01-01

    High Impact Data Visualization with Power View, Power Map, and Power BI helps you take business intelligence delivery to a new level that is interactive, engaging, even fun, all while driving commercial success through sound decision-making. Learn to harness the power of Microsoft's flagship, self-service business intelligence suite to deliver compelling and interactive insight with remarkable ease. Learn the essential techniques needed to enhance the look and feel of reports and dashboards so that you can seize your audience's attention and provide them with clear and accurate information. Al

  2. A High Power Linear Solid State Pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Yen; Brent Davis; Rex Booth

    1999-01-01

    Particle Accelerators require high voltage and often high power. Typically the high voltage/power generation utilizes a topology with an extra energy store and a switching means to extract that stored energy. The switches may be active or passive devices. Active switches are hard or soft vacuum tubes, or semiconductors. When required voltages exceed tens of kilovolts, numerous semiconductors are stacked to withstand that potential. Such topologies can use large numbers of critical parts that, when in series, compromise the system reliability and performance. This paper describes a modular, linear, solid state amplifier which uses a parallel array of semiconductors, coupled with transmission line transformers. Such a design can provide output signals with voltages exceeding 10kV (into 50-ohms), and with rise and fall times (10-90 % amplitude) that are less than 1--ns. This compact solid state amplifier is modular, and has both hot-swap and soft fail capabilities

  3. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  4. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  5. Development and advances in conventional high power RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1995-06-01

    The development of rf systems capable of producing high peak power (hundreds of megawatts) at relatively short pulse lengths (0.1--5 microseconds) is currently being driven mainly by the requirements of future high energy linear colliders, although there may be applications to industrial, medical and research linacs as well. The production of high peak power rf typically involves four basic elements: a power supply to convert ac from the ''wall plug'' to dc; a modulator, or some sort of switching element, to produce pulsed dc power; an rf source to convert the pulsed dc to pulsed rf power; and possibly an rf pulse compression system to further enhance the peak rf power. Each element in this rf chain from wall plug to accelerating structure must perform with high efficiency in a linear collider application, such that the overall system efficiency is 30% or more. Basic design concepts are discussed for klystrons, modulators and rf pulse compression systems, and their present design status is summarized for applications to proposed linear colliders

  6. High average power linear induction accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.

    1987-07-01

    There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated

  8. Visible high power fiber coupled diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Drovs, Simon; Stoiber, Michael; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Könning, Tobias; Biesenbach, Jens; König, Harald; Lell, Alfred; Stojetz, Bernhard; Löffler, Andreas; Strauß, Uwe

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report on further development of fiber coupled high-power diode lasers in the visible spectral range. New visible laser modules presented in this paper include the use of multi single emitter arrays @ 450 nm leading to a 120 W fiber coupled unit with a beam quality of 44 mm x mrad, as well as very compact modules with multi-W output power from 405 nm to 640 nm. However, as these lasers are based on single emitters, power scaling quickly leads to bulky laser units with a lot of optical components to be aligned. We also report on a new approach based on 450 nm diode laser bars, which dramatically reduces size and alignment effort. These activities were performed within the German government-funded project "BlauLas": a maximum output power of 80 W per bar has been demonstrated @ 450 nm. We show results of a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled 35 W source @ 450 nm, which has been reduced in size by a factor of 25 compared to standard single emitter approach. In addition, we will present a 200 μm NA0.22 fiber coupled laser unit with an output power of 135 W.

  9. ANALYSIS OF GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT FLUCTUATIONS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION IN 2005- 2014. RESERVES FOR DECREASING ELECTRIC POWER PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov N. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we considered the trajectories of change in indicators characterizing the status of economics and power industry: gross regional product, electric power consumption, industrial production, energy prices and costs of delivering electric power to consumers in Russian regions for the last 10 years. Low global commodity prices and sanctions led to a sharp decrease of equipment import, which resulted in an acute problem of import substitution. The level of tariffs of natural monopolies is of great importance for industrial development. The goal of this work was to analyze possibilities for reducing electric power prices by changing the institutional and economic conditions of management. We analyzed not only the official information from Rosstat, but also government regulations, figures given in the official government publication «The Rossiyskaya Gazeta» as well as articles and interviews on economic problems of the electric power industry over the recent years published in «The Kommersant» newspaper. High tariffs of network marketing companies for electric energy transmission, state regulation of heating prices, financing the construction of new capacities by charging the payment in power provision contracts, high price of electric power of nuclear power plants lead to an annual increase in electric power prices for end users. In this work we considered possible solutions to limit the growth of electric power prices.

  10. High power VCSELs for miniature optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; MacDougal, Michael; Stahl, Ron; Follman, David; Garrett, Henry; Meyrath, Todd; Snyder, Don; Golden, Eric; Wagener, Jeff; Foley, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in Vertical-cavity Surface-emitting Laser (VCSEL) efficiency and packaging have opened up alternative applications for VCSELs that leverage their inherent advantages over light emitting diodes and edge-emitting lasers (EELs), such as low-divergence symmetric emission, wavelength stability, and inherent 2-D array fabrication. Improvements in reproducible highly efficient VCSELs have allowed VCSELs to be considered for high power and high brightness applications. In this talk, Aerius will discuss recent advances with Aerius' VCSELs and application of these VCSELs to miniature optical sensors such as rangefinders and illuminators.

  11. Export of electric power through industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de; David, J.M.S.; Campos, J.M.; Perecmanis, J.; Carneiro, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    We forecast the electrical energy incorporated to the exports of products of the industrial sectors of steel, aluminium, ferro-alloys, chlorine and caustic soda, pulp and paper and petrochemistry, accordingly to scenarios for these sectors consistent with a macro economic reference scenario, for the period 1990/2000. We also compare the electrical energy exported through those industrial products with the forecasted industrial and total markets of electrical energy. (author)

  12. 8. High power laser and ignition facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayramian, A.J.; Beach, R.J.; Bibeau, C.

    2002-01-01

    This document gives a review of the various high power laser projects and ignition facilities in the world: the Mercury laser system and Electra (Usa), the krypton fluoride (KrF) laser and the HALNA (high average power laser for nuclear-fusion application) project (Japan), the Shenguang series, the Xingguang facility and the TIL (technical integration line) facility (China), the Vulcan peta-watt interaction facility (UK), the Megajoule project and its feasibility phase: the LIL (laser integration line) facility (France), the Asterix IV/PALS high power laser facility (Czech Republic), and the Phelix project (Germany). In Japan the 100 TW Petawatt Module Laser, constructed in 1997, is being upgraded to the world biggest peta-watt laser. Experiments have been performed with single-pulse large aperture e-beam-pumped Garpun (Russia) and with high-current-density El-1 KrF laser installation (Russia) to investigate Al-Be foil transmittance and stability to multiple e-beam irradiations. An article is dedicated to a comparison of debris shield impacts for 2 experiments at NIF (national ignition facility). (A.C.)

  13. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  14. Development of wind power production in arctic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E.; Kaas, J.; Aarnio, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The project Development of wind power production in arctic climate is a direct continuation of Arctic wind energy research project, which started in 1989. The main topics in 1996-97 have been production development and commercialising the blade heating systems, development of operation and maintenance practices of arctic wind power plants, preparations for new wind farms and various network connection and energy system studies. Practical operations have taken place in Pyhaetunturi test power plant and in Paljasselkae and Lammashovi power plants, which are in commercial operation

  15. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  16. High-Temperature Reactor For Power Generation and District Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberger, Karlheinz

    1987-01-01

    The multinational BBC Brown Brave Group, which has its head-quarters in Baden/Switzerland, was founded in 1891. Its German company is Brown, Brave and CIEs AGM, Mannheim. The field of operation covers wide areas of electrical engineering: These includes mainly the manufacture of installations and equipment for the generation, conversion, distribution and utilization of electric power, with special emphasis on the capital goods sector. BBC erects turnkey power plants and manufactures electrical equipment for industrial plants and urban transport and main line trains. Also of major importance are standard electrical products such as motors, switches, cables, semiconductor devices as well as measuring and control equipment. In the field of nuclear power BBC is engaged in particular in the development and construction of high-temperature reactors for the generation of electric power and process heat. The following presentation gives a short view on the milestones of the HTR development achieved in 1987

  17. High speed micromachining with high power UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James M.

    2013-03-01

    Increasing demand for creating fine features with high accuracy in manufacturing of electronic mobile devices has fueled growth for lasers in manufacturing. High power, high repetition rate ultraviolet (UV) lasers provide an opportunity to implement a cost effective high quality, high throughput micromachining process in a 24/7 manufacturing environment. The energy available per pulse and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) nanosecond UV lasers have increased steadily over the years. Efficient use of the available energy from a laser is important to generate accurate fine features at a high speed with high quality. To achieve maximum material removal and minimal thermal damage for any laser micromachining application, use of the optimal process parameters including energy density or fluence (J/cm2), pulse width, and repetition rate is important. In this study we present a new high power, high PRF QuasarR 355-40 laser from Spectra-Physics with TimeShiftTM technology for unique software adjustable pulse width, pulse splitting, and pulse shaping capabilities. The benefits of these features for micromachining include improved throughput and quality. Specific example and results of silicon scribing are described to demonstrate the processing benefits of the Quasar's available power, PRF, and TimeShift technology.

  18. New high power linacs and beam physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Crandall, K.R.; Hasegawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    New high-power proton linacs must be designed to control beam loss, which can lead to radioactivation of the accelerator. The threat of beam loss is increased significantly by the formation of beam halo. Numerical simulation studies have identified the space-charge interactions, especially those that occur in rms mismatched beams, as a major concern for halo growth. The maximum-amplitude predictions of the simulation codes must be subjected to independent tests to confirm the validity of the results. Consequently, the authors compare predictions from the particle-core halo models with computer simulations to test their understanding of the halo mechanisms that are incorporated in the computer codes. They present and discuss scaling laws that provide guidance for high-power linac design

  19. The high-power iodine laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Witte, K. J.

    The book provides a description of the present state of the art concerning the iodine laser, giving particular attention to the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers. The basic features of the laser are examined, taking into account aspects of spontaneous emission lifetime, hyperfine structure, line broadening and line shifts, stimulated emission cross sections, the influence of magnetic fields, sublevel relaxation, the photodissociation of alkyl iodides, flashlamp technology, excitation in a direct discharge, chemical excitation, and questions regarding the chemical kinetics of the photodissociation iodine laser. The principles of high-power operation are considered along with aspects of beam quality and losses, the design and layout of an iodine laser system, the scalability and prospects of the iodine laser, and the design of the single-beam Asterix III laser.

  20. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  1. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  3. High stability, high current DC-power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Itahashi, T.

    1995-01-01

    Improvements of the power supplies and the control system of the AVF cyclotron which is used as an injector to the ring cyclotron and of the transport system to the ring cyclotron were done in order to get more high quality and more stable beam. The power supply of the main coil of the AVF cyclotron was exchanged to new one. The old DCCTs (zero-flux current transformers) used for the power supplies of the trim coils of the AVF cyclotron were changed to new DCCTs to get more stability. The potentiometers used for the reference voltages in the other power supplies of the AVF cyclotron and the transport system were changed to the temperature controlled DAC method for numerical-value settings. This paper presents the results of the improvements. (author)

  4. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  5. Gate Drive For High Speed, High Power IGBTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Pappas, G.C.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    A new gate drive for high-voltage, high-power IGBTs has been developed for the SLAC NLC (Next Linear Collider) Solid State Induction Modulator. This paper describes the design and implementation of a driver that allows an IGBT module rated at 800A/3300V to switch up to 3000A at 2200V in 3{micro}S with a rate of current rise of more than 10000A/{micro}S, while still being short circuit protected. Issues regarding fast turn on, high de-saturation voltage detection, and low short circuit peak current will be presented. A novel approach is also used to counter the effect of unequal current sharing between parallel chips inside most high-power IGBT modules. It effectively reduces the collector-emitter peak current, and thus protects the IGBT from being destroyed during soft short circuit conditions at high di/dt.

  6. Gate Drive For High Speed, High Power IGBTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Cassel, R.L.; de Lamare, J.E.; Pappas, G.C.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    A new gate drive for high-voltage, high-power IGBTs has been developed for the SLAC NLC (Next Linear Collider) Solid State Induction Modulator. This paper describes the design and implementation of a driver that allows an IGBT module rated at 800A/3300V to switch up to 3000A at 2200V in 3(micro)S with a rate of current rise of more than 10000A/(micro)S, while still being short circuit protected. Issues regarding fast turn on, high de-saturation voltage detection, and low short circuit peak current will be presented. A novel approach is also used to counter the effect of unequal current sharing between parallel chips inside most high-power IGBT modules. It effectively reduces the collector-emitter peak current, and thus protects the IGBT from being destroyed during soft short circuit conditions at high di/dt

  7. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  8. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  9. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China, Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project’s dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable re...

  10. Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products - Part 1: General requirements and tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    This International Standard deals with safety aspects of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products such as electrical, thermal and mechanical safety. This standard covers the following types of dry-type transformers, power supplies, including switch mode power supplies, and reactors, the windings of which may be encapsulated or non-encapsulated. It has the status of a group safety publication in accordance with IEC Guide 104.

  11. Wind power bidding in electricity markets with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, Michael; Botterud, Audun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the pricing systems and wind power trading in electricity markets. • We propose a model that captures the relation between market prices and wind power. • A probabilistic bidding model can increase profits for wind power producers. • Profit maximizing bidding strategies carry risks for power system operators. • We conclude that modifications of current market designs may be needed. - Abstract: Objective: The optimal day-ahead bidding strategy is studied for a wind power producer operating in an electricity market with high wind penetration. Methods: A generalized electricity market is studied with minimal assumptions about the structure of the production, bidding, or consumption of electricity. Two electricity imbalance pricing schemes are investigated, the one price and the two price scheme. A stochastic market model is created to capture the price effects of wind power production and consumption. A bidding algorithm called SCOPES (Supply Curve One Price Estimation Strategy) is developed for the one price system. A bidding algorithm called MIMICS (Multivariate Interdependence Minimizing Imbalance Cost Strategy) is developed for the two price system. Results: Both bidding strategies are shown to have advantages over the assumed “default” bidding strategy, the point forecast. Conclusion: The success of these strategies even in the case of high deviation penalties in a one price system and the implicit deviation penalties of the two price system has substantial implications for power producers and system operators in electricity markets with a high level of wind penetration. Practice implications: From an electricity market design perspective, the results indicate that further penalties or regulations may be needed to reduce system imbalance

  12. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  13. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A. Naser

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  14. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    , is provided by the hour-ahead power balancing model, i.e. Simulation power Balancing model (SimBa. The regulating power plan is prepared from day-ahead power production plan and hour-ahead wind power forecast. The wind power (forecasts and available) are provided by the Correlated Wind power fluctuations (Cor......Wind) model, where the wind turbine storm controllers are also implemented....

