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Sample records for high power lithium-ion

  1. Abuse behavior of high-power, lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, R.; Franklin, J.

    Published accounts of abuse testing of lithium-ion cells and components are summarized, including modeling work. From this summary, a set of exothermic reactions is selected with corresponding estimates of heats of reaction. Using this set of reactions, along with estimated kinetic parameters and designs for high-rate batteries, models for the abuse behavior (oven, short-circuit, overcharge, nail, crush) are developed. Finally, the models are used to determine that fluorinated binder plays a relatively unimportant role in thermal runaway.

  2. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jinguang; Li Sen

    2014-01-01

    A single lithium-ion battery protection circuit with high reliability and low power consumption is proposed. The protection circuit has high reliability because the voltage and current of the battery are controlled in a safe range. The protection circuit can immediately activate a protective function when the voltage and current of the battery are beyond the safe range. In order to reduce the circuit's power consumption, a sleep state control circuit is developed. Additionally, the output frequency of the ring oscillation can be adjusted continuously and precisely by the charging capacitors and the constant-current source. The proposed protection circuit is fabricated in a 0.5 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured reference voltage is 1.19 V, the overvoltage is 4.2 V and the undervoltage is 2.2 V. The total power is about 9 μW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Diagnostic examination of thermally abused high-power lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Roth, E. P.; Kostecki, R.; McCarthy, K.; MacLaren, S.; Doughty, D. H.

    The inherent thermal instability of lithium-ion cells is a significant impediment to their widespread commercialization for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. Cells containing conventional organic electrolyte-based chemistries are prone to thermal runaway at temperatures around 180 °C. We conducted accelerating rate calorimetry measurements on high-power 18650-type lithium-ion cells in an effort to decipher the sequence of events leading to thermal runaway. In addition, electrode and separator samples harvested from a cell that was heated to 150 °C then air-quenched to room temperature were examined by microscopy, spectroscopy, and diffraction techniques. Self-heating of the cell began at 84 °C. The gases generated in the cell included CO 2 and CO, and smaller quantities of H 2, C 2H 4, CH 4, and C 2H 6. The main changes on cell heating to 150 °C were observed on the anode surface, which was covered by a thick layer of surface deposits that included LiF and inorganic and organo-phosphate compounds. The sources of gas generation and the mechanisms leading to the formation of compounds observed on the electrode surfaces are discussed.

  5. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  6. Thermal management for high power lithium-ion battery by minichannel aluminum tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Chuanjin; Xu, Jian; Qiao, Yu; Ma, Yanbao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new design of minichannel cooling is developed for battery thermal management system. • Parametric studies of minichannel cooling for a cell are conducted at different discharge rates. • Minichannel cooling can maintain almost uniform temperature (T_d_i_f_f < 1 °C). • Pumping power assumption is only about 5 milliwatt. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used for battery electric (all-electric) vehicles (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) due to their high energy and power density. An battery thermal management system (BTMS) is crucial for the performance, lifetime, and safety of lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, a novel design of BTMS based on aluminum minichannel tubes is developed and applied on a single prismatic Li-ion cell under different discharge rates. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the performance of the BTMS using different flow rates and configurations. With minichannel cooling, the maximum cell temperature at a discharge rate of 1C is less than 27.8 °C, and the temperature difference across the cell is less than 0.80 °C using flow rate at 0.20 L/min, at the expense of 8.69e-6 W pumping power. At higher discharge rates, e.g., 1.5C and 2C, higher flow rates are required to maintain the same temperature rise and temperature difference. The flow rate needed is 0.8 L/min for 1.5C and 2.0 L/min for 2C, while the required pumping power is 4.23e-4 W and 5.27e-3 W, respectively. The uniform temperature distribution (<1 °C) inside the single cell and efficient pumping power demonstrate that the minichannel cooling system provides a promising solution for the BTMS.

  7. Phosphorus-doped silicon nanorod anodes for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-phosphorus-doped silicon anodes were fabricated on CuO nanorods for application in high power lithium-ion batteries. Since the conductivity of lithiated CuO is significantly better than that of CuO, after the first discharge, the voltage cut-off window was then set to the range covering only the discharge–charge range of Si. Thus, the CuO core was in situ lithiated and acts merely as the electronic conductor in the following cycles. The Si anode presented herein exhibited a capacity of 990 mAh/g at the rate of 9 A/g after 100 cycles. The anode also presented a stable rate performance even at a current density as high as 20 A/g.

  8. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostecki, R.; Zhang, X.; Ross Jr., P.N.; Kong, F.; Sloop, S.; Kerr, J.B.; Striebel, K.; Cairns, E.; McLarnon, F.

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program seeks to aid the development of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Nine 18650-size ATD baseline cells were tested under a variety of conditions. The cells consisted of a carbon anode, LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 cathode and DEC-EC-LiPF 6 electrolyte, and they were engineered for high-power applications. Selected instrumental techniques such as synchrotron IR microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc. were used to characterize the anode, cathode, current collectors and electrolyte from these cells. The goal was to identify detrimental processes which lead to battery failure under a high-current cycling regime as well as during storage at elevated temperatures. The diagnostic results suggest that the following factors contribute to the cell power loss: (a) SEI deterioration and non-uniformity on the anode, (b) morphology changes, increase of impedance and phase separation on the cathode, (c) pitting corrosion on the cathode Al current collector, and (d) decomposition of the LiPF 6 salt in the electrolyte at elevated temperature

  9. Robust, High Capacity, High Power Lithium Ion Batteries for Space Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium ion battery technology provides the highest energy density of all rechargeable battery technologies available today. However, the majority of the research...

  10. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane composite nanofibrous separator with electrochemical performance for high power lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainab, Ghazala [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Xianfeng, E-mail: wxf@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Yu, Jianyong [Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Zhai, Yunyun; Ahmed Babar, Aijaz; Xiao, Ke [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Bin, E-mail: binding@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of High Performance Fibers & Products, Ministry of Education, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Nanofibers Research Center, Modern Textile Institute, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for high performance require separators with auspicious reliability and safety. Keeping LIBs reliability and safety in view, microporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polyurethane (PU) nonwoven composite separator have been developed by electrospinning technique. The physical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the PAN/PU separator were characterized. Improved ionic conductivity up to 2.07 S cm{sup −1}, high mechanical strength (10.38 MPa) and good anodic stability up to 5.10 V are key outcomes of resultant membranes. Additionally, high thermal stability displaying only 4% dimensional change after 0.5 h long exposure to 170 °C in an oven, which could be valuable addition towards the safety of LIBs. Comparing to commercialized polypropylene based separators, resulting membranes offered improved internal short-circuit protection function, offering better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention under same observation conditions. These fascinating characteristics endow these renewable composite nonwovens as promising separators for high power LIBs battery. - Highlights: • The PAN/PU based separators were prepared by multi-needle electrospinning technique. • The electrospun separators displays good mechanical properties and thermal stability. • These separators exhibit good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection. • Nanofibrous composite nonwoven possesses stable cyclic performance which give rise to acceptable battery performances.

  11. The characterization of secondary lithium-ion battery degradation when operating complex, ultra-high power pulsed loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek N.

    The US Navy is actively developing all electric fleets, raising serious questions about what is required of onboard power supplies in order to properly power the ship's electrical systems. This is especially relevant when choosing a viable power source to drive high power propulsion and electric weapon systems in addition to the conventional loads deployed aboard these types of vessels. Especially when high pulsed power loads are supplied, the issue of maintaining power quality becomes important and increasingly complex. Conventionally, a vessel's electrical power is generated using gas turbine or diesel driven motor-generator sets that are very inefficient when they are used outside of their most efficient load condition. What this means is that if the generator is not being utilized continuously at its most efficient load capacity, the quality of the output power may also be effected and fall outside of the acceptable power quality limits imposed through military standards. As a solution to this potential problem, the Navy has proposed using electrochemical storage devices since they are able to buffer conventional generators when the load is operating below the generator's most efficient power level or able to efficiently augment a generator when the load is operating in excess of the generator's most efficient power rating. Specifically, the US Navy is interested in using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium-ion batteries within an intelligently controlled energy storage module that could act as either a prime power supply for on-board pulsed power systems or as a backup generator to other shipboard power systems. Due to the unique load profile of high-rate pulsed power systems, the implementation of lithium-ion batteries within these complex systems requires them to be operated at very high rates and the effects these things have on cell degradation has been an area of focus. There is very little published research into the effects that high power transient

  12. High-capacity nanocarbon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haitao; Sun, Xianzhong; Zhang, Xiong; Lin, He; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocarbon anodes in lithium-ion batteries deliver a high capacity of ∼1100 mA h g −1 . • The nanocarbon anodes exhibit excellent cyclic stability. • A novel structure of carbon materials, hollow carbon nanoboxes, has potential application in lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: High energy and power density of secondary cells like lithium-ion batteries become much more important in today’s society. However, lithium-ion battery anodes based on graphite material have theoretical capacity of 372 mA h g −1 and low charging-discharging rate. Here, we report that nanocarbons including mesoporous graphene (MPG), carbon tubular nanostructures (CTN), and hollow carbon nanoboxes (HCB) are good candidate for lithium-ion battery anodes. The nanocarbon anodes have high capacity of ∼1100, ∼600, and ∼500 mA h g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB, respectively. The capacity of 181, 141, and 139 mA h g −1 at 4 A g −1 for MPG, CTN, and HCB anodes is retained. Besides, nanocarbon anodes show high cycling stability during 1000 cycles, indicating formation of a passivating layer—solid electrolyte interphase, which support long-term cycling. Nanocarbons, constructed with graphene layers which fulfill lithiation/delithiation process, high ratio of graphite edge structure, and high surface area which facilitates capacitive behavior, deliver high capacity and improved rate-capability

  13. Silicon-Based Lithium-Ion Capacitor for High Energy and High Power Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Demattia, Brianne; Loyselle, Patricia; Reid, Concha; Kohout, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Si-based Li-ion capacitor has been developed and demonstrated. The results show it is feasible to improve both power density and energy density in this configuration. The applied current density impacts the power and energy density: low current favors energy density while high current favors power density. Active carbon has a better rate capability than Si. Next StepsFuture Directions. Si electrode needs to be further studied and improved. Further optimization of SiAC ratio and evaluation of its impact on energy density and power density.

  14. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2014-04-30

    Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier's law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180°C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organophosphonic acid as precursor to prepare LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposites for high-power lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming; Shao, Leng-Leng; Yang, Hua-Bin; Zhao, Qian-Yong; Yuan, Zhong-Yong

    2015-01-01

    purity, nanosize and core-shell structure of LiFePO 4 /C composites yielded by the novel synthesis strategy account for their outstanding electrochemical performance in high-power lithium-ion batteries

  16. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  17. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Manual dismantling is superior in spent high-power LiBs recycling. • Heated ionic liquid can effectively separate Al and cathode materials. • Fourier’s law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism. • The process of spent LiBs recycling with heated ionic liquid dismantling was proposed. - Abstract: Because of the increasing number of electric vehicles, there is an urgent need for effective recycling technologies to recapture the significant amount of valuable metals contained in spent lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). Previous studies have indicated, however, that Al and cathode materials were quite difficult to separate due to the strong binding force supplied by the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which was employed to bind cathode materials and Al foil. This research devoted to seek a new method of melting the PVDF binder with heated ionic liquid (IL) to separate Al foil and cathode materials from the spent high-power LiBs. Theoretical analysis based on Fourier’s law was adopted to determine the heat transfer mechanism of cathode material and to examine the relationship between heating temperature and retention time. All the experimental and theoretic results show that peel-off rate of cathode materials from Al foil could reach 99% when major process parameters were controlled at 180 °C heating temperature, 300 rpm agitator rotation, and 25 min retention time. The results further imply that the application of IL for recycling Al foil and cathode materials from spent high-power LiBs is highly efficient, regardless of the application source of the LiBs or the types of cathode material. This study endeavors to make a contribution to an environmentally sound and economically viable solution to the challenge of spent LiB recycling.

  18. Online dynamic equalization adjustment of high-power lithium-ion battery packs based on the state of balance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli; Shang, Liping; Li, Zhanfeng; Deng, Hu; Li, Jianchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept (SOB, State of Balance) is proposed for the LIB pack equalization. • Core parameter detection and filtering is analyzed to identify the LIB pack behavior. • The electrical UKF model is adopted for the online dynamic estimation. • The equalization target model is built based on the optimum preference. • Comprehensive imbalance state calculation is implemented for the adjustment. - Abstract: A novel concept named as state of balance (SOB) is proposed and its online dynamic estimation method is presented for the high-power lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs, based on which the online dynamic equalization adjustment is realized aiming to protect the operation safety of its power supply application. The core parameter detection method based on the specific moving average algorithm is studied because of their identical varying characteristics on the individual cells due to the manufacturing variability and other factors, affecting the performance of the high-power LIB pack. The SOB estimation method is realized with the detailed deduction, in which a dual filter consisting of the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), equivalent circuit model (ECM) and open circuit voltage (OCV) is used in order to predict the SOB state. It is beneficial for the energy operation and the energy performance state can be evaluated online prior to the adjustment method based on the terminal voltage consistency. The energy equalization is realized that is based on the credibility reasoning together with the equalization model building process. The experiments including the core parameter detection, SOB estimation and equalization adjustment are done and the experimental results are analyzed. The experiment results show that the numerical Coulomb efficiency is bigger than 95%. The cell voltage measurement error is less than 5 mV and the terminal voltage measurement error of the LIB pack is less than 1% FS. The measurement error of the battery discharge and charge

  19. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  20. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  1. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene-modified LiFePO 4 composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO 4 nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO 4 primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO 4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li + diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g -1 at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  2. Experimental investigation of a passive thermal management system for high-powered lithium ion batteries using nickel foam-paraffin composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Abid; Tso, C.Y.; Chao, Christopher Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    It is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to have a highly efficient thermal management system to maintain high powered lithium ion batteries within permissible temperature limits. In this study, an efficient thermal management system for high powered lithium ion batteries using a novel composite (nickel foam-paraffin wax) is designed and investigated experimentally. The results have been compared with two other cases: a natural air cooling mode and a cooling mode with pure phase change materials (PCM). The results indicate that the safety demands of lithium ion batteries cannot be fulfilled using natural air convection as the thermal management mode. The use of PCM can dramatically reduce the surface temperature within the permissible range due to heat absorption by the PCM undergoing phase change. This effect can be further enlarged by using the nickel foam-paraffin composite, showing a temperature reduction of 31% and 24% compared to natural air convection and pure PCM, respectively under 2 C discharge rate. The effect of the geometric parameters of the foam on the battery surface temperature has also been studied. The battery surface temperature decreases with the decrease of porosity and the pore density of the metal foam. On the other hand, the discharge capacity increases with the increase in porosity, but decreases with pore density. - Highlights: • Thermal management for Li-ion batteries using nickel-paraffin is studied. • The temperature is reduced by 31% as compared to natural air cooling mode. • The temperature increases with increase of porosity and pore density of metal foam. • Battery discharge capacity increases with the increase in porosity. • Battery discharge capacity increases with the decreases in pore density.

  3. High Capacity Anodes for Advanced Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are slowly being introduced into satellite power systems, but their life still presents concerns for longer duration missions. Future NASA...

  4. Anodic Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries: TiO2-rGO Composites for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minella, M.; Versaci, D.; Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Minero, C.; Battiato, A.; Penazzi, N.; Bodoardo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide/reduced graphene oxide (TiO 2 -rGO) composites were synthesized at different loadings of carbonaceous phase, characterized and used as anode materials in Lithium-ion cells, focusing not only on the high rate capability but also on the simplicity and low cost of the electrode production. It was therefore chosen to use commercial TiO 2 , GO was synthesized from graphite, adsorbed onto TiO 2 and reduced to rGO following a chemical, a photocatalytic and an in situ photocatalytic procedure. The synthesized materials were in-depth characterized with a multi-technique approach and the electrochemical performances were correlated i) to an effective reduction of the GO oxidized moieties and ii) to the maintenance of the 2D geometry of the final graphenic structure observed. TiO 2 -rGO obtained with the first two procedures showed good cycle stability, high capacity and impressive rate capability particularly at 10% GO loading. The photocatalytic reduction applied in situ on preassembled electrodes showed similarly good results reaching the goal of a further simplification of the anode production.

  5. Novel thermal management system using boiling cooling for high-powered lithium-ion battery packs for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zareer, Maan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2017-09-01

    A thermal management system is necessary to control the operating temperature of the lithium ion batteries in battery packs for electrical and hybrid electrical vehicles. This paper proposes a new battery thermal management system based on one type of phase change material for the battery packs in hybrid electrical vehicles and develops a three dimensional electrochemical thermal model. The temperature distributions of the batteries are investigated under various operating conditions for comparative evaluations. The proposed system boils liquid propane to remove the heat generated by the batteries, and the propane vapor is used to cool the part of the battery that is not covered with liquid propane. The effect on the thermal behavior of the battery pack of the height of the liquid propane inside the battery pack, relative to the height of the battery, is analyzed. The results show that the propane based thermal management system provides good cooling control of the temperature of the batteries under high and continuous charge and discharge cycles at 7.5C.

  6. Synthesis of carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, Hyukjae

    Carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method with an addition of glucose in the starting powder, and are characterized by morphological analysis and electrochemical measurement. A thin carbon coating on the nanotube surface effectively suppresses severe agglomeration of TiO 2 nanotubes during hydrothermal reaction and post calcination. This action results in better ionic and electronic kinetics when applied to lithium-ion batteries. Consequently, carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes deliver a remarkable lithium-ion intercalation/deintercalation performance, such as reversible capacities of 286 and 150 mAh g -1 at 250 and 7500 mA g -1, respectively.

  7. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  8. Performance of Novel Randomly Oriented High Graphene Carbon in Lithium Ion Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S. Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of carbon material comprising the anode is the key to the performance of a lithium ion capacitor. In addition to determining the capacity, the structure of the carbon material also determines the diffusion rate of the lithium ion into the anode which in turn controls power density which is vital in high rate applications. This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the performance of a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG carbon, and graphite in a high rate application device, that is, lithium ion capacitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that ROHG is less resistive and has faster lithium ion diffusion rates (393.7 × 10−3 S·s(1/2 compared to graphite (338.1 × 10−3 S·s(1/2. The impedance spectroscopy data is supported by the cell data showing that the ROHG carbon based device has energy density of 22.8 Wh/l with a power density of 4349.3 W/l, whereas baseline graphite based device has energy density of 5 Wh/l and power density of 4243.3 W/l. This data clearly shows advantage of the randomly oriented graphene platelet structure of ROHG in lithium ion capacitor performance.

  9. Sizing of lithium-ion stationary batteries for nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exavier, Zakaria Barie; Chang, Choong-koo

    2017-01-01

    Class 1E power system is very essential in preventing significant release of radioactive materials to the environment. Batteries are designed to provide control power for emergency operation of safety-related equipment or equipment important to safety, including power for automatic operation of the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and Engineered Safety Features (ESF) protection systems during abnormal and accident conditions through associated inverters. Technical challenges that are involved in the life cycle of batteries used in the nuclear power plants (NPP) are significant. The extension of dc battery backup time used in the dc power supply system of the Nuclear Power Plants also remains a challenge. The lead acid battery is the most popular utilized at the present. And it is generally the most popular energy storage device, because of its low cost and wide availability. The lead acid battery is still having some challenges since many phenomenon are occurred inside the battery during its lifecycle. The image of Lithium-ion battery in 1991 is considered as alternative for lead acid battery due to better performance which Lithium-ion has over Lead acid. It has high energy density and advanced gravimetric and volumetric properties. It is known that industrial standards for the stationary Lithium-Ion battery are still under development. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of replacing of lead acid battery with lithium-ion battery. To study the ongoing research activities and ongoing developed industrial standards for Lithium-ion battery and suggest the method for sizing including, capacity, dimensions, operational conditions, aging factor and safety margin for NPP use. (author)

  10. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  11. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dominant factors governing the rate capability of a TiO2 nanotube anode for high power lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyungkyu; Song, Taeseup; Lee, Eung-Kwan; Devadoss, Anitha; Jeon, Yeryung; Ha, Jaehwan; Chung, Yong-Chae; Choi, Young-Min; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-09-25

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries due to low cost and structural stability during Li insertion/extraction. However, its poor rate capability limits its practical use. Although various approaches have been explored to overcome this problem, previous reports have mainly focused on the enhancement of both the electronic conductivity and the kinetic associated with lithium in the composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder. Here, we systematically explore the effect of the contact resistance between a current collector and a composite film of active material/conducting agent/binder on the rate capability of a TiO(2)-based electrode. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes arrays, directly grown on the current collector, with sealed cap and unsealed cap, and conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrodes were prepared for this study. The vertically aligned TiO(2) nanotubes array electrode with unsealed cap showed superior performance with six times higher capacity at 10 C rate compared to conventional randomly oriented TiO(2) nanotubes electrode with 10 wt % conducting agent. On the basis of the detailed experimental results and associated theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that the reduction of the contact resistance between electrode and current collector plays an important role in improving the electronic conductivity of the overall electrode system.

  13. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua

    2017-01-01

    the conductive polymer gel binders with 3D framework nanostructures. These gel binders provide multiple functions owing to their structure derived properties. The gel framework facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. The polymer coating formed on every particle acts as surface modification and prevents particle aggregation. The mechanically strong and ductile gel framework also sustains long-term stability of electrodes. In addition, the structures and properties of gel binders can be facilely tuned. We further introduce the development of multifunctional binders by hybridizing conductive polymers with other functional materials. Meanwhile mechanistic understanding on the roles that novel binders play in the electrochemical processes of batteries is also reviewed to reveal general design rules for future binder systems. We conclude with perspectives on their future development with novel multifunctionalities involved. Highly efficient binder systems with well-tailored molecular and nanostructures are critical to reach the entire volume of the battery and maximize energy use for high-energy and high-power lithium batteries. We hope this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of multifunctional binder materials.

  14. Monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres derived by microwave-assisted hydrothermal process combined with carbothermal reduction for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongrong; Wu, Yixiong; Kong, Xiang Yang

    2014-07-01

    A microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach combined with carbothermal reduction has been developed to synthesize monodisperse porous LiFePO4/C microspheres, which possess the diameter range of 1.0-1.5 μm, high tap density of ∼1.3 g cm-3, and mesoporous characteristic with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 30.6 m2 g-1. The obtained microspheres show meatball-like morphology aggregated by the carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) results indicate that carbon coating can effectively enhance both of the electronic and ionic conductivities for LiFePO4/C microspheres. The Li-ion diffusion coefficient of the LiFePO4/C microspheres calculated from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves is ∼6.25 × 10-9 cm2 s-1. The electrochemical performance can achieve about 100 and 90 mAh g-1 at 5C and 10C charge/discharge rates, respectively. As cathode material, the as-prepared LiFePO4/C microspheres show excellent rate capability and cycle stability, promising for high power lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  16. Novel configuration of polyimide matrix-enhanced cross-linked gel separator for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yin; Yao, Zhikan; John, Angelin Ebanezar; Li, Yang; Li, Weishan; Zhu, Baoku

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, a cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte with additional lithium ions, was introduced into a nonwoven separator. • The PI nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability and mechanical strength of the IACS. • With the introduction of PAMPS(Li"+), the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the -SO_3"− group, giving rise to a high lithium ion transference number. • This IACS is recommended as a promising candidate for the high-power and high-safety lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel composite nonwoven separator exhibiting high heat resistance, high ionic conductivity and high lithium ion transference number is fabricated by a simple dip-coating and heat treatment method. The thermal stable polyimide (PI) nonwoven matrix is chosen as a mechanical support and contributes to improving the thermal shrinkage of the composite nonwoven separator (abbreviated as IACS). The cross-linked poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) PAMPS(Li"+) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), lithium ion sources of a single ion conductor, is introduced into the PI nonwoven matrix and acts as a functional filler. This PAMPS (Li"+) GPE is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, to supply more lithium ions dissociating from PAMPS (Li"+) by liquid electrolyte solvent, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance, and thus resulting in an excellent cyclability. More notably, the migration and mobility rate of anions could be hindered by the −SO_3"− group in the PAMPS (Li"+) polymer based on electrostatic interaction, giving rise to a very high lithium ion transference number. These fascinating characteristics endow the IACS a great promise for the application in the high power and high safety lithium ion batteries.

  17. A highly efficient Micro-Power Converter between a Solar Cell and a Rechargable Lithium-ion Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der A.C.; Bais, M.A.; Jong, de L.P.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Varandan, V.K.; Singer, R.A.; Vellekoop, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-power photo-voltaic power converter which will be used in a directional hearing aid. It is argued, that the use of a switched-capacitor converter is needed when integration on a chip is demanded. This converter combined with a parallel power converter has an

  18. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  19. Solid-state synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power lithium ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung-Woo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Heon [Graduate School of Knowledge-Based Technology and Energy, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Joayoung [Cell Precedence Development Group, Samsung SDI, Yongin 446-577 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dang-Hyok, E-mail: dhyoon@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •High energy milling using 0.30 and 0.45 mm beads for Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} synthesis. •Synthesis of 162 nm-sized pure Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} by solid-state reaction. •Spray drying using fine starting materials to confer paste tackiness. •High capacity of 174 mAh/g and adequate rate properties for high power LIBs applications. -- Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was synthesized by a solid-state reaction between Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and anatase TiO{sub 2} for applications to high power lithium ion batteries. The starting materials underwent 6 h of high energy milling using ZrO{sub 2} beads with two different sizes, 0.30 and 0.45 mm. The smaller ZrO{sub 2} beads resulted in finer starting materials. Spray drying was also performed on the 0.30 mm beads-treated particles to enhance the screen printability of a paste containing this powder. The finer starting materials showed a pure 162 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} due to the decreased diffusion length for a solid-state reaction, whereas the 0.45 mm beads-treated starting materials resulted in a 242 nm-sized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase containing 2 wt.% of rutile TiO{sub 2} that had transformed from the anatase phase during heat treatment at 800 °C for 3 h. The finer Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} showed higher charge capacity and better charge/discharge rates than the coarser particles, which highlights the importance of the primary particle size on the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} for high power applications. The fine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles had a discharge capacity of 174 mAh/g at 0.1 C and capacity retention of 80% at 10.0 C.

  20. High throughput materials research and development for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of next generation batteries requires a breakthrough in materials. Traditional one-by-one method, which is suitable for synthesizing large number of sing-composition material, is time-consuming and costly. High throughput and combinatorial experimentation, is an effective method to synthesize and characterize huge amount of materials over a broader compositional region in a short time, which enables to greatly speed up the discovery and optimization of materials with lower cost. In this work, high throughput and combinatorial materials synthesis technologies for lithium ion battery research are discussed, and our efforts on developing such instrumentations are introduced.

  1. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  2. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-14

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg -1 at 150 W·kg -1 , and 48 W·h·kg -1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg -1 . This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production.

  3. Temperature dependent power capability estimation of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Zhang, Weige; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The power capability of lithium-ion batteries affects the safety and reliability of hybrid electric vehicles and the estimate of power by battery management systems provides operating information for drivers. In this paper, lithium ion manganese oxide batteries are studied to illustrate the temperature dependency of power capability and an operating map of power capability is presented. Both parametric and non-parametric models are established in conditions of temperature, state of charge, and cell resistance to estimate the power capability. Six cells were tested and used for model development, training, and validation. Three samples underwent hybrid pulse power characterization tests at varied temperatures and were used for model parameter identification and model training. The other three were used for model validation. By comparison, the mean absolute error of the parametric model is about 29 W, and that of the non-parametric model is around 20 W. The mean relative errors of two models are 0.076 and 0.397, respectively. The parametric model has a higher accuracy in low temperature and state of charge conditions, while the non-parametric model has better estimation result in high temperature and state of charge conditions. Thus, two models can be utilized together to achieve a higher accuracy of power capability estimation. - Highlights: • The temperature dependency of power capability of lithium-ion battery is investigated. • The parametric and non-parametric power capability estimation models are proposed. • An exponential function is put forward to compensate the effects of temperature. • A comparative study on the accuracy of two models using statistical metrics is presented.

  4. Alumina/Phenolphthalein Polyetherketone Ceramic Composite Polypropylene Separator Film for Lithium Ion Power Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Zhiyu; Yin, Xiunan; Li, Yunchao; Huo, Hong; Zhou, Jianjun; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PEK-C (T g : ∼230 °C) was used as binder to prepare ceramic coated composite PP separator. • The composite PP separator was stable and showed low thermal shrinkage in the electrolyte solvent. • The composite PP separator was helpful for high current density discharge. • The composite PP separator improved the safety performance of the coin cells. - Abstract: One way to obtain the lithium ion power battery with better safety performance was to increase the thermal shrinkage resistance of the separator at higher temperature. Phenolphthalein polyetherketone (PEK-C) is a polymer that can withstand high temperature to about 230 °C. Here, we developed a new Al 2 O 3 coated composite polypropylene (PP) separator with PEK-C as binder. The coating layer was formed on the surface of the PP separator and both ceramic particles and binder did not infiltrated into the separator along the thickness direction. The composite separator with 4 μm coating layer provided balanced permeability and thermal shrinkage properties. The composite separator was stable at the electrochemical window for lithium ion battery. The coin cells with composite separator showed better charge/discharge performance than that of the cells with the PP separator. It seemed that the composite separator was helpful for high current density discharge. Also, the battery safety performance test had verified that the Al 2 O 3 coated composite separator with PEK-C as binder had truly improved the safety performance of the coin cells. So, the newly developed Al 2 O 3 coated composite PP separator was a promising safety product for lithium ion power batteries with high energy density

  5. Particle-filtering-based estimation of maximum available power state in Lithium-Ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgos-Mellado, Claudio; Orchard, Marcos E.; Kazerani, Mehrdad; Cárdenas, Roberto; Sáez, Doris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Approach to estimate the state of maximum power available in Lithium-Ion battery. • Optimisation problem is formulated on the basis of a non-linear dynamic model. • Solutions of the optimisation problem are functions of state of charge estimates. • State of charge estimates computed using particle filter algorithms. - Abstract: Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are important for applications related to both microgrids and electric vehicles. If BESS are used as the main energy source, then it is required to include adequate procedures for the estimation of critical variables such as the State of Charge (SoC) and the State of Health (SoH) in the design of Battery Management Systems (BMS). Furthermore, in applications where batteries are exposed to high charge and discharge rates it is also desirable to estimate the State of Maximum Power Available (SoMPA). In this regard, this paper presents a novel approach to the estimation of SoMPA in Lithium-Ion batteries. This method formulates an optimisation problem for the battery power based on a non-linear dynamic model, where the resulting solutions are functions of the SoC. In the battery model, the polarisation resistance is modelled using fuzzy rules that are function of both SoC and the discharge (charge) current. Particle filtering algorithms are used as an online estimation technique, mainly because these algorithms allow approximating the probability density functions of the SoC and SoMPA even in the case of non-Gaussian sources of uncertainty. The proposed method for SoMPA estimation is validated using the experimental data obtained from an experimental setup designed for charging and discharging the Lithium-Ion batteries.

  6. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 1. Fresh electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  7. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 2. Following 3 formation cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  8. Introduction to a series of LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  9. Hierarchical carbon-coated acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yujing; Xu, Xiaomin; Li, Li; Cai, Rui; Shao, Zongping

    2016-05-01

    In this work, carbon-coated hierarchical acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres (denoted as AM-LTO) were prepared via a two-step hydrothermal process with low-cost glucose as the organic carbon source. The hierarchical porous microspheres had open structures with diameters of 4-6 μm, which consisted of a bunch of willow leaf-like nanosheets. Each nanosheet was comprised of Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles that are 20 nm in size and coated by a thin carbon layer. When applied as the anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the AM-LTO presented outstanding rate and cycling performance due to its unique morphologies. A high capacity of 145.6 mAh g-1 was achieved for AM-LTO at a rate of 40C (1C = 175 mAh g-1). In contrast, the sample synthesized without glucose as carbon source (denoted as S-LTO) experienced an obvious structural collapse during the hydrothermal reaction and presented a specific capacity of only 67 mAh g-1 at 1C, which further decreased to 14 mAh g-1 at 40C. Further morphological growth of the acanthosphere-like Li4Ti5O12 microspheres and their excellent performance as an anode in LIBs were also discussed in this work.

  10. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-12-01

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO 2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm -2 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. (topical review)

  12. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  13. Lifetime and economic analyses of lithium-ion batteries for balancing wind power forecast error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    is considered. In this paper, the economic feasibility of lithium-ion batteries for balancing the wind power forecast error is analysed. In order to perform a reliable assessment, an ageing model of lithium-ion battery was developed considering both cycling and calendar life. The economic analysis considers two......, it was found that for total elimination of the wind power forecast error, it is required to have a 25-MWh Li-ion battery energy storage system for the considered 2 MW WT....

  14. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  15. Lithium ion battery energy storage system for augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    with Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) into the so called Virtual Power Plants (VPP). Relatively new energy storage technologies based on Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are constantly improving their performance and are becoming attractive for stationary energy storage applications due...... to their characteristics such as high power, high efficiency, low self-discharge, and long lifetime. The family of the Li-ion batteries is wide and the selection of the most appropriate Liion chemistries for VPPs is one of the topics of this thesis, where different chemistries are compared and the most suitable ones...... if the batteries are able to meet several performance requirements, which are application dependent. Furthermore, for the VPP, the degradation or failure of the interconnected BESS can lead to costly downtime. Thus, an accurate estimation of the battery cells lifetime becomes mandatory. However, lifetime...