  15. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  16. PROMOTION OF PRODUCTS AND ANALYSIS OF MARKET OF POWER TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Rakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the general situation of power tools on the market, both in Russia and in the world. A comparative analysis of competitors, market structure analysis of power tools, as well as assessment of competitiveness of some major product lines. Also the analysis methods of promotion used by companies selling tools, competitive analysis range Bosch, the leader in its segment, power tools available on the market in Russia.

  17. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar

    1986-10-01

    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  18. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  19. Natural gas for power production in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The third and last part of the Sub-Committee's study on natural gas for power generation is reprinted in this issue. This part addresses gas consumption in electricity production until the year 2010. The first part of the study dealing with combined cycle power plants was published in September and the 2nd part on regulatory and environmental issues in October 1992

  20. Original theatrical production will explore issues surrounding nuclear power

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A new, original theatrical production entitled "Nuclear Power Play" will explore the personal and public politics of nuclear power. Uniquely developed by a team of experts in science and technology working alongside theatre arts practitioners, the play will debut on Wednesday, Nov. 7 at 7:30 p.m. in the Haymarket Theatre at the Squires Student Center on the Virginia Tech campus.

  1. Experience in independent power production: Two projects that closed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappaz, M.H.

    1994-12-31

    K and M Engineering and Consulting Corporation`s experience in independent power production is outlined. The following topics are discussed: the KMR Power Corporation, K and M strengths and strategy, key success factors, project experience, selected projects, and capital structure.

  2. High-field, high-density tokamak power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Cook, D.L.; Hay, R.D.; Kaplan, D.; Kreischer, K.; Lidskii, L.M.; Stephany, W.; Williams, J.E.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Okabayashi, M.

    1977-11-01

    A conceptual design of a compact (R 0 = 6.0 m) high power density (average P/sub f/ = 7.7 MW/m 3 ) tokamak demonstration power reactor has been developed. High magnetic field (B/sub t/ = 7.4 T) and moderate elongation (b/a = 1.6) permit operation at the high density (n(0) approximately 5 x 10 14 cm -3 ) needed for ignition in a relatively small plasma, with a spatially-averaged toroidal beta of only 4%. A unique design for the Nb 3 Sn toroidal-field magnet system reduces the stress in the high-field trunk region, and allows modularization for simpler disassembly. The modest value of toroidal beta permits a simple, modularized plasma-shaping coil system, located inside the TF coil trunk. Heating of the dense central plasma is attained by the use of ripple-assisted injection of 120-keV D 0 beams. The ripple-coil system also affords dynamic control of the plasma temperature during the burn period. A FLIBE-lithium blanket is designed especially for high-power-density operation in a high-field environment, and gives an overall tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 in the slowly pumped lithium

  3. Oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The compactness, maneuverability, and productive weight utilization of space nuclear reactors benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperature. Nuclear-thermionic-conversion power requirements are discussed, and the role of oscillations in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) history is examined. Proposed TEC oscillations are addressed, and the results of recent studies of TEC oscillations are reviewed. The possible use of high-frequency TEC oscillations to amplify low-frequency ones is considered. The accomplishments of various programs studying the use of high-temperature thermionic oscillators are examined. 16 references

  4. Social power, product conspicuousness, and the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xuemei; Haque, Sadia; Smith, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (1) to achieve a better understanding of the psychological determinants of the demand for luxury brand counterfeit products (LBCP) through exploring the effects of social power; (2) to extend power literature by identifying boundary conditions of the relationship between social power and compensatory consumption identified by Rucker and Galinsky (2008, J. Consum. Res., 35, 257-267) and Rucker and Galinsky (2009, J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 549-555). Findings from three experiments demonstrate that social power holds key insights into understanding consumers' purchase propensity for LBCP; product conspicuousness moderates the effects of social power on purchase propensity for status products; these moderation effects are only observed when the status products are LBCP but not genuine products. This article, therefore, contributes to the literature regarding the demand for counterfeits as well as the social power and compensatory consumption literature. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Latest development of high-power fiber lasers in SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.; Appleyard, Andrew; Durkin, Michael K.; Horley, Ray; Varnham, Malcolm P.; Nilsson, Johan; Jeong, Yoonchan

    2004-06-01

    High Power Fiber Lasers (HPFLs) and High Power Fiber Amplifiers (HPFAs) promise a number of benefits in terms of their high optical efficiency, degree of integration, beam quality, reliability, spatial compactness and thermal management. These benefits are driving the rapid adoption of HPFLs in an increasingly wide range of applications and power levels ranging from a few Watts, in for example analytical applications, to high-power >1kW materials processing (machining and welding) applications. This paper describes SPI"s innovative technologies, HPFL products and their performance capabilities. The paper highlights key aspects of the design basis and provides an overview of the applications space in both the industrial and aerospace domains. Single-fiber CW lasers delivering 1kW output power at 1080nm have been demonstrated and are being commercialized for aerospace and industrial applications with wall-plug efficiencies in the range 20 to 25%, and with beam parameter products in the range 0.5 to 100 mm.mrad (corresponding to M2 = 1.5 to 300) tailored to application requirements. At power levels in the 1 - 200 W range, SPI"s proprietary cladding-pumping technology, GTWaveTM, has been employed to produce completely fiber-integrated systems using single-emitter broad-stripe multimode pump diodes. This modular construction enables an agile and flexible approach to the configuration of a range of fiber laser / amplifier systems for operation in the 1080nm and 1550nm wavelength ranges. Reliability modeling is applied to determine Systems martins such that performance specifications are robustly met throughout the designed product lifetime. An extensive Qualification and Reliability-proving programme is underway to qualify the technology building blocks that are utilized for the fiber laser cavity, pump modules, pump-driver systems and thermo-mechanical management. In addition to the CW products, pulsed fiber lasers with pulse energies exceeding 1mJ with peak pulse

  6. Major projects for the use of high power linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prome, M.

    1996-01-01

    A review of the major projects for high power linacs is given. The field covers the projects aiming at the transmutation of nuclear waste or the production of tritium, as well as the production of neutrons for hybrid reactors or basic research with neutron sources. The technologies which arc common to all the projects are discussed. Comments are made on the technical difficulties encountered by all the projects, and the special problems of the pulsed linacs are mentioned. Elements for a comparison of normal conducting linacs versus superconducting ones are given. Finally the technical developments being made in various laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  7. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  8. Organic flash cycles for efficient power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tony; Mao, Samuel S.; Greif, Ralph

    2016-03-15

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to an Organic Flash Cycle (OFC). In one aspect, a modified OFC system includes a pump, a heat exchanger, a flash evaporator, a high pressure turbine, a throttling valve, a mixer, a low pressure turbine, and a condenser. The heat exchanger is coupled to an outlet of the pump. The flash evaporator is coupled to an outlet of the heat exchanger. The high pressure turbine is coupled to a vapor outlet of the flash evaporator. The throttling valve is coupled to a liquid outlet of the flash evaporator. The mixer is coupled to an outlet of the throttling valve and to an outlet of the high pressure turbine. The low pressure turbine is coupled to an outlet of the mixer. The condenser is coupled to an outlet of the low pressure turbine and to an inlet of the pump.

  9. High power nickel - cadmium cells with fiber electrodes (FNC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschka, F.; Schlieck, D.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel cadmium batteries differ greatly in their mechanical design and construction of the electrodes. Using available electrode constructions, batteries are designed which meet the requirements of specific applications and offer optimum performance. Pocket- and tubular cells are basically developed with the technology of the year 1895. Since then some improvements with todays technology have been made. The sintered cells use the technology of the 1930's and they are still limited to high power application. With this knowledge and the technology of today the fiber-structured nickel electrode (FNC) was developed at DAUG laboratory, a subsidiary company of Mercedes-Benz and Volkswagen. After ten years of experience in light weight prototype batteries for electric vehicles (1-2), the system was brought into production by a new company, DAUG-HOPPECKE. Characteristics of fiber electrodes: thickness and size can be easily changed; pure active materials are used; high conductor density; high elasticity of the structure; high porosity. Since 1983 NiCd-batteries with fiber-structured nickel electrodes (FNC) have been in production. Starting with the highly demanded cell-types for low, medium and high performance called L, M and H according to IEC 623 for low, medium and high performance applications, the program was recently completed with the X-type cell for very high power, as an alternative to sintered cells

  10. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  11. Novel miniature high power ring filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huifen; Mao Junfa; Luo Zhihua

    2005-01-01

    The power handling capability of high temperature superconducting (HTS) filters is limited due to current concentration at the edges of the superconducting films. This problem can be overcome by using ring resonator, which employs the edge current free and reduces the current concentration. However, this kind of filter has large size. In order to reduce the cost and size and increase the power handling capability, in this paper a HTS photonic bandgap (PBG) structure filter is developed. The proposed pass band filter with PBG structure exhibits center frequency 12.23 GHz, steepness (about 35 dB/GHz), bandwidth (-3 dB bandwidth is 0.045 GHz), and low insertion loss (about -0.5 dB), and can handle input power up to 1 W (this value was limited by the measurement instrument used in the experiment). The size is reduced by 25%, insertion loss reduced by 37.5%, and steeper roll-off of the filter is also obtained compared with that in published literature

  12. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  13. Compulsator, a high power compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Bird, W.L.; Driga, M.D.; Rylander, H.G.; Tolk, K.M.; Woodson, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes a pulsed power supply utilizing inertial energy storage as a possible replacement for large capacitor banks. The compulsator overcomes many of the limitations of the pulsed homopolar generators previously developed by the Center for Electromechanics and elsewhere in that it offers high voltage (10's of kV) and consequently higher pulse rise times, is self commutating, and offers the possibility of generating repetitive pulses. The compulsator converts rotational inertial energy directly into electrical energy utilizing the principles of both magnetic induction and flux compression. The theory of operation, a prototype compulsator design, and advanced compulsator designs are discussed

  14. Cost optimisation studies of high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R.; Nightingale, M.P.S.; Godden, D. [AEA Technology, Oxon (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cost optimisation studies are carried out for an accelerator based neutron source consisting of a series of linear accelerators. The characteristics of the lowest cost design for a given beam current and energy machine such as power and length are found to depend on the lifetime envisaged for it. For a fixed neutron yield it is preferable to have a low current, high energy machine. The benefits of superconducting technology are also investigated. A Separated Orbit Cyclotron (SOC) has the potential to reduce capital and operating costs and intial estimates for the transverse and longitudinal current limits of such machines are made.

  15. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  16. Economic evaluation of private power production under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo Xing; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Centre for Electrical Energy Systems

    2003-02-01

    Private power production is becoming an increasingly important source of electricity generation. In developing countries, build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as a dominant form of private investment. Pricing private power production at its avoided cost is the breakeven point for the utility in economic evaluation, and uncertainties must be taken into account. In this paper, an approach of calculating the breakeven cost to the utility of a BOT power plant whose contract lasts for 10-25 years is proposed. The proposed approach requires the computation of production costs from long-term generation expansion planning (GEP) under future uncertainties. To facilitate the inclusion of constraints introduced by BOT plants in GEP and uncertainties, a genetic algorithm method is utilized in GEP. The breakeven cost is a useful measure in the economic evaluation of BOT power plants. An example is presented to illustrate the economic evaluation of BOT plants using the concept of breakeven cost.(author)

  17. Estimating generation costs for wind power production in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazet, J.F.; Probert, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is being exploited in several European countries as one of a possible number of sources of renewable energy. However, in France there is a heavy reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power and the potential of wind power as part of the energy mix has been virtually ignored. One of the reasons advanced for the under utilisation of this technology is that it is financially unattractive. In this paper the contribution which wind power could potentially make to overall power production levels in France is examined. A cost estimate model is developed which derives electricity generation costs and determines realistic levels of production for the future. The model automatically determines the associated number of wind turbines required and the geographical areas in which they should be located. (author)

  18. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  19. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  20. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  1. Nuclear power and health. The implications for health of nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power production is, in principle, a safe technology when practised in accordance with the well established and very strict national and international rules and regulations. Yet management failures have occurred, resulting in injuries to personnel and, occasionally, escape of radioactive material. Such events may cause potential health problems, affecting physical, mental and social well-being. Public concern still tends to concentrate on nuclear-power-related facilities, yet the public's desire for a reduction in environmental pollution has led to increased demand for the development and use of low-waste or non-waste energy technologies. Nuclear energy production is one such technology, which has become established and well developed, particularly in highly industrialized countries. This was recognized by the WHO Regional Office for Europe as early as the 1970s, and led to a series of scientific working groups to discuss the most urgent issues related to the impact on health of the generation of electrical power by means of nuclear energy. Five major meetings took place between 1975 and 1985, resulting in five publications (1 - 5) covering various aspects of particular concern to the general public (and thus also to national authorities) such as handling plutonium, managing high-level radioactive waste, and preparing for accidental releases of radioactive material. The first such publication was issued in 1977. All five books were based on the collective knowledge and experience of groups of experts, and were published following the meetings of the respective working groups. The project was initiated at the request and with the support of the Government of Belgium, to study and discuss the effects of the nuclear power industry on people and the environment. The project served two objectives. First, it assisted Member States in developing the capacity to understand the public health implications of the widespread use of nuclear power. Second, it

  2. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  3. High-Power Ion Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, J. R.; Matossian, J. N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance data are presented for the NASA/Hughes 30-cm-diam 'common' thruster operated over the power range from 600 W to 4.6 kW. At the 4.6-kW power level, the thruster produces 172 mN of thrust at a specific impulse of just under 4000 s. Xenon pressure and temperature measurements are presented for a 6.4-mm-diam hollow cathode operated at emission currents ranging from 5 to 30 A and flow rates of 4 sccm and 8 sccm. Highly reproducible results show that the cathode temperature is a linear function of emission current, ranging from approx. 1000 C to 1150 C over this same current range. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements obtained from a 30-cm-diam thruster are presented, suggesting that LIF could be a valuable diagnostic for real-time assessment of accelerator-arid erosion. Calibration results of laminar-thin-film (LTF) erosion badges with bulk molybdenum are presented for 300-eV xenon, krypton, and argon sputtering ions. Facility-pressure effects on the charge-exchange ion current collected by 8-cm-diam and 30-cm-diam thrusters operated on xenon propellant are presented to show that accel current is nearly independent of facility pressure at low pressures, but increases rapidly under high-background-pressure conditions.

  4. Production of ozone using nanosecond short pulsed power

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, N.; Wakimoto, M.; Togo, H.; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2003-01-01

    Production of ozone is one of the most typical industrial and commercial applications of electrical discharge. The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-friendly sterilizations. The production of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge. The breakdowns in reactor, however, often limit the efficient production. The pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. On the other hand, th...

  5. Direct fuel cell - A high proficiency power generator for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Steinfeld, G.; Baker, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion of renewable bio-based resources into energy offers significant benefits for our environment and domestic economic activity. It also improves national security by displacing fossil fuels. However, in the current economic environment, it is difficult for biofuel systems to compete with other fossil fuels. The biomass-fired power plants are typically smaller than 50 MW, lower in electrical efficiencies (<25%) and experience greater costs for handling and transporting the biomass. When combined with fuel cells such as the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC), biofuels can produce power more efficiently with negligible environmental impact. Agricultural and other waste biomass can be converted to ethanol or methane-rich biofuels for power generation use in the DFC. These DFC power plants are modular and factory assembled. Due to their electrochemical (non-combustion) conversion process, these plants are environmentally friendly, highly efficient and potentially cost effective, even in sizes as small as a few meagawatts. They can be sited closer to the source of the biomass to minimize handling and transportation costs. The high-grade waste heat available from DFC power plants makes them attractive in cogeneration applications for farming and rural communities. The DFC potentially opens up new markets for biofuels derived from wood, grains and other biomass waste products

  6. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When operating...

  7. Fault analysis and strategy of high pulsed power supply for high power laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kefu; Qin Shihong; Li Jin; Pan Yuan; Yao Zonggan; Zheng Wanguo; Guo Liangfu; Zhou Peizhang; Li Yizheng; Chen Dehuai

    2001-01-01

    according to the requirements of driving flash-lamp, a high pulsed power supply (PPS) based on capacitors as energy storage elements is designed. The author analyzes in detail the faults of high pulsed power supply for high power laser. Such as capacitor internal short-circuit, main bus breakdown to ground, flashlamp sudden short or break. The fault current and voltage waveforms were given by circuit simulations. Based on the analysis and computation, the protection strategy with the fast fuse and ZnO was put forward, which can reduce the damage of PPS to the lower extent and provide the personnel safe and collateral property from the all threats. The preliminary experiments demonstrated that the design of the PPS can satisfy the project requirements

  8. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  9. High power diode laser remelting of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmelickova, H; Tomastik, J; Ctvrtlik, R; Supik, J; Nemecek, S; Misek, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is focused on the laser surface remelting of the steel samples with predefined overlapping of the laser spots. The goal of our experimental work was to evaluate microstructure and hardness both in overlapped zone and single pass ones for three kinds of ferrous metals with different content of carbon, cast iron, non-alloy structural steel and tool steel. High power fibre coupled diode laser Laserline LDF 3600-100 was used with robotic guided processing head equipped by the laser beam homogenizer that creates rectangular beam shape with uniform intensity distribution. Each sample was treated with identical process parameters - laser power, beam diameter, focus position, speed of motion and 40% spot overlap. Dimensions and structures of the remelted zone, zone of the partial melting, heat affected zone and base material were detected and measured by means of laser scanning and optical microscopes. Hardness progress in the vertical axis of the overlapped zone from remelted surface layer to base material was measured and compared with the hardness of the single spots. The most hardness growth was found for cast iron, the least for structural steel. Experiment results will be used to processing parameters optimization for each tested material separately.

  10. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  11. Improved Collectors for High Power Gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Singh, Amarjit; Read, Michael; Borchard, Philipp; Neilson, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    High power gyrotrons are used for electron cyclotron heating, current drive and parasitic mode suppression in tokamaks for fusion energy research. These devices are crucial for successful operation of many research programs around the world, including the ITER program currently being constructed in France. Recent gyrotron failures resulted from cyclic fatigue of the copper material used to fabricated the collectors. The techniques used to collect the spent beam power is common in many gyrotrons produced around the world. There is serious concern that these tubes may also be at risk from cyclic fatigue. This program addresses the cause of the collector failure. The Phase I program successfully demonstrated feasibility of a mode of operation that eliminates the cyclic operation that caused the failure. It also demonstrated that new material can provide increased lifetime under cyclic operation that could increase the lifetime by more than on order of magnitude. The Phase II program will complete that research and develop a collector that eliminates the fatigue failures. Such a design would find application around the world.

  12. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  13. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  14. High Power Flex-Propellant Arcjet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    implied nearly frozen flow in the nozzle and yielded performance ranges of 800-1100 sec for hydrogen and 400-600 sec for ammonia. Inferred thrust-to-power ratios were in the range of 30-10 lbf/MWe for hydrogen and 60-20 lbf/MWe for ammonia. Successful completion of this test series represents a fundamental milestone in the progression of high power arcjet technology, and it is hoped that the results may serve as a reliable touchstone for the future development of MW-class regeneratively-cooled flex-propellant plasma rockets.

  15. Survey on modern pulsed high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements to be met by lasers for particle acceleration are partially similar to those already known for fusion lasers. The power level wanted in both caes is up to 100 TW or even more. The pulse durations favourable for laser accelerators are in the range from 1 ps to 1000 ps whereas fusion lasers require several ns. The energy range for laser accelerators is thus correspondingly smaller than that for fusion lasers: 1-100 kJ versus several 100 kJ. The design criteria of lasers meeting the requirements are discussed in the following. The CO 2 , iodine, Nd:glass and excimer lasers are treated in detail. The high repetition rate aspect will not be particularly addressed since for the present generation of lasers the wanted rates of far above 1 Hz are completely out of scope. Moreover, for the demonstration of principle these rates are not needed. (orig./HSI)

  16. Study of Heating and Fusion Power Production in ITER Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Kessel, C.; McCune, D. C.; Budny, R. V.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2011-01-01

    ITER simulations, in which the temperatures, toroidal angular frequency and currents are evolved, are carried out using the PTRANSP code starting with initial profiles and boundary conditions obtained from TSC code studies. The dependence of heat deposition and current drive on ICRF frequency, number of poloidal modes, beam orientation, number of Monte Carlo particles and ECRH launch angles is studied in order to examine various possibilities and contingencies for ITER steady state and hybrid discharges. For the hybrid discharges, the fusion power production and fusion Q, computed using the Multi-Mode MMM v7.1 anomalous transport model, are compared with those predicted using the GLF23 model. The simulations of the hybrid scenario indicate that the fusion power production at 1000 sec will be approximately 500 MW corresponding to a fusion Q = 10.0. The discharge scenarios simulated aid in understanding the conditions for optimizing fusion power production and in examining measures of plasma performance.

  17. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  18. Personalisation of power, neoliberalism and the production of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Khair, Amal Hayati; Haniffa, Roszaini; Hudaib, Mohammad; Abd. Karim, Mohamad Nazri

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises a political lens in considering the cause for the production of corruption and the role of political leadership. Specifically, the notion of personalisation of power as advocated by Slater (2003) is adopted to portray how the adoption of neoliberalism ideology by an aspiring autocratic leader results in the weakening of the infrastructural power through three strategies: packing, rigging and circumventing. We use Perwaja Steel as a case study to demonstrate the modus opera...

  19. A high power ZnO thin film piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weiwei; Li, Tao; Li, Yutong; Qiu, Junwen; Ma, Xianjun; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and large area piezoelectric ZnO thin film nanogenerator (NG) was fabricated. The ZnO thin film was deposited onto a Si substrate by pulsed laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The deposited ZnO film exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation and a high piezoelectric value of 49.7 pm/V characterized using Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM). Thin films of ZnO were patterned into rectangular power sources with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 with metallic top and bottom electrodes constructed via conventional semiconductor lithographic patterning processes. The NG units were subjected to periodic bending/unbending motions produced by mechanical impingement at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz at a pressure of 0.4 kg/cm2. The output electrical voltage, current density, and power density generated by one ZnO NG were recorded. Values of ∼95 mV, 35 μA cm-2 and 5.1 mW cm-2 were recorded. The level of power density is typical to that produced by a PZT NG on a flexible substrate. Higher energy NG sources can be easily created by adding more power units either in parallel or in series. The thin film ZnO NG technique is highly adaptable with current semiconductor processes, and as such, is easily integrated with signal collecting circuits that are compatible with mass production. A typical application would be using the power harvested from irregular human foot motions to either to operate blue LEDs directly or to drive a sensor network node in mille-power level without any external electric source and circuits.

  20. High-power laser diodes with high polarization purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Peleg, Ophir; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Klumel, Genady

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diode modules employ power scaling of single emitters for fiber laser pumping. To this end, techniques such as geometrical, spectral and polarization beam combining (PBC) are used. For PBC, linear polarization with high degree of purity is important, as any non-perfectly polarized light leads to losses and heating. Furthermore, PBC is typically performed in a collimated portion of the beams, which also cancels the angular dependence of the PBC element, e.g., beam-splitter. However, we discovered that single emitters have variable degrees of polarization, which depends both on the operating current and far-field divergence. We present data to show angle-resolved polarization measurements that correlate with the ignition of high-order modes in the slow-axis emission of the emitter. We demonstrate that the ultimate laser brightness includes not only the standard parameters such as power, emitting area and beam divergence, but also the degree of polarization (DoP), which is a strong function of the latter. Improved slow-axis divergence, therefore, contributes not only to high brightness but also high beam combining efficiency through polarization.

  1. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  2. Power Production and Economical Feasibility of Tideng Tidal Stream Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the contract between Aalborg University and TIDENG (by Bent Hilleke) on the evaluation and development of the TIDENG Tidal Energy Conversion System (TECS). The work has focused on the evaluation of the yearly power production of the device and its economical feasibility...

  3. Optimum operation of a small power production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capehart, B.L.; Mahoney, J.F.; Sivazlian, B.D.

    1983-09-01

    To help reduce the U.S.A.'s dependence on imported oil for electrical power generation, the 1978 National Energy Act established regulations to promote construction and operation of cogeneration and small power production facilities. Many of these facilities are presently under construction, with a great number planned. This paper examines the operation of a small power production facility with on-site generation and storage, on-site use, and connection to an electric utility grid system for the purpose of both selling excess power and buying power. It is assumed that the buying and selling price of electricity varies frequently during the day and that the relevant price and demand data may be accurately projected into the near future. With this system description, a mathematical model is formulated and solved by linear programming to obtain a series of periodic buy and sell decisions so as to maximize the profit from operating the small power production facility. Results are presented to illustrate the methodology for determining potential profits.

  4. High technology supporting nuclear power industry in CRIEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    As a central research institute of electric power industry, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has carried out R and D on broad range of topics such as power generation, power transmission, power distribution, power application and energy economics and society, aiming to develop prospective and advanced technologies, fundamental reinforce technologies and next-generation core technologies. To realize low-carbon society to cope with enhancement of global environmental issues, nuclear power is highly recommended as large-scale power with low-carbon emission. At the new start of serial explanation on advanced technologies, R and D on electric power industry was outlined. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Methods and Algorithms for Economic MPC in Power Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil

    in real-time. A generator can represent a producer of electricity, a consumer of electricity, or possibly both. Examples of generators are heat pumps, electric vehicles, wind turbines, virtual power plants, solar cells, and conventional fuel-fired thermal power plants. Although this thesis is mainly...... concerned with EMPC for minutes-ahead production planning, we show that the proposed EMPC scheme can be extended to days-ahead planning (including unit commitment) as well. The power generation from renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is inherently uncertain and variable. A portfolio...... design an algorithm based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve input-constrained OCPs with convex objective functions. The OCPs that occur in EMPC of dynamically decoupled subsystems, e.g. power generators, have a block-angular structure. Subsystem decomposition algorithms...

  6. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW th coupled with a power conversion efficiency of ∼30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  8. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  9. Resource-based optimization of electric power production (in Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    This paper is about electric power production optimization and chiefly discusses on the types of resources available in Iran. The modeling has been based on the marginal cost of different energy resources and types of technologies used. the computed costs are the basic standards for optimization of the production system of energy. the costs associated with environmental pollution and also pollution control are considered. the present paper also studied gas fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, renewable and co-generation of heat and power. The results are discussed and reported at the last of the paper

  10. Switching transients in high-frequency high-power converters using power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, T. H.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of MOSFETs in a high-frequency high-power dc-to-dc converter is investigated. Consideration is given to the phenomena associated with the paralleling of MOSFETs and to the effect of stray circuit inductances on the converter circuit performance. Analytical relationships between various time constants during the turning-on and turning-off intervals are derived which provide estimates of plateau and peak levels during these intervals.

  11. New generation of compact high power disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuchtenbeiner, Stefanie; Zaske, Sebastian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Kumkar, Sören; Metzger, Bernd; Killi, Alexander; Haug, Patrick; Speker, Nicolai

    2018-02-01

    New technological developments in high power disk lasers emitting at 1030 nm are presented. These include the latest generation of TRUMPF's TruDisk product line offering high power disk lasers with up to 6 kW output power and beam qualities of up to 4 mm*mrad. With these compact devices a footprint reduction of 50% compared to the previous model could be achieved while at the same time improving robustness and increasing system efficiency. In the context of Industry 4.0, the new generation of TruDisk lasers features a synchronized data recording of all sensors, offering high-quality data for virtual analyses. The lasers therefore provide optimal hardware requirements for services like Condition Monitoring and Predictive Maintenance. We will also discuss its innovative and space-saving cooling architecture. It allows operation of the laser under very critical ambient conditions. Furthermore, an outlook on extending the new disk laser platform to higher power levels will be given. We will present a disk laser with 8 kW laser power out of a single disk with a beam quality of 5 mm*mrad using a 125 μm fiber, which makes it ideally suited for cutting and welding applications. The flexibility of the disk laser platform also enables the realization of a wide variety of beam guiding setups. As an example a new scheme called BrightLine Weld will be discussed. This technology allows for an almost spatter free laser welding process, even at high feed rates.