  16. Potential application of microporous structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite nonwoven separators to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microporous-structured PVdF-HFP/PET composite nonwoven separators for Li-batteries. → Well-developed microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. → Provision of facile ion transport and suppressed growth of cell impedance. → Superior cell performance at high-voltages/high-current densities. - Abstract: We demonstrate potential application of a new composite non-woven separator, which is comprised of a phase inversion-controlled, microporous polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) gel polymer electrolyte and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven support, to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator, the composite non-woven separator exhibits distinct improvements in microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. Based on the understanding of the composite non-woven separator, cell performances of the separator at challenging charge/discharge conditions are investigated and discussed in terms of ion transport of the separator and AC impedance of the cell. The aforementioned advantageous features of the composite non-woven separator play a key role in providing facile ion transport and suppressing growth of cell impedance during cycling, which in turn contribute to superior cell performances at harsh charge/discharge conditions such as high voltages and high current densities.

  17. Nanostructured Networks for Energy Storage: Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes (VACNT as Current Collectors for High-Power Li4Ti5O12(LTO//LiMn2O4(LMO Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Pawlitzek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As a concept for electrode architecture in high power lithium ion batteries, self-supported nanoarrays enable ultra-high power densities as a result of their open pore geometry, which results in short and direct Li+-ion and electron pathways. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT on metallic current collectors with low interface resistance are used as current collectors for the chemical solution infiltration of electroactive oxides to produce vertically aligned carbon nanotubes decorated with in situ grown LiMn2O4 (LMO and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO nanoparticles. The production processes steps (catalyst coating, VACNT chemical vapor deposition (CVD, infiltration, and thermal transformation are all scalable, continuous, and suitable for niche market production to achieve high oxide loadings up to 70 wt %. Due to their unique transport structure, as-prepared nanoarrays achieve remarkably high power densities up to 2.58 kW kg−1, which is based on the total electrode mass at 80 C for LiMn2O4//Li4Ti5O12 full cells. The tailoring of LTO and LMO nanoparticle size (~20–100 nm and VACNT length (array height: 60–200 µm gives insights into the rate-limiting steps at high current for these kinds of nanoarray electrodes at very high C-rates of up to 200 C. The results reveal the critical structural parameters for achieving high power densities in VACNT nanoarray full cells.

  18. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  19. On Leakage Current Measured at High Cell Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadivel, Nicole R.; Ha, Seungbum; He, Meinan; Dees, Dennis; Trask, Steve; Polzin, Bryant; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, parasitic side reactions in lithium-ion batteries were examined experimentally using a potentiostatic hold at high cell voltage. The experimental leakage current measured during the potentiostatic hold was compared to the Tafel expression and showed poor agreement with the expected transfer coefficient values, indicating that a more complicated expression could be needed to accurately capture the physics of this side reaction. Here we show that cross-talk between the electrodes is the primary contribution to the observed leakage current after the relaxation of concentration gradients has ceased. This cross-talk was confirmed with experiments using a lithium-ion conducting glass ceramic (LICGC) separator, which has high conductance only for lithium cations. The cells with LICGC separators showed significantly less leakage current during the potentiostatic hold test compared to cells with standard microporous separators where cross-talk is present. In addition, direct-current pulse power tests show an impedance rise for cells held at high potentials and for cells held at high temperatures, which could be attributed to film formation from the parasitic side reaction. Based on the experimental findings, a phenomenological mechanism is proposed for the parasitic side reaction which accounts for cross-talk and mass transport of the decomposition products across the separator.

  20. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  1. Porous TiNb2O7 Nanospheres as ultra Long-life and High-power Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Qiushi; Liang, Jianwen; Lin, Ning; Guo, Cong; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Due to the combinative merits of porosity and nanostructure, porous TiNb 2 O 7 nanospheres exhibit ultra long cyclic life and excellent rate performance for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Porous TiNb 2 O 7 nanospheres have been fabricated with the assistance of block copolymer P123. • The as-prepared TiNb 2 O 7 anodes present a reversible capacity of 160 mA h/g after 10000 cycles at 5 C with a capacity loss of only 0.0033% per cycle. • The TiNb 2 O 7 anodes show good rate performance of 167 mA h/g at 50C. • The TiNb 2 O 7 materials maintain the morphology of nanospheres and the porous structure even after 10000 cycles. - Abstract: Porous TiNb 2 O 7 nanospheres comprised of nanoparticles have been synthesized with the assistance of block copolymer P123 (EO 20 PO 70 EO 20 ). Such porous TiNb 2 O 7 nanospheres, with diameter of 500 nm, exhibit a BET surface area of 23.4 m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.155 cm 3 /g. As the anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the TiNb 2 O 7 nanospheres present a reversible capacity of 160 mA h/g after 10000 cycles at 5 C with a capacity loss of only 0.0033% per cycle, and good rate performance of 167 mA h/g at 50 C. Furthermore, the TiNb 2 O 7 materials still maintain the morphology of nanospheres and the porous structure even after 10000 cycles

  2. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  3. Lithium-Ion Battery Power Degradation Modelling by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique as an alternative to the DC pulses technique for estimating the power capability decrease of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar ageing. Based on results obtained from calendar ageing tests performed...... at different conditions during one to two years, a generalized model that estimates the battery power capability decrease as function of the resistance Rs increase (obtained from EIS) was proposed and successfully verified....

  4. Uncovering a facile large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei-Bo; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zheng, Zhuo; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhong, Ben-He; Fang, Baizeng; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Heng

    2015-02-01

    Developing advanced electrode materials that deliver high energy at ultra-fast charge and discharge rates are very crucial to meet an increasing large-scale market demand for high power lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A three-dimensional (3D) nanoflower structure is successfully developed in the large-scale synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material for the first time. The fast co-precipitation is the key technique to prepare the nanoflower structure in our method. After heat treatment, the obtained LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 nanoflowers (NL333) pronouncedly present a pristine flower-like nano-architecture and provide fast pathways for the transport of Li-ions and electrons. As a cathode material in a LIB, the prepared NL333 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high-rate capability. Particularly, in a narrow voltage range of 2.7-4.3 V, the discharge capacity at an ultra-fast charge-discharge rate (20C) is up to 126 mAh g-1, which reaches 78% of that at 0.2C, and is much higher than that (i.e., 44.17%) of the traditional bulk LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2.

  5. Estimating power capability of aged lithium-ion batteries in presence of communication delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridholm, Björn; Wik, Torsten; Kuusisto, Hannes; Klintberg, Anton

    2018-04-01

    Efficient control of electrified powertrains requires accurate estimation of the power capability of the battery for the next few seconds into the future. When implemented in a vehicle, the power estimation is part of a control loop that may contain several networked controllers which introduces time delays that may jeopardize stability. In this article, we present and evaluate an adaptive power estimation method that robustly can handle uncertain health status and time delays. A theoretical analysis shows that stability of the closed loop system can be lost if the resistance of the model is under-estimated. Stability can, however, be restored by filtering the estimated power at the expense of slightly reduced bandwidth of the signal. The adaptive algorithm is experimentally validated in lab tests using an aged lithium-ion cell subject to a high power load profile in temperatures from -20 to +25 °C. The upper voltage limit was set to 4.15 V and the lower voltage limit to 2.6 V, where significant non-linearities are occurring and the validity of the model is limited. After an initial transient when the model parameters are adapted, the prediction accuracy is within ± 2 % of the actually available power.

  6. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) supported cobalt- nickel sulfide (CoNi2S4) nanoparticles hybrid anode for high performance lithium ion capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Ajay; Zhou, Xuan; Blaisdell, Douglas; Yang, Sen

    2018-01-25

    Lithium ion capacitors possess an ability to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. The main concern of fabricating lithium ion capacitors is poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the anode material which uses sluggish faradaic reactions to store an electric charge. Herein, we have fabricated high performance hybrid anode material based on carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and cobalt-nickel sulfide (CoNi 2 S 4 ) nanoparticles via simple electrospinning and electrodeposition methods. Porous and high conducting CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode acts as an expressway network for electronic and ionic diffusion during charging-discharging processes. The effect of anode to cathode mass ratio on the performance has been studied by fabricating lithium ion capacitors with different mass ratios. The surface controlled contribution of CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 electrode was 73% which demonstrates its excellent rate capability. Lithium ion capacitor fabricated with CNF@CoNi 2 S 4 to AC mass ratio of 1:2.6 showed excellent energy density of 85.4 Wh kg -1 with the power density of 150 W kg -1 . Also, even at the high power density of 15 kW kg -1 , the cell provided the energy density of 35 Wh kg -1 . This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid anode with the combination of simple and cost effective approaches.

  7. Fast sol-gel synthesis of LiFePO{sub 4}/C for high power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beninati, Sabina; Damen, Libero; Mastragostino, Marina [University of Bologna, Department of Metal Science, Electrochemistry and Chemical Techniques, Via San Donato 15, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-12-01

    LiFePO{sub 4}/C of high purity grade was successfully synthesized by microwave accelerated sol-gel synthesis and showed excellent electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity and stability. This cathode material was characterized in battery configuration with a graphite counter electrode by USABC-DOE tests for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle. It yielded a non-conventional Ragone plot that represents complexity of battery functioning in power-assist HEV and shows that the pulse power capability and available energy of such a battery surpasses the DOE goal for such an application. (author)

  8. A review on lithium-ion power battery thermal management technologies and thermal safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhoujian; Jia, Li; Ding, Yong; Dang, Chao; Li, Xuejiao

    2017-10-01

    Lithium-ion power battery has become one of the main power sources for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles because of superior performance compared with other power sources. In order to ensure the safety and improve the performance, the maximum operating temperature and local temperature difference of batteries must be maintained in an appropriate range. The effect of temperature on the capacity fade and aging are simply investigated. The electrode structure, including electrode thickness, particle size and porosity, are analyzed. It is found that all of them have significant influences on the heat generation of battery. Details of various thermal management technologies, namely air based, phase change material based, heat pipe based and liquid based, are discussed and compared from the perspective of improving the external heat dissipation. The selection of different battery thermal management (BTM) technologies should be based on the cooling demand and applications, and liquid cooling is suggested being the most suitable method for large-scale battery pack charged/discharged at higher C-rate and in high-temperature environment. The thermal safety in the respect of propagation and suppression of thermal runaway is analyzed.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide supported highly porous V2O5 spheres as a high-power cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhu, Jixin; Sim, Daohao; Xu, Chen; Zeng, Yi; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported highly porous polycrystalline V(2)O(5) spheres (V(2)O(5)/rGO) were prepared by using a solvothermal approach followed by an annealing process. Initially, reduced vanadium oxide (rVO) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 10-50 nm were formed through heterogeneous nucleation on rGO sheets during the solvothermal process. These rVO nanoparticles were oxidized to V(2)O(5) after the annealing process in air at 350 °C and assembled into polycrystalline porous spheres with sizes of 200-800 nm. The weight ratio between the rGO and V(2)O(5) is tunable by changing the weight ratio of the precursors, which in turn affects the morphology of V(2)O(5)/rGO composites. The V(2)O(5)/rGO composites display superior cathode performances with highly reversible specific capacities, good cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g. 102 mA h g(-1) at 19 C).

  10. Li4Ti5O12 on graphene for high rate lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wen, L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinel Li(sub4)Ti(sub5)O(sub12) has been considered as a promising anode material to substitute graphite in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale electrical energy storage due to its high safety and long cycling stability. However...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of high performance electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian

    °C, although the film thickness was over 1 mum. Lithium titanate with the spinel structure is also an important anode material for high power applications. It has a unique feature of zero volume change during lithium ion intercalation, which gives its excellent performance when as nanoparticles. Our results show that a slight reduction of the titanium using hydrogen leads to a high capacity at a high rate even at moderate particle size. Silicon is currently of considerable interest as an anode for lithium secondary electrochemical batteries. The Li-Si alloy system, having average operating voltages below 500 mV versus lithium, can take up to 3.4 lithium ions during intercalation. It is also well known that a 300% volume dilatation is associated with alloying 3.4 lithium atoms per silicon atom. M-Si (M = Fe, Co, and Ni) alloys with nano-silicon domains were introduced as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. An improved electrochemical performance was found.

  12. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Li-Rich Layered Cathode Oxides for High Volumetric and Power Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bao; Yin, Chong; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-02-01

    As rechargeable Li-ion batteries have expanded their applications into on-board energy storage for electric vehicles, the energy and power must be increased to meet the new demands. Li-rich layered oxides are one of the most promising candidate materials; however, it is very difficult to make them compatible with high volumetric energy density and power density. Here, we develop an innovative approach to synthesize three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides Li[Li 0.144 Ni 0.136 Co 0.136 Mn 0.544 ]O 2 , directly occurring at deep chemical delithiation with carbon dioxide. It is found that the as-prepared material presents a micrometer-sized spherical structure that is typically composed of interconnected nanosized subunits with narrow distributed pores at 3.6 nm. As a result, this unique 3D micro-/nanostructure not only has a high tap density over 2.20 g cm -3 but also exhibits excellent rate capability (197.6 mA h g -1 at 1250 mA g -1 ) as an electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique nanoporous micro-nanostructures, which facilitates the Li + diffusion and enhances the structural stability of the Li-rich layered cathode materials. Our work offers a comprehensive designing strategy to construct 3D nanoporous Li-rich layered oxides for both high volumetric energy density and power density in Li-ion batteries.

  13. Charging and discharging tests for obtaining an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of high power lithium-ion pack system for hybrid and EV applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Camacho, Oscar Mauricio Forero; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a battery test platform including two Li-ion battery designed for hybrid and EV applications, and charging/discharging tests under different operating conditions carried out for developing an accurate dynamic electro-thermal model of a high power Li-ion battery pack system....... The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of the battery degradation and to find out the dynamic characteristics of the cells including nonlinear open circuit voltage, series resistance and parallel transient circuit at different charge/discharge currents and cell temperature. An equivalent...... circuit model, based on the runtime battery model and the Thevenin circuit model, with parameters obtained from the tests and depending on SOC, current and temperature has been implemented in MATLAB/Simulink and Power Factory. A good alignment between simulations and measurements has been found....

  14. A High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor Based on 2D Nanosheet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaohui; Chen, Jingwei; Cui, Mengqi; Cai, Guofa; Wang, Jiangxin; Cui, Peng; Gong, Xuefei; Lee, Pooi See

    2017-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are promising electrical energy storage systems for mid-to-large-scale applications due to the high energy and large power output without sacrificing long cycle stability. However, due to the different energy storage mechanisms between anode and cathode, the energy densities of LICs often degrade noticeably at high power density, because of the sluggish kinetics limitation at the battery-type anode side. Herein, a high-performance LIC by well-defined ZnMn 2 O 4 -graphene hybrid nanosheets anode and N-doped carbon nanosheets cathode is presented. The 2D nanomaterials offer high specific surface areas in favor of a fast ion transport and storage with shortened ion diffusion length, enabling fast charge and discharge. The fabricated LIC delivers a high specific energy of 202.8 Wh kg -1 at specific power of 180 W kg -1 , and the specific energy remains 98 Wh kg -1 even when the specific power achieves as high as 21 kW kg -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Lithium Ion Batteries Ageing Analysis when used in a PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Aparicio, N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the integration of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries into large scale grid-connected PV plants. It performs a systematic analysis on both the operation improvement obtained by a PV+ES power plant and the ageing experienced by the Li-ion batteries used as Energy Storage (ES) system...... when operating under different energy management strategies (EMS). In this paper, the PV+ES power plant structure is presented and the selection of Li-on batteries as ES system (ESS) is justified. Moreover, the simulation model used for studying the Li-ion battery ageing is explained and tested...

  16. Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbah, Rami; Kizilel, R.; Selman, J.R.; Al-Hallaj, S. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, 10 W. 33rd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effectiveness of passive cooling by phase change materials (PCM) is compared with that of active (forced air) cooling. Numerical simulations were performed at different discharge rates, operating temperatures and ambient temperatures of a compact Li-ion battery pack suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion. The results were also compared with experimental results. The PCM cooling mode uses a micro-composite graphite-PCM matrix surrounding the array of cells, while the active cooling mode uses air blown through the gaps between the cells in the same array. The results show that at stressful conditions, i.e. at high discharge rates and at high operating or ambient temperatures (for example 40-45 C), air-cooling is not a proper thermal management system to keep the temperature of the cell in the desirable operating range without expending significant fan power. On the other hand, the passive cooling system is able to meet the operating range requirements under these same stressful conditions without the need for additional fan power. (author)

  17. Active (air-cooled) vs. passive (phase change material) thermal management of high power lithium-ion packs: Limitation of temperature rise and uniformity of temperature distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Rami; Kizilel, R.; Selman, J. R.; Al-Hallaj, S.

    The effectiveness of passive cooling by phase change materials (PCM) is compared with that of active (forced air) cooling. Numerical simulations were performed at different discharge rates, operating temperatures and ambient temperatures of a compact Li-ion battery pack suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) propulsion. The results were also compared with experimental results. The PCM cooling mode uses a micro-composite graphite-PCM matrix surrounding the array of cells, while the active cooling mode uses air blown through the gaps between the cells in the same array. The results show that at stressful conditions, i.e. at high discharge rates and at high operating or ambient temperatures (for example 40-45 °C), air-cooling is not a proper thermal management system to keep the temperature of the cell in the desirable operating range without expending significant fan power. On the other hand, the passive cooling system is able to meet the operating range requirements under these same stressful conditions without the need for additional fan power.

  18. ZnFe2O4-C/LiFePO4-CNT: A Novel High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery with Excellent Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Bresser, Dominic; von Zamory, Jan; Müller, Franziska; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-07-15

    An innovative and environmentally friendly battery chemistry is proposed for high power applications. A carbon-coated ZnFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle-based anode and a LiFePO 4 -multiwalled carbon nanotube-based cathode, both aqueous processed with Na-carboxymethyl cellulose, are combined, for the first time, in a Li-ion full cell with exceptional electrochemical performance. Such novel battery shows remarkable rate capabilities, delivering 50% of its nominal capacity at currents corresponding to ≈20C (with respect to the limiting cathode). Furthermore, the pre-lithiation of the negative electrode offers the possibility of tuning the cell potential and, therefore, achieving remarkable gravimetric energy and power density values of 202 Wh kg -1 and 3.72 W kg -1 , respectively, in addition to grant a lithium reservoir. The high reversibility of the system enables sustaining more than 10 000 cycles at elevated C-rates (≈10C with respect to the LiFePO 4 cathode), while retaining up to 85% of its initial capacity.

  19. Field Trial on a Rack-mounted DC Power Supply System with 80-Ah Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Using an industrial lithium-ion battery that has higher energy density than conventional valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, a rack-mounted DC-power-supply system was assembled and tested at a base transceiver station (BTS) offering actual services. A nominal output voltage and maximum output current of the system is 53.5V and 20A, respectively. An 80-Ah lithium-ion battery composed of 13 cells connected in series was applied in the system and maintained in a floating charge method. The DC-power-supply system was installed in a 19-inch power rack in the telecommunications equipment box at BTS. The characteristics of the 80Ah lithium-ion battery, specifications of the DC-power-supply system and field-test results were shown in this paper.

  20. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  1. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  2. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  3. High-rate capability of lithium-ion batteries after storing at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Chiang, Pin-Chi Julia

    2007-01-01

    High-rate performances of a lithium-ion battery after storage at elevated temperature are investigated electrochemically by means of three-electrode system. The high-rate capability is decreased significantly after high-temperature storage. A 3 C discharge capacities after room-temperature storage and 60 o C storage are 650 and 20 mAh, respectively. Lithium-ion diffusion in lithium cobalt oxide cathode limits the battery's capacity and the results show that storage temperature changes this diffusion behavior. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that many defects are directly observed in the cathode after storage compared with the fresh cathode; the structural defects block the diffusion within the particles. Electrochemical impedance and polarization curve indicate that mass-transfer (diffusion) dominates the discharge capacity during high-rate discharge

  4. Low Li+ Insertion Barrier Carbon for High Energy Efficient Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Teck Leong; Xue, Jun Min

    2018-01-17

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is an attractive energy-storage device (ESD) that promises high energy density at moderate power density. However, the key challenge in its design is the low energy efficient negative electrode, which barred the realization of such research system in fulfilling the current ESD technological inadequacy due to its poor overall energy efficiency. Large voltage hysteresis is the main issue behind high energy density alloying/conversion-type materials, which reduces the electrode energy efficiency. Insertion-type material though averted in most research due to the low capacity remains to be highly favorable in commercial application due to its lower voltage hysteresis. To further reduce voltage hysteresis and increase capacity, amorphous carbon with wider interlayer spacing has been demonstrated in the simulation result to significantly reduce Li + insertion barrier. Hence, by employing such amorphous carbon, together with disordered carbon positive electrode, a high energy efficient LIC with round-trip energy efficiency of 84.3% with a maximum energy density of 133 Wh kg -1 at low power density of 210 W kg -1 can be achieved.

  5. Adaptive on-line prediction of the available power of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a new approach for prediction of the available power of a lithium-ion battery pack is presented. It is based on a nonlinear battery model that includes current dependency of the battery resistance. It results in an accurate power prediction not only at room temperature, but also at lower temperatures at which the current dependency is substantial. The used model parameters are fully adaptable on-line to the given state of the battery (state of charge, state of health, temperature). This on-line adaption in combination with an explicit consideration of differences between characteristics of individual cells in a battery pack ensures an accurate power prediction under all possible conditions. The proposed trade-off between the number of used cell parameters and the total accuracy as well as the optimized algorithm results in a real-time capability of the method, which is demonstrated on a low-cost 16 bit microcontroller. The verification tests performed on a software-in-the-loop test bench system with four 40 Ah lithium-ion cells show promising results.

  6. "Water-in-salt" electrolyte enables high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Olguin, Marco; Ho, Janet; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Kang

    2015-11-20

    Lithium-ion batteries raise safety, environmental, and cost concerns, which mostly arise from their nonaqueous electrolytes. The use of aqueous alternatives is limited by their narrow electrochemical stability window (1.23 volts), which sets an intrinsic limit on the practical voltage and energy output. We report a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte whose window was expanded to ~3.0 volts with the formation of an electrode-electrolyte interphase. A full lithium-ion battery of 2.3 volts using such an aqueous electrolyte was demonstrated to cycle up to 1000 times, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency at both low (0.15 coulomb) and high (4.5 coulombs) discharge and charge rates. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  8. Synthesis of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/carbon nanotubes composite with less antisite defects for high power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jianjun; Shao, Guangjie; Ma, Zhipeng; Wang, Guiling; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects is synthesized by a modified solvothemal process and delivers superior electrochemical performance with high rate capability and good capacity retention. - Abstract: The low electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability are two major obstacles to realize its wide application for LiFePO_4 materials. The material with hierarchical conductive structure and lower antisite defects concentration can effectively enhance the electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusion ability. We firstly report here a modified solvothemal process for the fabrication of hierarchical conductive C/LiFePO_4/CNTs composite with less antisite defects. It is found that the modified solvothemal process is facilitated to decrease Fe_L_i antisite defects and enhance the electronic continuity between LFP and CNTs. In favor of its unique properties, the C/LFP/CNTs composites can deliver superior rate capability and cycling stability. Remarkably, even at a high rate of 20C (3400 mA g"−"1), a high initial discharge capacity of 91.6 mAh g"−"1 and good cycle retention of 95% with almost 100% coulombic efficiency are still obtained after 100 cycles.

  9. Scalable 2D Mesoporous Silicon Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao; Xia, Min; Luo, Yunjun

    2018-03-01

    Constructing unique mesoporous 2D Si nanostructures to shorten the lithium-ion diffusion pathway, facilitate interfacial charge transfer, and enlarge the electrode-electrolyte interface offers exciting opportunities in future high-performance lithium-ion batteries. However, simultaneous realization of 2D and mesoporous structures for Si material is quite difficult due to its non-van der Waals structure. Here, the coexistence of both mesoporous and 2D ultrathin nanosheets in the Si anodes and considerably high surface area (381.6 m 2 g -1 ) are successfully achieved by a scalable and cost-efficient method. After being encapsulated with the homogeneous carbon layer, the Si/C nanocomposite anodes achieve outstanding reversible capacity, high cycle stability, and excellent rate capability. In particular, the reversible capacity reaches 1072.2 mA h g -1 at 4 A g -1 even after 500 cycles. The obvious enhancements can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the unique 2D mesoporous nanostructure and carbon capsulation. Furthermore, full-cell evaluations indicate that the unique Si/C nanostructures have a great potential in the next-generation lithium-ion battery. These findings not only greatly improve the electrochemical performances of Si anode, but also shine some light on designing the unique nanomaterials for various energy devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li 3 VO 4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li 3 VO 4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 532 W kg -1 , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lithium-ion backup batteries for coping extended loss of AC power (ELAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Choong-koo

    2017-01-01

    Per NRC Regulations Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50.63 'Loss of all alternating current power' all Korean nuclear power plants have a coping capability for SBO conditions for a limited time ranging from approximately eight (8) to sixteen (16) hours. The 125V DC systems are designed for eight (8) hours range except Class 1E channel A and B 125V DC system of which duty cycle is 2 hours in APR1400. The strategies proposed by this paper for coping extended loss of AC power (ELAP) involve a three-phase approach. In the first extend class 1E batteries' backup time until 24 hours. Then augment class 1E batteries with Lithium-ion batteries by 72 hours from the event initiation. In addition, obtain additional capability and redundancy from off-site equipment until power systems are restored or commissioned. (author)

  12. High Performance Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors Employing Fe3O4-Graphene Composite Anode and Activated Carbon Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijia; Li, Chen; Zhang, Xiong; Sun, Xianzhong; Wang, Kai; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-05-24

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are considered as promising energy storage devices to realize excellent electrochemical performance, with high energy-power output. In this work, we employed a simple method to synthesize a composite electrode material consisting of Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystallites mechanically anchored among the layers of three-dimensional arrays of graphene (Fe 3 O 4 -G), which exhibits several advantages compared with other traditional electrode materials, such as high Li storage capacity (820 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), high electrical conductivity, and improved electrochemical stability. Furthermore, on the basis of the appropriated charge balance between cathode and anode, we successfully fabricated Fe 3 O 4 -G//activated carbon (AC) soft-packaging LICs with a high energy density of 120.0 Wh kg -1 , an outstanding power density of 45.4 kW kg -1 (achieved at 60.5 Wh kg -1 ), and an excellent capacity retention of up to 94.1% after 1000 cycles and 81.4% after 10 000 cycles. The energy density of the Fe 3 O 4 -G//AC hybrid device is comparable with Ni-metal hydride batteries, and its capacitive power capability and cycle life is on par with supercapacitors (SCs). Therefore, this lithium-ion hybrid capacitor is expected to bridge the gap between Li-ion battery and SCs and gain bright prospects in next-generation energy storage fields.

  13. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Graphene Carbon Nanotube Carpets Grown Using Binary Catalysts for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Rodrigo Villegas; Zakhidov, Dante; Sha, Junwei; Kim, Nam Dong; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Zhao, Naiqin; Tour, James M

    2017-03-28

    Here we show that a versatile binary catalyst solution of Fe 3 O 4 /AlO x nanoparticles enables homogeneous growth of single to few-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) carpets from three-dimensional carbon-based substrates, moving past existing two-dimensional limited growth methods. The binary catalyst is composed of amorphous AlO x nanoclusters over Fe 3 O 4 crystalline nanoparticles, facilitating the creation of seamless junctions between the CNTs and the underlying carbon platform. The resulting graphene-CNT (GCNT) structure is a high-density CNT carpet ohmically connected to the carbon substrate, an important feature for advanced carbon electronics. As a demonstration of the utility of this approach, we use GCNTs as anodes and cathodes in binder-free lithium-ion capacitors, producing stable devices with high-energy densities (∼120 Wh kg -1 ), high-power density capabilities (∼20,500 W kg -1 at 29 Wh kg -1 ), and a large operating voltage window (4.3 to 0.01 V).

  15. Hollow-Cuboid Li3VO4/C as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changkun; Liu, Chaofeng; Nan, Xihui; Song, Huanqiao; Liu, Yaguang; Zhang, Cuiping; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-01-13

    Li3VO4 has been demonstrated to be a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries with a low, safe voltage and large capacity. However, its poor electronic conductivity hinders its practical application particularly at a high rate. This work reports that Li3VO4 coated with carbon was synthesized by a one-pot, two-step method with F127 ((PEO)100-(PPO)65-(PEO)100) as both template and carbon source, yielding a microcuboid structure. The resulting Li3VO4/C cuboid shows a stable capacity of 415 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 C and excellent capacity stability at high rates (e.g., 92% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 10 C = 4 A g(-1)). The lithiation/delithiation process of Li3VO4/C was studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed that Li3VO4/C underwent a reversible intercalation reaction during discharge/charge processes. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed largely to the unique microhollow structure. The voids inside hollow structure can not only provide more space to accommodate volume change during discharge/charge processes but also allow the lithium ions insertion and extraction from both outside and inside the hollow structure with a much larger surface area or more reaction sites and shorten the lithium ions diffusion distance, which leads to smaller overpotential and faster reaction kinetics. Carbon derived from F127 through pyrolysis coats Li3VO4 conformably and thus offers good electrical conduction. The results in this work provide convincing evidence that the significant potential of hollow-cuboid Li3VO4/C for high-power batteries.

  16. Online peak power prediction based on a parameter and state estimator for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Lei; Zhu, Chunbo; Wang, Tiansi; Lu, Rengui; Chan, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to realize real-time predictions of the peak power/state of power (SOP) for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs). To allow the proposed method to be applicable to different temperature and aging conditions, a training-free battery parameter/state estimator is presented based on an equivalent circuit model using a dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF). In this estimator, the model parameters are no longer taken as functions of factors such as SOC (state of charge), temperature, and aging; instead, all parameters will be directly estimated under the present conditions, and the impact of the temperature and aging on the battery model will be included in the parameter identification results. Then, the peak power/SOP will be calculated using the estimated results under the given limits. As an improvement to the calculation method, a combined limit of current and voltage is proposed to obtain results that are more reasonable. Additionally, novel verification experiments are designed to provide the true values of the cells' peak power under various operating conditions. The proposed methods are implemented in experiments with LiFePO 4 /graphite cells. The validating results demonstrate that the proposed methods have good accuracy and high adaptability. - Highlights: • A real-time peak power/SOP prediction method for lithium-ion batteries is proposed. • A training-free method based on DEKF is presented for parameter identification. • The proposed method can be applied to different temperature and aging conditions. • The calculation of peak power under the current and voltage limits is improved. • Validation experiments are designed to verify the accuracy of prediction results

  17. Electrospun N-doped Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanofiber with Improved Graphitization Degree for High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baohua; Shi, Ruiying; Han, Cuiping; Xu, Xiaofu; Qing, Xianying; Xu, Lei; Li, Hongfei; Li, Junqin; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2018-05-14

    Lithium ion capacitor (LIC) has been regarded as a promising device to combine the merits of lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, which can meet the requirements for both high energy and power density. The development of advanced electrode is the key. Herein, we demonstrate the bottom-up synthesis of activated carbon nanofiber (a-PANF) with hierarchical porous structure and high graphitization degree. Electrospinning is employed to prepare interconnected fiber network with macropores and ferric acetylacetonate is introduced as both mesopore creating agent and graphitic catalyst to increase the graphitization degree. Furthermore, chemical activation enlarges the specific surface area by producing rich micropores. Half cell evaluation of the as-prepared a-PANF displays a discharge capacity of 80 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 within 2~4.5 V and no capacity fading after 1000 cycles at 2 A g-1, which is significantly higher than conventional activated carbon. Furthermore, the as-assembled LIC with a-PANF cathode and Fe3O4 anode achieves a superior energy density of 124.6 Wh kg-1 at a specific power of 93.8 W kg-1, and remains 103.7 Wh kg-1 at 4687.5 W kg-1, demonstrating the promising application of a-PANF as potential electrode candidates for efficient energy storage systems. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material

  19. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes

  20. Power capability prediction for lithium-ion batteries based on multiple constraints analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Rui; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiple constraints for peak power capability prediction are deeply analyzed. • Multi-limited method is proposed for the peak power capability prediction of LIBs. • The EKF is used for the model based peak power capability prediction. • The FUDS and UDDS profiles are executed to evaluate the proposed method. - Abstract: The power capability of the lithium-ion battery is a key performance indicator for electric vehicle, and it is intimately correlated with the acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing power requirements. Therefore, an accurate power capability or state-of-power prediction is critical to a battery management system, which can help the battery to work in suitable area and prevent the battery from over-charging and over-discharging. However, the power capability is easily affected by dynamic load, voltage variation and temperature. In this paper, three different constraints in power capability prediction are introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of the three methods are deeply analyzed. Furthermore, a multi-limited approach for the power capability prediction is proposed, which can overcome the drawbacks of the three methods. Subsequently, the extended Kalman filter algorithm is employed for model based state-of-power prediction. In order to verify the proposed method, diverse experiments are executed to explore the efficiency, robustness, and precision. The results indicate that the proposed method can improve the precision and robustness obviously.