  12. Chaos in high-power high-frequency gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airila, M.

    2004-01-01

    Gyrotron interaction is a complex nonlinear dynamical process, which may turn chaotic in certain circumstances. The emergence of chaos renders dynamical systems unpredictable and causes bandwidth broadening of signals. Such effects would jeopardize the prospect of advanced gyrotrons in fusion. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the possibility of chaos in gyrotrons. There are three different chaos scenarios closely related to the development of high-power gyrotrons: First, the onset of chaos in electron trajectories would lead to difficulties in the design and efficient operation of depressed potential collectors, which are used for efficiency enhancement. Second, the radio-frequency signal could turn chaotic, decreasing the output power and the spectral purity of the output signal. As a result, mode conversion, transmission, and absorption efficiencies would be reduced. Third, spatio-temporal chaos in the resonator field structure can set a limit for the use of large-diameter interaction cavities and high-order TE modes (large azimuthal index) allowing higher generated power. In this thesis, the issues above are addressed with numerical modeling. It is found that chaos in electron residual energies is practically absent in the parameter region corresponding to high efficiency. Accordingly, depressed collectors are a feasible solution also in advanced high-power gyrotrons. A new method is presented for straightforward numerical solution of the one-dimensional self-consistent time-dependent gyrotron equations, and the method is generalized to two dimensions. In 1D, a chart of gyrotron oscillations is calculated. It is shown that the regions of stationary oscillations, automodulation, and chaos have a complicated topology in the plane of generalized gyrotron variables. The threshold current for chaotic oscillations exceeds typical operating currents by a factor of ten. However, reflection of the output signal may significantly lower the threshold. 2D

  13. Power transistor module for high current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilyo, F.F.

    1975-01-01

    One of the parts needed for the control system of the 400-GeV accelerator at Fermilab was a power transistor with a safe operating area of 1800A at 50V, dc current gain of 100,000 and 20 kHz bandwidth. Since the commercially available discrete devices and power hybrid packages did not meet these requirements, a power transistor module was developed which performed satisfactorily. By connecting 13 power transistors in parallel, with due consideration for network and heat dissipation problems, and by driving these 13 with another power transistor, a super power transistor is made, having an equivalent current, power, and safe operating area capability of 13 transistors. For higher capabilities, additional modules can be conveniently added. (auth)

  14. High power accelerator for environmental application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  15. High-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

  16. High power accelerator for environmental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R.; Kim, S. M. [EB-TECH Co., Ltd., Yuseong-gu Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant environmental pollution, given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the efficient technologies including economical treatment methods. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the stack gases, wastewater and sludge containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co. Electron beam treatment of such hazardous wastes is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from radiolysis. However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW~1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with catalytic system, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment. (author)

  17. High power accelerators and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Kim, S.M.; Makaov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources are receiving increasing attention throughout the world. The increased population, higher living standards, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities of humankind are all leading to degradation of the environment. Increasing urbanization has been accompanied by significant water pollution. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. Therefore, cost-effective treatment of the municipal and industrial wastewater containing refractory pollutant with electron beam is actively studied in EB TECH Co.. Electron beam treatment of wastewater is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis (hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom). However, to have advantages over existing processes, the electron beam process should have cost-effective and reliable in operation. Therefore high power accelerators (400kW∼1MW) are developed for environmental application and they show the decrease in the cost of construction and operation of electron beam plant. In other way to reduce the cost for wastewater treatment, radical reactions accompanied by the other processes are introduced, and the synergistic effect upon the use of combined methods such as electron beam treatment with ozonation, biological treatment and physico-chemical adsorption and others also show the improvement of the effect of electron beam treatment for the wastewater purification. (author)

  18. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  19. High power diode lasers converted to the visible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Andersen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    High power diode lasers have in recent years become available in many wavelength regions. However, some spectral regions are not well covered. In particular, the visible spectral range is lacking high power diode lasers with good spatial quality. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent...... results in nonlinear frequency conversion of high power near infrared diode lasers to the visible spectral region....

  20. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry

  1. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  2. Progress in DOE high temperature superconductivity electric power applications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, J.G.; Sheahn, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) leads national R and D effort to develop US industry's capability to produce a wide range of advanced energy-efficient electric power products. The immediate need is to make high temperature superconductivity (HTS) wire. Wire developers at the DOE National laboratories are working wit industrial partners toward this objective. In this paper, the authors describe the progress to date, citing both the difficulties associated with making wire from these ceramic materials, and achievements at several organizations. Results for progress over the next five years are stated

  3. Very high power THz radiation at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Jordan, K.; Neil, George R.; Williams, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    We report the production of high power (20 watts average, ∼;1 Megawatt peak) broadband THz light based on coherent emission from relativistic electrons. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. For clarity we compare this source with one based on ultrafast laser techniques, and in fact the radiation has qualities closely analogous to that produced by such sources, namely that it is spatially coherent, and comprises short duration pulses with transform-limited spectral content. In contrast to conventional THz radiation, however, the intensity is many orders of magnitude greater due to the relativistic enhancement

  4. Novel pre-combustion power production : membrane Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Van Sint Annaland, M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that conversion of fossil fuels for power production leads to an enormous amount of greenhouse gas emissions widely accepted as responsible for climate change. As fossil fuels will remain the primary energy source for the next decades, different studies are ongoing to make the

  5. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  6. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  7. Production of high purity radiothallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, E.; Greene, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    The method of producing high-purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprises the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction 203 Tl(p,3n) 201 Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used

  8. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  9. Purification of power plant waters with high gradient magnetic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.

    1993-04-01

    This is a report of a literature survey. Magnetic high gradient filtration is suitable for separations in difficult surroundings because it can be used in high pressure and temperature, the filtration can be automated and the filter does not contain components which have to be replaced. Magnetic separators for purification of power plant waters have been manufactured commercially for a long time, but they have not always worked satisfactorily especially when separating small particles. The corrosion products in power plant waters are usually ferrimagnetic or paramagnetic and are well suited for magnetic separation. The particle sizes varies considerable but at least in nuclear power plants they are mostly in the range 0.1-30 μ, some even smaller. According to different publications most 60 Co is in particles, while other publications indicate that more than 70 % is in solution. Similarly the data on the purification efficiency of 60 Co varies significantly. Even small magnetic fields are sufficient to separate large ferrimagnetic particles, but the separation of small and paramagnetic particles requires a field more than 20 kT and the high gradient. Presently available commercial separators are so efficient that its seems not to be economically worthwhile to develop them further to improve the filtration efficiency for small particles. Instead it might be worthwhile to investigate methods to increase the particle size by water chemistry methods. (Au). (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  10. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  11. Construction labor productivity during nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There is no single satisfactory way to measure productivity in the construction industry. The industry is too varied, too specialized and too dependent upon vast numbers of interrelations between trades, contractors, designers and owners. Hence, no universally reliable indices for measuring construction productivity has been developed. There are problems that are generic to all large union-built nuclear power plants. The actions of any one owner cannot rectify the shortcomings of the construction industry. The generic problems are being identified, and many national organizations are attempting to make the construction industry more productive by recommending various changes

  12. Highly-stabilized power supply for synchrotron accelerators. High speed, low ripple power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Kumada, Masayuki; Fukami, Kenji; Koseki, Shoichiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Toru

    1997-02-01

    In synchrotron accelerators, in order to utilize high energy beam effectively, those are operated by repeating acceleration and taking-out at short period. In order to accelerate by maintaining beam track stable, the tracking performance with the error less than 10{sup -3} in the follow-up of current is required for the power supply. Further, in order to maintain the intensity and uniformity of beam when it is taken out, very low ripple is required for output current. The power supply having such characteristics has been developed, and applied to the HIMAC and the SPring-8. As the examples of the application of synchrotrons, the accelerators for medical treatment and the generation of synchrotron radiation are described. As to the power supply for the deflection magnets and quadrupole magnets of synchrotron accelerators, the specifications of the main power supply, the method of reducing ripple, the method of improving tracking, and active filter control are reported. As to the test results, the measurement of current ripple and tracking error is shown. The lowering of ripple was enabled by common mode filter and the symmetrical connection of electromagnets, and high speed response was realized by the compensation for delay with active filter. (K.I.)

  13. Forecast of wind energy production and ensuring required balancing power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, M.

    2010-01-01

    The wind energy is gaining larger part of the energy mix around the world as well as in Bulgaria. Having in mind the irregularity of the wind, we are in front of a challenge for management of the power grid in new unknown conditions. The world's experience has proven that there could be no effective management of the grid without forecasting tools, even with small scale of wind power penetration. Application of such tools promotes simple management of large wind energy production and reduction of the quantities of required balancing powers. The share of the expenses and efforts for forecasting of the wind energy is incomparably small in comparison with expenses for keeping additional powers in readiness. The recent computers potential allow simple and rapid processing of large quantities of data from different sources, which provides required conditions for modeling the world's climate and producing sophisticated forecast. (author)

  14. Test of a High Power Target Design

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS343 :\\\\ \\\\ A high power tantalum disc-foil target (RIST) has been developed for the proposed radioactive beam facility, SIRIUS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The yield and release characteristics of the RIST target design have been measured at ISOLDE. The results indicate that the yields are at least as good as the best ISOLDE roll-foil targets and that the release curves are significantly faster in most cases. Both targets use 20 -25 $\\mu$m thick foils, but in a different internal geometry.\\\\ \\\\Investigations have continued at ISOLDE with targets having different foil thickness and internal geometries in an attempt to understand the release mechanisms and in particular to maximise the yield of short lived isotopes. A theoretical model has been developed which fits the release curves and gives physical values of the diffusion constants.\\\\ \\\\The latest target is constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick tantalum foils (mass only 10 mg) and shows very short release times. The yield of $^{11}$Li (half-life of ...

  15. High-power pure blue laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, M.; Ohizumi, Y.; Hoshina, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Yabuki, Y.; Goto, S.; Ikeda, M. [Development Center, Sony Shiroishi Semiconductor Inc., Miyagi (Japan); Funato, K. [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan); Tomiya, S. [Materials Analysis Laboratory, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We successfully developed high-power and long-lived pure blue laser diodes (LDs) having an emission wavelength of 440-450 nm. The pure-blue LDs were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on GaN substrates. The dislocation density was successfully reduced to {proportional_to}10{sup 6} cm{sup -2} by optimizing the MOCVD growth conditions and the active layer structure. The vertical layer structure was designed to have an absorption loss of 4.9 cm{sup -1} and an internal quantum efficiency of 91%. We also reduced the operating current density to 6 kA/cm{sup 2} under 750 mW continuous-wave operation at 35 C by optimizing the stripe width to 12 {mu}m and the cavity length to 2000 {mu}m. The half lifetimes in constant current mode are estimated to be longer than 10000 h. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Complete low power controller for high voltage power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, R.; Blanar, G.

    1997-01-01

    The MHV100 is a custom CMOS integrated circuit, developed for the AMS experiment. It provides complete control for a single channel high voltage (HV) generator and integrates all the required digital communications, D to A and A to D converters, the analog feedback loop and output drivers. This chip has been designed for use in both distributed high voltage systems or for low cost single channel high voltage systems. The output voltage and current range is determined by the external components

  17. High Fragmentation Steel Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    J/ FTA c« ;« MO G SO KM s s P WS W-U Hi ; T 14 434 CASK G S3 K 11 ma WM MM MM ACTS 1 TC*4 U S7« ill GC 135 V M NTA «M FT...relative feed range 2nd digit -relative force range FMd 1 Very Low Fore* t 2 Low 2 3 Medium Low 3 4 Medium 4 5 Medium 5 6 Medium High 6 7 Medium

  18. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  19. A 380 V High Efficiency and High Power Density Switched-Capacitor Power Converter using Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2018-01-01

    . This paper presents such a high voltage low power switched-capacitor DC-DC converter with an input voltage upto 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and an output power experimentally validated up to 21.3 W. The wideband gap semiconductor devices of GaN switches and SiC diodes are combined...... to compose the proposed power stage. Their switching and loss characteristics are analyzed with transient waveforms and thermal images. Different isolated driving circuits are compared and a compact isolated halfbridge driving circuit is proposed. The full-load efficiencies of 98.3% and 97.6% are achieved......State-of-the-art switched-capacitor DC-DC power converters mainly focus on low voltage and/or high power applications. However, at high voltage and low power levels, new designs are anticipated to emerge and a power converter that has both high efficiency and high power density is highly desirable...

  20. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzlinger, W.; Hoffmann, J.; Ohlhaeuser, K.

    1986-01-01

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of high-power microwave pulse under intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. KALI-1000 pulse power system has been used to generate single pulse nanosecond duration high-power microwaves (HPM) from a virtual cathode oscillator. (VIRCATOR) device. HPM power measurements were carried out using a transmitting– receiving system in the presence of intense high frequency (a few ...

  2. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Wind energy in electric power production. Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lento, R; Peltola, E

    1984-01-15

    The wind speed conditions in Finland have been studied with the aid of the existing statistics of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. With the aid of the statistics also estimates on the available wind energy were made. 800 wind power plants, 1.5 MW each, on the windiest west coast would produce about 2 TWh energy per year. Far more information on the temporal, geographical and vertical distribution of the wind speed than the present statistics include is needed when the available wind energy is estimated, when wind power plants are dimensioned optimally, and when suitable locations are chosen for them. The investment costs of a wind power plant increase when the height of the tower or the diameter of the rotor is increased, but the energy production increases, too. Thus, overdimensioning the wind power plant in view of energy needs or the wind conditions causes extra costs. The cost of energy produced by wind power can not yet compete with conventional energy, but the situation changes to the advantage of wind energy, if the real price of the plants decreases (among other things due to large series production and increasing experience), or if the real price of fuels rises. The inconvinience on the environment caused by the wind power plants is considered insignificant. The noise caused by the plant attenuates rapidly with distance. No harmful effects birds and other animals caused by the wind power plants have been observed in the studies made abroad. Parts of a plant getting loose during an accident, or ice forming on the blades are estimated to fly even from a large plant only a few hundred meters.

  4. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    Three types of magnet power supply systems for the joint LBL-SLAC proposed accelerator PEP are discussed. The systems considered include a firing circuit and six-pulse controlled rectifier, transistor systems, and a chopper system. (U.S.)

  5. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  6. A highly linear power amplifier for WLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jie; Shi Jia; Ai Baoli; Zhang Xuguang

    2016-01-01

    A three-stage power amplifier (PA) for WLAN application in 2.4-2.5 GHz is presented. The proposed PA employs an adaptive bias circuit to adjust the operating point of the PA to improve the linearity of the PA. Two methods to short the 2nd harmonic circuit are compared in the area of efficiency and gain of the PA. The PA is taped out in the process of 2 μm InGaP/GaAs HBT and is tested by the evaluation board. The measured results show that 31.5 dB power gain and 29.3 dBm P 1dB with an associated 40.4% power added efficiency (PAE) under the single tone stimulus. Up to 26.5 dBm output power can be achieved with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of lower than 3% under the 64QAM/OFDM WLAN stimulus. (paper)

  7. Advanced Capacitors for High-Power Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a...

  8. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  9. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  10. Thermal insulation product for insulation, especially in nuclear power engineering, and method of its production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselovsky, P.; Zink, S.; Balacek, P.; Mares, I.

    1989-01-01

    The insulation consists of a sewn fabric cover made of inorganic fibers, in which the fiber filling is reinforced mechanically by dense point interweaving. The inorganic fibers, 1 to 5 μm in diameter, consist of min. 97 wt.% mixture of aluminium and silicon oxides in the vitreous state. The fibers making up the cover consist of min. 95% silicon, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and boron oxides in the vitreous state; the rest can consist of alloy steel fibres. The bulk density of the insulation is 70 to 150 kg/m 3 . The product is highly resistant to temperature and to the action of chemicals, water, and acid and alkaline deactivation solutions. Its manufacture is fast and undemanding. It is designed for thermal insulation of pipes, tanks and valves in nuclear power plants. (M.D.). 2 figs

  11. Advances in high-power rf amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Several powerful accelerators and storage rings are being considered that will require tens or even hundreds of megawatts of continuous rf power. The economics of such large machines can be dictated by the cost and efficiency of the rf amplifiers. The overall design and performance of such narrow-band amplifiers, operating in the 50- to 1500-MHz region, are being theoretically studied as a function of frequency to determine the optimum rf amplifier output power, gain, efficiency, and dc power requirements. The state of the art for three types of amplifiers (gridded tubes, klystrons, and gyrocons) is considered and the development work necessary to improve each is discussed. The gyrocon is a new device, hence its various embodiments are discussed in detail. The Soviet designs are reviewed and the gyrocon's strengths and weaknesses are compared to other types of microwave amplifiers. The primary advantages of the gyrocon are the very large amount of power available from a single device and the excellent efficiency and stable operation. The klystron however, has much greater gain and is simpler mechanically. At very low frequencies, the small size of the gridded tube makes it the optimum choice for all but the most powerful systems

  12. Design and development of high voltage high power operational ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of power operational amplifiers (opamps) are increasing day by day in the industry as they are used in audio amplifiers, Piezo transducer systems and the electron deflection systems. Power operational amplifiers have all the features of a general purpose opamp except the additional power handling capability.

  13. Atmospheric Propagation and Combining of High-Power Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Brightness-scaling potential of actively phase- locked solid state laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 460–472, May...attempting to phase- lock high-power lasers, which is not encountered when phase- locking low-power lasers, for example mW power levels. Regardless, we...technology does not currently exist. This presents a challenging problem when attempting to phase- lock high-power lasers, which is not encountered when

  14. Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintino, L.; Costa, A.; Miranda, R.; Yapp, D.; Kumar, V.; Kong, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of high power fiber lasers presents several benefits for industrial purposes, namely high power with low beam divergence, flexible beam delivery, low maintenance costs, high efficiency and compact size. This paper presents a brief review of the development of high power lasers, and presents initial data on welding of API 5L: X100 pipeline steel with an 8 kW fiber laser. Weld bead geometry was evaluated and transition between conduction and deep penetration welding modes was investigated

  15. Designing High Efficient Solar Powered OLED Lighting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    2016-01-01

    for the 10 Wp version. Furthermore, we present measurements of state-of-the-art commercial available OLED with regards to the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, luminance homogeneity, temperature dependency and IV characteristic of the OLED panels. In addition, solar powered OLED product concepts are proposed.......OLEDs used in solar powered lighting applications is a market of the future. This paper reports the development of electronic Three-Port-Converters for PV OLED product integration in the low-power area respectively for 1-10 Wp and 10-50 Wp with a peak efficiency of 97% at 1.8 W of PV power...

  16. Applications of magnetic power production and its assessment - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovski, A.; Vuarnoz, D.; Diebold, M.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W.

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the work done at the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland in 2007 on a project involving power production based on magnetic effects. In this annual report, a selection of feasible and economic magnetic power conversion systems is listed. Magnetic 'power generators' based on permanent and superconducting magnets are analysed for several heat source temperatures, magnetic field strengths and machine rotational frequencies. The analysis uses a newly derived model, which permits the determination of thermodynamic efficiency and exergy efficiency of a magnetic power-conversion system. This study shows that magnetic power conversion is better than conventional technologies in many aspects, such as, for example, for low exergy heat sources, where most of the conventional energy conversion technologies cannot even operate. The authors state that, in contrast, magnetic power generation technology leads to a high exergy efficiency of energy conversion for such sources.

  17. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-01

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  18. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-15

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  19. DOE HIGH-POWER SLIM-HOLE DRILLING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William C. Maurer; John H. Cohen; J. Chris Hetmaniak; Curtis Leitko

    1999-09-01

    This project used a systems approach to improve slim-hole drilling performance. A high power mud motor, having a double-length power section, and hybrid PDC/TSP drill bit were developed to deliver maximum horsepower to the rock while providing a long life down hole. This high-power slim-hole drilling system drills much faster than conventional slim-hole motor and bit combinations and holds significant potential to reduce slim-hole drilling costs. The oil and gas industries have been faced with downward price pressures since the 1980s. These pressures are not expected to be relieved in the near future. To maintain profitability, companies have had to find ways to reduce the costs of producing oil and gas. Drilling is one of the more costly operations in the production process. One method to reduce costs of drilling is to use smaller more mobile equipment. Slim holes have been drilled in the past using this principle. These wells can save money not only from the use of smaller drilling equipment, but also from reduced tubular costs. Stepping down even one casing size results in significant savings. However, slim holes have not found wide spread use for three reasons. First, until recently, the price of oil has been high so there were no forces to move the industry in this direction. Second, small roller bits and motors were not very reliable and they drilled slowly, removing much of the economic benefit. The third and final reason was the misconception that large holes were needed everywhere to deliver the desired production. Several factors have changed that will encourage the use of slim holes. The industry now favors any method of reducing the costs of producing oil and gas. In addition, the industry now understands that large holes are not always needed. Gas, in particular, can have high production rates in smaller holes. New materials now make it possible to manufacture improved bits and motors that drill for long periods at high rates. All that remains is to

  20. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  1. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.

    2001-01-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  2. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  3. A game-theoretical model of private power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)

  4. Market potential of IGCC for domestic power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; Hawk, E.; Maskew, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mitretek Systems and CONSOL Inc. have completed the first phase of a market potential study for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) domestic power production. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded this study. The objective of this study is to provide DOE with data to estimate the future domestic market potential of IGCC for electricity generation. Major drivers in this study are the state of technology development, feedstock costs, environmental control costs, demand growth, and dispatchability. This study examines IGCC potential for baseload power production in the Northeast U. S., an important market area by virtue of existing coal infrastructure and proximity to coal producing regions. IGCC market potential was examined for two levels of technology development as a function of natural gas price and carbon tax. This paper discusses the results of this study, including the levels of performance and cost necessary to insure competitiveness with natural gas combined cycle plants

  5. Monte Carlo simulation techniques for predicting annual power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.P.; Bulandr, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the owner and operator of a number of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites, STS HydroPower has been faced with the need to accurately predict anticipated hydroelectric revenues over a period of years. The typical approach to this problem has been to look at each site from a mathematical deterministic perspective and evaluate the annual production from historic streamflows. Average annual production is simply taken to be the area under the flow duration curve defined by the operating and design characteristics of the selected turbines. Minimum annual production is taken to be a historic dry year scenario and maximum production is viewed as power generated under the most ideal of conditions. Such an approach creates two problems. First, in viewing the characteristics of a single site, it does not take into account the probability of such an event occurring. Second, in viewing all sites in a single organization's portfolio together, it does not reflect the varying flow conditions at the different sites. This paper attempts to address the first of these two concerns, that being the creation of a simulation model utilizing the Monte Carlo method at a single site. The result of the analysis is a picture of the production at the site that is both a better representation of anticipated conditions and defined probabilistically

  6. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  7. High-power circulator test results at 350 and 700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.; Bradley, J.T.; Rees, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The high-power RF systems for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program require high-power circulators at 350 MHz and 700 MHz to protect 1 MW Continuous Wave (CW) klystrons from reflected power. The 350 MHz circulator is based on the CERN, EXF, and APS designs and has performed very well. The 700 MHz circulator is a new design. Prototype 700 MHz circulators have been high-power tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The first of these circulators has satisfied performance requirements. The circulator requirements, results from the testing, and lessons learned from this development are presented and discussed

  8. EAP high-level product architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  9. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  10. Chitin Lengthens Power Production in a Sedimentary Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon sediments demonstrate that chitin enhances and lengthens power production. Keywords—chitin; MFC; microbiology ; iron-reducing bacteria...levels of organic content available as a food source for bacteria in the sediment. Dependent upon applications, there are scenarios where a SMFC...as ethanol, molasses, or vegetable oils. In the case of underwater marine sediment, options for carbon amendment are limited to solid carbon

  11. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  12. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respec...

  13. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High External Input Technology Farms in a ... of aggregate agricultural productivity in an environment where policy on ... to increase the farm sizes through re-examination of the existing land laws.

  14. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  15. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  16. The design of a linear L-band high power amplifier for mobile communication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, N.; Brassard, G.; Li, E.; Goux, P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear L-band solid state high power amplifier designed for the space segment of the Mobile Satellite (MSAT) mobile communication system is described. The amplifier is capable of producing 35 watts of RF power with multitone signal at an efficiency of 25 percent and with intermodulation products better than 16 dB below carrier.

  17. New high power CW klystrons at TED

    CERN Document Server

    Beunas, A; Marchesin, R

    2003-01-01

    Thales Electron Devices (TED) has been awarded a contract by CERN to develop and produce 20 units of the klystrons needed to feed the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). Each of these delivers 300 kW of CW RF power at 400 MHz. Three klystrons have been delivered to CERN up to now.

  18. A highly linear power amplifier for WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Jin; Jia, Shi; Baoli, Ai; Xuguang, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    A three-stage power amplifier (PA) for WLAN application in 2.4-2.5 GHz is presented. The proposed PA employs an adaptive bias circuit to adjust the operating point of the PA to improve the linearity of the PA. Two methods to short the 2nd harmonic circuit are compared in the area of efficiency and gain of the PA. The PA is taped out in the process of 2 μm InGaP/GaAs HBT and is tested by the evaluation board. The measured results show that 31.5 dB power gain and 29.3 dBm P1dB with an associated 40.4% power added efficiency (PAE) under the single tone stimulus. Up to 26.5 dBm output power can be achieved with an error vector magnitude (EVM) of lower than 3% under the 64QAM/OFDM WLAN stimulus. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61201244) and the Natural Science Fund of SUES (No. E1-0501-14-0168).

  19. High-voltage, high-power architecture considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three basic EPS architectures, direct energy transfer, peak-power tracking, and a potential EPS architecture for a nuclear reactor are described and compared. Considerations for the power source and energy storage are discussed. Factors to be considered in selecting the operating voltage are pointed out. Other EPS architecture considerations are autonomy, solar array degrees of freedom, and EPS modularity. It was concluded that selection of the power source and energy storage has major impacts on the spacecraft architecture and mass

  20. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Chai og Energy Management (Germany); Barth, R.; Brand, H. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production the expectation is that the operational costs of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative production having properties like conventional production, i.e. being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straight forward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. This paper presents a method for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimization model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling calculation of the costs connected to unpredictability, and constant wind power production enabling calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed in the paper. (au)

  1. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is

  2. GaN-based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SET Group will design, build and demonstrate a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based High Power High Frequency Wide Range LLC Resonant Converter capable of handling high power...

  3. High power ring methods and accelerator driven subcritical reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahar, Malek Haj [Univ. of Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-07

    High power proton accelerators allow providing, by spallation reaction, the neutron fluxes necessary in the synthesis of fissile material, starting from Uranium 238 or Thorium 232. This is the basis of the concept of sub-critical operation of a reactor, for energy production or nuclear waste transmutation, with the objective of achieving cleaner, safer and more efficient process than today’s technologies allow. Designing, building and operating a proton accelerator in the 500-1000 MeV energy range, CW regime, MW power class still remains a challenge nowadays. There is a limited number of installations at present achieving beam characteristics in that class, e.g., PSI in Villigen, 590 MeV CW beam from a cyclotron, SNS in Oakland, 1 GeV pulsed beam from a linear accelerator, in addition to projects as the ESS in Europe, a 5 MW beam from a linear accelerator. Furthermore, coupling an accelerator to a sub-critical nuclear reactor is a challenging proposition: some of the key issues/requirements are the design of a spallation target to withstand high power densities as well as ensure the safety of the installation. These two domains are the grounds of the PhD work: the focus is on the high power ring methods in the frame of the KURRI FFAG collaboration in Japan: upgrade of the installation towards high intensity is crucial to demonstrate the high beam power capability of FFAG. Thus, modeling of the beam dynamics and benchmarking of different codes was undertaken to validate the simulation results. Experimental results revealed some major losses that need to be understood and eventually overcome. By developing analytical models that account for the field defects, one identified major sources of imperfection in the design of scaling FFAG that explain the important tune variations resulting in the crossing of several betatron resonances. A new formula is derived to compute the tunes and properties established that characterize the effect of the field imperfections on the

  4. Los Alamos high-power proton linac designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Medium-energy high-power proton linear accelerators have been studied at Los Alamos as drivers for spallation neutron applications requiring large amounts of beam power. Reference designs for such accelerators are discussed, important design factors are reviewed, and issues and concern specific to this unprecedented power regime are discussed.

  5. High-power laser source evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D.; Simonson, G.F.; Suter, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This document reports progress in these areas: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM NOVA: TAMPED XENON UNDERDENSE X-RAY EMITTERS; MODELING MULTI-KEV RADIATION PRODUCTION OF XENON-FILLED BERYLLIUM CANS; MAPPING A CALCULATION FROM LASNEX TO CALE; HOT X RAYS FROM SEEDED NIF CAPSULES; HOHLRAUM DEBRIS MEASUREMENTS AT NOVA; FOAM AND STRUCTURAL RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR NIF NEUTRON EXPOSURE SAMPLE CASE ASSEMBLY DESIGN; NON-IGNITION X-RAY SOURCE FLUENCE-AREA PRODUCTS FOR NUCLEAR EFFECTS TESTING ON NIF. Also appended are reprints of two papers. The first is on the subject of ''X-Ray Production in Laser-Heated Xe Gas Targets.'' The second is on ''Efficient Production and Applications of 2- to 10-keV X Rays by Laser-Heated Underdense Radiators.''