  1. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-01-01

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles

  2. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin, E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  3. Lifetime Models for Lithium-ion Batteries used in Virtual Power Plant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    ; however, because of their advantages, which include fast response, high efficiency, long lifetime and environmental friendliness, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries represent suitable candidates for integration within VPPs, especially when they are required to provide short- and medium-time services....... The family of Li-ion batteries is broad with many different chemistries available at present on the market. Nonetheless, the Li-ion battery based on the lithium iron phosphate/graphite (further referred LFP/C) chemistry is investigated in this thesis. The lifetime of the Li-ion battery ESS represents a key...... parameter in the analysis of the economic feasibility of integrating such systems in WPPs. Even though their price is decreasing due to the research carried out mainly in the automotive sector, Li-ion batteries are still expensive energy storage devices. Therefore, accurate information about Li...

  4. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  5. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  6. Asymmetric Membranes Containing Micron-Size Silicon for High Performance Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Ian; Wu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Micron-size Si anode is notorious for having extremely poor cycle life. It is mainly caused by the large volume change (∼300%) and poor mechanical strength of the Si electrode. Satisfying methods to address this issue are seriously lacking in literature. In this study, novel single-layer, double-layer and triple-layer asymmetric membranes containing micron-size silicon have been fabricated using a simple phase inversion method to dramatically improve its cyclability. The electrochemical performance of these asymmetric membranes as lithium ion battery anodes are evaluated and compared to pure micron-size Si powders and carbonaceous asymmetric membranes. All three types of asymmetric membrane electrodes demonstrate significantly enhanced stability as compared to pure Si powders. The single-layer asymmetric membrane has the largest capacity degradation due to the loss of pulverized Si powders from the membrane surface, only 40% of whose capacity can be retained in 100 cycles. But this performance is still much better than pure micron-size silicon electrode. After being coated with nanoporous carbonaceous layers on both sides of a single-layer asymmetric membrane to make a triple-layer asymmetric membrane (sandwich structure), the capacity retention is notably increased to 88% in 100 cycles at 610 mAh g"−"1 and 0.5C. The enhanced stability is attributed to the extra nanoporous coatings that can prevent the fractured Si powders from being leached out and allow facile lithium ion diffusions. Such a novel, efficient and scalable method may provide beneficiary guidance for designing high capacity lithium ion battery anodes with large volume change issues.

  7. Selection and impedance based model of a lithium ion battery technology for integration with virtual power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is to integrate lithium-ion batteries into virtual power plants; thus, the power system stability and the energy quality can be increased. The selection of the best lithium-ion battery candidate for integration with wind power plants is a key aspect for the economic feasibility of the virtual power plant...... investment. This paper presents a methodology for selection, between three candidates, of a Li-ion battery which offers long cycle lifetime at partial charge/discharge (required by many grid support applications) while providing a low cost per cycle also. For the selected Li-ion battery an impedance......-based diagnostic tool for lifetime estimation was developed and verified. This diagnostic tool can be extended into an impedance-based lifetime model that will be able to predict the remaining useful lifetime of Li-ion batteries for specific grid support applications....

  8. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 5. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  9. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  10. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  11. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 6. Following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  12. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  13. Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs. It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference.

  14. Lithium-Ion Battery Online Rapid State-of-Power Estimation under Multiple Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to realize a rapid online estimation of the state-of-power (SOP with multiple constraints of a lithium-ion battery. Firstly, based on the improved first-order resistance-capacitance (RC model with one-state hysteresis, a linear state-space battery model is built; then, using the dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF method, the battery parameters and states, including open-circuit voltage (OCV, are estimated. Secondly, by employing the estimated OCV as the observed value to build the second dual Kalman filters, the battery SOC is estimated. Thirdly, a novel rapid-calculating peak power/SOP method with multiple constraints is proposed in which, according to the bisection judgment method, the battery’s peak state is determined; then, one or two instantaneous peak powers are used to determine the peak power during T seconds. In addition, in the battery operating process, the actual constraint that the battery is under is analyzed specifically. Finally, three simplified versions of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS with inserted pulse experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed online SOP estimation method.

  15. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO@Carbon nanoflower for high performance lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    liu, Huichao; Shi, Ludi; Li, Dongzhi; Yu, Jiali; Zhang, Han-Ming; Ullah, Shahid; Yang, Bo; Li, Cuihua; Zhu, Caizhen; Xu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The rational structure design and strong interfacial bonding are crucially desired for high performance zinc oxide (ZnO)/carbon composite electrodes. In this context, micro-nano secondary structure design and strong dopamine coating strategies are adopted for the fabrication of flower-like ZnO/carbon (ZnO@C nanoflowers) composite electrodes. The results show the ZnO@C nanoflowers (2-6 μm) are assembled by hierarchical ZnO nanosheets (∼27 nm) and continuous carbon framework. The micro-nano secondary architecture can facilitate the penetration of electrolyte, shorten lithium ions diffusion length, and hinder the aggregation of the nanosheets. Moreover, the strong chemical interaction between ZnO and coating carbon layer via C-Zn bond improves structure stability as well as the electronic conductivity. As a synergistic result, when evaluated as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the ZnO@C nanoflower electrodes show high reversible capacity of ca. 1200 mA h g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 after 80 cycles. As well as good long-cycling stability (638 and 420 mA h g-1 at 1 and 5 A g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively) and excellent rate capability. Therefore, this rational design of ZnO@C nanoflowers electrode is a promising anode for high-performance LIBs.

  16. High-Performance Ga2O3 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xun; Huang, Xin; Huang, Yongmin; Gou, Yong; Pastore, James; Yang, Yao; Xiong, Yin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Brock, Joel D; Lu, Juntao; Xiao, Li; Abruña, Héctor D; Zhuang, Lin

    2018-02-14

    There is a great deal of interest in developing battery systems that can exhibit self-healing behavior, thus enhancing cyclability and stability. Given that gallium (Ga) is a metal that melts near room temperature, we wanted to test if it could be employed as a self-healing anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, Ga nanoparticles (NPs), when directly applied, tended to aggregate upon charge/discharge cycling. To address this issue, we employed carbon-coated Ga 2 O 3 NPs as an alternative. By controlling the pH of the precursor solution, highly dispersed and ultrafine Ga 2 O 3 NPs, embedded in carbon shells, could be synthesized through a hydrothermal carbonization method. The particle size of the Ga 2 O 3 NPs was 2.6 nm, with an extremely narrow size distribution, as determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. A lithium-ion battery anode based on this material exhibited stable charging and discharging, with a capacity of 721 mAh/g after 200 cycles. The high cyclability is due to not only the protective effects of the carbon shell but also the formation of Ga 0 during the lithiation process, as indicated by operando X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy.

  17. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  18. Free-form Flexible Lithium-Ion Microbattery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-03-02

    Wearable electronics need miniaturized, safe and flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present integration strategy to rationally design materials and processes to report flexible inorganic lithium-ion microbattery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery shows an enhanced normalized capacity of 147 μAh/cm2 when bent.

  19. Flexible lithium-ion planer thin-film battery

    KAUST Repository

    Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2016-02-03

    Commercialization of wearable electronics requires miniaturized, flexible power sources. Lithium ion battery is a strong candidate as the next generation high performance flexible battery. The development of flexible materials for battery electrodes suffers from the limited material choices. In this work, we present a flexible inorganic lithium-ion battery with no restrictions on the materials used. The battery showed an enhanced normalized capacity of 146 ??Ah/cm2.

  20. Multi-timescale power and energy assessment of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system using extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-06-01

    The power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy are key indicators for energy management systems, which can help the energy storage devices work in a suitable area and prevent them from over-charging and over-discharging. In this work, a model based power and energy assessment approach is proposed for the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system. The model framework of the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system is developed based on the equivalent circuit model, and the model parameters are identified by regression method. Explicit analyses of the power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy prediction with multiple constraints are elaborated. Subsequently, the extended Kalman filter is employed for on-board power capability and maximum charge and discharge energy prediction to overcome estimation error caused by system disturbance and sensor noise. The charge and discharge power capability, and the maximum charge and discharge energy are quantitatively assessed under both the dynamic stress test and the urban dynamometer driving schedule. The maximum charge and discharge energy prediction of the lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor hybrid system with different time scales are explored and discussed.

  1. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuena; Niu, Feier; Zhang, Dapeng; Chu, Chenxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2018-04-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors, as a hybrid electrochemical energy storage device, realize high specific energy and power density within one device, thus attracting extensive attention. Here, hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C nanocomposite is prepared by a solvo-thermal reaction, followed with a post-annealing process. This composite has macropores at the center and mesopores in the wall, thus effectively promoting electrolyte penetration and structure stability upon cycling simultaneously. Compared to mesoporous Li3VO4, the enhanced rate capability and specific capacity of hierarchically porous Li3VO4/C indicate the synergistic effect of mesopores and macropores. Inspired by these results, this composite is coupled with mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) for lithium-ion capacitors, generating a specific energy density of 105 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188 W kg-1. Even if the power density increases to 9.3 kW kg-1, the energy density still remains 62 Wh kg-1. All these results demonstrate the promising potential of hierarchically porous Li3VO4 in lithium ion capacitors.

  3. An Adaptive Estimation Scheme for Open-Circuit Voltage of Power Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Open-circuit voltage (OCV is one of the most important parameters in determining state of charge (SoC of power battery. The direct measurement of it is costly and time consuming. This paper describes an adaptive scheme that can be used to derive OCV of the power battery. The scheme only uses the measurable input (terminal current and the measurable output (terminal voltage signals of the battery system and is simple enough to enable online implement. Firstly an equivalent circuit model is employed to describe the polarization characteristic and the dynamic behavior of the lithium-ion battery; the state-space representation of the electrical performance for the battery is obtained based on the equivalent circuit model. Then the implementation procedure of the adaptive scheme is given; also the asymptotic convergence of the observer error and the boundedness of all the parameter estimates are proven. Finally, experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of the adaptive estimation scheme is validated by the experimental results.

  4. Lithium titanate hybridized with trace amount of graphene used as an anode for a high rate lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Hai-Yong; He, Yan-Bing; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Ming; Su, Fangyuan; Lv, Wei; Kang, Feiyu; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    A novel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) electrode with a hierarchical carbon-based conducting network has been developed for high rate lithium ion battery. The unique network is constructed by graphene sheets (GS) that are not only dispersed among (inter-) but also inside (intra-) LTO particles, together with a thin carbon layer wrapping around the LTO particles. The intraparticle GS promotes the electron transfer inside LTO particles while the interparticle GS together with carbon coating bridges the particles guaranteeing fast electron transfer among LTO particles, which construct a highway throughout the whole electrode sheet. Quantitatively, only a trace amount of GS (∼ 0.4 wt%) synergistic with carbon coating (∼0.8 wt%) contributes to a more effective conducting network in the produced LTO electrode and as a result much better performance as compared to the LTO case with similar carbon coating but free of GS. Due to the effectiveness of the conducting network, even with a tap density as high as ∼1.0 g cm −3 , the novel LTO possesses both excellent rate performance and cycling behaviors. The capacity of 123.5 mA h g −1 is obtained at a charge/discharge rate as high as 30 C and a very high capacity of 144.8 mAh g −1 is maintained even after 100 cycles at 10 C. Due to such a low fraction of carbon and a high tape density, the novel LTO electrode has a great practical application value in both the power and energy storage lithium ion batteries

  5. Molecular Spring Enabled High-Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyue Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flexible butyl interconnection segments are synthetically incorporated into an electronically conductive poly(pyrene methacrylate homopolymer and its copolymer. The insertion of butyl segment makes the pyrene polymer more flexible, and can better accommodate deformation. This new class of flexible and conductive polymers can be used as a polymer binder and adhesive to facilitate the electrochemical performance of a silicon/graphene composite anode material for lithium ion battery application. They act like a “spring” to maintain the electrode mechanical and electrical integrity. High mass loading and high areal capacity, which are critical design requirements of high energy batteries, have been achieved in the electrodes composed of the novel binders and silicon/graphene composite material. A remarkable area capacity of over 5 mAh/cm2 and volumetric capacity of over 1700 Ah/L have been reached at a high current rate of 333 mA/g.

  6. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  7. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Lv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  8. VO2 nanoparticles on edge orientated graphene foam for high rate lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guofeng; Zhang, Ruibo; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2018-05-01

    With the fully exposed graphene edges, high conductivity and large surface area, edge oriented graphene foam (EOGF), prepared by deposition of perpendicular graphene network encircling the struts of Ni foam, is a superior scaffold to support active materials for electrochemical applications. With VO2 as an example, EOGF loaded VO2 nanoparticle (VO2/EOGF) electrode has high rate performance as cathode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In addition to the Li+ intercalation into the lattice, contribution of non-diffusion-limited pseudocapacitance to the capacity is prominent at high rates. VO2/EOGF based supercapacitor also exhibits fast response, with a characteristic frequency of 15 Hz when the phase angle reaches -45°, or a relaxation time constant of 66.7 ms. These results suggest the promising potential of EOGF as a scaffold in supporting active nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage and other applications.

  9. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... a down-sized version of the battery pack used in the Mitsubishi iMiEV, which is subjected to power cycles derived from simulations of the vehicle undergoing multiple New European Drive Cycles (NEDC)....

  10. Electrodeposition of high-density lithium vanadate nanowires for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kang; Li, Xiujuan; Fang, Dong; Yi, Jianhong; Bao, Rui; Luo, Zhiping

    2018-07-01

    Lithium vanadate nanowires have been electrodeposited onto a titanium (Ti) foil by a direct current electrodeposition without template. The morphology, crystal structure, and the effects of deposition voltage, temperature and time on the prepared samples were tested and presented. The as-prepared lithium vanadate nanowires/Ti composite can be used as electrode for lithium-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements showed that the electrode displayed a specific discharge capacitance as high as 235.1 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 30 mA g-1. This research provides a new pathway to explore high tap density vanadates nanowires on metals with enhanced electrochemical performance.

  11. Fabrication of hierarchical structured SiO2/polyetherimide-polyurethane nanofibrous separators with high performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Yunyun; Xiao, Ke; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospinning followed by dip-coating was used to fabricate SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes. • Introducing PEI, PU and SiO 2 improved safety, tensile strength and ionic conductivity. • Coating SiO 2 also restrained the micro-shorting and migrated the self-discharge. • SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes based cell exhibited prominent cycling and rate performance. - ABSTRACT: The performance of lithium ion battery based on electrospun nanofibrous membranes has gained a great deal of attention in the past decades, but the intrinsic low mechanical strength and large pore size of electrospun membranes limit their battery performance. To overcome this limitation, a powerful strategy for designing, fabricating and evaluating silica nanoparticles coated polyetherimide-polyurethane (SiO 2 /PEI-PU) nanofibrous composite membranes is easily developed via electrospinning followed by a dip-coating process. Benefiting from the high porosity, interpenetrating network structure and synergetic effect of PU, PEI and SiO 2 nanoparticles, the as-prepared composite membranes exhibit high ionic conductivity (2.33 mS cm −1 ), robust tensile strength (15.65 MPa) and improved safety (excellent thermal resistance and flame retardant property). Additionally, the as-prepared composite membranes possess relatively narrow pore size distribution with average pore size of 0.58 μm after coating SiO 2 nanoparticles, which plays an important role in hindering the micro-shorting and mitigating self-discharge. Significantly, the SiO 2 /PEI-PU membranes based Li/LiFePO 4 cell exhibits more excellent cycling stability with capacity retention of 98.7% after 50 cycles at 0.2 C rate and better rate capability compared with the Celgard membrane based cell. The results clearly demonstrate that this is a promising separator candidate for next-generation lithium ion batteries, which may represent a significant step toward separators with improved performance

  12. Non-Flammable, High Voltage Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrolyte will be demonstrated for lithium ion batteries with increased range of charge and discharge voltages and with improved fire safety. Experimental...

  13. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Choi, Jang Wook; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon

  14. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  15. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-03

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg -1 and 84.6 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg -1 and 24375 W kg -1 , respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  16. Improvement of high voltage cycling performance and thermal stability of lithium-ion cells by use of a thiophene additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Kim, Dong-Won [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Noh, Jaegeun [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Song, Kwang Soup [Advanced Medical Device Center, Korea Electrotechnology, Research Institute, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    This study demonstrates that the addition of thiophene improves the cycle life of lithium-ion cells at high voltage. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that addition of thiophene significantly suppresses the increase of the charge transfer resistance that occurs during cycling up to high voltage. Differential scanning calorimetric studies showed that the thermal stability of fully charged LiCoO{sub 2} cathode was also enhanced in the presence of thiophene. (author)

  17. Flexible Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery with High Safety and Large Volumetric Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Chen, Long; Su, Xiuli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2016-06-20

    A flexible and wearable aqueous lithium-ion battery is introduced based on spinel Li1.1 Mn2 O4 cathode and a carbon-coated NASICON-type LiTi2 (PO4 )3 anode (NASICON=sodium-ion super ionic conductor). Energy densities of 63 Wh kg(-1) or 124 mWh cm(-3) and power densities of 3 275 W kg(-1) or 11.1 W cm(-3) can be obtained, which are seven times larger than the largest reported till now. The full cell can keep its capacity without significant loss under different bending states, which shows excellent flexibility. Furthermore, two such flexible cells in series with an operation voltage of 4 V can be compatible with current nonaqueous Li-ion batteries. Therefore, such a flexible cell can potentially be put into practical applications for wearable electronics. In addition, a self-chargeable unit is realized by integrating a single flexible aqueous Li-ion battery with a commercial flexible solar cell, which may facilitate the long-time outdoor operation of flexible and wearable electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Scalable Upcycling Silicon from Waste Slicing Sludge for High-performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Qi; Huang, Yao-Hui; Lan, Chun-Kai; Chen, Bing-Hong; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has been perceived as a promising next-generation anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to its superior theoretical capacity. Despite the natural abundance of this element on Earth, large-scale production of high-purity Si nanomaterials in a green and energy-efficient way is yet to become an industrial reality. Spray-drying methods have been exploited to recover Si particles from low-value sludge produced in the photovoltaic industry, providing a massive and cost-effective Si resource for fabricating anode materials. To address such drawbacks like volume expansion, low electrical and Li + conductivity and unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, the recycled silicon particles have been downsized into nanoscale and shielded by a highly conductive and protective graphene multilayer through high energy ball milling. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have revealed that the graphene wrapping and size reduction approach have significantly improved the electrochemical performance. It delivers an excellent reversible capacity of 1,138 mA h g −1 and a long cycle life with 73% capacity retention over 150 cycles at a high current of 450 mA g −1 . The plentiful waste conversion methodology also provides considerable opportunities for developing additional rechargeable devices, ceramic, powder metallurgy and silane/siloxane products

  19. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  20. Facile Synthesis of V2O5 Hollow Spheres as Advanced Cathodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional V2O5 hollow structures have been prepared through a simple synthesis strategy combining solvothermal treatment and a subsequent thermal annealing. The V2O5 materials are composed of microspheres 2–3 μm in diameter and with a distinct hollow interior. The as-synthesized V2O5 hollow microspheres, when evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, can deliver a specific capacity as high as 273 mAh·g−1 at 0.2 C. Benefiting from the hollow structures that afford fast electrolyte transport and volume accommodation, the V2O5 cathode also exhibits a superior rate capability and excellent cycling stability. The good Li-ion storage performance demonstrates the great potential of this unique V2O5 hollow material as a high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Iron-antimony-based hybrid oxides as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Kim, Doo Soo; Hur, Jaehyun; Park, Min Sang; Yoon, Sukeun; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-06-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize Fe-Sb-based hybrid oxides nanocomposites consisting of Sb, Sb2O3, and Fe3O4 for use as new anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The composites are synthesized via galvanic replacement between Fe3+ and Sb at high temperature in triethylene glycol medium. The phase, morphology, and composition changes of the composites involved in the various stages of the replacement reaction are characterized using X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The as-prepared composites have different compositions with very small particle sizes (interfacial contact area between the nanocomposite and electrolyte, stable structure of the composites owing to a mixture of inactive phases generated by the conversion reaction between Li+ and oxide metal-whose structure serves as an electron conductor, inhibits agglomeration of Sb particles, and acts as an effective buffer against volume change of Sb during cycling-and high Li+ diffusion ability.

  2. High-Temperature Stable Anatase Titanium Oxide Nanofibers for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Eom, Wonsik; Park, Hun; Han, Tae Hee

    2017-08-02

    Control of the crystal structure of electrochemically active materials is an important approach to fabricating high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we report a methodology for controlling the crystal structure of TiO 2 nanofibers by adding aluminum isopropoxide to a common sol-gel precursor solution utilized to create TiO 2 nanofibers. The introduction of aluminum cations impedes the phase transformation of electrospun TiO 2 nanofibers from the anatase to the rutile phase, which inevitably occurs in the typical annealing process utilized for the formation of TiO 2 crystals. As a result, high-temperature stable anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were created in which the crystal structure was well-maintained even at high annealing temperatures of up to 700 °C. Finally, the resulting anatase TiO 2 nanofibers were utilized to prepare LIB anodes, and their electrochemical performance was compared to pristine TiO 2 nanofibers that contain both anatase and rutile phases. Compared to the electrode prepared with pristine TiO 2 nanofibers, the electrode prepared with anatase TiO 2 nanofibers exhibited excellent electrochemical performances such as an initial Coulombic efficiency of 83.9%, a capacity retention of 89.5% after 100 cycles, and a rate capability of 48.5% at a current density of 10 C (1 C = 200 mA g -1 ).

  3. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  4. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  5. Ultrafast and directional diffusion of lithium in phosphorene for high-performance lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-03-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the binding and diffusion behavior of Li in phosphorene. Our studies reveal the following findings: (1) Li atom forms strong binding with phosphorus atoms and exists in the cationic state; (2) the shallow energy barrier (0.08 eV) of Li diffusion on monolayer phosphorene along zigzag direction leads to an ultrahigh diffusivity, which is estimated to be 10(2) (10(4)) times faster than that on MoS2 (graphene) at room temperature; (3) the large energy barrier (0.68 eV) along armchair direction results in a nearly forbidden diffusion, and such strong diffusion anisotropy is absent in graphene and MoS2; (4) a remarkably large average voltage of 2.9 V is predicted in the phosphorene-based Li-ion battery; and (5) a semiconducting to metallic transition induced by Li intercalation of phosphorene gives rise to a good electrical conductivity, ideal for use as an electrode. Given these advantages, it is expected that phosphorene will present abundant opportunities for applications in novel electronic device and lithium-ion battery with a high rate capability and high charging voltage.

  6. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  7. One Step Hydrothermal Synthesis of FeCO3 Cubes for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Congcong; Liu, Weijian; Chen, Dongyang; Huang, Jiayi; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xueyan; Fang, Yueping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • FeCO 3 nanocubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared. • A reversible capacity of 761 mAh g −1 was achieved at 200 mA g −1 after 130 cycles. • Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance were employed to understand the cell performances. - Abstract: Uniform FeCO 3 cubes with edge length of ∼300 nm were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal reaction and studied as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Interestingly, the FeCO 3 anode has an extremely high initial specific capacity of 1796 mAh g −1 . After cycling at a current rate of 200 mA g −1 for 130 cycles, an excellent discharge capacity of 761 mAh g −1 is still maintained. Moreover, the FeCO 3 anode exhibits significant high-rate capability, e.g., ∼430 mAh g −1 is obtained at a current rate of 1200 mA g −1 . The observation of the FeCO 3 cubes represents an important development of realizing both high capacity and good cycleability in conversion type anode materials for lithium-ion battery at the same time. Such cheap, easy-to-make, and environmentally benign material is promising for practical deployment for lithium ion batteries anode.

  8. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride: A novel anode material for high capacity lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lianyi; Shu, Jie; Lao, Mengmeng; Lin, Xiaoting; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Li, Peng; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong

    2014-12-01

    H3NOHCl is used for the first time as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochemical results show that H3NOHCl with particle size of 4-12 μm can deliver an initial charge capacity of 1018.6 mAh g-1, which is much higher than commercial graphite. After 30 cycles, the reversible capacity can be kept at 676.1 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1. Up to 50 cycles, H3NOHCl still maintains a lithium storage capacity of 368.9 mAh g-1. Even cycled at 200 mA g-1, H3NOHCl can deliver a charge capacity of 715.7 mAh g-1. It suggests that H3NOHCl has high lithium storage capacity, excellent cycling stability and outstanding rate performance. Besides, the electrochemical reaction between H3NOHCl and Li is also investigated by various ex-situ techniques. It can be found that H3NOHCl irreversibly decomposes into Li3N and LiCl during the initial discharge process and LiNO2 can be formed after a reverse charge process.

  9. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  11. Hierarchical three-dimensional porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Junfeng, E-mail: chchjjff@163.com [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Zhang, Xiutai [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Xing, Shumin [College of Mathematics and Physics, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Fan, Qiufeng; Yang, Junping; Zhao, Luhua; Li, Xiang [College of Electronic Information and Electric Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth, good electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • Hierarchical 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth has been firstly synthesized. • The SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes were good candidates for excellent lithium ion batteries. • The SnS{sub 2}/carbon cloth exhibits improved capacity compared to pure SnS{sub 2}. - Abstract: Hierarchical three-dimension (3D) porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes were synthesized via a facile polyol refluxing process. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer (UV–vis DRS). The 3D porous SnS{sub 2}/carbon clothes-based lithium ion batteries exhibited high reversible capacity and good rate capability as anode materials. The good electrochemical performance for lithium ion storage could be attributed to the special nanostructure, leading to high-rate transportation of electrolyte ion and electrons throughout the electrode matrix.

  12. Stannous sulfide/multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrids as high-performance anode materials of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuankui; Zuo, Shiyong; Wu, Zhiguo; Liu, Ying; Zhuo, Renfu; Feng, Juanjuan; Yan, De; Wang, Jun; Yan, Pengxun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) anchored with SnS nanosheets is synthesized through a simple solvothermal method for the first time. Interestingly, SnS can be controllably deposited onto the MWCNTs backbone in the shape of nanosheets or nanoparticles to form two types of SnS/MWCNTs hybrids, SnS NSs/MWCNTs and SnS NPs/MWCNTs. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the hybrids exhibit higher lithium storage capacities and better cycling performance compared to pure SnS. It is found that the SnS NSs/MWCNTs hybrid exhibits a large reversible capacity of 620mAhg −1 at a current of 100mAg −1 as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, which is better than SnS NPs/MWCNTs. The improved performance may be attributed to the ultrathin nanosheet subunits possess short distance for Li + ions diffusion and large electrode-electrolyte contact area for high Li + ions flux across the interface. It is believed that the structural design of electrodes demonstrated in this work will have important implications on the fabrication of high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  13. Synthesis of one-dimensional copper sulfide nanorods as high-performance anode in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; He, Xinyi; Shi, Chunmei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yiyong; Wu, Shunqing; Zhu, Zizong; Zhao, Jinbao

    2014-12-01

    Nanorod-like CuS and Cu2 S have been fabricated by a hydrothermal approach without using any surfactant and template. The electrochemical behavior of CuS and Cu2 S nanorod anodes for lithium-ion batteries reveal that they exhibit stable lithium-ion insertion/extraction reversibility and outstanding rate capability. Both of the electrodes exhibit excellent capacity retentions irrespective of the rate used, even at a high current density of 3200 mA g(-1) . More than 370 mAh g(-1) can be retained for the CuS electrode and 260 mAh g(-1) for the Cu2 S electrode at the high current rate. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g(-1) , the obtained CuS and Cu2 S electrodes show discharge capacities of 472 and 313 mAh g(-1) with retentions of 92% and 96%, respectively. Together with the simplicity of fabrication and good electrochemical properties, CuS and Cu2 S nanorods are promising anode materials for practical use the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Scalable integration of Li5FeO4 towards robust, high-performance lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Sik; Lim, Young-Geun; Hwang, Soo Min; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors have attracted great interest due to their high specific energy relative to conventional electrical double-layer capacitors. Nevertheless, the safety issue still remains a drawback for lithium-ion capacitors in practical operational environments because of the use of metallic lithium. Herein, single-phase Li5FeO4 with an antifluorite structure that acts as an alternative lithium source (instead of metallic lithium) is employed and its potential use for lithium-ion capacitors is verified. Abundant Li(+) amounts can be extracted from Li5FeO4 incorporated in the positive electrode and efficiently doped into the negative electrode during the first electrochemical charging. After the first Li(+) extraction, Li(+) does not return to the Li5FeO4 host structure and is steadily involved in the electrochemical reactions of the negative electrode during subsequent cycling. Various electrochemical and structural analyses support its superior characteristics for use as a promising lithium source. This versatile approach can yield a sufficient Li(+)-doping efficiency of >90% and improved safety as a result of the removal of metallic lithium from the cell. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Iron titanium phosphates as high-specific-capacity electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essehli, R.; El Bali, B.; Faik, A.; Naji, M.; Benmokhtar, S.; Zhong, Y.R.; Su, L.W.; Zhou, Z.; Kim, J.; Kang, K.; Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 585, FEB (2014), s. 434-441 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * electrolyte * nasicon * oxyphosphate * lithium -ion batteries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.999, year: 2014

  16. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Highly flexible self-standing film electrode composed of mesoporous rutile TiO2/C nanofibers for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bote; Cai Rui; Jiang Simin; Sha Yujing; Shao Zongping

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in flexible, safe, high-power thin-film lithium-ion batteries which can be applied to various modern devices. Although TiO 2 in rutile phase is highly attractive as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries for its high thermal stability and theoretical capacity of 336 mA h g −1 and low price, its inflexibility and sluggish lithium intercalation kinetics of bulk phase strongly limit its practical application for particular in thin-film electrode. Here we show a simple way to prepare highly flexible self-standing thin-film electrodes composed of mesoporous rutile TiO 2 /C nanofibers with low carbon content ( 2 in as-fabricated nanofibers. Big size (10 cm × 4 cm), flexible thin film is obtained after heat treatment under 10%H 2 –Ar at 900 °C for 3 h. After optimization, the diameter of fibers can reach as small as ∼110 nm, and the as-prepared rutile TiO 2 films show high initial electrochemical activity with the first discharge capacity as high as 388 mA h g −1 . What is more, very stable reversible capacities of ∼122, 92, and 70 mA h g −1 are achieved respectively at 1, 5 and 10 C rates with negligible decay rate within 100 cycling times.

  18. Aqueous Binder Enhanced High-Performance GeP5 Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available GeP5 is a recently reported new anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs, it holds a large theoretical capacity about 2300 mAh g−1, and a high rate capability due to its bi-active components and superior conductivity. However, it undergoes a large volume change during its electrochemical alloying and de-alloying with Li, a suitable binder is necessary to stable the electrode integrity for improving cycle performance. In this work, we tried to apply aqueous binders LiPAA and NaCMC to GeP5 anode, and compared the difference in electrochemical performance between them and traditional binder PVDF. As can be seen from the test result, GeP5 can keep stable in both common organic solvents and proton solvents such as water and alcohol solvents, it meets the application requirements of aqueous binders. The electrochemistry results show that the use of LiPAA binder can significantly improve the initial Coulombic efficiency, reversible capacity, and cyclability of GeP5 anode as compared to the electrodes based on NaCMC and PVDF binders. The enhanced electrochemical performance of GeP5 electrode with LiPAA binder can be ascribed to the unique high strength long chain polymer structure of LiPAA, which also provide numerous uniform distributed carboxyl groups to form strong ester groups with active materials and copper current collector. Benefit from that, the GeP5 electrode with LiPAA can also exhibit excellent rate capability, and even at low temperature, it still shows attractive electrochemical performance.

  19. High flash point electrolyte for use in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isken, P.; Dippel, C.; Schmitz, R.; Schmitz, R.W.; Kunze, M.; Passerini, S.; Winter, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Lex-Balducci, A., E-mail: a.lex-balducci@uni-muenster.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Westfaelische Wilhelms-University Muenster, Corrensstrasse 28/30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Substitution of linear carbonates in conventional electrolytes with adiponitrile allows the realization of high flash point electrolytes. > EC:ADN based electrolytes display a higher anodic stability than a conventional electrolyte based on EC:DEC. > Graphite and NCM electrodes used in combination with the EC:ADN based electrolyte display a performance comparable with that of conventional electrolytes. - Abstract: The high flash point solvent adiponitrile (ADN) was investigated as co-solvent with ethylene carbonate (EC) for use as lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The flash point of this solvent mixture was more than 110 deg. C higher than that of conventional electrolyte solutions involving volatile linear carbonate components, such as diethyl carbonate (DEC) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The electrolyte based on EC:ADN (1:1 wt) with lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF{sub 4}) displayed a conductivity of 2.6 mS cm{sup -1} and no aluminum corrosion. In addition, it showed higher anodic stability on a Pt electrode than the standard electrolyte 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF{sub 6}) in EC:DEC (3:7 wt). Graphite/Li half cells using this electrolyte showed excellent rate capability up to 5C and good cycling stability (more than 98% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 1C). Additionally, the electrolyte was investigated in NCM/Li half cells. The cells were able to reach a capacity of 104 mAh g{sup -1} at 5C and capacity retention of more than 97% after 50 cycles. These results show that an electrolyte with a considerably increased flash point with respect to common electrolyte systems comprising linear carbonates, could be realized without any negative effects on the electrochemical performance in Li-half cells.