  6. The safe production of hydrogen by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising 'GEN-IV' nuclear reactor concepts is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). It is characterized by a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor core of 400-600 MW(th). Coolant outlet temperatures of 900-1000 .deg. C ideally suited for a wide spectrum of high temperature process heat or process steam applications, which allow to deliver, besides the classical electricity, also non-electrical products such as hydrogen or other fuels. In a future energy economy, hydrogen as a storable medium could adjust a variable demand for electricity by means of fuel cell power plants providing much more flexibility in optimized energy structures. The mass production of hydrogen is a major goal for Gen-IV systems. In a nuclear hydrogen production facility, the coupling between the nuclear plant and the process heat/steam application side is given by an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), a component which provides a clear separation preventing the primary coolant from accessing the heat application plant and, vice versa, any process gases from being routed through the reactor containment. The physical separation has the advantage that the heat application facility can be conventionally designed, and repair works can be conducted under non-nuclear conditions. With regard to the safety of combined nuclear and chemical facilities, apart from their own specific categories of hazards, a qualitatively new class of events will have to be taken into account characterized by interacting influences. Arising problems to be covered by a decent overall safety concept are the questions of safety of the nuclear plant in case of fire and explosion hazards resulting from the leakage of flammable substances, the tolerable tritium contamination of the product hydrogen, or the situations of thermo-dynamic feedback in case of a loss of heat source (nuclear) or heat sink (chemical) resulting in thermal turbulences. A safety-related issue is the

  7. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  8. Temperature Stabilized Characterization of High Voltage Power Supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Krarup, Ole

    2017-01-01

    High precision measurements of the masses of nuclear ions in the ISOLTRAP experiment relies on an MR-ToF. A major source of noise and drift is the instability of the high voltage power supplies employed. Electrical noise and temperature changes can broaden peaks in time-of-flight spectra and shift the position of peaks between runs. In this report we investigate how the noise and drift of high-voltage power supplies can be characterized. Results indicate that analog power supplies generally have better relative stability than digitally controlled ones, and that the high temperature coefficients of all power supplies merit efforts to stabilize them.

  9. Model for optimization of plant investments in combined power and heat production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, E.; Sinisalo, A.; Koskelainen, L.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for optimal dimensioning and timing the investments of power and heat production system in a community. The required electric power may be purchased by different production systems, such as: thermal power plants, gas turbines, diesel plants, etc. or by delivering all or part of it from a national power company. Also the required heat may be produced in many different ways in single-purpose or combined plants. The model assumes the extent of the heating system fixed, and it is not optimized. It is assumed that the same company is responsible for supplying both the power and heat for the community. It's aim is to allocate the existing capital in an optimal way, and the model may be used for facilitating the decision in such questions as: what kind of production capacity should be purchased in future; how high should the heat and power capacities be; and when should this additional capacity be available. The report also reviews the methods for forecasting the demand of power and heat and their fluctuation during the planning period. The solution of this large-scale non-linear optimization problem is searched via successive linearizations by using the Method of Approximate Programming (MAP). It was found that the solution method is very suitable for this kind of multivariable problems. The computing times with the Functional Mathematical Programmin System (FMPS) in Univac 1108 computer were quite reasonable.

  10. Fusion blankets for high efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    Definitions are given of 10 generic blanket types and the specific blanket chosen to be analyzed in detail from each of the 10 types. Dimensions, compositions, energy depositions and breeding ratios (where applicable) are presented for each of the 10 designs. Ultimately, based largely on neutronics and thermal hyraulics results, breeding an nonbreeding blanket options are selected for further design analysis and integration with a suitable power conversion subsystem

  11. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa

    2015-05-01

    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Effects of lignocellulosic composition and microwave power level on the gaseous product of microwave pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural residues are abundant resources to produce renewable energy and valuable chemicals. This study focused on the effects of lignocellulosic composition and microwave power level on the gaseous product of microwave pyrolysis of agricultural residues. When agricultural residues were under microwave radiation within 10 min, the maximum temperatures of approximately 320, 420, and 530 °C were achieved at the microwave power levels of 300, 400, and 500 W, respectively. Gas yield increased with increasing microwave power level, whereas solid and liquid yields decreased. Besides, gaseous products with higher H 2 content and higher calorific values can be obtained at higher microwave power levels. In addition to microwave power level, lignocellulosic composition was also an important factor. H 2 and CO 2 yields increased with increasing hemicellulose content, whereas CH 4 and CO yields increased with increasing cellulose content. Four empirical equations were derived to present the contributions of lignocellulosic materials to the yields of gaseous components. - Highlights: • About 530 °C was reached within 10 min at a microwave power level of 500 W. • Gas yield increased with increasing microwave power level. • A high correlation between hemicellulose content and either H 2 or CO 2 yield. • A high correlation between cellulose content and either CH 4 or CO yield. • Empirical equations depict contribution of lignocellulosic content to gas yield

  13. A Dynamic Programming based method for optimizing power system restoration with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Li, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    and relatively low cost. Thus, many countries are increasing the wind power penetration in their power system step by step, such as Denmark, Spain and Germany. The incremental wind power penetration brings a lot of new issues in operation and programming. The power system sometimes will operate close to its...... stable limits. Once the blackout happens, a well-designed restoration strategy is significant. This paper focuses on how to ameliorate the power system restoration procedures to adapt the high wind power penetration and how to take full advantages of the wind power plants during the restoration....... In this paper, the possibility to exploit the stochastic wind power during restoration was discussed, and a Dynamic Programming (DP) method was proposed to make wind power contribute in the restoration rationally as far as possible. In this paper, the method is tested and verified by a modified IEEE 30 Buses...

  14. High-frequency high-voltage high-power DC-to-DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.; Owen, H. A.; Wilson, P. M.

    1982-09-01

    A simple analysis of the current and voltage waveshapes associated with the power transistor and the power diode in an example current-or-voltage step-up (buck-boost) converter is presented. The purpose of the analysis is to provide an overview of the problems and design trade-offs which must be addressed as high-power high-voltage converters are operated at switching frequencies in the range of 100 kHz and beyond. Although the analysis focuses on the current-or-voltage step-up converter as the vehicle for discussion, the basic principles presented are applicable to other converter topologies as well.

  15. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  16. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  17. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  18. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  19. The full costs of thermal power production in Eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venema, H.D.; Barg, S.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the public health and global warming costs associated with generating electricity with fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. A Full Cost Accounting approach was used to determine the costs for Eastern Canada. The electricity sector is chosen because it is a large emitter of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The sector it will undergo potentially significant structural changes as Canada complies with the Kyoto Protocol. Alternative investments in nonpolluting sources of electricity should include analysis of full costs. Two types of factors are evaluated in this study: the public health costs caused by emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in Eastern Canada, and the marginal climate change damages caused by the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) in Eastern Canada. The major contribution of this study is the application of the impact-pathway approach to power sector emissions. Recent Canadian studies have reported either the pollutant emission rates for different power generation technologies and fuels, or the health costs of ambient air pollution not specifically attributable to the power sector. This study isolates the component of air pollution attributable to the power sector and analyses its geographic distribution. It was concluded that coal-fired generation should be closely monitored because the externalities burden is the same magnitude as the marginal production cost. 77 refs., 20 tabs., 21 figs

  20. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvall, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  1. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  2. Possibilities and future of wind power production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, E.; Tammelin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The article was prepared for two presentations for Finnish MPs late autumn 1996 in connection of the handling of new energy taxation in Finland. The governmental proposal was going to favour the use of coal and unfavour the use of renewable energy sources. The total amount of installed wind power in Finland (7 MW) was compared to some other European countries. Anyhow it is well known that the wind potential in Finland due to its long coast line, large archipelago and great number of arctic mountains, all with very good wind climate, offers a great opportunity for effective exploitation of wind energy. The price of wind energy in Finland is 30 p/kWh (about 0,05 ECU) and it is estimated that with bigger power plan units it could be 20 p/kWh. Different ways to support wind energy production was presented with examples from Germany, Denmark and Sweden. (orig.) (8 refs.)

  3. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  4. Influence of pressure and humidity on ethanol distillery power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumalacarregui de Cardenas, Lourdes; Perez Ones, Osney; Rodriguez Ramos, Pedro; Lombardi, Geraldo

    2011-01-01

    A distillery for the Generation of Renewable Energy Integrated to Food Production (GERIPA), that produces 125 000 L/day of ethanol, presents advantages in comparison with the traditional distilleries. In this paper the available thermal energy in sugar cane and sorghum, bagasse and straw, and also in biogas are calculated. This energy produces vapor for the process and electricity, using a boiler with 88 % of efficiency and a two stages with intermediate extraction turbine. The dependence of electric power surplus with vapor pressure is evaluated, finding that between 60 and 100 MPa, the electric power surplus reaches 7.15 to 7.82 MW. This electricity can be send to the electro-energetic system. The effective efficiency is calculated for 6 to 10 MPa finding values lower than 25 %. It is shown that a bagasse dryer can be used to increase the efficiency. (author)

  5. Sexual aggression when power is new: Effects of acute high power on chronically low-power individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J; Gruenfeld, Deborah H; Guillory, Lucia E

    2017-02-01

    Previous theorists have characterized sexually aggressive behavior as an expression of power, yet evidence that power causes sexual aggression is mixed. We hypothesize that power can indeed create opportunities for sexual aggression-but that it is those who chronically experience low power who will choose to exploit such opportunities. Here, low-power men placed in a high-power role showed the most hostility in response to a denied opportunity with an attractive woman (Studies 1 and 2). Chronically low-power men and women given acute power were the most likely to say they would inappropriately pursue an unrequited workplace attraction (Studies 3 and 4). Finally, having power over an attractive woman increased harassment behavior among men with chronic low, but not high, power (Study 5). People who see themselves as chronically denied power appear to have a stronger desire to feel powerful and are more likely to use sexual aggression toward that end. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Evaluation of the electric power production cost growth due to decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, G.

    1982-01-01

    The increase of production cost for electric power generated by nuclear plants, due to their decommissioning and the end of operating life, is analysed in respect to (a) waiting time from indefinite shut-down date to the start of dismantlement, (b) financing method, (c) interest and inflation rates. The analysis shows that the additional cost is always small for those solutions which have higher probability to be adopted

  7. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  8. High performance magnet power supply optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    The power supply system for the joint LBL--SLAC proposed accelerator PEP provides the opportunity to take a fresh look at the current techniques employed for controlling large amounts of dc power and the possibility of using a new one. A basic requirement of +- 100 ppM regulation is placed on the guide field of the bending magnets and quadrupoles placed around the 2200 meter circumference of the accelerator. The optimization questions to be answered by this paper are threefold: Can a firing circuit be designed to reduce the combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage combined effects of the harmonics and line voltage unbalance to less than 100 ppM in the magnet field. Given the ambiguity of the previous statement, is the addition of a transistor bank to a nominal SCR controlled system the way to go or should one opt for an SCR chopper system running at 1 KHz where multiple supplies are fed from one large dc bus and the cost--performance evaluation of the three possible systems

  9. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  10. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  11. In-volume heating using high-power laser diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisenkov, V.S.; Kiyko, V.V.; Vdovin, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    High-power lasers are useful instruments suitable for applications in various fields; the most common industrial applications include cutting and welding. We propose a new application of high-power laser diodes as in-bulk heating source for food industry. Current heating processes use surface

  12. High-power sputtering employed for film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V I

    2017-01-01

    The features of high-power magnetron sputtering employed for the films’ deposition are reviewed. The main physical phenomena accompanying high-power sputtering including ion-electron emission, gas rarefaction, ionization of sputtered atoms, self-sputtering, ion sound waves and the impact of the target heating are described. (paper)

  13. Active Snubber Circuit for High Power Inverter Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Johansen, Morten Holst

    2009-01-01

    Abstract— High power converters in the conventional 6 pulse configuration with 6 switching elements IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) are pushed to the limit of power. Especially the switching loss is high. This reduces the switching frequency due to cooling problems. Passive snubber circ...

  14. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  15. High-power microwave diplexers for advanced ECRH systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparek, W.; Petelin, M.; Erckmann, V.; Bruschi, A.; Noke, F.; Purps, F.; Hollmann, F.; Koshurinov, Y.; Lubyako, L.; Plaum, B.; Wubie, W.

    2009-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating systems, high-power multiplexers can be employed as power combiners, adjustable power dividers, fast switches to toggle the power between two launchers, as well as frequency sensitive directional couplers to combine heating and diagnostic applications on one launcher. In the paper, various diplexer designs for quasi-optical and corrugated waveguide transmission systems are discussed. Numerical calculations, low-power tests and especially high-power experiments performed at the ECRH system of W7-X are shown, which demonstrate the capability of these devices. Near term plans for applications on ASDEX Upgrade and FTU are presented. Based on the present results, options for implementation of power combiners and fast switches in the ECRH system of ITER is discussed.

  16. High Average Power Fiber Laser for Satellite Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Very high average power lasers with high electrical-top-optical (E-O) efficiency, which also support pulse position modulation (PPM) formats in the MHz-data rate...

  17. Radiation cured coatings for high performance products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, J.C.; Teesdale, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Development over the past ten years of radiation curable coating and lacquer systems and the means of curing them has led to new products in the packaging, flooring, furniture and other industries. Solventless lacquer systems formulated with acrylates and other resins enable high levels of durability, scuff resistance and gloss to be achieved. Ultra violet and electron beam radiation curing are used, the choice depending on the nature of the coating, the product and the scale of the operation. (author)

  18. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  19. Exposures resulting from nuclear power production. Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex assesses the releases of radioactive materials from the nuclear fuel cycle and their resulting dose commitments to the public. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to nuclear fuel materials, fabrication of fuel elements, production of power in the nuclear reactor, reprocessing of irradiated fuel and recycling of fissile and fertile nuclides recovered, and disposal of radioactive wastes. This Annex also reviews reactor accidents which have led to unplanned releases of activity into the environment, together with estimates of the resulting collective doses.

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  1. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  2. Materials, manufacture and testing of pressurized components of high-power steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, D.; Foehl, J.; Issler, L.; Schellhammer, W.; Sturm, D.; Kussmaul, K.; Heinrich, D.; Meyer, H.J.; Prestel, W.

    1981-01-01

    This is the first German review of materials, production and testing of pressure components of high-capacity steam power plants. The authors have been working in this field for years; their special subject has been the availability and reliability of pressure vessels, in particular in nuclear engineering. Fundamentals are presented as well as the findings obtained at the state Materials Testing Institute in Stuttgart. The material is presented in a well-structured classification; the most recent international findings, especially of the USA, are presented. This is possible due to the close cooperation between the Stuttgart institute and a number of US research institutes. The new subject of fracture mechanics is treated in some detail; its fundamentals are discussed from the American point of view while German considerations - in particular of the Reactor Safety Commission - are taken into account in the field of applications. (orig.) [de

  3. High Performance Auxiliary Power Unit Technology Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    aft bearings 1.13 P3 - Power producer CDP 1.14 DPHE - Lube pressure drop at heat exchanger 1.15 POFP - Load airflow orifice pressure 1.16 DPOFP - Load...P𔃽I -PSI G PEBL -PSIG P2 -PS.IG DPHE -PID POFP -F Iu 0. 022±_ 77. 3478 6o5. 6 4±4 ±8L-. 4852 19. 51-17.4 DPOFP -PSID Ni -,. N2-i -RPM NSATM -FPM...28. 0250 83. 3505 29. 861 1:9. 7680 PGi -PSIG PEBL -PSIG P3 -PSIG DPHE -PSID POFP -PSIG 0. 0100 77. 9199 72.4862 17. 25 ±19. 4122 1= DPOFP -PSID NI

  4. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  5. Design and development of power supplies for high power IOT based RF amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Yashwant; Kumari, S.; Ghosh, M.K.; Bera, A.; Sadhukhan, A.; Pal, S.S.; Khare, V.K.; Tiwari, T.P.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Design, development, circuit topology, function of system components and key system specifications of different power supplies for biasing electrodes of Thales Inductive Output Tube (IOT) based high power RF amplifier are presented in this paper. A high voltage power supply (-30 kV, 3.2A dc) with fast (∼microsecond) crowbar protection circuit is designed, developed and commissioned at VECC for testing the complete setup. Other power supplies for biasing grid electrode (300V, 0.5A dc) and Ion Pump (3 kV, 0.1mA dc) of IOT are also designed, developed and tested with actual load. A HV Deck (60kV Isolation) is specially designed in house to place these power supplies which are floating at 30 kV. All these power supplies are powered by an Isolation Transformer (5 kVA, 60 kV isolation) designed and developed in VECC. (author)

  6. Design of The High Efficiency Power Factor Correction Circuit for Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiye Hülya OBDAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing power factor correction circuits for switched power supplies has become important in recent years in terms of efficient use of energy. Power factor correction techniques play a significant role in high power density and energy efficiency. For these purposes, bridgeless PFC topologies and control strategies have been developed alongside basic boost PFC circuits. The power density can be increased using bridgeless structures by means of reducing losses in the circuit. This article examines bridgeless PFC structures and compares their performances in terms of losses and power factor. A semi-bridgeless PFC, which is widely used at high power levels, was analyzed and simulated. The designed circuit simulation using the current mode control method was performed in the PSIM program. A prototype of a 900 W semi-bridgeless PFC circuit was implemented and the results obtained from the circuit are presented

  7. Cascade: a high-efficiency ICF power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade attains a net power-plant efficiency of 49% and its cost is competitive with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, pressurized-water reactor, and coal-fired power plants. The Cascade reactor and blanket are made of ceramic materials and activation is 6 times less than that of the MARS Tandem Mirror Reactor operating at comparable power. Hands-on maintenance of the heat exchangers is possible one day after shutdown. Essentially all tritium is recovered in the vacuum system, with the remainder recovered from the helium power conversion loop. Tritium leakage external to the vacuum system and power conversion loop is only 0.03 Ci/d

  8. On the Ongoing Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...... in radio frequency transmission equipment helps to overcome those. However those circuits were not designed to meet the same requirements as power converters. This paper summarizes the contributions in recent years in application of very high frequency (VHF) technologies in power electronics, describes...

  9. High-power ultrasonic treatment of contaminated soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, A.F.; Gwan, P.B.; Sosa Pintos, A.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The propagation of high-power ultrasound through a liquid can initiate the phenomenon of cavitation. This occurs with the collapse of gas bubbles formed during the rarefaction phase of the ultrasonic wave either from the dissolution of air or vaporisation of the liquid. Bubble collapse can generate localised temperatures up to 5,000 K and pressures up to 1,000 atmospheres. Solid particles in slurry have been shown to act as foci for the nucleation and collapse of bubbles. Theory and experiment have confirmed that the rupture of a bubble on a solid surface generates a high speed jet directed towards the surface. In this case, the extreme conditions generated by the non-linear shock wave produced by bubble collapse are localised on the solid surface. Since Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are hydrophobic and are also readily absorbed on the surface of soil particles, the energy released by cavitation in a soil or sediment slurry is selectively directed towards them. The temperatures are sufficient to decompose these molecules. However, the extreme conditions are highly localised and the bulk solution temperature is essentially unaffected. Any decomposition products are immediately quenched and recombination reactions are avoided. Recent advances in ultrasound technology have produced commercial equipment capable of high power which has enabled us to remediate soils and sediments containing Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). With reductions greater than 80% within minutes, this technique shows great promise with advantages of on-site treatment and reduced operating and capital costs compared with conventional methods

  10. Eighth CW and High Average Power RF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the next Continuous Wave and High Average RF Power Workshop, CWRF2014, to take place at Hotel NH Trieste, Trieste, Italy from 13 to 16 May, 2014. This is the eighth in the CWRF workshop series and will be hosted by Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. (www.elettra.eu). CWRF2014 will provide an opportunity for designers and users of CW and high average power RF systems to meet and interact in a convivial environment to share experiences and ideas on applications which utilize high-power klystrons, gridded tubes, combined solid-state architectures, high-voltage power supplies, high-voltage modulators, high-power combiners, circulators, cavities, power couplers and tuners. New ideas for high-power RF system upgrades and novel ways of RF power generation and distribution will also be discussed. CWRF2014 sessions will start on Tuesday morning and will conclude on Friday lunchtime. A visit to Elettra and FERMI will be organized during the workshop. ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (OC): Al...

  11. Cigar Product Modification Among High School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J; Cofie, Leslie; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2018-02-07

    Prevalence of cigar use has been increasing among youth. Research indicates that youth are modifying cigar products either by "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) or "blunting" (removing the tobacco and supplementing or replacing with marijuana), yet little is known about youth who engage in this behavior. Thus, this study examines demographic and concurrent substance use behaviors of youth who modify cigars. Data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior survey were examined (n = 16 855). The survey collected data on demographics, cigar product use, cigar modification behaviors, and current cigarette, hookah and marijuana use. Responses to cigar product use items were used to create a composite to classify youth in one of eight unique user categories. Univariate and bivariate statistics were calculated using SPSS complex samples procedures. Overall, 15.2% reported current cigar product use, 11.0% reported current freaking, and 18.5% reported current blunt use; taken together, 25.3% of respondents reported any current use of a cigar product. When examined by user category, of those who endorsed any cigar product use, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars use only was most endorsed (26.3%), followed by Blunt only (25.2%) and all three (ie, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars, freaking, and blunting; 17.4%). A substantial proportion of high school youth who report using cigar products are modifying them in some way, with nearly half freaking and nearly two-thirds blunting. Given the FDA Center for Tobacco products recent extension of its regulatory authority to include cigar products, it is imperative to understand more about the prevalence of and reasons for cigar modification behaviors. Although the FDA has recently enacted regulatory authority over cigar products, little is known about cigar product modification. This is the first study to concurrently examine two unique cigar modification behaviors, "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) and

  12. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  13. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingru

    2013-05-01

    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  14. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world`s energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world's energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat

  16. The research on high power transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wuling; Li Yubin; Peng Shuwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the transducer structure used double PWM mode, the control system design of hardware and software. The transducer has been applied in factory. From the real experiment, it shows that the system has a high reliability. (authors)

  17. A high-power target experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, H G; Ludewig, H; Palmer, Robert; Samulyak, V; Simos, N; Tsang, Thomas; Bradshaw, T W; Drumm, Paul V; Edgecock, T R; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Bennett, Roger; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, H; Haug, F; Lettry, Jacques; Hayato, Y; Yoshimura, Koji; Gabriel, Tony A; Graves, Van; Spampinato, P; Haines, John; McDonald, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed as a proof-of-principle test for a target system capable of converting a 4 MW proton beam into a high-intensity muon beam suitable for incorporation into either a neutrino factory complex or a muon collider. The target system is based on exposing a free mercury jet to an intense proton beam in the presence of a high strength solenoidal field.

  18. High-power and highly reliable 638-nm band BA-LD for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Takehiro; Kuramoto, Kyosuke; Abe, Shinji; Kusunoki, Masatsugu; Miyashita, Motoharu; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2018-02-01

    High-power laser diodes (LDs) are strongly demanded as light sources of display applications. In multiple spatial light modulator-type projectors or liquid crystal displays, the light source LDs are operated under CW condition. The high-power 638-nm band broad-area LD for CW operation was newly developed. The LD consisted of two stripes with each width of 75 μm to reduce both an optical power density at a front facet and a threshold current. The newly improved epitaxial technology was also applied to the LD to suppress an electron overflow from an active layer. The LD showed superior output characteristics, such as output of 1.77 W at case temperature of 55 °C with wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 23%, which was improved by 40% compared with the current product. The peak WPE at 25 °C reached 40.6% under the output power of 2.37 W, CW, world highest.

  19. Stabilized High Power Laser for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willke, B; Danzmann, K; Fallnich, C; Frede, M; Heurs, M; King, P; Kracht, D; Kwee, P; Savage, R; Seifert, F; Wilhelm, R

    2006-01-01

    Second generation gravitational wave detectors require high power lasers with several 100W of output power and with very low temporal and spatial fluctuations. In this paper we discuss possible setups to achieve high laser power and describe a 200W prestabilized laser system (PSL). The PSL noise requirements for advanced gravitational wave detectors will be discussed in general and the stabilization scheme proposed for the Advanced LIGO PSL will be described. Special emphasis will be given to the most demanding power stabilization requirements and new results (RIN ≤ 4x10 -9 /√Hz) will be presented

  20. Power Constrained High-Level Synthesis of Battery Powered Digital Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Madsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a high-level synthesis algorithm solving the combined scheduling, allocation and binding problem minimizing area under both latency and maximum power per clock-cycle constraints. Our approach eliminates the large power spikes, resulting in an increased battery lifetime, a property...... of utmost importance for battery powered embedded systems. Our approach extends the partial-clique partitioning algorithm by introducing power awareness through a heuristic algorithm which bounds the design space to those of power feasible schedules. We have applied our algorithm on a set of dataflow graphs...

  1. Optimal construction and combined wind and diesel power production in a regional power purchase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautala, P.; Antila, H.; Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Heikkilae, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Automation and Control Inst.

    1998-12-31

    A weak electricity transmission and distribution network and a wind generator were modelled by a non-linear dynamic model. Energy purchase of a small utility was modelled as a linear mixed integer optimisation problem. The dynamic model was used to simulate the effects of distance between the wind generator and a regional power grid and the effects of changes in the production of the wind generator. The optimisation model was used to investigate the effect of the combined diesel and wind production. In this case the results show that if the distance between the generator and the network grid is more than 70 km, then voltage fluctuations exceed acceptable levels. The optimisation provides the value of the combined diesel and wind production. (orig.)

  2. Experiments on high power EB evaporation of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaswamy, E.; Bhardwaj, R.L.; Ram Gopal; Ray, A.K.; Kulgod, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The versatility of electron beam evaporation makes the deposition of many new and unusual materials possible. This technique offers freedom from contamination and precise control. High power electron guns are especially used for obtaining high evaporation rates for large area coatings. This paper deals with the coating experiments carried out on an indigenously developed high power strip electron gun with niobium as evaporant at 40 kW on S.S. substrate. The practical problems of conditioning the gun and venting the vacuum system after the high power operation are also discussed. The coating rate was calculated by weight difference method

  3. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  5. Application of parallel connected power-MOSFET elements to high current d.c. power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Tatsuya; Shioyama, Masanori; Shimada, Katsuhiro; Takaku, Taku; Neumeyer, Charles; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    2001-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST), which has single turn toroidal field coil, requires the extremely high d.c. current like as 20 MA to energize the coil. Considering the ratings of such extremely high current and low voltage, power-MOSFET element is employed as the switching device for the a.c./d.c. converter of power supply. One of the advantages of power-MOSFET element is low on-state resistance, which is to meet the high current and low voltage operation. Recently, the capacity of power-MOSFET element has been increased and its on-state resistance has been decreased, so that the possibility of construction of high current and low voltage a.c./d.c. converter with parallel connected power-MOSFET elements has been growing. With the aim of developing the high current d.c. power supply using power-MOSFET, the basic characteristics of parallel operation with power-MOSFET elements are experimentally investigated. And, the synchronous rectifier type and the bi-directional self commutated type a.c./d.c. converters using parallel connected power-MOSFET elements are proposed

  6. Simulation of Oscillations in High Power Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, K

    2003-01-01

    Spurious oscillations can seriously limit a klystron's performance from reaching its design specifications. These are modes with frequencies different from the drive frequency, and have been found to be localized in various regions of the tube. If left unsuppressed, such oscillations can be driven to large amplitudes by the beam. As a result, the main output signal may suffer from amplitude and phase instabilities which lead to pulse shortening or reduction in power generation efficiency, as observed during the testing of the first 150MW S-band klystron, which was designed and built at SLAC as a part of an international collaboration with DESY. We present efficient methods to identify suspicious modes and then test their possibility of oscillation. In difference to [3], where each beam-loaded quality-factor Qbl was calculated by time-consuming PIC simulations, now only tracking-simulations with much reduced cpu-time and less sensitivity against noise are applied. This enables the determination of Qbl for larg...