  20. Binders and Hosts for High-Capacity Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufficy, Martin Kyle

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are universal electrochemical energy storage devices that have revolutionized our mobile society. Nonetheless, societal and technological advances drive consumer demand for LIBs with enhanced electrochemical performance, such as higher charge capacity and longer life, compared to conventional LIBs. One method to enhance LIB performance is to replace graphite, the industry standard anode since commercialization of LIBs in 1991, with high-charge capacity materials. Implementing high-capacity anode materials such as tin, silicon, and manganese vanadates, to LIBs presents challenges; Li-insertion is destructive to anode framework, and increasing capacity increases structural strains that pulverize anode materials and results in a short-cycle life. This thesis reports on various methods to extended the cycle life of high-capacity materials. Most of the work is conducted on nano-sized anode materials to reduce Li and electron transport pathway length (facilitating charge-transfer) and reduce strains from volume expansions (preserving anode structure). The first method involves encapsulating tin particles into a graphene-containing carbon nanofiber (CNF) matrix. The composite-CNF matrix houses tin particles to assume strains from tin-volume expansions and produces favorable surface-electrolyte chemistries for stable charge-discharge cycling. Before tin addition, graphene-containing CNFs are produced and assessed as anode materials for LIBs. Graphene addition to CNFs improves electronic and mechanical properties of CNFs. Furthermore, the 2-D nature of graphene provides Li-binding sites to enhance composite-CNF both first-cycle and high-rate capacities > 150% when compared to CNFs in the absence of graphene. With addition of Sn, we vary loadings and thermal production temperature to elucidate structure-composition relationships of tin and graphene-containing CNF electrodes that lead to increased capacity retention. Of note, electrodes containing

  1. A Liquid Inorganic Electrolyte Showing an Unusually High Lithium Ion Transference Number: A Concentrated Solution of LiAlCl4 in Sulfur Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Winter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on studies of an inorganic electrolyte: LiAlCl4 in liquid sulfur dioxide. Concentrated solutions show a very high conductivity when compared with typical electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that are based on organic solvents. Our investigations include conductivity measurements and measurements of transference numbers via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and by a classical direct method, Hittorf’s method. For the use of Hittorf’s method, it is necessary to measure the concentration of the electrolyte in a selected cell compartment before and after electrochemical polarization very precisely. This task was finally performed by potentiometric titration after hydrolysis of the salt. The Haven ratio was determined to estimate the association behavior of this very concentrated electrolyte solution. The measured unusually high transference number of the lithium cation of the studied most concentrated solution, a molten solvate LiAlCl4 × 1.6SO2, makes this electrolyte a promising alternative for lithium ion cells with high power ability.

  2. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  3. High-Capacity Micrometer-Sized Li 2 S Particles as Cathode Materials for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2012-09-19

    Li 2S is a high-capacity cathode material for lithium metal-free rechargeable batteries. It has a theoretical capacity of 1166 mAh/g, which is nearly 1 order of magnitude higher than traditional metal oxides/phosphates cathodes. However, Li 2S is usually considered to be electrochemically inactive due to its high electronic resistivity and low lithium-ion diffusivity. In this paper, we discover that a large potential barrier (∼1 V) exists at the beginning of charging for Li 2S. By applying a higher voltage cutoff, this barrier can be overcome and Li 2S becomes active. Moreover, this barrier does not appear again in the following cycling. Subsequent cycling shows that the material behaves similar to common sulfur cathodes with high energy efficiency. The initial discharge capacity is greater than 800 mAh/g for even 10 μm Li 2S particles. Moreover, after 10 cycles, the capacity is stabilized around 500-550 mAh/g with a capacity decay rate of only ∼0.25% per cycle. The origin of the initial barrier is found to be the phase nucleation of polysulfides, but the amplitude of barrier is mainly due to two factors: (a) charge transfer directly between Li 2S and electrolyte without polysulfide and (b) lithium-ion diffusion in Li 2S. These results demonstrate a simple and scalable approach to utilizing Li 2S as the cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high specific energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manthiram, Arumugam [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Chao-Yang [EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States); Liu, Gao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    High-loading and high quality PSU Si anode has been optimized and fabricated. The electrochemical performance has been utilized. The PSU Si-graphite anode exhibits the mass loading of 5.8 mg/cm2, charge capacity of 850 mAh/ g and good cycling performance. This optimized electrode has been used for full-cell fabrication. The performance enhancement of Ni-rich materials can be achieved by a diversity of strategies. Higher Mn content and a small amount of Al doping can improve the electrochemical performance by suppressing interfacial side reactions with electrolytes, thus greatly benefiting the cyclability of the samples. Also, surface coatings of Li-rich materials and AlF3 are able to improve the performance stability of Ni-rich cathodes. One kilogram of optimized concentration-gradient LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 (CG) with careful control of composition, morphology and electrochemical performance was delivered to our collaborators. The sample achieved an initial specific capacity close to 190 mA h g-1 at C/10 rate and 180 mA h g-1 at C/3 rate as well as good cyclability in pouch full cells with a 4.4 V upper cut-off voltage at room temperature. Electrolyte additive with Si-N skeleton forms a less resistant SEI on the surface of silicon anode (from PSU) as evidenced by the evolution of the impedance at various lithiation/de-lithiation stages and the cycling data The prelithiation result demonstrates a solution processing method to achieve large area, uniform SLMP coating on well-made anode surface for the prelithiation of lithium-ion batteries. The prelithiation effect with this method is applied both in graphite half cells, graphite/NMC full cells, SiO half cells, SiO/NMC full cells, Si-Graphite half cells and Si-Graphite/NMC full cells with improvements in cycle performance and higher first cycle coulombic efficiency than their corresponding cells without SLMP prelithiation. As to the full

  5. Micro-sized organometallic compound of ferrocene as high-performance anode material for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Feng, Li; Su, Xiaoru; Qin, Chenyang; Zhao, Kun; Hu, Fang; Zhou, Mingjiong; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-01-01

    An organometallic compound of ferrocene is first investigated as a promising anode for lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical properties of ferrocene are conducted by galvanostatic charge and discharge. The ferrocene anode exhibits a high reversible capacity and great cycling stability, as well as superior rate capability. The electrochemical reaction of ferrocene is semi-reversible and some metallic Fe remains in the electrode even after delithiation. The metallic Fe formed in electrode and the stable solid electrolyte interphase should be responsible for its excellent electrochemical performance.

  6. Highly conductive bridges between graphite spheres to improve the cycle performance of a graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Umeno, Tatsuo; Mizuma, Koutarou [Research Center, Mitsui Mining Co. Ltd., Hibiki-machi 1-3, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0021 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, Yoga-machi 1341, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-01-10

    Spherical carbon-coated natural graphite (SCCNG) is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but the smooth surface of graphite spheres is difficult to wet with an aqueous binder solution, and lacks electrical contacts. As a result, the cycle performance of such a graphite anode material is not satisfactory. An effective method has been introduced to tightly connect adjacent SCCNG particles by a highly conductive binder, viz. acetylene black bridges. The effect of the conductive bridges on the cyclability of SCCNG electrode has been investigated. (author)

  7. Hierarchical SnO2-Graphite Nanocomposite Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries through High Energy Mechanical Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Vincent Ming Hong; Wu, Shuying; Liu, Peijiang; Zhu, Beibei; Yu, Linghui; Wang, Chuanhu; Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Yao, Zhengjun; Zhou, Jintang; Que, Wenxiu; Kong, Ling Bing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A simple and scalable process to concomitant downsizing to nanoscale, carbon coating, inclusion of voids and conductive network of graphite. •Using tungsten carbide milling media and 80:1 ball to powder ratio, micron SnO 2 particles are comminuted to nanosized SnO 2 crystallites. •Hierarchical structure of carbon-coated SnO2 nanoclusters anchored on thin graphite sheets are prepared. •Impressive reversible capacity of 725 mAh g −1 is achieved by ball milling a mixture of SnO 2 with 20 wt. % graphite for 20 h. •Synthesis parameters such as graphite content and milling time are systematically examined. -- Abstract: Development of novel electrode materials with unique architectural designs is necessary to attain high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). SnO 2 , with high theoretical capacity of 1494 mAh g −1 , is a promising candidate anode material, which has been explored with various strategies, such as dimensional reduction, morphological modifications and composite formation. Unfortunately, most of the SnO 2 -based electrodes are prepared by using complex chemical synthesis methods, which are not feasible to scale up for practical applications. In addition, concomitant irrecoverable initial capacity loss and consequently poor initial Coulombic efficiency still persistently plagued these SnO 2 -based anodes. To overcome hitherto conceived irreversible formation of Li 2 O by conversion reaction, to fully harness its theoretical capacity, this work demonstrates that a hierarchical structured SnO 2 -C nanocomposite with 68.5% initial Coulombic efficiency and reversible capacity of 725 mAh g −1 can be derived from the mixtures of SnO 2 and graphite, by using low cost industrial compatible high energy ball milling activation.

  8. Efficient preparation of highly hydrogenated graphene and its application as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wufeng; Zhu, Zhiye; Li, Sirong; Chen, Chunhua; Yan, Lifeng

    2012-03-01

    A novel method has been developed to prepare hydrogenated graphene (HG) via a direct synchronized reduction and hydrogenation of graphene oxide (GO) in an aqueous suspension under 60Co gamma ray irradiation at room temperature. GO can be reduced by the aqueous electrons (eaq-) while the hydrogenation takes place due to the hydrogen radicals formed in situ under irradiation. The maximum hydrogen content of the as-prepared highly hydrogenated graphene (HHG) is found to be 5.27 wt% with H/C = 0.76. The yield of the target product is on the gram scale. The as-prepared HHG also shows high performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  9. N/S Co-doped Carbon Derived From Cotton as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon with large surface areas is prepared using cotton as carbon sources which derived from discard cotton balls. Subsequently, the sulfur-nitrogen co-doped carbon was obtained by heat treatment the carbon in presence of thiourea and evaluated as Lithium-ion batteries anode. Benefiting from the S, N co-doping, the obtained S, N co-doped carbon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. As a result, the as-prepared S, N co-doped carbon can deliver a high reversible capacity of 1,101.1 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles at 0.2 A g−1, and a high capacity of 531.2 mA h g−1 can be observed even after 5,000 cycles at 10.0 A g−1. Moreover, excellently rate capability also can be observed, a high capacity of 689 mA h g−1 can be obtained at 5.0 A g−1. This superior lithium storage performance of S, N co-doped carbon make it as a promising low-cost and sustainable anode for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  10. Mesoporous LiMnPO4/C nanoparticles as high performance cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Fang; Shu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wan, Jiajia; Huang, Weihua; Yang, Xiukang; Yu, Ruizhi; Liu, Li; Wang, Xianyou

    2016-01-01

    LiMnPO 4 has been considered as one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for next-generation lithium ion batteries. However, LiMnPO 4 suffers from intrinsic drawbacks of extremely low electronic conductivity and ionic diffusivity between LiMnPO 4 /MnPO 4 . In this paper, mesoporous LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles are synthesized successfully via a facile glycine-assisted solvothermal rout. The as-prepared mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles present well-defined abundant mesoporous structure (diameter of 3 ∼ 10 nm), uniform carbon layer (thickness of 3 ∼ 4 nm), high specific surface area (90.1 m 2 /g). As a result, the mesoporous LiMnPO 4 /C nanoparticles achieve excellent electrochemical performance as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. It demonstrates a high discharge capacity of 167.7, 161.6, 156.4, 148.4 and 128.7 mAh/g at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5C, and maintains a discharge capacity of 130.0 mAh/g after 100 cycles at 1C. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to its special interpenetrating mesoporous structure in LiMnPO 4 nanoparticles, which significantly enhances the ionic and electronic transport and additional capacitive behavior to compensate the sluggish kinetics.

  11. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang

    2010-10-13

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free particle growth in solution, allowed for the electrically insulating Mn3O4 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene network. The Mn3O4 nanoparticles formed on RGO show a high specific capacity up to ∼900 mAh/g, near their theoretical capacity, with good rate capability and cycling stability, owing to the intimate interactions between the graphene substrates and the Mn 3O4 nanoparticles grown atop. The Mn3O 4/RGO hybrid could be a promising candidate material for a high-capacity, low-cost, and environmentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on-graphene approach should offer a new technique for the design and synthesis of battery electrodes based on highly insulating materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Facile synthesis of uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yifan; Du, Ning, E-mail: dna1122@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A uniform SiO{sub 2} layer was deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotube. • Synthesis of uniform (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction. • The MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cyclability. • Enhanced performance is attributed to porous nanostructure, introduction of MWCNTs. - Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of uniform multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)@Si nanocomposites via the magnesiothermic reduction of pre-synthesized MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables. At first, the acid vapor steaming is used to treat the surface, which can facilitate the uniform deposition of SiO{sub 2} layer via the TEOS hydrolysis. Then, the uniform MWCNT@Si nanocomposites are obtained on the basis of MWCNT@SiO{sub 2} nanocables via a simple magnesiothermic reduction. When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-synthesized MWCNT@Si nanocomposites show high reversible capacity and good cycling performance, which is better than bulk Si and bare MWCNTs. It is believed that the good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the novel porous nanostructure and the introduction of MWCNTs that can buffer the volume change, maintain the electrical conductive network, and enhance the electronic conductivity and lithium-ion transport.

  13. Preparation of a porous Sn@C nanocomposite as a high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Chunru

    2015-07-01

    A porous Sn@C nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple post-calcination process, using stannous octoate as the Sn source and glucose as the C source. The as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.A porous Sn@C nanocomposite was prepared via a facile hydrothermal method combined with a simple post-calcination process, using stannous octoate as the Sn source and glucose as the C source. The as-prepared Sn@C nanocomposite exhibited excellent electrochemical behavior with a high reversible capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability when used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure and additional characterization, including a Raman spectrum, TGA curve, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, TEM images and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03093e

  14. Ultra-light and flexible pencil-trace anode for high performance potassium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineering design of battery configurations and new battery system development are alternative approaches to achieve high performance batteries. A novel flexible and ultra-light graphite anode is fabricated by simple friction drawing on filter paper with a commercial 8B pencil. Compared with the traditional anode using copper foil as current collector, this innovative current-collector-free design presents capacity improvement of over 200% by reducing the inert weight of the electrode. The as-prepared pencil-trace electrode exhibits excellent rate performance in potassium-ion batteries (KIBs, significantly better than in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, with capacity retention of 66% for the KIB vs. 28% for the LIB from 0.1 to 0.5 A g−1. It also shows a high reversible capacity of ∼230 mAh g−1 at 0.2 A g−1, 75% capacity retention over 350 cycles at 0.4 A g−1and the highest rate performance (based on the total electrode weight among graphite electrodes for K+ storage reported so far. Keywords: Current-collector-free, Flexible pencil-trace electrode, Potassium-ion battery, Lithium-ion battery, Layer-by-layer interconnected architecture

  15. Cu-SnO2 nanostructures obtained via galvanic replacement control as high performance anodes for lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Loi; Park, Duckshin; Hur, Jaehyun; Son, Hyung Bin; Park, Min Sang; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Il Tae

    2018-01-01

    SnO2 has been considered as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (782 mAh g-1). However, the reaction between lithium ions and Sn causes a large volume change, resulting in the pulverization of the anode, a loss of contact with the current collector, and a deterioration in electrochemical performance. Several strategies have been proposed to mitigate the drastic volume changes to extend the cyclic life of SnO2 materials. Herein, novel composites consisting of Cu and SnO2 were developed via the galvanic replacement reaction. The reaction was carried out at 180 °C for different durations and triethylene glycol was used as the medium solvent. The structure, morphology, and composition of the composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The reaction time affected the particle size, which in turn affected the reaction kinetics. Furthermore, the novel nanostructures contained an inactive metal phase (Cu), which acted both as the buffer space against the volume change of Sn during the alloying reaction and as the electron conductor, resulting in a lower impedance of the composites. When evaluated as potential anodes for LIBs, the composite electrodes displayed extraordinary electrochemical performance with a high capacity and Coulombic efficiency, an excellent cycling stability, and a superior rate capability compared to a Sn electrode.

  16. Inorganic Glue Enabling High Performance of Silicon Particles as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Silicon, as an alloy-type anode material, has recently attracted lots of attention because of its highest known Li+ storage capacity (4200 mAh/g). But lithium insertion into and extraction from silicon are accompanied by a huge volume change, up to 300, which induces a strong strain on silicon and causes pulverization and rapid capacity fading due to the loss of the electrical contact between part of silicon and current collector. Silicon nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes can overcome the pulverization problem, however these nano-engineered silicon anodes usually involve very expensive processes and have difficulty being applied in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this study, we report a novel method using amorphous silicon as inorganic glue replacing conventional polymer binder. This inorganic glue method can solve the loss of contact issue in conventional silicon particle anode and enables successful cycling of various sizes of silicon particles, both nano-particles and micron particles. With a limited capacity of 800 mAh/g, relatively large silicon micron-particles can be stably cycled over 200 cycles. The very cheap production of these silicon particle anodes makes our method promising and competitive in lithium ion battery industry. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  17. Three dimensional Graphene aerogels as binder-less, freestanding, elastic and high-performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihang; Li, Hua; Tian, Ran; Duan, Huanan; Guo, Yiping; Chen, Yujie; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chunmei; DUGNANI, Roberto; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    In this work it is shown how porous graphene aerogels fabricated by an eco-friendly and simple technological process, could be used as electrodes in lithium- ion batteries. The proposed graphene framework exhibited excellent performance including high reversible capacities, superior cycling stability and rate capability. A significantly lower temperature (75 °C) than the one currently utilized in battery manufacturing was utilized for self-assembly hence providing potential significant savings to the industrial production. After annealing at 600 °C, the formation of Sn-C-O bonds between the SnO2 nanoparticles and the reduced graphene sheets will initiate synergistic effect and improve the electrochemical performance. The XPS patterns revealed the formation of Sn-C-O bonds. Both SEM and TEM imaging of the electrode material showed that the three dimensional network of graphene aerogels and the SnO2 particles were distributed homogeneously on graphene sheets. Finally, the electrochemical properties of the samples as active anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were tested and examined by constant current charge–discharge cycling and the finding fully described in this manuscript. PMID:27265146

  18. Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} nanorod as high stability electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chun-Han; Shen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Li-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Lin, E-mail: plkuo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} (LFS) nanorods, with a diameter of 80–100 nm and length of 0.8–1.0 μm, were synthesized successfully from a mixture of LiOH, FeSO{sub 4}, and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles via a simple hydrothermal process. The secondary structure with micro-sized bundles of nanorods was developed with high crystallinity under the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C for 72 h. Then, sucrose, as carbon source, was coated and carbonized on the surface of the LFS nanorods to fabricate LFS/C nanorod composite. The resulting LFS/C nanorod composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and surface area measurements. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion battery, the electrochemical performance of the LFS/C nanorod material delivers discharge capacities of 156 mAh g{sup −1} in the voltage window of 1.8−4.7 V and also demonstrates good cycle stability when it is cycled between 1.8 and 4.1 V. In short, superior electrochemical properties could be caused by the short lithium-ion diffusion path of its nanorod structure.

  19. Super high energy density of Li3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Amin, Mochammad Karim Al; Susanti, Diah; Triwibowo, Joko

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries have many advantages such as high energy density, no memory effect, long time cycleability and friendly environment. One type of cathode material that can be developed is Li3V2(PO4)3. In this study has been carried out the synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 with a hydrothermal temperature variation of 140, 160 and 180 °C and calcination temperature at 800 °C. SEM images show that the morphology of Li3V2(PO4)3 has irregular flakes with a size between 1-10 µm. CV results show redox reaction occurs in the range between 3 V to 4.8 V with the highest specific discharge capacity of 136 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal and calcination are 180 °C and 800 °C. This result demonstrates that Li3V2(PO4)3 has a great potential as cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  20. Li2FeSiO4 nanorod as high stability electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chun-Han; Shen, Yu-Wen; Chien, Li-Hsuan; Kuo, Ping-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Li 2 FeSiO 4 (LFS) nanorods, with a diameter of 80–100 nm and length of 0.8–1.0 μm, were synthesized successfully from a mixture of LiOH, FeSO 4 , and SiO 2 nanoparticles via a simple hydrothermal process. The secondary structure with micro-sized bundles of nanorods was developed with high crystallinity under the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C for 72 h. Then, sucrose, as carbon source, was coated and carbonized on the surface of the LFS nanorods to fabricate LFS/C nanorod composite. The resulting LFS/C nanorod composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and surface area measurements. When used as the cathode materials for lithium-ion battery, the electrochemical performance of the LFS/C nanorod material delivers discharge capacities of 156 mAh g −1 in the voltage window of 1.8−4.7 V and also demonstrates good cycle stability when it is cycled between 1.8 and 4.1 V. In short, superior electrochemical properties could be caused by the short lithium-ion diffusion path of its nanorod structure

  1. Interconnected α-Fe2O3 nanosheet arrays as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dandan; Li, Dongdong; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2016-01-01

    The electrode materials with structure stability and binder-free are urgently required for improving the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, interconnected α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays directly grown on Ti foil were fabricated via a facile galvanostatic electrodeposition method followed by thermal treatment. The as-prepared α-Fe 2 O 3 has an open network structure constituted of interconnected nanosheets and can be directly used as integrated electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe 2 O 3 nanosheet arrays exhibit a high reversible capacity of 986.3 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . Moreover, a reversible capacity of ca. 425.9 mAh g −1 is achieved even at a superhigh current density of 10 A g −1 , which is higher than the theoretical capacity of commercially used graphite. The excellent performance could be attributed to the efficient electron transport, the large electrode/electrolyte interfaces and the good accommodations for volume expansion from the interconnected nanosheet arrays structure.

  2. Tailoring nanostructured MnO2 as anodes for lithium ion batteries with high reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Song, Jiajia; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-03-01

    Developing high energy storage lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using manganese oxides as anodes is an attractive challenge due to their high theoretical capacity and abundant resources. However, the manganese oxides anodes still suffer from the low initial Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance. Herein, we demonstrate that nano-sized morphological engineering is a facile and effective strategy to improve the electrochemical performance of the manganese dioxide (MnO2) for LIBs. The tailored MnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit high reversible capacity (1095 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), high initial Coulombic efficiency (94.5%) and good rate capability (464 mAh g-1 at 2000 mA g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performance of MnO2 NPs can be attributed to the presences of numerous electrochemically active sites and interspaces among the NPs.

  3. High-performance lithium-ion battery and symmetric supercapacitors based on FeCo₂O₄ nanoflakes electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Saad Gomaa; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chih Kai; Hu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2014-12-24

    A successive preparation of FeCo2O4 nanoflakes arrays on nickel foam substrates is achieved by a simple hydrothermal synthesis method. After 170 cycles, a high capacity of 905 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density and very good rate capabilities are obtained for lithium-ion battery because of the 2D porous structures of the nanoflakes arrays. The distinctive structural features provide the battery with excellent electrochemical performance. The symmetric supercapacitor on nonaqueous electrolyte demonstrates high specific capacitance of 433 F g(-1) at 0.1 A g(-1) and 16.7 F g(-1) at high scan rate of 5 V s(-1) and excellent cyclic performance of 2500 cycles of charge-discharge cycling at 2 A g(-1) current density, revealing excellent long-term cyclability of the electrode even under rapid charge-discharge conditions.

  4. CoFe2O4/carbon nanotube aerogels as high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs require electrode material to have an ideal electrode construction which provides fast ion transport, short solid-state ion diffusion, large surface area, and high electric conductivity. Herein, highly porous three-dimensional (3D aerogels composed of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4, CFO nanoparticles (NPs and carbon nanotubes (CNTs are prepared using sustainable alginate as the precursor. The key feature of this work is that by using the characteristic egg-box structure of the alginate, metal cations such as Co2+ and Fe3+ can be easily chelated via an ion-exchange process, thus binary CFO are expected to be prepared. In the hybrid aerogels, CFO NPs interconnected by the CNTs are embedded in carbon aerogel matrix, forming the 3D network which can provide high surface area, buffer the volume expansion and offer efficient ion and electron transport pathways for achieving high performance LIBs. The as-prepared hybrid aerogels with the optimum CNT content (20 wt% delivers excellent electrochemical properties, i.e., reversible capacity of 1033 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1 and a high specific capacity of 874 mAh g−1 after 160 cycles at 1 A g−1. This work provides a facile and low cost route to fabricate high performance anodes for LIBs. Keywords: Alginate, Aerogels, Cobalt ferrite, Anode, Lithium-ion battery

  5. High-Level Heteroatom Doped Two-Dimensional Carbon Architectures for Highly Efficient Lithium-Ion Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, high-level heteroatom doped two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architectures (H-2D-HCA are developed for highly efficient Li-ion storage applications. The achieved H-2D-HCA possesses a hierarchical 2D morphology consisting of tiny carbon nanosheets vertically grown on carbon nanoplates and containing a hierarchical porosity with multiscale pore size. More importantly, the H-2D-HCA shows abundant heteroatom functionality, with sulfur (S doping of 0.9% and nitrogen (N doping of as high as 15.5%, in which the electrochemically active N accounts for 84% of total N heteroatoms. In addition, the H-2D-HCA also has an expanded interlayer distance of 0.368 nm. When used as lithium-ion battery anodes, it shows excellent Li-ion storage performance. Even at a high current density of 5 A g−1, it still delivers a high discharge capacity of 329 mA h g−1 after 1,000 cycles. First principle calculations verifies that such unique microstructure characteristics and high-level heteroatom doping nature can enhance Li adsorption stability, electronic conductivity and Li diffusion mobility of carbon nanomaterials. Therefore, the H-2D-HCA could be promising candidates for next-generation LIB anodes.

  6. Charge Localization in the Lithium Iron Phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3at High Voltages in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Loftager, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Possible changes in the oxidation state of the oxygen ion in the lithium iron phosphate Li3Fe2(PO4)3 at high voltages in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied using experimental and computational analysis. Results obtained from synchrotron-based hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...

  7. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  8. Biomass carbon composited FeS2 as cathode materials for high-rate rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Meng, Zhen; Zhu, Xueling; Zhang, Shunlong; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Pyrite FeS2 has long been used as commercial primary lithium batteries at room temperature. To achieve rechargeable FeS2 battery, biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites are prepared using green and renewable auricularia auricula as carbon source through the process of carbonization and sulfuration. The auricularia auricula has strong swelling characteristics to absorb aqueous solution which can effectively absorb Fe ions into its body. FeS2 homogeneously distributed in biomass carbon matrix performs high electronic and ionic conductivity. The specific capacity of biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites remains 850 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles at 0.5C and 700 mAh g-1 at the rate of 2C after 150 cycles. Biomass-carbon@FeS2 composites exhibit high-rate capacity in lithium-ion battery.

  9. Random oriented hexagonal nickel hydroxide nanoplates grown on graphene as binder free anode for lithium ion battery with high capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingjie; Ma, Hu; Guo, Mingxuan; Gao, Tie; Li, Haibo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, two-step method has been employed to prepare random oriented hexagonal hydroxide nanoplates on graphene (Ni(OH)2@G) as binder free anode for lithium ion battery (LIB) with high capacity. The morphology, microstructure, crystal phase and elemental bonding have been characterized. When evaluated as anode for LIB, the Ni(OH)2@G exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 1318 mAh/g at the current density of 50 mA/g. After 80 cycles, the capacity was maintained at 834 mAh/g, implying 63.3% remaining. Even the charge rate was increased to 2000 mA/g, an impressive capacity of 141 mAh/g can be obtained, indicating good rate capability. The superior LIB behavior of Ni(OH)2@G is ascribed to the excellent combination between Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and graphene via both covalent chemical bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  10. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  11. Analysis on the capacity degradation mechanism of a series lithium-ion power battery pack based on inconsistency of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen-Po; Liu Peng; Wang Li-Fang

    2013-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery has been widely used as an energy source. Charge rate, discharge rate, and operating temperature are very important factors for the capacity degradations of power batteries and battery packs. Firstly, in this paper we make use of an accelerated life test and a statistical analysis method to establish the capacity accelerated degradation model under three constant stress parameters according to the degradation data, which are charge rate, discharge rate, and operating temperature, and then we propose a capacity degradation model according to the current residual capacity of a Li-ion cell under dynamic stress parameters. Secondly, we analyze the charge and discharge process of a series power battery pack and interpret the correlation between the capacity degradations of the battery pack and its charge/discharge rate. According to this cycling condition, we establish a capacity degradation model of a series power battery pack under inconsistent capacity of cells, and analyze the degradation mechanism with capacity variance and operating temperature difference. The comparative analysis of test results shows that the inconsistent operating temperatures of cells in the series power battery pack are the main cause of its degradation; when the difference between inconsistent temperatures is narrowed by 5 °C, the cycle life can be improved by more than 50%. Therefore, it effectively improves the cycle life of the series battery pack to reasonably assemble the batteries according to their capacities and to narrow the differences in operating temperature among cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Designing Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids as high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Lu; Zhang, Wenhui; Yang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lingzhi

    2014-01-01

    A novel Si/porous-C composite with buffering voids was prepared by the co-assembly of phenol-formaldehyde resin, SiO 2 and Si nanoparticles, followed by a carbonizing process and subsequent removal of SiO 2 template. Si nanoparticle was coated with a layer of porous carbon shell with rationally designed void in between which provides the accommodating space for the volume change of Si over cycling. The as-prepared composite electrode exhibited good electrochemical performances as an anode material in lithium-ion cells, showing a stable reversible capacity of 980 mAh g −1 over 80 cycles with small capacity fade of 0.17%/cycle and high rate capability (721 mAh g −1 at 2000 mA g −1 )

  13. Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composite lithium ion battery electrode with unique stability and high electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mengyuan; Liu Chunling; Shi Meirong; Dong Wensheng

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites with different compositions are synthesized by a simple solution polymerization using inexpensive raw materials followed by pyrolysis in nitrogen atmosphere. The nanostructure Sn-Co-C composites are characterized using various analytic techniques. The results show that the electrochemical performances of the composites are strongly dependent on their structure and composition. Among these composites the Sn-Co-C-1 with a weight composition of Sn 0.31 Co 0.09 C 0.6 exhibits high reversible capacity and excellent cycleability when used as an anode for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. This composite is composed of SnCo 2 , SnCo, Sn and amorphous carbon, and the nanoparticles of SnCo 2 , SnCo and Sn are uniformly dispersed into the amorphous carbon matrix, the average diameter of these metal nanoparticles is 8.44 nm.

  14. Closing to Scaling-Up High Reversible Si/rGO Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokur, Mahmud; Algul, Hasan; Ozcan, Seyma; Cetinkaya, Tugrul; Uysal, Mehmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • rGO wrapped Si composite anodes for li-ion batteries were prepared by a hybrid assembly and followed by GO reduction. • To improve mechanical bonding between rGO and Si nanoparticles, mechanical alloying method was performed. • Different Si/rGO composite mixtures were prepared to investigate electrochemical performance of composite anodes. - Abstract: In spite of its excellent discharge capacity, low conductivity and poor cycling stability prevent to commercialize silicon negative electrodes for the Lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Since graphene has large surface area, high electrical conductivity and discharge capacity, silicon/graphene nanocomposite anodes in proper architectures alleviate difficulties to improve electrochemical performances of the LIBs. This article demonstrates the nanocomposite synthesizing with 10 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 50 wt.% graphene oxide (GO) dispersion in the silicon matrix following reduction of GO (rGO) result in remarkable improvements in the discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Mechanical milling after GO reduction provides decoration of silicon nanoparticles between the rGO sheets and improves interfacial bonding between silicon and rGO which alleviates huge volume increase during cycling. Among the nanocomposite negative electrodes, 50 wt.% rGO exhibits highest reversible capacity of about 2000 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles and good coulombic efficiency approximately 99%. This study proves that dispersion of silicon with rGO and the increase content of rGO lead to improve ionic conductivity, cycling stability, reversibility and rate capability of the Lithium ion cell. Because of the easy scaling-up possibility of the method Si/rGO hybrid nanocomposites can be new electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. .

  15. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  16. Silver/carbon nanotube hybrids: A novel conductive network for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fangdong; Qiu, Kehui; Peng, Gongchang; Xia, Li

    2015-01-01

    LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 /Ag composite cathodes are synthesized by a thermal decomposition method and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are uniformly introduced into the composites through ball mixing. A composite electrically conductive network consisting of CNTs and Ag is obtained to improve the conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 material. By comparing with the pure LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 and cathode modified by CNTs or Ag, the as-obtained LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 –CNT/Ag electrode exhibits the best rate capability (120.6 mAh/g at 5C) and cycle performance (134.2 mAh/g at 1C with a capacity retention of 94.4% over 100 cycles). With the construction of 3D spatial conductive network, the novel hybrid CNT/Ag demonstrates itself a promising strategy to improve Li storage performance for lithium ion batteries

  17. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  18. Electrochemical performance of lithium-ion capacitors evaluated under high temperature and high voltage stress using redox stable electrolytes and additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan; Delp, Samuel A.; Yan, Jin; Cao, Ben; Zheng, Jim P.; Jow, T. Richard; Read, Jeffrey A.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) were investigated for high power, moderate energy density applications for operation in extreme environments with prolonged cycle-life performance. The LICs were assembled as three-layered pouch cells in an asymmetric configuration employing Faradaic pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and non-Faradaic ion adsorption-desorption activated carbon (AC) cathodes. The capacity retention was measured under high stress conditions, while the design factor explored was electrolyte formulation using a set of carbonates and electrolyte additives, with a focus on their stability. The LIC cells were evaluated using critical performance tests under the following high stress conditions: long-term voltage floating-cycling stability at room temperature (2.2-3.8 V), high temperature storage at 3.8 V, and charge voltages up to 4.4 V. The rate performance of different electrolytes and additives was measured after the initial LIC cell formation for a 1C-10C rate. The presence of vinylene carbonate (VC) and tris (trimethylsilyl) phosphate (TMSP) were found to be essential to the improved electrochemical performance of the LIC cells under all testing conditions.

  19. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during

  20. Impact of the Air-Conditioning System on the Power Consumption of an Electric Vehicle Powered by Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Mebarki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The car occupies the daily universe of our society; however, noise pollution, global warming gas emissions, and increased fuel consumption are constantly increasing. The electric vehicle is one of the recommended solutions by the raison of its zero emission. Heating and air-conditioning (HVAC system is a part of the power system of the vehicle when the purpose is to provide complete thermal comfort for its occupants, however it requires far more energy than any other car accessory. Electric vehicles have a low-energy storage capacity, and HVAC may consume a substantial amount of the total energy stored, considerably reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters for EV acceptability. The basic goal of this paper is to simulate the air-conditioning system impact on the power energy source of an electric vehicle powered by a lithium-ion battery.

  1. Enhanced Lithium Ion Transport by Superionic Pathways Formed on the Surface of Two-dimensional Structured Li0.85Na0.15V3O8 for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xuena; Shang, Yu; Zhang, Sen; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet with superionic conductive layer was constructed. • Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer provides facile pathways for lithium migration. • Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability. - Abstract: Poor ion transport and rate capability are the main challenges for LiV 3 O 8 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Here we report a novel strategy for enhancing lithium ion transport by building superionic pathways on the surface of Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanosheet. The two-dimensional Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 nanoparticle with an ion conductive layer of Li x V 2 O 5 on its surface is constructed by a modified sol–gel strategy with carefully controlled sodium incorporation and elements stoichiometry. Ultrathin Li x V 2 O 5 surface layer not only provides facile pathways for lithium migration, but also increases the structure stability during cycling. The Li x V 2 O 5 -Li 0.85 Na 0.15 V 3 O 8 composite displays good high rate capability of 172.3 mAh g −1 at 5C and excellent cycling stability of 98.9% over fifty cycles. This superior electrochemical property is attributed to the occupation of lithium site by Na + in LiV 3 O 8 host crystals and the surface superionic pathways of Li x V 2 O 5 phase. Therefore, the advantages of both high ion transport and the structure stabilization in present study put forward a new strategy for achieving high-performance LiV 3 O 8 electrode material with tailored nanoarchitecture

  2. Perfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates: Novel electrolyte additives for high-voltage lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ye; Casselman, Matthew D.; Li, Yan; Wei, Alexander; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of polyfluoroalkyl-substituted ethylene carbonates is synthesized and tested as additives in lithium-ion cells containing EC:EMC + LiPF6-based electrolyte. The influence of these compounds is investigated in Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2//graphite cells via a combination of galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. Among the four additives studied in this work (4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (TFM-EC), 4-(perfluorobutyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFB-EC), 4-(perfluorohexyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFH-EC), and 4-(perfluorooctyl)-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (PFO-EC)), small amounts (0.5 wt%) of PFO-EC is found to be most effective in lessening cell performance degradation during extended cycling. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy are used to further characterize the effects of PFO-EC on the positive and negative electrodes. LSV data from the electrolyte, and XPS analyses of electrodes harvested after cycling, suggest that PFO-EC is oxidized on the cathode forming surface films that slow electrode/cell impedance rise. Differential capacity (dQ/dV) plots from graphite//Li cells suggest that PFO-EC is involved in solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation. Raman data from anodes after cycling suggest that structural disordering of graphite is reduced by the addition of PFO-EC, which may explain the improved cell capacity retention.

  3. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in advanced lithium-ion battery materials using high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delit...

  4. Uniform Incorporation of Flocculent Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure into Three-Dimensional Porous Graphene as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries and Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Yongbing; Liu, Hui; Ji, Hongyi; Jiang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs) with lithium-ion battery-type anodes and electric double layer capacitor-type cathodes are attracting extensive attention and under wide investigation because of their combined merits of both high power and energy density. However, the performance of most HSCs is limited by low kinetics of the battery-type anode which cannot match the fast kinetics of the capacitor-type cathode. In this study, we have synthesized a three-dimensional (3D) porous composite with uniformly incorporated MoS2 flocculent nanostructure onto 3D graphene via a facile solution-processed method as an anode for high-performance HSCs. This composite shows significantly enhanced electrochemical performance due to the synergistic effects of the conductive graphene sheets and the interconnected porous structure, which exhibits a high rate capability of 688 mAh/g even at a high current density of 8 A/g and a stable cycling performance (997 mAh/g after 700 cycles at 2 A/g). Furthermore, by using this composite as the anode for HSCs, the HSC shows a high energy density of 156 Wh/kg at 197 W/kg, which also remains at 97 Wh/kg even at a high power density of 8314 W/kg with a stable cycling life, among the best results of the reported HSCs thus far.

  5. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  6. Porous one-dimensional carbon/iron oxide composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high and stable capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yeqian; Jasper, Samuel; Leary, Jennifer D.; Li, Dawei; Jiang, Mengjin; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-01-01

    Hematite iron oxide (α-Fe_2O_3) is considered to be a prospective anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity (1007 mAh g"−"1), nontoxicity, and low cost. However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume change during Li insertion/extraction of α-Fe_2O_3 hinder its use in practical batteries. In this study, carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers, prepared via an electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment process, are employed as the anode material for LIBs. The as-prepared porous nanofibers with a carbon content of 12.5 wt% show improved cycling performance and rate capability. They can still deliver a high and stable capacity of 715 mAh g"−"1 even at superior high current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 after 200 cycles with a large Coulombic efficiency of 99.2%. Such improved electrochemical performance can be assigned to their unique porous fabric structure as well as the conductive carbon coating which shorten the distance for Li ion transport, enhancing Li ion reversibility and kinetic properties. It is, therefore, demonstrated that carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofiber prepared under optimized conditions is a promising anode material candidate for LIBs. - Graphical abstract: Carbon-coated α-Fe_2O_3 nanofibers are employed as anode material to achieve high and stable electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries, enhancing their commercial viability. - Highlights: • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and thermal treatment. • α-Fe_2O_3/C nanofibers exhibit stable cyclability and good rate capability. • α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers maintain high capacity at 1000 mA g"−"1 for 200 cycles. • A capacity retention of 99.2% is achieved by α-Fe_2O_3–C nanofibers after 200 cycles.

  7. Grid Inertial Response with Lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Sinha, Rakesh; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2014-01-01

    of this paper is to evaluate the technical viability of utilizing energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries for providing inertial response in grids with high penetration levels of wind power. In order to perform this evaluation, the 12-bus system grid model was used; the inertia of the grid...... was varied by decreasing the number of conventional power plants in the studied grid model while in the same time increasing the load and the wind power penetration levels. Moreover, in order to perform a realistic investigation, a dynamic model of the Lithium-ion battery was considered and parameterized...

  8. Estimation of power lithium-ion battery SOC based on fuzzy optimal decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Hou, Enguang; Qiao, Xin; Liu, Guangmin

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve vehicle performance and safety, need to accurately estimate the power lithium battery state of charge (SOC), analyzing the common SOC estimation methods, according to the characteristics open circuit voltage and Kalman filter algorithm, using T - S fuzzy model, established a lithium battery SOC estimation method based on the fuzzy optimal decision. Simulation results show that the battery model accuracy can be improved.

  9. In-situ growth of LiFePO4 nanocrystals on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ruofei; Xia, Guofeng; Shen, Shuiyun; Zhu, Fengjuan; Jiang, Fengjing; Zhang, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In-situ soft-templated LFP nanocrystals on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets (designated as LFP@CNTs/CNSs), exhibited superior electrochemical performance due to the synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs, which form interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions. - Highlights: • LFP nanocrystals were in-situ synthesized on interconnected CNTs/CNSs framework with an in-situ soft-templated method. • LFP@CNTs/CNSs exhibited superior rate capability and cycling stability, due to interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions. • The synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs on the electrochemical performance of LFP electrode was demonstrated by a systematically electrochemical study compared with LFP/CNSs and LFP/CNTs. - Abstract: Lithium ion phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) nanocrystals are successfully in-situ grown on interconnected carbon nanotubes/mesoporous carbon nanosheets (designated as LFP@CNTs/CNSs) with a soft-templated method, which involves the multi-constituent co-assembly of a triblock copolymer, CNTs, resol and precursors of LFP followed by thermal treatment. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques are used to characterize the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized materials. When used as the cathode of lithium ion batteries, the LFP@CNTs/CNSs composite exhibits superior rate capability and cycling stability, compared with the samples modified only with CNSs (designated as LFP/CNSs) or with CNTs (designated as LFP/CNTs). This is mainly attributed to the synergetic effect between CNTs and CNSs caused by their unique structure, which forms interconnected conductive network for fast transport of both electrons and lithium ions, and thus remarkably improves the electrode kinetics. Firstly, nano-sized LFP are in-situ grown on the

  10. Porous Carbon Spheres Doped with Fe_3C as an Anode for High-Rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shouhui; Wu, Jiafeng; Zhou, Rihui; Zuo, Li; Li, Ping; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C was prepared via hydrothermal reaction. • The resulted material was fabricated as an anode for high-rate lithium-ion batteries. • A stepwise increase profile was shown in the discharge/charge process. • Pseudocapacity was one of the properties owned by the as-prepared anode. - Abstract: The search of advanced anodes has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands on high rate performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). It was observed that the capacity of Fe_3C as an anode is larger than its theoretical one, which might be attributed to the pseudocapacity on the interface between the carbide and electrolyte. In this work, a novel carbon sphere doped with Fe_3C nanoparticles was fabricated and tested as the anode in LIBs. In the first place, iron precursors were embedded in the cross-link polymer resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) spheres via a facile hydrothermal reaction, in which RF served as the carbon source and ethanol as a dispersant agent. Consequently, the hydrothermal products were carbonized successively at 700 °C under inert atmosphere to obtain porous carbon spheres doped with Fe_3C. When the composite severed as an anode in LIBs, its discharge capacity increased to the largest during the first 250-400 cycles, then dropped down to a similar level of that after 1000 cycles at different current rates. The discharge capacity of the composite increased from ∼300 mAh g"−"1 to ∼540 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 100 mA g"−"1 during the initial hundreds cycles, and even a discharge capacity of ∼230 mAh g"−"1 at the current of 2000 mA g"−"1. Moreover, it was observed that a discharge plateau gradually appeared between 0.7∼1.1 V during the first hundreds of cycles. The electrochemical behaviors of the anode before 1000 discharge/charge cycles were compared with that after 1000 discharge/charge cycles by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to find

  11. Ternary CNTs@TiO₂/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Naga, Ahmed Osama Abo El; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-06-20

    TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li⁺ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO₂/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO₂/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO₂ and TiO₂/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li⁺ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO₂/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  12. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madian, Mahmoud; Ummethala, Raghunandan; Abo El Naga, Ahmed Osama; Ismail, Nahla; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Eychmüller, Alexander; Giebeler, Lars

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs)@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability. PMID:28773032

  13. Ternary CNTs@TiO2/CoO Nanotube Composites: Improved Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanotubes (NTs synthesized by electrochemical anodization are discussed as very promising anodes for lithium ion batteries, owing to their high structural stability, high surface area, safety, and low production cost. However, their poor electronic conductivity and low Li+ ion diffusivity are the main drawbacks that prevent them from achieving high electrochemical performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel ternary carbon nanotubes (CNTs@TiO2/CoO nanotubes composite by a two-step synthesis method. The preparation includes an initial anodic fabrication of well-ordered TiO2/CoO NTs from a Ti-Co alloy, followed by growing of CNTs horizontally on the top of the oxide films using a simple spray pyrolysis technique. The unique 1D structure of such a hybrid nanostructure with the inclusion of CNTs demonstrates significantly enhanced areal capacity and rate performances compared to pure TiO2 and TiO2/CoO NTs, without CNTs tested under identical conditions. The findings reveal that CNTs provide a highly conductive network that improves Li+ ion diffusivity, promoting a strongly favored lithium insertion into the TiO2/CoO NT framework, and hence resulting in high capacity and an extremely reproducible high rate capability.

  14. Enhanced representations of lithium-ion batteries in power systems models and their effect on the valuation of energy arbitrage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Apurba; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Sepulveda, Nestor; Uckun, Canan; Vergara, Claudio; de Sisternes, Fernando J.; Dees, Dennis W.; Botterud, Audun

    2017-02-01

    We develop three novel enhanced mixed integer-linear representations of the power limit of the battery and its efficiency as a function of the charge and discharge power and the state of charge of the battery, which can be directly implemented in large-scale power systems models and solved with commercial optimization solvers. Using these battery representations, we conduct a techno-economic analysis of the performance of a 10 MWh lithium-ion battery system testing the effect of a 5-min vs. a 60-min price signal on profits using real time prices from a selected node in the MISO electricity market. Results show that models of lithium-ion batteries where the power limits and efficiency are held constant overestimate profits by 10% compared to those obtained from an enhanced representation that more closely matches the real behavior of the battery. When the battery system is exposed to a 5-min price signal, the energy arbitrage profitability improves by 60% compared to that from hourly price exposure. These results indicate that a more accurate representation of li-ion batteries as well as the market rules that govern the frequency of electricity prices can play a major role on the estimation of the value of battery technologies for power grid applications.

  15. Ordered Mesoporous Titania/Carbon Hybrid Monoliths for Lithium-ion Battery Anodes with High Areal and Volumetric Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Tobias S; Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Grobelsek, Ingrid; de Oliveira, Peter W; Presser, Volker

    2018-04-25

    Free-standing, binder-free, and conductive additive-free mesoporous titanium dioxide/carbon hybrid electrodes were prepared from co-assembly of a poly(isoprene)-block-poly(styrene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer and a titanium alkoxide. By tailoring an optimized morphology, we prepared macroscopic mechanically stable 300 μm thick monoliths that were directly employed as lithium-ion battery electrodes. High areal mass loading of up to 26.4 mg cm -2 and a high bulk density of 0.88 g cm -3 were obtained. This resulted in a highly increased volumetric capacity of 155 mAh cm -3 , compared to cast thin film electrodes. Further, the areal capacity of 4.5 mAh cm -2 represented a 9-fold increase compared to conventionally cast electrodes. These attractive performance metrics are related to the superior electrolyte transport and shortened diffusion lengths provided by the interconnected mesoporous nature of the monolith material, assuring superior rate handling, even at high cycling rates. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of plasma-treated polypropylene nonwoven-based composites for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; He, Jinlin; Wu, Dazhao; Zhang, Mingzu; Meng, Juwen; Ni, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    (290 wt%) and ionic conductivity (1.76 mS cm −1 ). More importantly, the LiFePO 4 /Li half-cell assembled with PHS-10 composite separator displays a good C-rate performance, which shows an enhancement in the chemical stability and discharge capacity. The capacity keeps above 150 mA h g −1 after 100 charge–discharge cycles. These performances endow this composite membrane as a promising candidate for high-performance lithium-ion battery separators

  17. High Voltage Surface Degradation on Carbon Blacks in Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    In order to increase the power density of Li-ion batteries, much research is focused on developing cathode materials that can operate at high voltages above 4.5 V with a high capacity, high cycling stability, and rate capability. However, at high voltages all the components of positive electrodes...... including carbon black (CB) additives have a potential risk of degradation. Though the weight percentage of CB in commercial batteries is generally very small, the volumetric amount and thus the surface area of CB compose a rather large part of a cathode due to its small particle size (≈ 50 nm) and high...

  18. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-05-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and agglomeration prevent it from further commercial applications. In this thesis, we investigate modified SnO2 as a high energy density anode material for LIBs. Specifically two approaches are presented to improve battery performances. Firstly, SnO2 electrochemical performances were improved by surface modification using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Ultrathin Al2O3 or HfO2 were coated on SnO2 electrodes. It was found that electrochemical performances had been enhanced after ALD deposition. In a second approach, we implemented a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled graphene/carbon-coated hollow SnO2 spheres as anode material for LIBs. Our results indicated that the LBL assembled electrodes had high reversible lithium storage capacities even at high current densities. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective lithium diffusion, because of the interconnected graphene/carbon networks among nanoparticles of the hollow SnO2 spheres.

  19. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  20. Mechanistic Study of Electrolyte Additives to Stabilize High-Voltage Cathode–Electrolyte Interface in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Han [Chemical; Maglia, Filippo [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Lamp, Peter [BMW Group, Munich 80788, Germany; Amine, Khalil [Chemical; Chen, Zonghai [Chemical

    2017-12-13

    Current developments of electrolyte additives to stabilize electrode-electrolyte interface in Li-ion batteries highly rely on a trial-and-error search, which involves repetitive testing and intensive amount of resources. The lack of understandings on the fundamental protection mechanisms of the additives significantly increases the difficulty for the transformational development of new additives. In this study, we investigated two types of individual protection routes to build a robust cathode-electrolyte interphase at high potentials: (i) a direct reduction in the catalytic decomposition of the electrolyte solvent; and (ii) formation of a “corrosion inhibitor film” that prevents severely attack and passivation from protons that generated from the solvent oxidation, even the decomposition of solvent cannot not mitigated. Effect of three exemplary electrolyte additives: (i) lithium difluoro(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB); (ii) 3-hexylthiophene (3HT); and (iii) tris(hexafluoro-iso-propyl)phosphate (HFiP), on LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC 622) cathode were investigated to validate our hypothesis. It is demonstrated that understandings of both electrolyte additives and solvent are essential and careful balance between the cathode protection mechanism of additives and their side effects is critical to obtain optimum results. More importantly, this study opens up new directions of rational design of functional electrolyte additives for the next generation high-energy density lithium-ion chemistries.

  1. Mesoporous Spinel Li4Ti5O12 Nanoparticles for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weijian; Shao, Dan; Luo, Guoen; Gao, Qiongzhi; Yan, Guangjie; He, Jiarong; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Fang, Yueping

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • The mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanoparticles exhibited a diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and a pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm. • Cells with the mesoporous Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 anode showed excellent high rate electrochemical properties. - Abstract: Mesoporous spinel lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 ) nanoparticles with the diameter of 40 ± 5 nm and the pore-size distribution of 6 - 8 nm were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, these spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 mesoporous nanoparticles exhibited desirable lithium storage properties with an initial discharge capacity of 176 mAh g −1 at 1 C rate and a capacity of approximately 145 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles at a high rate of 20 C. These excellent electrochemical properties at high charge/discharge rates are due to the mesoporous nano-scale structures with small size particles, uniform mesopores and larger electrode/electrolyte contact area, which shortens the diffusion path for both electrons and Li + ions, and offers more active sites for Li + insertion-extraction process

  2. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  3. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires

  4. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  5. Attainable high capacity in Li-excess Li-Ni-Ru-O rock-salt cathode for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingbo; Huang, Weifeng; Tao, Shi; Xie, Hui; Wu, Chuanqiang; Yu, Zhen; Su, Xiaozhi; Qi, Jiaxin; Rehman, Zia ur; Song, Li; Zhang, Guobin; Chu, Wangsheng; Wei, Shiqiang

    2017-08-01

    Peroxide structure O2n- has proven to appear after electrochemical process in many lithium-excess precious metal oxides, representing extra reversible capacity. We hereby report construction of a Li-excess rock-salt oxide Li1+xNi1/2-3x/2Ru1/2+x/2O2 electrode, with cost effective and eco-friendly 3d transition metal Ni partially substituting precious 4d transition metal Ru. It can be seen that O2n- is formed in pristine Li1.23Ni0.155Ru0.615O2, and stably exists in subsequent cycles, enabling discharge capacities to 295.3 and 198 mAh g-1 at the 1st/50th cycle, respectively. Combing ex-situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical characterization, we demonstrate that the excellent electrochemical performance comes from both percolation network with disordered structure and cation/anion redox couples occurring in charge-discharge process. Li-excess and substitution of common element have been demonstrated to be a breakthrough for designing novel high performance commercial cathodes in rechargeable lithium ion battery field.

  6. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  7. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  8. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  9. Amorphous Ultrathin SnO2 Films by Atomic Layer Deposition on Graphene Network as Highly Stable Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Sun, Xiang; George, Steven M; Zhou, Changgong; Lian, Jie; Zhou, Yun

    2015-12-23

    Amorphous SnO2 (a-SnO2) thin films were conformally coated onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (G) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The electrochemical characteristics of the a-SnO2/G nanocomposites were then determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge curves. Because the SnO2 ALD films were ultrathin and amorphous, the impact of the large volume expansion of SnO2 upon cycling was greatly reduced. With as few as five formation cycles best reported in the literature, a-SnO2/G nanocomposites reached stable capacities of 800 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) and 450 mAh g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1). The capacity from a-SnO2 is higher than the bulk theoretical values. The extra capacity is attributed to additional interfacial charge storage resulting from the high surface area of the a-SnO2/G nanocomposites. These results demonstrate that metal oxide ALD on high surface area conducting carbon substrates can be used to fabricate high power and high capacity electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  11. A Simple Prelithiation Strategy To Build a High-Rate and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery with Improved Low-Temperature Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Yang, Bingchang; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2017-12-22

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are being used to power the commercial electric vehicles (EVs). However, the charge/discharge rate and life of current LIBs still cannot satisfy the further development of EVs. Furthermore, the poor low-temperature performance of LIBs limits their application in cold climates and high altitude areas. Herein, a simple prelithiation method is developed to fabricate a new LIB. In this strategy, a Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode and a pristine hard carbon anode are used to form a primary cell, and the initial Li + extraction from Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is used to prelithiate the hard carbon. Then, the self-formed Li 2 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 cathode and prelithiated hard carbon anode are used to form a 4 V LIB. The LIB exhibits a maximum energy density of 208.3 Wh kg -1 , a maximum power density of 8291 W kg -1 and a long life of 2000 cycles. When operated at -40 °C, the LIB can keep 67 % capacity of room temperature, which is much better than conventional LIBs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High quality NMP exfoliated graphene nanosheet-SnO2 composite anode material for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Raman; Gopukumar, Sukumaran

    2013-03-21

    A graphene nanosheet-SnO(2) (GNS-SnO(2)) composite is prepared using N-methylpyrrolidone as a solvent to exfoliate graphene from graphite bar with the aid of CTAB by single phase co-precipitation method. The synthesized composites has been characterised physically by powder XRD which confirms the formation of the composite tetragonal SnO(2) crystal system with the low intense broad 002 plane for GNS. The sandwiched morphology of GNS-SnO(2) and the formation of nanosized particles (around 20 nm) have been confirmed by SEM and TEM images. The presence of sp(2) carbon in the GNS is clear by the highly intense G than D band in laser Raman spectroscopy analysis; furthermore, a single chemical shift has been observed at 132.14 ppm from solid-state (13)C NMR analysis. The synthesized composite has been electrochemically characterized using charge-discharge and EIS analysis. The capacity retentions at the end of the first 10 cycles is 57% (100 mA g(-1) rate), the second 10 cycles is 77.83% (200 mA g(-1)), and the final 10 cycles (300 mA g(-1)) is 81.5%. Moreover the impedance analysis clearly explains the low resistance pathway for Li(+) insertion after 30 cycles when compared with the initial cycle. This superior characteristic of GNS-SnO(2) composite suggests that it is a promising candidate for lithium ion battery anode.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  14. Numerical simulation of a high-brightness lithium ion gun for a Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Atsushi; Kamiya, Kensaku; Fujita, Takaaki; Kamada, Yutaka; Iguchi, Harukazu

    2007-01-01

    A lithium ion gun is under construction for a lithium beam Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U. The performance of the prototype ion gun has been estimated by the numerical simulation taking the space charge effects into account. The target values of the ion gun are the beam energy of 30 keV, the beam current of 10 mA and the beam divergence angle within 0.13 degrees. The low divergence of 0.13 degrees is required for the geometry of the Zeeman polarimetry on JT-60U where the observation area is 6.5 m away from the neutralizer. The numerical simulation needs to be carried out for the design study because the requirement of the divergence angle is severe for the development of the high-brightness ion gun. The simulation results show the beam loss of 50% caused by the clash to the electrode such as the cathode and the neutralizer. Moreover, the beam transport efficiency from the neutralizer to the observation area is low due to the broadening of the divergence angle. The total beam efficiency is about 5%. Extracted beam profile affects the beam focusing and the efficiency. The peaked profile achieves better efficiency than the hollow one. As a result, beam current of 1 mA is obtained at the observation area by the simulation for the prototype ion gun. (author)

  15. Scalable preparation of porous micron-SnO2/C composites as high performance anode material for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Lei, Ming; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Xing; Xu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Huang, Yun; Li, Xing

    2016-03-01

    Nano tin dioxide-carbon (SnO2/C) composites prepared by various carbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes, porous carbon, and graphene, have attracted extensive attention in wide fields. However, undesirable concerns of nanoparticles, including in higher surface area, low tap density, and self-agglomeration, greatly restricted their large-scale practical applications. In this study, novel porous micron-SnO2/C (p-SnO2/C) composites are scalable prepared by a simple hydrothermal approach using glucose as a carbon source and Pluronic F127 as a pore forming agent/soft template. The SnO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in micron carbon spheres by assembly with F127/glucose. The continuous three-dimensional porous carbon networks have effectively provided strain relaxation for SnO2 volume expansion/shrinkage during lithium insertion/extraction. In addition, the carbon matrix could largely minimize the direct exposure of SnO2 to the electrolyte, thus ensure formation of stable solid electrolyte interface films. Moreover, the porous structure could also create efficient channels for the fast transport of lithium ions. As a consequence, the p-SnO2/C composites exhibit stable cycle performance, such as a high capacity retention of over 96% for 100 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1 and a long cycle life up to 800 times at a higher current density of 1000 mA g-1.

  16. Flower-like hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures as anode materials for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Zhou, Zhenfang; Nie, Sen; Wang, Honghu; Peng, Hongrui; Li, Guicun; Chen, Kezheng

    2014-12-01

    Flower-like hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures have been synthesized via a facile solvothermal approach combined with hydrogenation treatment. The obtained TiO2(B) nanostructures show uniform and hierarchical flower-like morphology with a diameter of 124 ± 5 nm, which are further constructed by primary nanosheets with a thickness of 10 ± 1.2 nm. The Ti3+ species and/or oxygen vacancies are well introduced into the structures of TiO2(B) after hydrogen reduction, resulting in an enhancement in the electronic conductivity (up to 2.79 × 10-3 S cm-1) and the modified surface electrochemical activity. When evaluated for lithium storage capacity, the hydrogenated TiO2(B) nanostructures exhibit enhanced electrochemical energy storage performances compared to the pristine TiO2(B) nanostructures, including high capacity (292.3 mA h g-1 at 0.5C), excellent rate capability (179.6 mA h g-1 at 10C), and good cyclic stability (98.4% capacity retention after 200 cycles at 10C). The reasons for these improvements are explored in terms of the increased electronic conductivity and the facilitation of lithium ion transport arising from the introduction of oxygen vacancies and the unique flower-like morphologies.

  17. Restricted lithium ion dynamics in PEO-based block copolymer electrolytes measured by high-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël

    2017-10-01

    The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.

  18. Three-Dimensional Porous Iron Vanadate Nanowire Arrays as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunhe; Fang, Dong; Liu, Ruina; Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Hang; Li, Guangzhong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Jie; Xu, Weilin; Xiong, Chuanxi

    2015-12-23

    Development of three-dimensional nanoarchitectures on current collectors has emerged as an effective strategy for enhancing rate capability and cycling stability of the electrodes. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional porous iron vanadate (Fe0.12V2O5) nanowire arrays on a Ti foil has been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Fe0.12V2O5 nanowires are about 30 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length. The effect of reaction time on the resulting morphology is investigated and the mechanism for the nanowire formation is proposed. As an electrode material used in lithium-ion batteries, the unique configuration of the Fe0.12V2O5 nanowire arrays presents enhanced capacitance, satisfying rate capability and good cycling stability, as evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic discharge-charge cycling. It delivers a high discharge capacity of 293 mAh·g(-1) at 2.0-3.6 V or 382.2 mAh·g(-1) at 1.0-4.0 V after 50 cycles at 30 mA·g(-1).

  19. Partially etched Ti3AlC2 as a promising high capacity Lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xifan; Zhu, Yuanzhi; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Peng, Wenchao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2018-06-25

    MXenes, a family of two-dimensional transition-metal carbide and nitride materials, are supposed to be the promising materials in energy storage because of the high electronic conductivity, hydrophilic surfaces and low diffusion barriers. MXenes are generally prepared by removing the "A" elements (A = Al, Si, Sn, etc.) from their corresponding MAX phases by using hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the other etching agents, despite the fact that these "A" elements usually have great volumetric and gravimetric capacities. Herein, we studied the etching progress of Ti3AlC2 and evaluated their anode performance in Lithium-ion batteries. We found that a partially etched sample (0.5h-peTi3C2Tx) showed much higher capacity (160 mA h g-1, 331.6 mA h cm-3 at 1C) when compared with the fully etched Ti3C2Tx (110 mA h g-1, 190.3 mA h cm-3 at 1C). Besides, a 99% capacity retention was observed even after 1000 cycles in the 0.5h-peTi3C2Tx anode. This interesting result can be explained, at least in part, by the alloying of the residue Al element during lithiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Carbon coated Li4Ti5O12 nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO 2 nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO 2 powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , one-dimensional (1D) Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport

  1. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Su, Shih-Hsuan; Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Hsia, Chen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N_2/O_2/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N_2/O_2 ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO_xN_y films with different compositions (TiO_1_._8_3_7N_0_._0_6_0_, TiO_1_._8_9_0N_0_._0_6_8_, TiO_1_._8_6_5N_0_._0_7_3, and TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO_1_._8_8_2N_0_._1_6_3. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO_xN_y and pure TiO_2 as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO_xN_y anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm"2 (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO_2 anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO_xN_y composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO_2. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO_xN_y anodes. The TiO_xN_y anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm"2 μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO_xN_y) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO_xN_y thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied_. • High rate capability of TiO_xN_y was studied.

  2. Zn substitution NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Junwei [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hou, Xianhua, E-mail: houxh@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lam, Kwok-ho [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon 999077 (Hong Kong); Ru, Qiang [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun, E-mail: husj@scnu.edu.cn [Guang dong Engineering Technology Research Center of Efficient Green Energy and Environmental Protection Materials, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guang dong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Zn{sup 2+} ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g{sup −1}at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  3. Zn substitution NiFe_2O_4 nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Junwei; Hou, Xianhua; Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang; Lam, Kwok-ho; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun

    2016-01-01

    Zn"2"+ ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g"−"1at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  4. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  5. Printable Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Route toward Shape-Conformable Power Sources with Aesthetic Versatility for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin; Lee, Sang-Young

    2015-08-12

    Forthcoming flexible/wearable electronic devices with shape diversity and mobile usability garner a great deal of attention as an innovative technology to bring unprecedented changes in our daily lives. From the power source point of view, conventional rechargeable batteries (one representative example is a lithium-ion battery) with fixed shapes and sizes have intrinsic limitations in fulfilling design/performance requirements for the flexible/wearable electronics. Here, as a facile and efficient strategy to address this formidable challenge, we demonstrate a new class of printable solid-state batteries (referred to as "PRISS batteries"). Through simple stencil printing process (followed by ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking), solid-state composite electrolyte (SCE) layer and SCE matrix-embedded electrodes are consecutively printed on arbitrary objects of complex geometries, eventually leading to fully integrated, multilayer-structured PRISS batteries with various form factors far beyond those achievable by conventional battery technologies. Tuning rheological properties of SCE paste and electrode slurry toward thixotropic fluid characteristics, along with well-tailored core elements including UV-cured triacrylate polymer and high boiling point electrolyte, is a key-enabling technology for the realization of PRISS batteries. This process/material uniqueness allows us to remove extra processing steps (related to solvent drying and liquid-electrolyte injection) and also conventional microporous separator membranes, thereupon enabling the seamless integration of shape-conformable PRISS batteries (including letters-shaped ones) into complex-shaped objects. Electrochemical behavior of PRISS batteries is elucidated via an in-depth analysis of cell impedance, which provides a theoretical basis to enable sustainable improvement of cell performance. We envision that PRISS batteries hold great promise as a reliable and scalable platform technology to open a new concept of cell

  6. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  7. Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries with High Specific Energy and Improved Safety for Nasa's Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Smart, Marshall; Soler, Jess; Krause, Charlie; Hwang, Constanza; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Materials ( Cathodes, anodes and high voltage and safe electrolyte are required to meet the needs of the future space missions. A. Cathodes: The layered layered composites of of Li2MnO3 and LiMO2 are promising Power capability of the materials, however requires further improvement. Suitable morphology is critical for good performance and high tap (packing) density. Surface coatings help in the interfacial kinetics and stability. B. Electrolytes: Small additions of Flame Retardant Additives improves flammability without affecting performance (Rate and cycle life). 1.0 M in EC+EMC+TPP was shown to have good performance against the high voltage cathode; Performance demonstrated in large capacity prototype MCMB- LiNiCoO2 Cells. Formulations with higher proportions are looking promising. Still requires further validation through abuse tests (e.g., on 18650 cells).