  7. High cost of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, C.

    1978-01-01

    Retroactive safety standards were found to account for over half the costs of a nuclear power plant and point up the need for an effective cost-benefit analysis of changes made by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission after construction has started. The author compared the Davis-Besse Unit No. 1 construction-cost estimates with the final-cost increases during a rate-case investigation in Ohio. He presents data furnished for ten of the largest construction contracts to illustrate the cost increases involving fixed hardware and intensive labor. The situation was found to repeat with other utilities across the country even though safeguards against irresponsible low bidding were introduced. Low bidding was found to continue, encouraged by the need for retrofitting to meet regulation changes. The average cost per kilowatt of major light-water reactors is shown to have increased from $171 in 1970 to $555 in 1977, while construction duration increased from 43.4 to 95.6 months during the same period

  8. Wind Turbine and Power Production, the Danish Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjems, Joergen; Oester, Flemming

    2007-07-01

    The progress within the Danish wind energy sector in Denmark is reviewed. Excluding minor intermission periods the R and D development of electricity producing wind turbines has taken place continuously for more than 100 years in Denmark. After the first oil crisis in 1973 this development accelerated and has led to a remarkable scientific and commercial success. For a few years turbines in Denmark have been producing electricity corresponding to almost 20% of the Danish demand. Danish manufacturers produce components and export turbines in large quantities, amounting in 2005 to a total capacity of about 3.8 GW which is about one third of the world market. Important present day R&D topics are offshore technology and interaction between turbines and the grid, including the ability of turbines to contribute to regulation and stabilization of the power system. These questions are crucial when handling fluctuating electricity production in networks with large fractions of wind energy and CHP power production. In the future, a main point may be storage of wind energy, e.g. in the form of hydrogen produced by fuel cells. (auth)

  9. Aluminium alloys welding with high-power Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Orza, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminium alloys have good mechanical properties (high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance) and good workability. their applications are growing up, specially in the transportation industry. Weldability is however poorer than in other materials; recent advances in high power YAG laser are the key to obtain good appearance welds and higher penetration, at industrial production rates. Results of the combination of high power YAG beams with small fiber diameters and specific filler wires are presented. It is also characterized the air bone particulate material, by-product of the laser process: emission rates, size distribution and chemical composition are given for several aluminium alloys. (Author) 6 refs

  10. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  11. Rare earth magnets with high energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, S.; Kaneko, Y.

    1998-01-01

    High energy-products exceeding 430 kj/m 3 (54 MGOe) have been realized on anisotropic permanent magnets based on the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, recently. To produce extremely high-energy-product permanent magnets, special processes have been designed in order to realize the minimum oxygen content, the maximum volume fraction of the hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, the highest orientation of the easy axis of magnetization, and small and homogeneous crystalline grain sizes in the finished magnets. For the powder metallurgical process, special techniques such as low-oxygen fine powder processing and magnetic alignment using pulsed magnetic fields have been developed. It has been shown that a good control of both homogeneity of distribution of constituent phases and the narrowness of the size distribution in the starting powder have great influences on the magnetic energy products. It is emphasized that the recently developed techniques are applicable in a large-scale production, meaning that extremely high-energy-product magnets are available on commercial basis. (orig.)

  12. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  13. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  14. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehle, M [SOPRA, 92 - Bois-Colombes (France)

    1995-03-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at {lambda} = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : (a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. (b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. (c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. (d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.).

  15. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  16. Analysis of chaos in high-dimensional wind power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hongli; Fan, Wenhui; Ma, Ping

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the chaos of a high-dimensional wind power system is performed in this study. A high-dimensional wind power system is more complex than most power systems. An 11-dimensional wind power system proposed by Huang, which has not been analyzed in previous studies, is investigated. When the systems are affected by external disturbances including single parameter and periodic disturbance, or its parameters changed, chaotic dynamics of the wind power system is analyzed and chaotic parameters ranges are obtained. Chaos existence is confirmed by calculation and analysis of all state variables' Lyapunov exponents and the state variable sequence diagram. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the wind power system chaos will occur when parameter variations and external disturbances change to a certain degree.

  17. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  18. Reverse electrodialysis heat engine for sustainable power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburini, A.; Tedesco, M.; Cipollina, A.; Micale, G.; Ciofalo, M.; Papapetrou, M.; Van Baak, W.; Piacentino, A.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: State of the art technologies for the conversion of heat into power. Grey circles refer to technologies at very early stage of development and non-available at industrial level. The Carnot efficiency (on the secondary horizontal axis) is evaluated assuming a cold sink temperature of 25 °C. SRC-hot gases: Steam Rankine Cycle integrated with gas turbine/other topping cycles; SRC-fuel: Steam Rankine Cycle directly fuelled by oil, coal or other fuels; KC: Kalina Cycle; ORC: Organic Rankine Cycle; TEG: Thermoelectric Generation; PEPG: Piezoelectric Power Generation with waste heat-powered expansion/compression cycle; OHE: Osmotic Heat Engine; REDHE, Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (this paper). Display Omitted -- Highlights: •For the first time, the potential of Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine is assessed. •An overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented. •Performance of the RED unit fed by different salty solutions was suitably optimized. •Three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. •Exergetic efficiency of about 85% could be achieved in the foreseen future. -- Abstract: Reverse Electrodialysis Heat Engine (REDHE) is a promising technology to convert waste heat at temperatures lower than 100 °C into electric power. In the present work an overview of the possible regeneration methods is presented and the technological challenges for the development of the RED Heat Engine (REDHE) are identified. The potential of this power production cycle was investigated through a simplified mathematical model. In the first part of the work, several salts were singularly modelled as possible solutes in aqueous solutions feeding the RED unit and the corresponding optimal conditions were recognized via an optimization study. In the second part, three different RED Heat Engine scenarios were studied. Results show that power densities much higher than those relevant to NaCl-water solutions can be obtained by using different

  19. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  20. Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations

  1. Prospects of the high power iodine laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohla, K.; Brederlow, G.; Fill, E.; Volk, R.; Witte, K.J.

    1976-09-01

    The characteristic properties of the iodine laser (gaseous laser substance, photolytic pump mechanism, variable stimulated emission cross-section) made it possible in a relatively short time to generate ns pulses in the kJ range. The Asterix II and III iodine laser systems at IPP are working successfully, and the question arises what prospects are afforded for further iodine laser development. What are the problems that have to be clarified in order to build 10 or 100 kJ systems for laser fusion experiments. According to our experience these can be classified as follows: 1) Short pulse generation and contrast ratio, 2) pulse shaping in a high-gain laser and amplification in the coherent time range, 3) non-linear properties at high intensities, 4) scalable pumping schemes and chemical processes. (orig./WL) [de

  2. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  3. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. High-gradient electron accelerator powered by a relativisitic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Boyd, J.K.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Haimson, J.; Hoag, H.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Houck, T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Mecklenburg, B.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Ryne, R.D.; Sessler, A.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have used relativistic klystron technology to extract 290 MW of peak power at 11.4 GHz from an induction linac beam, and to power a short 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. We have measured rf phase stability, field emission, and the momentum spectrum of an accelerated electron beam. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80 MW of relativistic klystron power

  5. Pulsed Power Applications in High Intensity Proton Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wu; Ducimetière, Laurent; Fowler, Tony; Kawakubo, Tadamichi; Mertens, Volker; Sandberg, Jon; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa

    2005-01-01

    The pulsed power technology has been applied in particle accelerators and storage rings for over four decades. It is most commonly used in injection, extraction, beam manipulation, source, and focusing systems. These systems belong to the class of repetitive pulsed power. In this presentation, we review and discuss the history, present status, and future challenge of pulsed power applications in high intensity proton accelerators and storage rings.

  6. ACIGA's high optical power test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, L [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Aoun, M [Computer and Information Science, Edith Cowan University, Perth (Australia); Barriga, P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)] [and others

    2004-03-07

    Advanced laser interferometer detectors utilizing more than 100 W of laser power and with {approx}10{sup 6} W circulating laser power present many technological problems. The Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) is developing a high power research facility in Gingin, north of Perth, Western Australia, which will test techniques for the next generation interferometers. In particular it will test thermal lensing compensation and control strategies for optical cavities in which optical spring effects and parametric instabilities may present major difficulties.

  7. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. This is followed by treatment of the technical and economic problems arising in three phase-extra high voltage transmission. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating, and reactive power and stability problems.

  8. Technical and economic considerations of extra high voltage power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnt, R

    1966-09-01

    The reasons for the employment of higher transmission voltages are listed and the points decisive for the selection of three phase ac or dc systems are reviewed. The technical and economic problems arising in three phase extra high voltage transmission are discussed. These include selection of voltage, economical design of power lines, insulation problems, power supply dependability, equipment rating and reactive power and stability problems.

  9. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 0930-7516 Grant - others:Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  10. Mechanical properties of concrete for power reactor at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kiyotaka; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Nakano, Masayuki

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete for power reactor at high temperature. This paper presents the creep behavior of concrete at high temperature and the cause by which a specified aggregate is broken at a specified high temperature. The creep coefficient at high temperature is smaller than that at ordinary temperature. (author)

  11. Topologically protected loop flows in high voltage AC power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, T; Delabays, R; Jacquod, Ph; Adagideli, I

    2016-01-01

    Geographical features such as mountain ranges or big lakes and inland seas often result in large closed loops in high voltage AC power grids. Sizable circulating power flows have been recorded around such loops, which take up transmission line capacity and dissipate but do not deliver electric power. Power flows in high voltage AC transmission grids are dominantly governed by voltage angle differences between connected buses, much in the same way as Josephson currents depend on phase differences between tunnel-coupled superconductors. From this previously overlooked similarity we argue here that circulating power flows in AC power grids are analogous to supercurrents flowing in superconducting rings and in rings of Josephson junctions. We investigate how circulating power flows can be created and how they behave in the presence of ohmic dissipation. We show how changing operating conditions may generate them, how significantly more power is ohmically dissipated in their presence and how they are topologically protected, even in the presence of dissipation, so that they persist when operating conditions are returned to their original values. We identify three mechanisms for creating circulating power flows, (i) by loss of stability of the equilibrium state carrying no circulating loop flow, (ii) by tripping of a line traversing a large loop in the network and (iii) by reclosing a loop that tripped or was open earlier. Because voltages are uniquely defined, circulating power flows can take on only discrete values, much in the same way as circulation around vortices is quantized in superfluids. (paper)

  12. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS IN CREATING FUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sergienko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a problem of functional products creation for consumers feeling need in proteins, irreplaceable amino acids, vitamins, mineral substances, food fibers, polynonsaturated fat acids. One of the possible ways to improve human nutrition is using non-traditional cultures for bread making technology containing significant amounts of fibrous substances, easily digestible protein, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. Taking into account the Nutrition Science requirements an expediency of the most full functional ingredients complex entering into bakery products prescription structure is proved. Replacement of the first grade wheat flour by the offered prescription composition allows to slow down a bread aging, to increase periods of products storage and to improve their physical and chemical indicators on the specific volume and porosity. The bakery products "Svyatogor" at the use of 100 g of a product allow to cover daily need in protein for 38,9%, in carbohydrates – for 3,4%, fat – for 9,2%. The power value of "Svyatogor" is 897 kJ, in control 959. Biological value, % 82,7 against 53,1 in control. Thanks to it the digestibility of bread protein (in vitro method of “Svyatogor” is higher. Thanks to unique properties of the compounding components “Svyatogor” gets functional properties by full-fledged protein increasing and its best comprehensibility (in vitro, advanced structure according to the content of vitamins, mineral substances, their balanced structure and can be recommended for mass consumption and prevention of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, anemia, for children food, pregnant women and the feeding women.

  13. A battery-powered high-current power supply for superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Wake, M; Suda, K

    2002-01-01

    Since superconductors do not require voltages, a high-current power supply could run with low power if the voltage is sufficiently reduced. Even a battery-powered power supply could give as much as 2,000A for a superconductor. To demonstrate this hypothesis, a battery-powered 2,000A power supply was constructed. It uses an IGBT chopper and Schottky diode together with a specially arranged transformer to produce a high current with low voltage. Testing of 2,000A operation was performed for about 1.5 hr using 10 car batteries. Charging time for this operation was 8 hr. Ramping control was smooth and caused no trouble. Although the IGBT frequency ripple of 16.6 kHz was easily removed using a passive filter, spike noise remained in the output voltage. This ripple did not cause any trouble in operating a pancake-type inductive superconducting load. (author)

  14. Facing the challenges of distribution systems operation with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    power flow in 60kV distribution networks through controlling the ability of wind power plants (WPPs) to generate or absorb reactive power. This paper aims to understand the characteristics of a distribution network with high penetration of distributed generation. A detailed analysis of the active...... and reactive power flows in a real distribution network under different wind and load conditions based on actual measurements is performed in order to understand the correlation between the consumption, wind power production, and the network losses. Conclusive remarks are presented, briefly expressing......This paper addresses the challenges associated with the operation of a distribution system with high penetration of wind power. The paper presents some preliminary investigations of an ongoing Danish research work, which has as main objective to reduce the network losses by optimizing the reactive...

  15. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  16. Design methods for high temperature power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper - reviews of design methods and design criteria currently in use for both nuclear and fossil fuelled power plant; examples chosen are (a) BS 1113, representative of design codes employed for power station boiler plant; (b) ASME Code Case N47, which is being developed for high temperature nuclear reactors, especially the liquid metal fast breeder reactor); design codes for power station boilers; Code Case N47 (design in the absence of thermal shock and thermal fatigue; design against cyclic loading at high temperature; further research in support of high temperature design methods and criteria for LMFBRs); concluding remarks. (U.K.)

  17. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  18. Development of computer-aided design and production system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masanori

    1983-01-01

    The technically required matters related to the design and production of nuclear power stations tended to increase from the viewpoint of the safety and reliability, and it is indispensable to cope with such technically required matters skillfully for the rationalization of the design and production and for the construction of highly reliable plants. Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., has developed the computer-aided design data information and engineering system which performs dialogue type design and drawing, and as the result, the design-production consistent system is developed to do stress analysis, production design, production management and the output of data for numerically controlled machine tools consistently. In this paper, mainly the consistent system in the field of plant design centering around piping and also the computer system for the design of vessels and others are outlined. The features of the design works for nuclear power plants, the rationalization of the design and production management of piping and vessels, and the application of the CAD system to other general equipment and improvement works are reported. This system is the powerful means to meet the requirement of heightening quality and reducing cost. (Kako, I.)

  19. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  20. High power density reactors based on direct cooled particle beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. R.; Horn, F. L.

    Reactors based on direct cooled High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) type particle fuel are described. The small diameter particle fuel is packed between concentric porous cylinders to make annular fuel elements, with the inlet coolant gas flowing inwards. Hot exit gas flows out along the central channel of each element. Because of the very large heat transfer area in the packed beds, power densities in particle bed reactors (PBRs) are extremely high resulting in compact, lightweight systems. Coolant exit temperatures are high, because of the ceramic fuel temperature capabilities, and the reactors can be ramped to full power and temperature very rapidly. PBR systems can generate very high burst power levels using open cycle hydrogen coolant, or high continuous powers using closed cycle helium coolant. PBR technology is described and development requirements assessed.