  8. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe_2O_3@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe_2O_3 nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe_2O_3@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe_2O_3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe_2O_3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe_2O_3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  9. A Universal Strategy for Hollow Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated into B/N Co-Doped Graphitic Nanotubes as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Zou, Ruqiang; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Song; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Guo, Shaojun

    2018-02-01

    Yolk-shell nanostructures have received great attention for boosting the performance of lithium-ion batteries because of their obvious advantages in solving the problems associated with large volume change, low conductivity, and short diffusion path for Li + ion transport. A universal strategy for making hollow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into B, N co-doped graphitic nanotubes (TMO@BNG (TMO = CoO, Ni 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 ) through combining pyrolysis with an oxidation method is reported herein. The as-made TMO@BNG exhibits the TMO-dependent lithium-ion storage ability, in which CoO@BNG nanotubes exhibit highest lithium-ion storage capacity of 1554 mA h g -1 at the current density of 96 mA g -1 , good rate ability (410 mA h g -1 at 1.75 A g -1 ), and high stability (almost 96% storage capacity retention after 480 cycles). The present work highlights the importance of introducing hollow TMO NPs with thin wall into BNG with large surface area for boosting LIBs in the terms of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Co-estimation of state-of-charge, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries based on a high-fidelity electrochemical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Linfeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Guoxiu; Jiang, Jiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The numerical solution for an electrochemical model is presented. • Trinal PI observers are used to concurrently estimate SOC, capacity and resistance. • An iteration-approaching method is incorporated to enhance estimation performance. • The robustness against aging and temperature variations is experimentally verified. - Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used as enabling energy storage in many industrial fields. Accurate modeling and state estimation play fundamental roles in ensuring safe, reliable and efficient operation of lithium-ion battery systems. A physics-based electrochemical model (EM) is highly desirable for its inherent ability to push batteries to operate at their physical limits. For state-of-charge (SOC) estimation, the continuous capacity fade and resistance deterioration are more prone to erroneous estimation results. In this paper, trinal proportional-integral (PI) observers with a reduced physics-based EM are proposed to simultaneously estimate SOC, capacity and resistance for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, a numerical solution for the employed model is derived. PI observers are then developed to realize the co-estimation of battery SOC, capacity and resistance. The moving-window ampere-hour counting technique and the iteration-approaching method are also incorporated for the estimation accuracy improvement. The robustness of the proposed approach against erroneous initial values, different battery cell aging levels and ambient temperatures is systematically evaluated, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  12. Mn 3 O 4 −Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hailiang; Cui, Li-Feng; Yang, Yuan; Sanchez Casalongue, Hernan; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Liang, Yongye; Cui, Yi; Dai, Hongjie

    2010-01-01

    We developed two-step solution-phase reactions to form hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery applications. Selective growth of Mn3O 4 nanoparticles on RGO sheets, in contrast to free

  13. LiFePO4 nanoparticles encapsulated in graphene nanoshells for high-performance lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huilong; Peng, Zhiwei; Yang, Yang; Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2014-07-11

    LiFePO4 encapsulated in graphene nanoshells (LiFePO4@GNS) nanoparticles were synthesized by solid state reaction between graphene-coated Fe nanoparticles and LiH2PO4. The resulting nanocomposite was demonstrated to be a superior lithium-ion battery cathode with improved cycle and rate performances.

  14. Numerical Analysis and Design of Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Battery Pack Using Thermoelectric Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new design of thermal management system for lithium ion battery pack using thermoelectric coolers (TECs is proposed. Firstly, the 3D thermal model of a high power lithium ion battery and the TEC is elaborated. Then the model is calibrated with experiment results. Finally, the calibrated model is applied to investigate the performance of a thermal management system for a lithium ion battery pack. The results show that battery thermal management system (BTMS with TEC can cool the battery in very high ambient temperature. It can also keep a more uniform temperature distribution in the battery pack than common BTMS, which will extend the life of the battery pack and may save the expensive battery equalization system.

  15. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  16. A General and Mild Approach to Controllable Preparation of Manganese-Based Micro- and Nanostructured Bars for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guo; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Weixin; Yang, Zeheng; Liu, Shulin; Fan, Xiaoming; Chen, Fei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Weibo; Yang, Shihe; Li, Mei

    2016-03-07

    One-dimensional (1D) micro- and nanostructured electrode materials with controllable phase and composition are appealing materials for use in lithium-ion batteries with high energy and power densities, but they are challenging to prepare. Herein, a novel ethanol-water mediated co-precipitation method by a chimie douce route (synthesis conducted under mild conditions) has been exploited to selectively prepare an extensive series of manganese-based electrode materials, manifesting the considerable generalizability and efficacy of the method. Moreover, by simply tuning the mixed solvent and reagents, transition metal oxide bars with differing aspect ratios and compositions were prepared with an unprecedented uniformity. Application prospects are demonstrated by Li-rich 0.5 Li2 MnO3 ⋅0.5 LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 bars, which demonstrate excellent reversible capacity and rate capability thanks to the steerable nature of the synthesis and material quality. This work opens a new route to 1D micro- and nanostructured materials by customizing the precipitating solvent to orchestrate the crystallization process. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in advanced lithium-ion battery materials using high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun

    2017-08-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delithiation processes is thus of great fundamental and practical interest for understanding the workings of battery materials. We show that inelastic scattering spectroscopy using high-energy x-ray photons (Compton scattering) can yield faithful momentum space images of the redox orbitals by considering lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 or LFP) as an exemplar cathode battery material. Our analysis reveals a new link between voltage and the localization of transition metal 3d orbitals and provides insight into the puzzling mechanism of potential shift and how it is connected to the modification of the bond between the transition metal and oxygen atoms. Our study thus opens a novel spectroscopic pathway for improving the performance of battery materials.

  18. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai

    2017-02-09

    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  19. Research on power equalization using a low-loss DC-DC chopper for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y. W.; Liu, G. T.; Xiong, S. N.; Cheng, J. Z.; Huang, Y. H.

    2017-01-01

    In the near future, electric vehicle is entirely possible to replace traditional cars due to its zero pollution, small power consumption and low noise. Lithium-ion battery, which owns lots of advantages such as lighter and larger capacity and longer life, has been widely equipped in different electric cars all over the world. One disadvantage of this energy storage device is state of charge (SOC) difference among these cells in each series branch. If equalization circuit is not allocated for series-connected batteries, its safety and lifetime are declined due to over-charge or over-discharge happened, unavoidably. In this paper, a novel modularized equalization circuit, based on DC-DC chopper, is proposed to supply zero loss in theory. The proposed circuit works as an equalizer when Lithium-ion battery pack is charging or discharging or standing idle. Theoretical analysis and control method have been finished, respectively. Simulation and small scale experiments are applied to verify its real effect.

  20. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  1. Carbon−Silicon Core−Shell Nanowires as High Capacity Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Li-Feng

    2009-09-09

    We introduce a novel design of carbon-silicon core-shell nanowires for high power and long life lithium battery electrodes. Amorphous silicon was coated onto carbon nanofibers to form a core-shell structure and the resulted core-shell nanowires showed great performance as anode material. Since carbon has a much smaller capacity compared to silicon, the carbon core experiences less structural stress or damage during lithium cycling and can function as a mechanical support and an efficient electron conducting pathway. These nanowires have a high charge storage capacity of ∼2000 mAh/g and good cycling life. They also have a high Coulmbic efficiency of 90% for the first cycle and 98-99.6% for the following cycles. A full cell composed of LiCoO2 cathode and carbon-silicon core-shell nanowire anode is also demonstrated. Significantly, using these core-shell nanowires we have obtained high mass loading and an area capacity of ∼4 mAh/cm2, which is comparable to commercial battery values. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haoqing; Zan, Lingxing; Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng; Zhao, Naiqin; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li_2ZnTi_3O_8) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li_2ZnTi_3O_8, the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g"−"1 and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g"−"1 can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1 and the retention is 42.7% for Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3, which is much higher than un-coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La_2O_3 coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La_2O_3 coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li"+).

  3. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid...... on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs) and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific...... and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact...

  4. Review of Parameter Determination for Thermal Modeling of Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Madani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different methods for determination of thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are extensively employed for various applications owing to their low memory effect, high specific energy, and power density. One of the problems in the expansion of hybrid and electric vehicle technology is the management and control of operation temperatures and heat generation. Successful battery thermal management designs can lead to better reliability and performance of hybrid and electric vehicles. Thermal cycling and temperature gradients could have a considerable impact on the lifetime of lithium ion battery cells. Thermal management is critical in electric vehicles (EVs and good thermal battery models are necessary to design proper heating and cooling systems. Consequently, it is necessary to determine thermal parameters of a single cell, such as internal resistance, specific heat capacity, entropic heat coefficient, and thermal conductivity in order to design suitable thermal management system.

  5. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-17

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P 16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li 16 P 16 ). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g -1 , depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ∼453 mAh g -1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  6. Fault detection of the connection of lithium-ion power batteries based on entropy for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Zhenpo; Ma, Jun

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a method of fault detection of the connection of Lithium-Ion batteries based on entropy for electric vehicle. In electric vehicle operation process, some factors, such as road conditions, driving habits, vehicle performance, always affect batteries by vibration, which easily cause loosing or virtual connection between batteries. Through the simulation of the battery charging and discharging experiment under vibration environment, the data of voltage fluctuation can be obtained. Meanwhile, an optimal filtering method is adopted using discrete cosine filter method to analyze the characteristics of system noise, based on the voltage set when batteries are working under different vibration frequency. Experimental data processed by filtering is analyzed based on local Shannon entropy, ensemble Shannon entropy and sample entropy. And the best way to find a method of fault detection of the connection of lithium-ion batteries based on entropy is presented for electric vehicle. The experimental data shows that ensemble Shannon entropy can predict the accurate time and the location of battery connection failure in real time. Besides electric-vehicle industry, this method can also be used in other areas in complex vibration environment.

  7. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO 3 (WO 3 /C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO 3 /C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO 3 /C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li + insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li + conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO 3 /C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g -1 at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g -1 ) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g -1 at a current density of 0.2 A g -1 . At a high current density of 6 A g -1 , 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO 3 /C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg -1 at a power density of 173.6 W kg -1 and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g -1 after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO 3 /C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  8. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  10. Titanium oxynitride thin films as high-capacity and high-rate anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kuo-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Su, Shih-Hsuan, E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Leu, Hoang-Jyh [Master' s Program of Green Energy Science and Technology, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Hsia, Chen-Hsien [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wenhwa Rd., Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) was synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering in a mixed N{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/Ar gas at ambient temperature. TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were deposited by varying the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} ratios in the background gas. The synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} films with different compositions (TiO{sub 1.837}N{sub 0.060,} TiO{sub 1.890}N{sub 0.068,} TiO{sub 1.865}N{sub 0.073}, and TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}) all displayed anatase phase, except TiO{sub 1.882}N{sub 0.163}. The impedances and grain sizes showed obvious variations with the nitrogen contents. A wide potential window from 3.0 V to 0.05 V, high-rate charge–discharge testing, and long cycle testing were applied to investigate the performances of synthesized TiO{sub x}N{sub y} and pure TiO{sub 2} as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. These TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes can be cycled under high rates of 125 μA/cm{sup 2} (10 °C) because of the lower charge–transfer resistance compared with the TiO{sub 2} anode. At 10 °C the discharge capacity of the optimal TiO{sub x}N{sub y} composition is 1.5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2}. An unexpectedly large reversible capacity of ~ 300 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 800 mAh/g) between 1.0 V and 0.05 V was recorded for the TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anodes. The TiO{sub x}N{sub y} anode was cycled (3.0 V to 0.05 V) at 10 °C over 300 times without capacity fading while delivering a capacity of ~ 150 μAh/cm{sup 2} μm (~ 400 mAh/g). - Highlights: • Titanium oxynitride (TiO{sub x}N{sub y}) thin films as anode materials were studied. • TiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with various amounts of nitrogen contents were studied{sub .} • High rate capability of TiO{sub x}N{sub y} was studied.

  11. Fabrication of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 Nanosheets with Structural Defects as High-Rate and Long-Life Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Chen, Jian; Li, Yanhuai; Guo, Xinli; Shen, Yuanfang; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zengmei

    2017-06-07

    Development of high-power lithium-ion batteries with high safety and durability has become a key challenge for practical applications of large-scale energy storage devices. Accordingly, we report here on a promising strategy to synthesize a high-rate and long-life Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -TiO 2 anode material. The novel material exhibits remarkable rate capability and long-term cycle stability. The specific capacities at 20 and 30 C (1 C = 175 mA g -1 ) reach 170.3 and 168.2 mA h g -1 , respectively. Moreover, a capacity of up to 161.3 mA h g -1 is retained after 1000 cycles at 20 C, and the capacity retention ratio reaches up to 94.2%. The extraordinary rate performance of the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -TiO 2 composite is attributed to the existence of oxygen vacancies and grain boundaries, significantly enhancing electrical conductivity and lithium insertion/extraction kinetics. Meanwhile, the pseudocapacitive effect is induced owing to the presence of abundant interfaces in the composite, which is beneficial to enhancing specific capacity and rate capability. Additionally, the ultrahigh capacity at low rates, greater than the theoretical value of spinel Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , may be correlated to the lithium vacancies in 8a sites, increasing the extra docking sites of lithium ions.

  12. Advanced Materials for Safe, High Performance Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration vehicles are trending to higher pulse power, energy capacity levels and cycle life in order to meet exponentially increasing performance and...

  13. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  14. High-Capacity and Long-Cycle Life Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery with the FePO4 Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Shi-Ze; You, Ya; Feng, Zimin; Zhu, Wen; Gariépy, Vincent; Xia, Jiexiang; Commarieu, Basile; Darwiche, Ali; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-02-28

    Aqueous lithium-ion batteries are emerging as strong candidates for a great variety of energy storage applications because of their low cost, high-rate capability, and high safety. Exciting progress has been made in the search for anode materials with high capacity, low toxicity, and high conductivity; yet, most of the anode materials, because of their low equilibrium voltages, facilitate hydrogen evolution. Here, we show the application of olivine FePO 4 and amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O as anode materials for aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Their capacities reached 163 and 82 mA h/g at a current rate of 0.2 C, respectively. The full cell with an amorphous FePO 4 ·2H 2 O anode maintained 92% capacity after 500 cycles at a current rate of 0.2 C. The acidic aqueous electrolyte in the full cells prevented cathodic oxygen evolution, while the higher equilibrium voltage of FePO 4 avoided hydrogen evolution as well, making them highly stable. A combination of in situ X-ray diffraction analyses and computational studies revealed that olivine FePO 4 still has the biphase reaction in the aqueous electrolyte and that the intercalation pathways in FePO 4 ·2H 2 O form a 2-D mesh. The low cost, high safety, and outstanding electrochemical performance make the full cells with olivine or amorphous hydrated FePO 4 anodes commercially viable configurations for aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Development of Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    applications in regenerative braking in electric vehicles or to power emergency actuation systems for doors and evacuation slides in airliners. In...sodium-beta, nickel-hydrogen, and regenerative fuel cells. Primary batteries are the energy source of choice for a variety of portable consumer...hybrid electric vehicles. Applications of secondary batteries can be grouped into two categories : 1. Applications used as an energy storage device, such

  16. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO_4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • B-doped carbon decorated LiFePO_4 has been fabricated for the first time. • The LiFePO_4@B-CdisplaysimprovedbatteryperformancecomparedtoLiFePO_4@C. • The LiFePO_4@B-C is good candidate for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO_4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO_4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO_4@B_0_._4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g"−"1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g"−"1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO_4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite as a superior high-rate anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinlong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Feng, Haibo; Jiang, Jianbo [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Qian, Dong, E-mail: qiandong6@vip.sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Junhua; Peng, Sanjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Youcai, E-mail: liuyoucai@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/CNTs nanocomposite was prepared by a facile and scalable hydrolysis route. • The composite exhibits super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability for LIBs. • The nanocomposite shows great potential as a superior anode material for LIBs. - Abstract: Anatase-TiO{sub 2}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with robust nanostructure is fabricated via a facile two-step synthesis by ammonia water assisted hydrolysis and subsequent calcination. The as-synthesized nanocomposite was characterized employing X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, Raman spectrophotometry, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction, and its electrochemical properties as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic discharge/charge test and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy. The results show that the pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with diameters of about 10 nm are uniformly distributed on/among the CNTs conducting network. The as-synthesized nanocomposite exhibits remarkably improved performances in LIBs, especially super-high rate capability and excellent cycling stability. Specifically, a reversible capacity as high as 92 mA h g{sup −1} is achieved even at a current density of 10 A g{sup −1} (60 C). After 100 cycles at 0.1 A g{sup −1}, it shows good capacity retention of 185 mA h g{sup −1} with an outstanding coulombic efficiency up to 99%. Such superior Li{sup +} storage properties demonstrate the reinforced synergistic effects between the nano-sized TiO{sub 2} and the interweaved CNTs network, endowing the nanocomposite with great application potential in high-power LIBs.

  19. Lithium-ion battery materials and engineering current topics and problems from the manufacturing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbinska, Malgorzata K

    2014-01-01

    Gaining public attention due, in part,  to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie

  20. Pyrrolidinium FSI and TFSI-Based Polymerized Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for High-Temperature Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kerner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising electrochemical and dynamical properties, as well as high thermal stability, have been the driving forces behind application of ionic liquids (ILs and polymerized ionic liquids (PILs as electrolytes for high-temperature lithium-ion batteries (HT-LIBs. Here, several ternary lithium-salt/IL/PIL electrolytes (PILel have been investigated for synergies of having both FSI and TFSI anions present, primarily in terms of physico-chemical properties, for unique application in HT-LIBs operating at 80 °C. All of the electrolytes tested have low Tg and are thermally stable ≥100 °C, and with TFSI as the exclusive anion the electrolytes (set A have higher thermal stabilities ≥125 °C. Ionic conductivities are in the range of 1 mS/cm at 100 °C and slightly higher for set A PILel, which, however, have lower oxidation stabilities than set B PILel with both FSI and TFSI anions present: 3.4–3.7 V vs. 4.2 V. The evolution of the interfacial resistance increases for all PILel during the first 40 h, but are much lower for set B PILel and generally decrease with increasing Li-salt content. The higher interfacial resistances only influence the cycling performance at high C-rates (1 C, where set B PILel with high Li-salt content performs better, while the discharge capacities at the 0.1 C rate are comparable. Long-term cycling at 0.5 C, however, shows stable discharge capacities for 100 cycles, with the exception of the set B PILel with high Li-salt content. Altogether, the presence of both FSI and TFSI anions in the PILel results in lower ionic conductivities and decreased thermal stabilities, but also higher oxidation stabilities and reduced interfacial resistances and, in total, result in an improved rate capability, but compromised long-term capacity retention. Overall, these electrolytes open for novel designs of HT-LIBs.

  1. Electrodeposited binder-free NiCo2O4@carbon nanofiber as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chu, Ruixia; Chen, Yanli; Jiang, Heng; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Nay Ming; Guo, Hang

    2018-03-01

    Binder-free nickel cobaltite on a carbon nanofiber (NiCo2O4@CNF) anode for lithium ion batteries was prepared via a two-step procedure of electrospinning and electrodeposition. The CNF was obtained by annealing electrospun poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) in nitrogen (N2). The NiCo2O4 nanostructures were then grown on the CNF by electrodeposition, followed by annealing in air. Experimental results showed that vertically aligned NiCo2O4 nanosheets had uniformly grown on the surface of the CNF, forming an interconnected network. The NiCo2O4@CNF possessed considerable lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. It exhibited a high reversible capacity of 778 mAhg-1 after 300 cycles at a current density of 0.25 C (1 C = 890 mAg-1) with an average capacity loss rate of 0.05% per cycle. The NiCo2O4@CNF had considerable rate capacities, delivering a capacity of 350 mAhg-1 at a current density of 2.0 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance can be mainly attributed to the following: (1) The nanoscale structure of NiCo2O4 could not only shorten the diffusion path of lithium ions and electrons but also increase the specific surface area, providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions. (2) The CNF with considerable mechanical strength and electrical conductivity could function as an anchor for the NiCo2O4 nanostructure and ensure an efficient electron transfer. (3) The porous structure resulted in a high specific surface area and an effective buffer for the volume changes during the repeated charge-discharge processes. Compared with a conventional hydrothermal method, electrodeposition could significantly simplify the preparation of NiCo2O4, with a shorter preparation period and lower energy consumption. This work provides an alternative strategy to obtain a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries.

  2. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haoqing, E-mail: tanghaoqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zan, Lingxing [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53117 (Germany); Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tang, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zytang46@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g{sup −1} and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1}. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g{sup −1} can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1} and the retention is 42.7% for Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is much higher than un-coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}).

  3. Composite Conducting Polymer Cathodes For High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary exploration missions require secondary (rechargeable) batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures (-60oC to 60oC) yet deliver high...

  4. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  5. Advanced Nanostructured Cathode for Ultra High Specific Energy Lithium Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integrate advanced nanotechnology with energy storage technology to develop advanced cathode materials for use in Li-ion batteries while maintaining a high level of...

  6. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Mn3 O4 Nanoparticles on Hollow Carbon Nanofiber as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Li, Guangshe; Fan, Jianming; Li, Baoyun; Li, Liping

    2018-04-26

    The practical applications of Mn 3 O 4 in lithium-ion batteries are greatly hindered by fast capacity decay and poor rate performance as a result of significant volume changes and low electrical conductivity. It is believed that the synthesis of nanoscale Mn 3 O 4 combined with carbonaceous matrix will lead to a better electrochemical performance. Herein, a convenient route for the synthesis of Mn 3 O 4 nanoparticles grown in situ on hollow carbon nanofiber (denoted as HCF/Mn 3 O 4 ) is reported. The small size of Mn 3 O 4 particles combined with HCF can significantly alleviate volume changes and electrical conductivity; the strong chemical interactions between HCF and Mn 3 O 4 would improve the reversibility of the conversion reaction for MnO into Mn 3 O 4 and accelerate charge transfer. These features endow the HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite with superior cycling stability and rate performance if used as the anode for lithium-ion batteries. The composite delivers a high discharge capacity of 835 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g -1 , and 652 mA h g -1 after 240 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . Even at 2000 mA g -1 , it still shows a high capacity of 528 mA h g -1 . The facile synthetic method and outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-prepared HCF/Mn 3 O 4 composite make it a promising candidate for a potential anode material for lithium-ion batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. SnO2 Quantum Dots@Graphene Oxide as a High-Rate and Long-Life Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Niu, Chaojiang; He, Liang; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Longbin; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-02-03

    Tin-based electrode s offer high theoretical capacities in lithium ion batteries, but further commercialization is strongly hindered by the poor cycling stability. An in situ reduction method is developed to synthesize SnO2 quantum dots@graphene oxide. This approach is achieved by the oxidation of Sn(2+) and the reduction of the graphene oxide. At 2 A g(-1), a capacity retention of 86% is obtained even after 2000 cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. SnO and SnO·CoO nanocomposite as high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, B., E-mail: bijoy822000@gmail.com; Reddy, M.V.; Chowdari, B.V.R, E-mail: phychowd@nus.edu.sg

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The preparation methods are simple, low cost and can be scaled up for large production. • SnO is cheap, non-toxic and eco-friendly. • SnO shows high reversible capacity (Theoretical reversible capacity: 875 mA h g{sup −1}). • We showed high reversible capacity and columbic efficiency for SnO and SnO based composites. • We addressed the capacity degradation by introducing secondary phase (CoO and CNT etc.) - Abstract: We prepared SnO nanoparticles (SnO–S) and SnO·CoO nanocomposites (SnO·CoO–B) as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) by chemical and ball-milling approaches, respectively. They are characterized by X-ray diffraction and TEM techniques. The Li- storage performance are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The SnO–S and SnO·CoO–B showed improved cycling performance due to their finite particle size (i.e. nano-size) and presence of secondary phase (CoO). Better cycling stability is noticed for SnO·CoO–B with the expense of their reversible capacity. Also, addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to SnO–S further improved the cycling performance of SnO–S. When cycled at 60 mA g{sup −1}, the first-cycle reversible capacities of 635, 590 and 460 (±10) mA h g{sup −1} are noticed for SnO–S, SnO@CNT and SnO·CoO–B, respectively. The capacity fading observed are 3.7 and 1.8 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO–S and SnO@CNT, respectively; whereas 1–1.2 mA h g{sup −1} per cycle for SnO·CoO–B. All the samples show high coulombic efficiency, 96–98% in the range of 5–50 cycles.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of high performance polyhedron sphere like lithium manganese oxide for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Donglei; Wei, Xiuge; Chang, Zhaorong; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Bao; Shangguan, Enbo; Chang, Kun; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance at both 25 °C and 55 °C. - Highlights: • Polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 was synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling performance. • The polyhedron sphere-like structure spinel LiMn 2 O 4 suppresses the dissolution of manganese ions. • The polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 has high diffusion coefficient of Li + . - Abstract: Polyhedron structured sphere-like lithium manganese oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) is successfully synthesized from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor via a solid state reaction at a temperature of 800 °C. For comparison, LiMn 2 O 4 materials with nanorod and octahedron structures are also obtained from β-MnO 2 nanorod precursor at temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively. The galvanostatic charge–discharge result shows that the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample exhibits the best electrochemical performance at high rate and high temperature. After 100 cycles at 5 C, this electrode is able to maintain 94% of its capacity at 25 °C and 81% at 55 °C. This is attributed to that the polyhedron sphere-like spinel LiMn 2 O 4 can suppress the dissolution of manganese ions. Based on Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the polyhedron sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 sample has the lowest BET surface area, largest diffusion coefficient of Li + and least charge transfer resistance. This study provides an insight into the capacity fading of LiMn 2 O 4 electrodes and the polyhedron structured sphere-like LiMn 2 O 4 can be a promising material for lithium ion batteries

  11. Nest-like LiFePO4/C architectures for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Honggui; Jin Shuangling; Zhan Liang; Qiao Wenming; Ling Licheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nest-like LiFePO 4 /C architectures (nest-like LPCs) were synthesized by solvothermal method. ► The microstructures of nest-like LPCs are very stable constructed by many nanosheets. ► The unique structures offer nest-like LPC electrode with high rate performance. ► The reversible capacity of nest-like LPCs electrode is as high as 120 mAh g −1 at 10 C. - Abstract: A novel kind of microsized nest-like LiFePO 4 /C architectures was synthesized by solvothermal method using inexpensive and stable Fe 3+ salt as iron source and ethylene glycol as mediate. A layer of carbon could be coated directly on the surface of LiFePO 4 crystals and the nest-like unique structures offer the cathode materials with high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and high rate performance. The reversible capacity can maintain 159 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C and 120 mAh g −1 at 10 C.

  12. Insight into effects of graphene in Li4Ti5O12/carbon composite with high rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Li, G.R.; Xiao, C.W.; Gao, X.P.

    2013-01-01

    Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites have shown promising high rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, unique effects of graphene in Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites on electrochemical performances are focused by means of comparing Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene with Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /conductive carbon black (CCB) and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 . The investigated anode materials are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The amount of graphene or CCB in the Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /carbon composites is about 3 wt% measured by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene consists of small sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystals supported on graphene nanosheets, while Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB comprises Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystal aggregates coated nearly by graphited carbon. The electrochemical performances of these samples as anode materials for lithium ion batteries are investigated by galvanostatic charge–discharge method. Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene provides a superior rate capability. At the high current density of 1600 mA g −1 , the reversible capacity after 200 cycles is still more than 120 mAh g −1 , which is about 40% higher than that of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrates that stronger pseudocapacitive effect occurs on Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene than on Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /CCB. This derived from the structure features that graphene-supported small Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 nanocrystals provide more surface active sites for the lithium ion insertion/extraction. The strong pseudocapacitive effect is responsible for the improvements of capacity and high-rate capability. Further, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) show that Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /graphene electrode have lower charge transfer resistance and smaller diffusion impedance, indicating the obvious advantages in electrode kinetics over Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12

  13. Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte - REVISED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunstrom, Joseph [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States); Hendershot, Ron E. [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

    2017-03-06

    An evaluation of high voltage electrolytes which contain fluorochemicals as solvents/additive has been completed with the objective of formulating a safe, stable electrolyte capable of operation to 4.6 V. Stable cycle performance has been demonstrated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111)/graphite cells to 4.5 V. The ability to operate at high voltage results in significant energy density gain (>30%) which would manifest as longer battery life resulting in higher range for electric vehicles. Alternatively, a higher energy density battery can be made smaller without sacrificing existing energy. In addition, the fluorinated electrolytes examined showed better safety performance when tested in abuse conditions. The results are promising for future advanced battery development for vehicles as well as other applications.

  14. High-Rate Long-Life Pored Nanoribbon VNb9O25 Built by Interconnected Ultrafine Nanoparticles as Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shangshu; Yu, Haoxiang; Yan, Lei; Zhu, Haojie; Cheng, Xing; Xie, Ying; Long, Nengbing; Shui, Miao; Shu, Jie

    2017-09-13

    VNb 9 O 25 is a novel lithium storage material, which has not been systematically investigated so far. Via electrospinning technology, VNb 9 O 25 samples with two different morphologies, pored nanoribbon and rodlike nanoparticles, are prepared in relatively low temperature and time-saving calcination conditions. It is found that the formation process of different morphologies depends on the control of self-aggregation of the precursor by using different sample collectors. Compared with rodlike VNb 9 O 25 (RL-VNb 9 O 25 ), pored nanoribbon VNb 9 O 25 (PR-VNb 9 O 25 ) can deliver a higher specific capacity, lower capacity loss, and better cyclability. Even cycled at 1000 mA g -1 , the reversible capacity of 132.3 mAh g -1 is maintained by PR-VNb 9 O 25 after 500 cycles, whereas RL-VNb 9 O 25 only exhibits a capacity of 102.7 mAh g -1 . The enhancement should be attributed to the pored nanoribbon structure with large specific surface area and shorter pathway for lithium ions transport. Furthermore, the lithium ions insertion/extraction process is verified from refinement results of in situ X-ray diffraction data, which is associated with a lithium occupation process in type III and VI cavities through tunnels I, II, and III. In addition, high structural stability and electrochemical reversibility are also demonstrated. All of these advantages suggest that PR-VNb 9 O 25 is a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Human-rated Safety Certification of a High Voltage Robonaut Lithium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Yayathi, S.; Johnson, M.; Waligora, T.; Verdeyen, W.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's rigorous certification process is being followed for the R2 high voltage battery program for use of R2 on International Space Station (ISS). Rigorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible off-nominal conditions and review of test data led to design improvements for safety at the virtual cell, cartridge and battery levels. Tests were carried out at all levels to confirm that both hardware and software controls work. Stringent flight acceptance testing of the flight battery will be completed before launch for mission use on ISS.

  16. High-performing mesoporous iron oxalate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wei An; Gupta, Nutan; Prasanth, Raghavan; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2012-12-01

    Mesoporous iron oxalate (FeC(2)O(4)) with two distinct morphologies, i.e., cocoon and rod, has been synthesized via a simple, scalable chimie douce precipitation method. The solvent plays a key role in determining the morphology and microstructure of iron oxalate, which are studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic characterization of the materials has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and confirmed phase-pure FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O formation. The critical dehydration process of FeC(2)O(4)·2H(2)O resulted in anhydrous FeC(2)O(4), and its thermal properties are studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) in Li/FeC(2)O(4) cells are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The studies showed that the initial discharge capacities of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons and rods are 1288 and 1326 mA h g(-1), respectively, at 1C rate. Anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) cocoons exhibited stable capacity even at high C rates (11C). The electrochemical performance of anhydrous FeC(2)O(4) is found to be greatly influenced by the number of accessible reaction sites, morphology, and size effects.

  17. Advanced High-Voltage Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery Enabled by "Water-in-Bisalt" Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Sun, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Wang, Fei; Gao, Tao; Ma, Zhaohui; Schroeder, Marshall; von Cresce, Arthur; Russell, Selena M; Armand, Michel; Angell, Austen; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-13

    A new super-concentrated aqueous electrolyte is proposed by introducing a second lithium salt. The resultant ultra-high concentration of 28 m led to more effective formation of a protective interphase on the anode along with further suppression of water activities at both anode and cathode surfaces. The improved electrochemical stability allows the use of TiO2 as the anode material, and a 2.5 V aqueous Li-ion cell based on LiMn2 O4 and carbon-coated TiO2 delivered the unprecedented energy density of 100 Wh kg(-1) for rechargeable aqueous Li-ion cells, along with excellent cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency. It has been demonstrated that the introduction of a second salts into the "water-in-salt" electrolyte further pushed the energy densities of aqueous Li-ion cells closer to those of the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; West, W. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Huang, C.; Soler, J.; Krause, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Met programmatic milestones for program. Demonstrated improved performance with wide operating temperature electrolytes containing ester co-solvents (i.e., methyl butyrate) containing electrolyte additives in A123 prototype cells: Previously demonstrated excellent low temperature performance, including 11C rates at -30 C and the ability to perform well down to -60 C. Excellent cycle life at room temperature has been displayed, with over 5,000 cycles being demonstrated. Good high temperature cycle life performance has also been achieved. Demonstrated improved performance with methyl propionate-containing electrolytes in large capacity prototype cells: Demonstrated the wide operating temperature range capability in large cells (12 Ah), successfully scaling up technology from 0.25 Ah size cells. Demonstrated improved performance at low temperature and good cycle life at 40 C with methyl propionate-based electrolyte containing increasing FEC content and the use of LiBOB as an additive. Utilized three-electrode cells to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of high voltage systems coupled with wide operating temperature range electrolytes: From Tafel polarization measurements on each electrode, it is evident the NMC-based cathode displays poor lithium kinetics (being the limiting electrode). The MB-based formulations containing LiBOB delivered the best rate capability at low temperature, which is attributed to improved cathode kinetics. Whereas, the use of lithium oxalate as an additive lead to the highest reversible capacity and lower irreversible losses.

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  20. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail: jbzhao@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  1. High energy density layered-spinel hybrid cathodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S., E-mail: sbasumajumder@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dahiya, P.P.; Akhtar, Mainul [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ray, S.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chang, J.K. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Majumder, S.B. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Structural integration of layered domains in spinel matrix of the composite particles. • Highest discharge capacity (275 mAh g{sup −1}) in composite with 30.0 mole% Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}. • Reasonably good rate capability of layered-spinel composite cathode. • Capacity fading with cycling is related to cubic to tetragonal structural phase transition. - Abstract: High energy density Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} (layered)–LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (spinel) composite cathodes have been synthesized using auto-combustion route. Rietveld refinements together with the analyses of high resolution transmission electron micrographs confirm the structural integration of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} nano-domains into the LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} matrix of the composite cathodes. The discharge capacity of the composite cathodes are due to the intercalation of Li{sup +} ion in the tetrahedral (8a) and octahedral (16c) sites of the spinel component and also the insertion of Li{sup +} in the freshly prepared MnO{sub 2} lattice, formed after Li{sub 2}O extraction from the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} domains. The capacity fading of the composite cathodes are explained to be due to the layered to spinel transition of the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} component and Li{sup +} insertion into the octahedral site of the spinel lattices which trigger cubic to tetragonal phase transition resulting volume expansion which eventually retard the Li{sup +} intercalation with cycling.

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of V2O5/graphene nanocomposites for high performance lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Yi, Ran; Chen, Shuru; Xu, Terrence; Gordin, Mikhail L.; Lv, Dongping; Wang, Donghai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A homogeneous V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposite is successfully synthesized. • V 2 O 5 nanoparticles are highly encapsulated in the 2D graphene matrix. • V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposite shows much better performance than bare V 2 O 5 . - Abstract: In this work, V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach. The V 2 O 5 nanoparticles, around 20–40 nm in size, were encapsulated in the 2D graphene matrix. The reversible Li-cycling properties of V 2 O 5 /graphene have been evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. Compared with the bare V 2 O 5 nanoparticles, the V 2 O 5 /graphene nanocomposites exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance with higher reversible capacity and improved cycling stability and rate capability. The graphene nanosheets act not only as an electronically conductive matrix to improve the electronic and ionic conductivity of the composite electrode, but also as a flexible buffer matrix to maintain the structural integrity of the composite electrodes by preventing particle agglomeration, thus leading to the improvement of the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5

  3. Electrospun LiFePO₄/C Composite Fiber Membrane as a Binder-Free, Self-Standing Cathode for Power Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Shen, Xiang-Qian; Jing, Mao-Xiang; Zhu, Sheng-Wen; Pi, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jing-Quan; Zhai, Hong-Ai; Xiao, Ke-Song

    2018-07-01

    A LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was fabricated by the electrospinning method and subsequent thermal treatment. The thermal decomposition process was analyzed by TG/DSC, the morphology, microstructure and composition were studied using SEM, TEM, XRD, Raman, respectively. The results indicated that the prepared LiFePO4/C composite fibers were composed of nanosized LiFePO4 crystals and amorphous carbon coatings, which formed a three dimensional (3D) long-range networks, greatly enhanced the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 electrode up to 3.59× 10-2 S · cm-2. The 3D LiFePO4/C fiber membrane could be directly used as a binder-free, self-standing cathode for lithium-ion battery, and exhibited an improved capacity and rate performance. The LiFePO4/C composite electrode delivered a discharge capacity of 116 mAh·g-1, 109 mAh·g-1, 103 mAh·g-1, 91 mAh·g-1, 80 mAh·g-1 at 0.1 C, 0.5 C, 1 C, 3 C, 5 C, respectively. And a stable cycling performance was also achieved that the specific capacity could retain 75 mA·g-1 after 500 cycles at 5 C. Therefore, this LiFePO4/C composite fiber membrane was promising to be used as a cathode for power lithium ion battery.

  4. A Stable Flexible Silicon Nanowire Array as Anode for High-Performance Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiantao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Bingchang; Wang, Yao; Lu, Shigang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible SiNW array in PDMS structure is designed and fabricated as Li-ion battery anode material. • The aggregation and fracture of SiNWs are alleviated by the flexible PDMS skeleton during the process of charge and discharge. • The loose SiO 2 shells coating on the SiNWscould form the protective layer in charge/discharge. • The as-obtain flexible SiNW array/PDMS composite exhibits a much better cycling stability. - Abstract: A Silicon nanowire (SiNW) array inserted into flexible poly-dimethylsiloxane (SiNW array/PDMS) composite structure as anode with high capacity and long-term cycling stability is synthesized by a cost-effective and scalable method. In this structure, the aggregation and fracture of SiNWs are alleviated by the flexible PDMS skeleton. Act as the main active component, the SiNWs are coated by loose SiO 2 shells. These loose SiO 2 shells not only provide space for the large volume changes of SiNW, but also react with the electrolyte and form the stable protective layer during the processes of the lithiation and delithiation. These two functions could improve the cycling stability and columbic efficiency of the SiNWs. The as-obtain flexible SiNW array/PDMS composite structure exhibits excellent long-term cycling stability with a specific capacity of 887.2 mA·h·g −1 and capacity retention of ∼83.4% over 350 cycles at 0.5 C rate compared with the fifteenth cycle. The design of this new structure provides a potential way for developing other functional composite materials

  5. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  6. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  7. High Stability Induced by the TiN/Ti Interlayer in Three-Dimensional Si/Ge Nanorod Arrays as Anode in Micro Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chuang; Yu, Yingjian; Wu, Zhenguo; Sun, Shibo; He, Xu; Li, Juntao; Zhao, Libo; Wu, Suntao; Li, Jing; Kang, Junyong; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Si/Ge-based micro/nano batteries are promising lab-on-chip power supply sources because of the good process compatibility with integrated circuits and Micro/Nano-Electro-Mechanical System technologies. In this work, the effective interlayer of TiN/Ti thin films were introduced to coat around the 3D Si nanorod (NR) arrays before the amorphous Ge layer deposition as anode in micro/nano lithium ion batteries, thus the superior cycling stability was realized by reason for the restriction of Si activation in this unique 3D matchlike Si/TiN/Ti/Ge NR array electrode. Moreover, the volume expansion properties after the repeated lithium-ion insertion/extraction were experimentally investigated to evidence the superior stability of this unique multilayered Si composite electrode. The demonstration of this wafer-scale, cost-effective, and Si-compatible fabrication for anodes in Li-ion micro/nano batteries provides new routes to configurate more efficient 3D energy storage systems for micro/nano smart semiconductor devices.

  8. High performance screen printable lithium-ion battery cathode ink based on C-LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, R.E.; Oliveira, J.; Gören, A.; Miranda, D.; Silva, M.M.; Hilliou, Loic; Costa, C.M.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • C-LiFePO 4 paste was been prepared for screen-printing technique. • The inks produced have a Newtonian viscosity of 3 Pa.s for this printing technique. • C-LiFePO 4 inks present a 48.2 mAh.g −1 after 50 cycles at 5C. • This ink is suitable in the development of printed lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Lithium-ion battery cathodes have been fabricated by screen-printing through the development of C-LiFePO 4 inks. It is shown that shear thinning polymer solutions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with Newtonian viscosity above 0.4 Pa s are the best binders for formulating a cathode paste with satisfactory film forming properties. The paste shows an elasticity of the order of 500 Pa and, after shear yielding, shows an apparent viscosity of the order of 3 Pa s for shear rates corresponding to those used during screen-printing. The screen-printed cathode produced with a thickness of 26 μm shows a homogeneous distribution of the active material, conductive additive and polymer binder. The total resistance and diffusion coefficient of the cathode are ∼ 450 Ω and 2.5 × 10 −16 cm 2 s −1 , respectively. The developed cathodes show an initial discharge capacity of 48.2 mAh g −1 at 5C and a discharge value of 39.8 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles. The capacity retention of 83% represents 23% of the theoretical value (charge and/or discharge process in twenty minutes), demonstrating the good performance of the battery. Thus, the developed C-LiFePO 4 based inks allow to fabricate screen-printed cathodes suitable for printed lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte with organic additive and LiTFSI for high-safety lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Binbin; Li, Cuihua; Zhou, Junhui; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Qianling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New ionic liquid electrolytes composed by PYR 13 TFSI and EC/DMC-5%VC. • Mixed electrolyte for use in high-safety lithium-ion batteries. • LiTFSI concentration in IL electrolyte greatly affects the rate capability of the cell. • The optimal mixed electrolyte is ideal for applications at high temperature. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the physicochemical properties of mixed electrolytes based on an ionic liquid N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidiniumbis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 13 TFSI), organic additives, and lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) for high safety lithium-ion batteries. The proposed optimal content of ionic liquid in the mixed electrolyte is 65 vol%, which results in non- flammability, high thermal stability, a wide electrochemical window of 4.8 V, low viscosity, low bulk resistance and the lowest interface resistance to lithium anode. The effects of the concentration of LiTFSI in the above electrolyte are critical to the rate performance of the LiFePO 4 -based battery. We have found the suitable LiTFSI concentration (0.3 M) for good capacity retention and rate capability

  10. Alumina-coated and manganese monoxide embedded 3D carbon derived from avocado as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rehman, Wasif ur; Xu, Youlong; Du, Xianfeng; Sun, Xiaofei; Ullah, Inam; Zhang, Yuan; Jin, Yanling; Zhang, Baofeng; Li, Xifei

    2018-07-01

    Derived from avocado fruit, a three dimension (3D) carbon is prepared via a hydrothermal/pyrolysis process followed by embedding with MnO nanoparticles by a wet chemical method and coating with Al2O3 through an atomic layer deposition technique. The obtained material presents a hierarchical structure that MnO nanocrystals wrapped in 3D carbon and then encapsulated in a uniform Al2O3 layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. Benefiting from this hierarchical structure in which 3D carbon offers numerous electronic pathways to enhance the conductivity and Al2O3 nanolayer provide a shelter to keep away from dissolution of Mn4+ and volume changes during charge/discharge process. This material (marked as C/MnO@Al2O3) has exhibited high rate performance and excellent cyclability as an anode for lithium ion batteries. A high specific capacity of about 600 mA h g-1 is achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g-1 and the electrode can still deliver a high specific capacity of about 1165 mA h g-1 at 150 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. These results facilitate a green and high potential of anode materials towards promising devices for advance performance of lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Acetylene Black Induced Heterogeneous Growth of Macroporous CoV2O6 Nanosheet for High-Rate Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Battery Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Kangning; Luo, Yanzhu; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Yan, Mengyu; Ren, Wenhao; Zhou, Liang; Qu, Longbing; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-23

    Metal vanadates suffer from fast capacity fading in lithium-ion batteries especially at a high rate. Pseudocapacitance, which is associated with surface or near-surface redox reactions, can provide fast charge/discharge capacity free from diffusion-controlled intercalation processes and is able to address the above issue. In this work, we report the synthesis of macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets through a facile one-pot method via acetylene black induced heterogeneous growth. When applied as lithium-ion battery anode, the macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets show typical features of pseudocapacitive behavior: (1) currents that are mostly linearly dependent on sweep rate and (2) redox peaks whose potentials do not shift significantly with sweep rate. The macroporous CoV2O6 nanosheets display a high reversible capacity of 702 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1), excellent cyclability with a capacity retention of 89% (against the second cycle) after 500 cycles at 500 mA g(-1), and high rate capability of 453 mAh g(-1) at 5000 mA g(-1). We believe that the introduction of pseudocapacitive properties in lithium battery is a promising direction for developing electrode materials with high-rate capability.

  12. Rational synthesis of graphene-encapsulated uniform MnMoO4 hollow spheres as long-life and high-rate anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huaixin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yufei; Qian, Yong; Geng, Hongbo

    2018-03-29

    In this manuscript, the graphene-encapsulated MnMoO 4 hollow spheres (MnMoO 4 @G) synthesized by an effective strategy were reported. Benefiting from the intriguing hybrid architecture of hollow structure and conductive graphene network, the MnMoO 4 @G composite displays superior electrochemical performance with high specific capacity of 1142 mA h g -1 , high reversible cycling stability of 921 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 after 70 cycles, and stable rate performance (around 513 mA h g -1 at a current density of 4.0 A g -1 ). The remarkable battery performance can be attributed to the rational design of the architecture, which not only ensures the fast transport of electrons and lithium ions within the electrode material, but also effectively relax the stress induced by the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. This facile synthetic method can extend to other transition metal oxides with large volume excursions and poor electric conductivity and promotes the development of transition metal oxides as high-performance LIB anode material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrospun single crystalline fork-like K2V8O21 as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengfei; Zhu, Ting; Su, Qiong; Lin, Jiande; Cui, Rong; Cao, Xinxin; Wang, Yaping; Pan, Anqiang

    2018-06-01

    Single crystalline fork-like potassium vanadate (K2V8O21) has been successfully prepared through electrospinning combined with a subsequent annealing process. The as-obtained K2V8O21 forks show a unique layer-by-layer stacked structure with conductive carbon. When used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared fork-like materials exhibit high specific discharge capacity and excellent cyclic stability. High specific discharge capacity of 200.2 mA h g-1 and 131.5 mA h g-1 can be delivered at the current densities of 50 mA g-1 and 500 mA g-1, respectively. Furthermore, the K2V8O21 electrodes exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability that maintain a capacity of 108.3 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 500 mA g-1 with a fading rate of only 0.054% per cycle, revealing their potential applications in next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  14. There-dimensional porous carbon network encapsulated SnO2 quantum dots as anode materials for high-rate lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Juan; Xi, Lihua; Tang, Jingjing; Chen, Feng; Wu, Lili; Zhou, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    SnO 2 quantum dots have attracted enormous interest, since they have been shown to effectively minimize the volume change stress, improve the anode kinetic and shorten the lithium ion migration distance when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. In this work, we report a facile strategy to fabricate nanostructure with homogenous SnO 2 quantum dots anchored on three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped porous carbon (NSGC@SnO 2 ). Characterization results show that the obtained SnO 2 quantum dots have an average critical size of 3–5 nm and uniformly encapsulated in the porous of NSGC matrix. The as-designed nanostructure can effectively avoid the aggregation of SnO 2 quantum dots as well as accommodate the mechanical stress induced by the volume change of SnO 2 quantum dots and thus maintain the structure integrity of the electrode. As a result, the obtained NSGC@SnO 2 composite exhibits a specific reversible capacity as high as 1118 mAh g −1 at a current of 200 mA g −1 after 100 cycles along with a high coulombic efficiency of 98% and excellent rate capability.

  15. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle, high porosity (69.77%, and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake. It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1 than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1 was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Facilely solving cathode/electrolyte interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by constructing an effective solid electrolyte interface film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingjing; Xia, Qingbo; Chen, Fangyuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Cheng, Xueyuan; Lu, Wei; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The cathode/electrolyte interface stability is the key factor for the cyclic performance and the safety performance of lithium ion batteries. Suppression of consuming key elements in the electrode materials is essential in this concern. In this purpose, we investigate a facile strategy to solve interfacial issue for high-voltage lithium ion batteries by adding an oxidable fluorinated phosphate, Bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) Phosphite (BTFEP), as a sacrificial additive in electrolyte. We demonstrate that BTFEP additive could be oxidized at slightly above 4.28 V which is a relatively lower voltage than that of solvents, and the oxidative products facilitate in-situ forming a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the cathode surface. The results manifest the SEI film validly restrains the generation of HF and the interfacial side reaction between high-voltage charged LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) and electrolyte, hence, the dissolution of Mn and Ni is effectively suppressed. Finally, the cyclic performance of LNMO after 200 cycles was remarkably improved from 68.4% in blank electrolyte to 95% in 1 wt% BTFEP-adding electrolyte.

  17. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  18. Self-assembled 3D ZnSnO3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yankun; Li, Dan; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reducedgrapheneoxideaerogels(ZGAs) were fabricated. • The electrochemical properties of ZGAs were investigated for LIBs. • ZGAs demonstrated superior lithium storage performance. - Abstract: 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels (ZGAs) were fabricated via a colloid electrostatic self-assembly method between the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes colloid, followed by hydrothermal and freeze-drying treatments. The unique porous architecture of ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes encapsulated by flexible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets not only effectively retarded the huge volume expansion during repeated charge-discharge cycles, but also facilitated fast lithium ion and electron transport through 3D networks. The ZGAs exhibited significantly enhanced cycling stability (745.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current of 100 mA g −1 ) and superior rate capability (as high as 552.6 mAh g −1 at 1200 mA g −1 ). The results indicate that the ZGAs are promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Ultrasmall Tin Nanodots Embedded in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Electrochemical Application as Highly Stable Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Ruoling; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sn-based metal-organic-framework (MOF) is prepared. • Ultrasmall tin nanodots (2–3 nm) are embedded in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. • The Sn/C composite anode shows high capacity and ultralong cycle life. - Abstract: This work reports a facile metal-organic-framework based approach to synthesize Sn/C composite, in which ultrasmall Sn nanodots with typical size of 2–3 nm are uniformly embedded in the nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (denoted as Sn@NPC). The effect of thermal treatment and nitrogen doping are also explored. Owing to the delicate size control and confined volume change within carbon matrix, the Sn@NPC composite can exhibit reversible capacities of 575 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1091 mAh g −1 ) after 500 cycles at 0.2 A g −1 and 507 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1077 mAh g −1 ) after 1500 cycles at 1 A g −1 . The excellent long-life electrochemical stability of the Sn@NPC anode has been mainly attributed to the uniform distribution of ultrasmall Sn nanodots and the highly-conductive and flexible N-doped carbon matrix, which can effectively facilitate lithium ion/electron diffusion, buffer the large volume change and improve the structure stability of the electrode during repetitive cycling with lithium ions.

  20. A general approach for MFe2O4 (M = Zn, Co, Ni) nanorods and their high performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nana; Xu, Huayun; Chen, Liang; Gu, Xin; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2014-02-01

    MFe2O4 (M = Zn, Co, Ni) nanorods are synthesized by a template-engaged reaction, with β-FeOOH nanorods as precursors which are prepared by a hydrothermal method. The final products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The electrochemical properties of the MFe2O4 (M = Zn, Co, Ni) nanorods are tested as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The reversible capacities of 800, 625 and 520 mAh g-1 are obtained for CoFe2O4, ZnFe2O4 and NiFe2O4, respectively, at the high current density of 1000 mA g-1 even after 300 cycles. The superior lithium-storage performances of MFe2O4 (M = Zn, Co, Ni) nanorods can be attributed to the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure, which can shorten the diffusion paths of lithium ions and relax the strain generated during electrochemical cycling. These results indicate that this method is an effective, simple and general way to prepare good electrochemical properties of 1D spinel Fe-based binary transition metal oxides. In addition, the impact of different reaction temperatures on the electrochemical properties of MFe2O4 nanorods is also investigated.

  1. The Surface Coating of Commercial LiFePO4 by Utilizing ZIF-8 for High Electrochemical Performance Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Qi, CongYu; Hao, ZhenDong; Wang, Hao; Jiu, JinTing; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    The requirement of energy-storage equipment needs to develop the lithium ion battery (LIB) with high electrochemical performance. The surface modification of commercial LiFePO4 (LFP) by utilizing zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) offers new possibilities for commercial LFP with high electrochemical performances. In this work, the carbonized ZIF-8 (CZIF-8) was coated on the surface of LFP particles by the in situ growth and carbonization of ZIF-8. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that there is an approximate 10 nm coating layer with metal zinc and graphite-like carbon on the surface of LFP/CZIF-8 sample. The N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm suggests that the coating layer has uniform and simple connecting mesopores. As cathode material, LFP/CZIF-8 cathode-active material delivers a discharge specific capacity of 159.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C and a discharge specific energy of 141.7 mWh g-1 after 200 cycles at 5.0C (the retention rate is approximate 99%). These results are attributed to the synergy improvement of the conductivity, the lithium ion diffusion coefficient, and the degree of freedom for volume change of LFP/CZIF-8 cathode. This work will contribute to the improvement of the cathode materials of commercial LIB.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Impedance Analysis of Silicon Nanowire Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; Hong, Seung Sae; Chan, Candace K.; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    The impedance behavior of silicon nanowire electrodes has been investigated to understand the electrochemical process kinetics that influences the performance when used as a high-capacity anode in a lithium ion battery. The ac response was measured

  3. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...... material exhibits the extremely high reversible lithium ion capacity and extraordinary rate capability with high cycling stability at high discharge current. In this presentation we demonstrate that the disorder plays a decisive role in achieving those exceptional electrochemical performances. We describe...... how the disorder affects the migration of both lithium ions and electrons. It is found that both the modified glassy surface and the heterogeneous superlattice structure greatly contribute to the extremely high discharge/charge rates owing to the enhanced storage capacity of lithium ions and ultrafast...

  4. Reliable reference electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, F.; Wessells, C.D.; Deshazer, H.D.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high attention drawn to the lithium-ion batteries by the scientific and industrial community, most of the electrochemical characterization is carried out using poor reference electrodes or even no reference electrode. In this case

  5. V2O5-C-SnO2 Hybrid Nanobelts as High Performance Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linfei; Yang, Mingyang; Zhang, Shengliang; Wu, Zefei; Amini, Abbas; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Dongyong; Bao, Shuhan; Lu, Zhouguang; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Chun

    2016-09-01

    The superior performance of metal oxide nanocomposites has introduced them as excellent candidates for emerging energy sources, and attracted significant attention in recent years. The drawback of these materials is their inherent structural pulverization which adversely impacts their performance and makes the rational design of stable nanocomposites a great challenge. In this work, functional V2O5-C-SnO2 hybrid nanobelts (VCSNs) with a stable structure are introduced where the ultradispersed SnO2 nanocrystals are tightly linked with glucose on the V2O5 surface. The nanostructured V2O5 acts as a supporting matrix as well as an active electrode component. Compared with existing carbon-V2O5 hybrid nanobelts, these hybrid nanobelts exhibit a much higher reversible capacity and architectural stability when used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The superior cyclic performance of VCSNs can be attributed to the synergistic effects of SnO2 and V2O5. However, limited data are available for V2O5-based anodes in lithium-ion battery design.

  6. Nanosized CoO Loaded on Copper Foam for High-Performance, Binder-Free Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mingna; Zhang, Qilun; Tang, Fengling; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xin; Li, Youpeng; Zhang, Yali; Yang, Chenghao; Ru, Qiang; Zhao, Lingzhi

    2018-03-22

    The synthesis of nanosized CoO anodes with unique morphologies via a hydrothermal method is investigated. By adjusting the pH values of reaction solutions, nanoflakes (CoO-NFs) and nanoflowers (CoO-FLs) are successfully located on copper foam. Compared with CoO-FLs, CoO-NFs as anodes for lithium ion batteries present ameliorated lithium storage properties, such as good rate capability, excellent cycling stability, and large CoO nanoflakes; CoO nanoflowers; anodes; binder free; lithium ion batteriesreversible capacity. The initial discharge capacity is 1470 mA h g -1 , while the reversible capacity is maintained at 1776 m Ah g -1 after 80 cycles at a current density of 100 mA h g -1 . The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to enough free space and enhanced conductivity, which play crucial roles in facilitating electron transport during repetitive Li⁺ intercalation and extraction reaction as well as buffering the volume expansion.

  7. Nanosized CoO Loaded on Copper Foam for High-Performance, Binder-Free Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingna Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanosized CoO anodes with unique morphologies via a hydrothermal method is investigated. By adjusting the pH values of reaction solutions, nanoflakes (CoO-NFs and nanoflowers (CoO-FLs are successfully located on copper foam. Compared with CoO-FLs, CoO-NFs as anodes for lithium ion batteries present ameliorated lithium storage properties, such as good rate capability, excellent cycling stability, and large CoO nanoflakes; CoO nanoflowers; anodes; binder free; lithium ion batteriesreversible capacity. The initial discharge capacity is 1470 mA h g−1, while the reversible capacity is maintained at 1776 m Ah g−1 after 80 cycles at a current density of 100 mA h g−1. The excellent electrochemical performance is ascribed to enough free space and enhanced conductivity, which play crucial roles in facilitating electron transport during repetitive Li+ intercalation and extraction reaction as well as buffering the volume expansion.

  8. Cryogenic plasma-processed silicon microspikes as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Joe; Luais, Erwann; Wolfman, Jérôme; Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Rémi; Tran-Van, Francois; Ghamouss, Fouad

    2017-10-01

    Micro- or nano-structuring is essential in order to use Si as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. In the present study, we attempted to use Si wafers with a spiky microstructure (SMS), the so-called black-Si, prepared by a cryogenic reactive ion etching process with an SF6/O2 gas mixture, for Li half-cells. The SMS with various sizes of spikes from 2.0 μm (height) × 0.2 μm (width) to 21 μm × 1.0 μm was etched by varying the SF6/O2 gas flow ratio. An anode of SMS of 11 μm-height in average showed stable charge/discharge capacity and Coulombic efficiency higher than 99% for more than 300 cycles, causing no destruction to any part of the Si wafer. The spiky structure turned columnar after cycles, suggesting graded lithiation levels along the length. The present results suggest a strategy to utilize a wafer-based Si material for an anode of a lithium ion battery durable against repetitive lithiation/delithiation cycles.

  9. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  10. Spray-Drying-Induced Assembly of Skeleton-Structured SnO2/Graphene Composite Spheres as Superior Anode Materials for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; Kong, Zhen; Liu, Xuehua; Fu, Aiping; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Yu-Guo; Guo, Peizhi; Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2018-01-24

    Three-dimensional skeleton-structured assemblies of graphene sheets decorated with SnO 2 nanocrystals are fabricated via a facile and large-scalable spray-drying-induced assembly process with commercial graphene oxide and SnO 2 sol as precursors. The influences of different parameters on the morphology, composition, structure, and electrochemical performances of the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres are studied by XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Electrochemical properties of the composite spheres as the anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries are evaluated. After 120 cycles under a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the skeleton-structured SnO 2 /graphene spheres still display a specific discharge capacity of 1140 mAh g -1 . It is roughly 9.5 times larger than that of bare SnO 2 clusters. It could still retain a stable specific capacity of 775 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles under a high current density of 2000 mA g -1 , exhibiting extraordinary rate ability. The superconductivity of the graphene skeleton provides the pathway for electron transportation. The large pore volume deduced from the skeleton structure of the SnO 2 /graphene composite spheres increases the penetration of electrolyte and the diffusion of lithium ions and also significantly enhances the structural integrity by acting as a mechanical buffer.

  11. Co_3V_2O_8 Hexagonal Pyramid with Tunable Inner Structure as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Pei, Jian; Chen, Gang; Bie, Changfeng; Chen, Dahong; Jiao, Yang; Rao, Jiancun

    2017-01-01

    Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid was successfully fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process and subsequent heat treatment. The inner structure of the hexagonal pyramid was further adjusted by controlling the size of Co_7V_4O_1_6(OH)_2(H_2O) precursors. Hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid with height of 1 μm were orderly constructed from 60–80 nm inter-connected particles, showing numerous interval voids. Benefiting from its unique structure, the as-prepared sample showed higher electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries than that of another bulk sample with height of 5 μm and adhesive inner structure. When tested at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, the hierarchical Co_3V_2O_8 hexagonal pyramid exhibited good rate capacity, high cycling stability, and excellent discharge capacity up to 712 mA h g"−"1, making it promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Mesoporous Amorphous Silicon: A Simple Synthesis of a High-Rate and Long-Life Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangdong; Xu, Xuena; Chu, Chenxiao; Majeed, Muhammad K; Yang, Jian

    2016-11-02

    Amorphous Si (a-Si) shows potential advantages over crystalline Si (c-Si) in lithium-ion batteries, owing to its high lithiation potential and good tolerance to intrinsic strain/stress. Herein, porous a-Si has been synthesized by a simple process, without the uses of dangerous or expensive reagents, sophisticated equipment, and strong acids that potential cause environment risks. These porous a-Si particles exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, owing to their porous structure, amorphous nature, and surface modification. They deliver a capacity of 1025 mAh g -1 at 3 A g -1 after 700 cycles. Moreover, the reversible capacity after electrochemical activation, is quite stable throughout the cycling, resulting in a capacity retention about around 88 %. The direct comparison between a-Si and c-Si anodes clearly supports the advantages of a-Si in lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets with interconnected framework for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Chen, Yaxin; Shi, Liluo; Dong, Yue; Ma, Jing; Chen, Xiaohong; Song, Huaihe

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a low-cost and environmental friendly synthesis strategy is proposed to fabricate nitrogen-doped biomass-based ultra-thin carbon nanosheets (N-CNS) with interconnected framework by using soybean milk as the carbon precursor and sodium chloride as the template. The interconnected porous nanosheet structure is beneficial for lithium ion transportation, and the defects introduced by pyridine nitrogen doping are favorable for lithium storage. When used as the anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the N-CNS electrode shows a high initial reversible specific capacity of 1334 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1, excellent rate performance (1212, 555 and 336 mAh g-1 at 0.05, 0.5 and 2 A g-1, respectively) and good cycling stability (355 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles). Furthermore, this study demonstrates the prospects of biomass and soybean milk, as the potential anode for the application of electrochemical energy storage devices.

  14. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of graphene wrapped rice-like ferrous carbonate nanoparticles as anode materials for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Ruihan; Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Xiong, Shenglin; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai; Li, Lifei

    2014-11-01

    Well dispersed rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles were produced and combined with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via a one-pot solvothermal route. SEM characterization shows that rice-like FeCO3 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored on the surface of the graphene nanosheets; the addition of RGO is helpful to form a uniform morphology and reduce the particle size of FeCO3 to nano-grade. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposites exhibit significantly improved lithium storage properties with a large reversible capacity of 1345 mA h g-1 for the first cycle and a capacity retention of 1224 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles with a good rate capability compared with pure FeCO3 particles. The superior electrochemical performance of the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite electrode compared to the pure FeCO3 electrode can be attributed to the well dispersed RGO which enhances the electronic conductivity and accommodates the volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that the FeCO3/RGO nanocomposite could be a suitable candidate for high capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  15. In situ synthesis of Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite material for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with high capacity and supercapacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bei; Wang Ying; Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun; Wang Guoxiu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In situ solution-based preparation of Co 3 O 4 /graphene composite material. → Well dispersed Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. → Co 3 O 4 /graphene exhibits highly reversible lithium storage capacity. → Co 3 O 4 /graphene delivers superior supercapacitance up to 478 F g -1 . → Functional groups make contributions to the overall supercapacitance. - Abstract: Co 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposite material was prepared by an in situ solution-based method under reflux conditions. In this reaction progress, Co 2+ salts were converted to Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers, upon the reduction of graphite oxide to graphene. The prepared material consists of uniform Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles (15-25 nm), which are well dispersed on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This has been confirmed through observations by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The prepared composite material exhibits an initial reversible lithium storage capacity of 722 mAh g -1 in lithium-ion cells and a specific supercapacitance of 478 F g -1 in 2 M KOH electrolyte for supercapacitors, which were higher than that of the previously reported pure graphene nanosheets and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Co 3 O 4 /graphene nanocomposite material demonstrated an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for reversible lithium storage in lithium ion cells and as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  16. Ascorbic Acid-Assisted Eco-friendly Synthesis of NiCo2O4 Nanoparticles as an Anode Material for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Viktorovich, Lysov Dmitry; Ilinyh, Igor; Gorshenkov, Mikhail V.; Sasidharan, Manickam; Kuznetsov, Denis; Kundu, Manab

    2018-05-01

    We have synthesized NiCo2O4 nanoparticles (NCO NPs) using an ascorbic acid-assisted co-precipitation method for the first time. When NCO NPs are used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the cell exhibits superior lithium storage properties, such as high capacity (700 mA h g-1 after 300 cycles at 200 mA g-1), excellent rate capabilities (applied current density range 100-1200 mA g-1), and impressive cycling stability (at 1200 mA g-1 up to 650 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical properties of NCO NPs are due to the nanometer dimensions which not only offers a smooth charge-transport pathway and short diffusion paths of the lithium ions but also adequate spaces for volume expansion during Li storage. Hence, this eco-friendly synthesis approach will provide a new strategy for the synthesis of various nanostructured metal oxide compounds, for energy conversion and storage systems applications.

  17. Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black with open conductive frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Huang; Liu, Yijun; Ji, Mandi; Xu, Yunlong; Wang, Qingqing; Luo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. As an anode for lithium ion battery, the composite exhibits ultrahigh capacity and excellent low temperature performance. - Highlights: • Mesoporous LTO/KB composites were synthesized via hydrothermal method. • KB is used as carbon template and conductive additive. • The LTO/KB electrode without carbon black was fabricated. • This as-prepared electrode shows excellent rate capacity performance. • LTO/KB composite exhibits ultrahigh cycle performance at low temperature. - Abstract: The Li_4Ti_5O_1_2/Ketjen Black composites are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. The materials are characterized by XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, EDS, galvanostatic charge/discharge test, CV and EIS. The results indicate that Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 (LTO) particles grow both in the pores and on the surface of mesoporous Ketjen Black (KB) forming open conductive frameworks and the Ketjen Black works as host forthe growth of Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 primary nanoparticles. The LTO/KB electrode is fabricated without extra carbon black conductive agents and exhibits excellent electrochemical performances, especially at low temperature. The improved performances can be attributed to the presence of mesoporous Ketjen Black conductive templates with high electronic conductivity and formed 3D frameworks beneficial to the lithium ion diffusion.

  18. In Situ High-Level Nitrogen Doping into Carbon Nanospheres and Boosting of Capacitive Charge Storage in Both Anode and Cathode for a High-Energy 4.5 V Full-Carbon Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Lijie; Gao, Jihui; Li, Hexing; Lu, Yunfeng

    2018-05-02

    To circumvent the imbalances of electrochemical kinetics and capacity between Li + storage anodes and capacitive cathodes for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), we herein demonstrate an efficient solution by boosting the capacitive charge-storage contributions of carbon electrodes to construct a high-performance LIC. Such a strategy is achieved by the in situ and high-level doping of nitrogen atoms into carbon nanospheres (ANCS), which increases the carbon defects and active sites, inducing more rapidly capacitive charge-storage contributions for both Li + storage anodes and PF 6 - storage cathodes. High-level nitrogen-doping-induced capacitive enhancement is successfully evidenced by the construction of a symmetric supercapacitor using commercial organic electrolytes. Coupling a pre-lithiated ANCS anode with a fresh ANCS cathode enables a full-carbon LIC with a high operating voltage of 4.5 V and high energy and power densities thereof. The assembled LIC device delivers high energy densities of 206.7 and 115.4 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 0.225 and 22.5 kW kg -1 , respectively, as well as an unprecedented high-power cycling stability with only 0.0013% capacitance decay per cycle within 10 000 cycles at a high power output of 9 kW kg -1 .

  19. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  20. Modeling based on design of thermal management systems for vertical elevation applications powered by lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Martín, Leire; Gastelurrutia, Jon; Nieto, Nerea; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Rivas, Alejandro; Gil, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A TMS is designed for a cylindrical Li-ion BP using CFD tools. • The model is experimentally validated with a maximum time-averaged error of 1.5 °C. • Cell temperature and module thermal dispersion are below 39 °C and 3 °C. • The prototype design fulfills all thermal requirements. • Design improvements are proposed to minimize the cost and the TMS consumption. - Abstract: Environmental sustainability, more efficient use of energy, and active safety concepts are becoming important requirements for the actual elevation sector. In this context IK4-IKERLAN and ORONA have designed an auxiliary energy storage system (ESS) for a residential elevation application based on lithium-ion cells. Safety and specially lifetime are two of the main concerns surrounding this new technology, which is closely related to the cells operating behavior and temperature asymmetries in the complete ESS. Therefore, the temperature of the cells in battery packs (BPs) needs to be controlled in an efficient way. This paper describes the development of the thermal management system (TMS) designed for this application based on various Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mathematical models. The accuracy of Transient model is validated by using a single module to compare the simulation temperature results with experimental measurements, with a maximum time-averaged temperature prediction error of 1.5 °C. The proposed design is validated as it fulfills the requirements for a wide operating window, with a maximum cell temperature of 39 °C and a thermal dispersion at system level below 3 °C for the worst tested case. A more realistic current profile is checked numerically in the worst ambient and operative conditions for different virtual design variants to propose improvements.

  1. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  2. Sony Co., Ltd.: An outlook is made for merchandising of the manganese acid lithium ion battery; Mangansan richiumuion denchi no shohinka ni medo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Sony Co., Ltd. sells the manganese acid lithium ion battery that a battery is 1 by 2 as to the next generation lithium ion during 99 years. It is characteristics that a price is restrained because manganese is used for the proper pole material instead of cobalt of the rare metal. It becomes mass production by Koriyama factory where a lithium ion battery is being manufactured improving an existent production line. It is seen when some percents of manufacture cost goes down more than cobalt acid battery of news file before. A manganese acid lithium ion battery uses manganese acid lithium for the proper pole of the battery. The efficiency of the charge of the usual lithium ion battery is good, and composition is easy, and uses cobalt acid lithium, which is easy to produce. One side where a material fee is cheap, the stability at the high temperature of manganese acid is low, and composition is difficult. Only NEC Moli Energy corporation who is the subsidiary company of NEC succeeds in the mass production. NEC Moli Energy corporation is extending market share by the price competition power. It seems to have the possibility that manganese acid becomes the main force with a battery by two by new entering of Sony Co., Ltd. of the lithium ion battery extreme big enterprises. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  4. Silver-nickel oxide core-shell nanoflower arrays as high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjia; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays via a one-step solution-immersion process and subsequent RF-sputtering method. The aligned Ag nanoflower arrays on copper substrate are prepared by a facile displacement reaction in absence of any surfactant at a mild temperature. When used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the Ag-NiO core-shell nanoflower arrays show better cycling performance and higher capacity than the planar NiO electrodes. The improved performance should be attributed to the core-shell structures that can enhance the conductivity and accommodate the volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  5. Transformation of sludge Si to nano-Si/SiOx structure by oxygen inward diffusion as precursor for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qiqi; Dai, Dongyang; Zhang, Chengzhi; Han, Fei; Lv, Tiezheng; Li, Xiaoshan; Wang, Shijie; Zhu, Rui; Liao, Haojie; Zhang, Shiguo

    2018-05-01

    Although several Si/C composite structures have been proposed for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), they have still suffered from expensive and complex processes of nano-Si production. Herein, a simple, controllable oxygen inward diffusion was utilized to transform Si sludge obtained from the photovoltaic (PV) industry into the nano-Si/SiOx structure as a result of the high diffusion efficiency of O inside Si and high surface area of the sludge. After further process, a yolk/shell Si/C structure was obtained as an anode material for LIBs. This composite demonstrated an excellent cycling stability, with a high reversible capacity (˜ 1250 mAh/g for 500 cycles), by void space originally left by the SiOx accommodate inner Si expansion. We believe this is a rather simple way to convert the waste Si into a valuable nano-Si for LIB applications.

  6. Sustainability Impact of Nanomaterial Enhanced Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, Matthew

    Energy storage devices are becoming an integral part of sustainable energy technology adoption, particularly, in alternative transportation (electric vehicles) and renewable energy technologies (solar and wind which are intermittent). The most prevalent technology exhibiting near-term impact are lithium ion batteries, especially in portable consumer electronics and initial electric vehicle models like the Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf. However, new technologies need to consider the full life-cycle impacts from material production and use phase performance to the end-of-life management (EOL). This dissertation investigates the impacts of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries throughout the life cycle and develops strategies to improve each step in the process. The embodied energy of laser vaporization synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was calculated to determine the environmental impact of the novel nanomaterial at beginning of life. CNTs were integrated into lithium ion battery electrodes as conductive additives, current collectors, and active material supports to increase power, energy, and thermal stability in the use phase. A method was developed to uniformly distribute CNT conductive additives in composites. Cathode composites with CNT additives had significant rate improvements (3x the capacity at a 10C rate) and higher thermal stability (40% reduction in exothermic energy released upon overcharge). Similar trends were also measured with CNTs in anode composites. Advanced free-standing anodes incorporating CNTs with high capacity silicon and germanium were measured to have high capacities where surface area reduction improved coulombic efficiencies and thermal stability. A thermal stability plot was developed that compares the safety of traditional composites with free-standing electrodes, relating the results to thermal conductivity and surface area effects. The EOL management of nanomaterials in lithium ion batteries was studied and a novel

  7. Stable High-Capacity Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Produced by Supersonic Spray Deposition of Hematite Nanoparticles and Self-Healing Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Seong, Il Won; Swihart, Mark T.; Yoon, Woo Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were supersonically sprayed onto copper current collectors to create high-performance, binder-free lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes. Supersonic spray deposition is rapid, low-cost, and suitable for large-scale production. Supersonic impact of rGO sheets and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the substrate produces compacted nanocomposite films with short diffusion lengths for Li + ions. This structure produces high reversible capacity and markedly improved capacity retention over many cycles. Decomposition of lithium oxide generated during cycling activates the solid electrolyte interface layer, contributing to high capacity retention. The optimal composition ratio of rGO to Fe 2 O 3 was 9.1 wt.%, which produced a reversible capacity of 1242 mAh g −1 after N = 305 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 (1C).

  8. Polymer-Templated LiFePO4/C Nanonetworks as High-Performance Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael G; Hua, Xiao; Wilts, Bodo D; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Steiner, Ullrich

    2018-01-17

    Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) is currently one of the main cathode materials used in lithium-ion batteries due to its safety, relatively low cost, and exceptional cycle life. To overcome its poor ionic and electrical conductivities, LFP is often nanostructured, and its surface is coated with conductive carbon (LFP/C). Here, we demonstrate a sol-gel based synthesis procedure that utilizes a block copolymer (BCP) as a templating agent and a homopolymer as an additional carbon source. The high-molecular-weight BCP produces self-assembled aggregates with the precursor-sol on the 10 nm scale, stabilizing the LFP structure during crystallization at high temperatures. This results in a LFP nanonetwork consisting of interconnected ∼10 nm-sized particles covered by a uniform carbon coating that displays a high rate performance and an excellent cycle life. Our "one-pot" method is facile and scalable for use in established battery production methodologies.

  9. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  10. Liquid-Solid-Solution Assembly of CoFe2O4/Graphene Nanocomposite as a High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanfang; Lv, Xingbin; Zhang, Lili; Guo, Xiaodong; Liu, Daijun; Chen, Jianjun; Ji, Junyi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CoFe 2 O 4 /rGO composites are fabricated via a liquid-solid-solution assemble strategy with a well controlled CoFe 2 O 4 size, the composite exhibits a high rate performance for lithium ion batteries anode. - Highlights: • Crumpled CoFe 2 O 4 @graphene composite with uniform CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles intimately anchored on graphene sheets was fabricated. • The novel fabrication strategy: liquid-solid-solution strategy where the CoFe 2 O 4 are nucleation and controlled growth at the oil/water interface. • High reversible specific capacity of 1102 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles and high rate capability of 410 mAh g −1 within 230 s charging. - Abstract: CoFe 2 O 4 /graphene composites were fabricated via a novel one-pot liquid-solid-solution (LSS) hydrothermal process. Through ions electrostatic adsorption onto graphene sheets and oil microemulsion encapsulation, CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles can be uniformly anchored on crumpled graphene sheets without aggregation, and the size distribution of CoFe 2 O 4 particles can be controlled by the microemulsion shell in the range of 50–100 nm. With the synergistic effect between CoFe 2 O 4 and graphene, the CoFe 2 O 4 /graphene hybrid exhibits a high reversible specific capacity of 1102 mAh g −1 at 0.2 A g −1 after 100 cycles, and a good cycling stability as well. Moreover, the composite has good rate capability. The specific capacity can reach a high value of 410 mAh g −1 even under a high current density of 6.4 A g −1 (corresponds to a charge time of ∼230 s), indicating its promising application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Solution-combustion synthesized aluminium-doped spinel (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) as a high-performance lithium-ion battery cathode material

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-performing (LiAl(subx)Mn(sub2-x)O(sub4) (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) spinel cathode materials for lithium-ion battery were developed using a solution combustion method. The as-synthesized cathode materials have spinel cubic structure...

  12. Electrochemical performances of LiNi1−xMnxPO4 (x = 0.05–0.2) olivine cathode materials for high voltage rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karthikprabhu, S.; Karuppasamy, K.; Vikraman, Dhanasekaran

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrated to synthesis of carbon-free lithium nickel phosphate (LiNiPO4) and its analogue of manganese doped LiNi1−xMnxPO4 (x = 0.05–0.2) cathode materials by a facile polyol method and their suitability for use in high voltage lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The physicochemical...

  13. Persistent cyclestability of carbon coated Zn–Sn metal oxide/carbon microspheres as highly reversible anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guoqing; Kaneko, Shingo; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zhang, Ruixue; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2013-01-01

    Development of high-capacity anode materials equipped with strong cyclestability is a great challenge for use as practical electrode for high-performance lithium-ion rechargeable battery. In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Zn–Sn metal nanocomposite oxide and carbon spheres (ZTO@C/CSs) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. The carbon coated ZTO/carbon microspheres composite maintained a reversible capacity of 680 mAh g −1 after 345 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 , and furthermore the cell based on the composite exhibited an excellent rate capability of 470 mAh g −1 even when the cell was cycled at 2000 mA g –1 . The thick carbon layer formed on the ZTO nanoparticles and carbon spheres effectively buffered the volumetric change of the particles, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the electrodes

  14. Facile fabrication of composited Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with high electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dianyun; Hao, Qin; Xu, Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are successfully prepared through one step dealloying of Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 alloy at room temperature. This hierarchical flower-like structure with consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Combined with the specific hierarchical flower-like architecture and the synergistic effect exerted by Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits enhanced performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anode. - Highlights: • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers are easily prepared by one step dealloying method. • The nanoflowers consist of packed regular nanoslices with interconnected voids. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers deliver higher discharge capacity than Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4. • Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers show lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. - Abstract: Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers with controllable components are simply fabricated through one step etching of the Mn_5Fe_5Al_9_0 ternary alloy. The as-made hierarchical flower-like structure with interconnected voids consists of a packed array of uniform regular hexagon-like nanoslices. Based on the simple dealloying strategy the target metals are directly converted to uniform nanocomposite composed of Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 species. With the unique hierarchical flower-like structure and the synergistic effects between Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4, the nanocomposite exhibits higher performance as anode material for lithium ion batteries than that of pure Mn_3O_4 and Fe_3O_4 anodes. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanocomposite deliver much higher discharge capacity and lower initial irreversible loss than Mn_3O_4 anode. The Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 anode material also shows an excellent cycling stability at the high rate of 1500 mA g"−"1 with outstanding rate capability. With the advantages of simple preparation and excellent electrochemical performance, Mn_3O_4/Fe_3O_4 nanoflowers manifest great application potential as

  15. Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters as high rate capability and long life anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shengming; Xia, Tian; Wang, Jingping; Lu, Feifei; Xu, Chunbo; Zhang, Xianfa; Huo, Lihua; Zhao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters (UMCN-HCs) have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent thermolysis treatment. When tested as anode materials for LIBs, UMCN-HCs achieve high reversible capacity, good long cycling life, and rate capability. - Highlights: • UMCN-HCs show high capacity, excellent stability, and good rate capability. • UMCN-HCs retain a capacity of 1067 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g"−"1. • UMCN-HCs deliver a capacity of 507 mAh g"−"1 after 500 cycles at 2 A g"−"1. - Abstract: Herein, Ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets-constructed hierarchical clusters (UMCN-HCs) have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a subsequent thermolysis treatment at 600 °C in air. The products consist of cluster-like Co_3O_4 microarchitectures, which are assembled by numerous ultrathin mesoporous Co_3O_4 nanosheets. When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, UMCN-HCs deliver a high reversible capacity of 1067 mAh g"−"1 at a current density of 100 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles. Even at 2 A g"−"1, a stable capacity as high as 507 mAh g"−"1 can be achieved after 500 cycles. The high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability, and good rate capability of UMCN-HCs may be attributed to their mesoporous sheet-like nanostructure. The sheet-layered structure of UMCN-HCs may buffer the volume change during the lithiation-delithiation process, and the mesoporous characteristic make lithium-ion transfer more easily at the interface between the active electrode and the electrolyte.

  16. High-rate and ultralong cycle-life LiFePO4 nanocrystals coated by boron-doped carbon as positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinpeng; Wang, Youlan

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary modification approach, boron-doped carbon coating, has been used to improve the electrochemical performances of positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, and demonstrates apparent and significant modification effects. In this study, the boron-doped carbon coating is firstly adopted and used to decorate the performance of LiFePO4. The obtained composite exhibits a unique core-shell structure with an average diameter of 140 nm and a 4 nm thick boron-doped carbon shell that uniformly encapsulates the core. Owing to the boron element which could induce high amount of defects in the carbon, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 is greatly ameliorated. Thus, the boron-doped composite shows superior rate capability and cycle stability than the undoped sample. For instance, the reversible specific capacity of LiFePO4@B0.4-C can reach 164.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1C, which is approximately 96.5% of the theoretical capacity (170 mAh g-1). Even at high rate of 10C, it still shows a high specific capacity of 126.8 mAh g-1 and can be maintained at 124.5 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with capacity retention ratio of about 98.2%. This outstanding Li-storage property enable the present design strategy to open up the possibility of fabricating the LiFePO4@B-C composite for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Highly-crystalline ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 nanosheets decorated with silver nanocrystals as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. B.; Li, W.; Yang, L. W.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, J. W.; Zhong, J. X.; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-02-01

    A novel composite of highly-crystalline ultrathin Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanosheets and Ag nanocrystals (denoted as LTO NSs/Ag) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, post calcination and electroless deposition. The characterizations of structure and morphology reveal that the LTO nanosheets have single-crystal nature with a thickness of about 10 nm and highly dispersed Ag nanocrystals have an average diameter of 5.8 nm. The designed LTO NSs/Ag composite takes advantage of both components, thereby providing large contact area between the electrolyte and electrode, low polarization of voltage difference, high electrical conductivity and lithium ion diffusion coefficient during electrochemical processes. The evaluation of its electrochemical performance demonstrates that the prepared LTO NSs/Ag composite has superior lithium storage performance. More importantly, this unique composite has an ability to deliver high reversible capacities with superlative cyclic capacity retention at different current rates, and exhibit excellent high-rate performance at a current rate as high as 30 C. Our results improve the current performance of LTO based anode material for LIBs.

  18. Design and synthesis of porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with 3D carbon network for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Peichao, E-mail: lianpeichao@126.com [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Jingyi [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Cai, Dandan; Liu, Guoxue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Yingying [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Wang, Haihui, E-mail: hhwang@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material was designed and prepared. • The preparation method presented here can avoid the agglomeration of nanoparticles. • The prepared Sn@C/graphene electrode material exhibits outstanding cyclability. - Abstract: Tin is a promising high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries, but it usually suffers from the problem of poor cycling stability due to the large volume change during the charge–discharge process. In this article, porous nano-sized Sn@C/graphene electrode material with three-dimensional carbon network was designed and prepared. Reducing the size of the Sn particles to nanoscale can mitigate the absolute strain induced by the large volume change during lithiation–delithiation process, and retard particle pulverization. The porous structure can provide a void space, which helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Sn nanoparticles during the lithium uptake-release process. The carbon shell can avoid the aggregation of the Sn nanoparticles on the same piece of graphene and detachment of the pulverized Sn particles during the charge–discharge process. The 3D carbon network consisted of graphene sheets and carbon shells can not only play a structural buffering role in minimizing the mechanical stress caused by the volume change of Sn, but also keep the overall electrode highly conductive during the lithium uptake-release process. As a result, the as-prepared Sn@C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibited outstanding cyclability. The reversible specific capacity is almost constant from the tenth cycle to the fiftieth cycle, which is about 600 mA h g{sup −1}. The strategy presented in this work may be extended to improve the cycle performances of other high-capacity electrode materials with large volume variations during charge–discharge processes.

  19. Facile synthesis of hierarchically porous Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} microspheres for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F.; Luo, H.J.; Yuan, C.Z.; Su, X.F.; Xu, K.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are used in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) due to their excellent energy storage capacity. Graphite is widely used as an anode material in EV and HEV applications. This study investigated the use of a lithium-titanium alloy (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) designed to avoid reductions of the electrolyte on the surface of the electrode. The study showed that the composite material shows excellent cycling performance, excellent reversibility, structural stability, and Li-ion mobility in the charge-discharge process. A simple template-free hydrothermal method for fabricating Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} hierarchical microspheres assembled by uniform nanoparticles was presented. The 1-step process produced microspheres with a high yield and uniform diameter. Details of the synthesis process, and the electrochemical and structural properties of the resulting materials were presented. 5 refs.

  20. Facile synthesis of hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanospheres as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries via galvanic replacement reaction and in situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Anni; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Dou, Peng; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2015-08-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated hollow Sn-Co nanospheres (Sn-Co@PMMA) with superior electrochemical performance had been synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method followed by an in situ emulsion polymerization route. The properties were investigated in detail and results show that the hollow Sn-Co nanospheres were evenly coated with PMMA. Benefiting from the protection of the PMMA layers, the hollow Sn-Co@PMMA nanocomposite is capable of retaining a high capacity of 590 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with a coulomb efficiency above 98%, revealing better electrochemical properties compared with hollow Sn-Co anodes. The PMMA coating could help accommodate the mechanical strain caused by volume expansion and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed on the electrode. Such a facile process could be further extended to other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. S/N dual-doped carbon nanosheets decorated with Co x O y nanoparticles as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoFei; Zhu, Yong; Zhu, Sheng; Fan, JinChen; Xu, QunJie; Min, YuLin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized the S/N dual-doped carbon nanosheets which are strongly coupled with Co x O y nanoparticles (SNCC) by calcinating cobalt/dithizone complex precursor following KOH activation. The SNCC as anode shows the wonderful charge capacity of 1200 mAh g-1 after 400th cycles at 1000 mA g-1 for Li-ion storage. The superior electrochemical properties illustrate that the SNCC can be a candidate for high-performance anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of the facile preparation method and excellent performance. Significantly, we also discuss the mechanism for the SNCC from the strong synergistic effect perspective.

  2. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  3. Hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles matrix as a binder-free anode for high-performance advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Xianfu; Chen, Haitian; Wang, Zhuoran; Chen, Di; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Zhou, Chongwu; Shen, Guozhen

    2013-01-01

    Toward the increasing demands of portable energy storage and electric vehicle applications, the widely used graphite anodes with significant drawbacks become more and more unsuitable. Herein, we report a novel scaffold of hierarchical silicon nanowires-carbon textiles anodes fabricated via a facile method. Further, complete lithium-ion batteries based on Si and commercial LiCoO2 materials were assembled to investigate their corresponding across-the-aboard performances, demonstrating their enhanced specific capacity (2950 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C), good repeatability/rate capability (even >900 mAh g−1 at high rate of 5 C), long cycling life, and excellent stability in various external conditions (curvature, temperature, and humidity). Above results light the way to principally replacing graphite anodes with silicon-based electrodes which was confirmed to have better comprehensive performances. PMID:23572030

  4. New insights into the structure-property relationship of high-voltage electrolyte components for lithium-ion batteries using the pKa value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallus, Dennis Roman; Wagner, Ralf; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2015-01-01

    In pursuit of higher energy density in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a most promising approach focuses on cathode materials that operate at higher potentials and exhibit even higher specific charges than present LIB cathodes charged up to only 3.8 to 4.3 V vs. Li/Li + . To enable a high-voltage (HV) application of the cathode, the “by-materials”, in particular the electrolyte components have to be either thermodynamically or kinetically stable. For this reason, the stability of the electrolyte components towards oxidation, in particular, depending on their HOMO energy levels, is crucial. The theoretical calculation of molecular orbital energies is a helpful and commonly used tool to predict electrochemical stability. Earlier studies demonstrated strong correlation between the HOMO energy and the pK a value, as both depend on electron affinity. Here we report on the first study referring to a pK a value based selection procedure on development of new electrolyte components for the application in lithium-ion batteries. The identified trimethylsilyl(TMS)-based additives, which are known to scavenge HF and show sufficient oxidation stability, enable the application of LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 (NCM) at an increased upper cut-off potential of 4.6 V vs. Li/Li + without severe degradation, leading to a 50% higher energy density. The use of pK a values is a simple, but highly effective methodology to select appropriate electrolyte components and thus helps to identify functional electrolytes beyond the typical trial and error approach or time-consuming theoretical calculations.

  5. Graphene-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfeng; Chang, Huicong; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-09-23

    Lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (LIHSs), also called Li-ion capacitors, have attracted much attention due to the combination of the rapid charge-discharge and long cycle life of supercapacitors and the high energy-storage capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Thus, LIHSs are expected to become the ultimate power source for hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the near future. As an electrode material, graphene has many advantages, including high surface area and porous structure, high electric conductivity, and high chemical and thermal stability, etc. Compared with other electrode materials, such as activated carbon, graphite, and metal oxides, graphene-based materials with 3D open frameworks show higher effective specific surface area, better control of channels, and higher conductivity, which make them better candidates for LIHS applications. Here, the latest advances in electrode materials for LIHSs are briefly summarized, with an emphasis on graphene-based electrode materials (including 3D graphene networks) for LIHS applications. An outlook is also presented to highlight some future directions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. In situ synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors with high capacity and supercapacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bei, E-mail: Bei.Wang-1@student.uts.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wang Ying [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gazwa-dong Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Wang Guoxiu, E-mail: Guoxiu.Wang@uts.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-07-21

    Highlights: > In situ solution-based preparation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene composite material. > Well dispersed Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene exhibits highly reversible lithium storage capacity. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene delivers superior supercapacitance up to 478 F g{sup -1}. > Functional groups make contributions to the overall supercapacitance. - Abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material was prepared by an in situ solution-based method under reflux conditions. In this reaction progress, Co{sup 2+} salts were converted to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles which were simultaneously inserted into the graphene layers, upon the reduction of graphite oxide to graphene. The prepared material consists of uniform Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (15-25 nm), which are well dispersed on the surfaces of graphene nanosheets. This has been confirmed through observations by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The prepared composite material exhibits an initial reversible lithium storage capacity of 722 mAh g{sup -1} in lithium-ion cells and a specific supercapacitance of 478 F g{sup -1} in 2 M KOH electrolyte for supercapacitors, which were higher than that of the previously reported pure graphene nanosheets and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite material demonstrated an excellent electrochemical performance as an anode material for reversible lithium storage in lithium ion cells and as an electrode material in supercapacitors.

  7. Novel graphene papers with sporadic alkyl brushes on the basal plane as a high-capacity flexible anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Min; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Gyeong-Ok; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Jeong, Han Mo

    2014-01-01

    Graphene paper that exhibits an excellent stabilized capacity, as high as 1300 mAh g −1 at a current rate of 60 mA g −1 , as a lithium ion battery anode is fabricated and evaluated. The few-layer graphene used to make the graphene paper is prepared via the thermal reduction of graphite oxide. The graphene is then modified by a novel method utilizing inherent defects, namely epoxy groups, on the graphene as active sites for a reaction with methanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octanol. The density values and X-ray diffraction patterns obtained for the graphene paper demonstrate that the alkyl brushes on the graphene sheets expand the d-spacing and hinder close restacking of the sheets, thereby inducing the formation of extra cavities within the paper. This loose packing due to the alkyl brushes increases sensitively as the alkyl chain length of the alcohol becomes longer. The lithium ion insertion capacity of a graphene paper electrode at the first cycle also increases with the alkyl chain length. However, fading of the capacity at early charge/discharge cycles is accelerated by the modification process because of electrolyte penetration into the gallery and the acceleration of protective solid electrolyte interface film formation due to looser packing. The paper composed of graphene modified with 1-butanol rather than shorter or longer alcohols exhibits the best reversible storage capacity, more than two-fold higher when compared to that of pristine graphene paper, due to a compromise between two conflicting effects on the reversible storage capacity by long alkyl brushes. The tensile properties and electrical conductivity of the graphene papers are also examined

  8. Mars Express Lithium Ion Batteries Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudley G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now more than 12 years in orbit, Mars Express battery telemetry during some of the deepest discharge cycles has been analysed with the help of the ESTEC lithium ion cell model. The best-fitting model parameter sets were then used to predict the energy that is expected to be available before the battery voltage drops below the minimum value that can support the power bus. This allows mission planners to determine what future power profiles could be supported without risk of entering safe mode. It also gives some more insights into the ageing properties of these batteries.

  9. In-situ synthesis of interconnected SWCNT/OMC framework on silicon nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of silicon has a superior theoretical capacity, the large volume expansion of Si anodes during Li+ insertion/extraction is the bottle neck that results in fast capacity fading and poor cycling performance. In this paper, we report a silicon, single-walled carbon nanotube, and ordered mesoporous carbon nanocomposite synthesized by an evaporation-induced self-assembly process, in which silicon nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes were added into the phenolic resol with F-127 for co-condensation. The ordered mesoporous carbon matrix and single-walled carbon nanotubes network could effectively accommodate the volume change of silicon nanoparticles, and the ordered mesoporous structure could also provide efficient channels for the fast transport of Li-ions. As a consequence, this hybrid material exhibits a reversible capacity of 861 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles at a current density of 400 mA g−1. It achieves significant improvement in the electrochemical performance when compared with the raw materials and Si nanoparticle anodes. Keywords: Silicon, Single-walled carbon nanotube, Ordered mesoporous carbon, Lithium ion battery

  10. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  11. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High performance screen-printed electrodes prepared by a green solvent approach for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gören, A.; Mendes, J.; Rodrigues, H. M.; Sousa, R. E.; Oliveira, J.; Hilliou, L.; Costa, C. M.; Silva, M. M.; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2016-12-01

    New inks based on lithium iron phosphate and graphite for cathode and anode, respectively, were developed for printable lithium-ion batteries using the "green solvent" N,N‧-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) and poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, as a binder. The results were compared with the ones from inks developed with the conventionally used solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP. The rheological properties of the PVDF/DMPU binder solution shows a more pronounced shear thinning behavior than the PVDF/NMP solution. Cathode inks prepared with 2.25 mL and 2.50 mL of DMPU for 1 g of electrode mass show an apparent viscosity of 3 Pa s and 2 Pa s for a shear rate of 100 s-1, respectively, being therefore processable by screen-printing or doctor blade techniques. The electrodes prepared with DMPU and processed by screen-printing show a capacity of 52 mAh g-1 at 2C for the cathode and 349 mAh g-1 at C/5 for the anode, after 45 charge-discharge cycles. The electrochemical performance of both electrodes was evaluated in a full-cell and after 9 cycles, the discharge capacity value is 81 mAh g-1, showing a discharge capacity retention of 64%. The new inks presented in this work are thus suitable for the development of printed batteries and represent a step forward towards more environmental friendly processes.

  13. Boosting the power performance of multilayer graphene as lithium-ion battery anode via unconventional doping with in-situ formed Fe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccichini, Rinaldo; Varzi, Alberto; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kübel, Christian; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is extensively investigated and promoted as a viable replacement for graphite, the state-of-the-art material for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes, although no clear evidence is available about improvements in terms of cycling stability, delithiation voltage and volumetric capacity. Here we report the microwave-assisted synthesis of a novel graphene-based material in ionic liquid (i.e., carved multilayer graphene with nested Fe3O4 nanoparticles), together with its extensive characterization via several physical and chemical techniques. When such a composite material is used as LIB anode, the carved paths traced by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and the unconverted metallic iron formed in-situ upon the 1st lithiation, result in enhanced rate capability and, especially at high specific currents (i.e., 5 A g−1), remarkable cycling stability (99% of specific capacity retention after 180 cycles), low average delithiation voltage (0.244 V) and a substantially increased volumetric capacity with respect to commercial graphite (58.8 Ah L−1 vs. 9.6 Ah L−1). PMID:27026069

  14. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanocoils and hollow graphite fibers as anodes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyong; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui; Wang, Guizhen; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Peng; Wang, Xianglei; Liu, Lang

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanocoils (CNCs) have been used as anode materials for preparation of lithium ion batteries. As pure carbon material without any chemical modification, the graphitized CNCs anode exhibited larger capacities with good Coulombic efficiency, a higher rate capability, and better reversibility than the hollow graphite fibers (HGFs) anode. The excellent performance of the CNCs was possibly ascribed to the special structure and the high degree of graphitization. As a result, the CNCs anode exhibited high reversible capacity of 385.5 mA h g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1, 104.7% reversible capacity retention after 105 cycles, and superior reversible capability of 177.4 mA h g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This result indicated that CNCs could be an attractive choice as anode material for high-energy density and high-power lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium-ion...... battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...

  16. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... and discharging power capability rates of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery's temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus......, thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...

  17. A highly accurate predictive-adaptive method for lithium-ion battery remaining discharge energy prediction in electric vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guangming; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy prediction (EP) method is introduced for battery E RDE determination. • EP determines E RDE through coupled prediction of future states, parameters, and output. • The PAEP combines parameter adaptation and prediction to update model parameters. • The PAEP provides improved E RDE accuracy compared with DC and other EP methods. - Abstract: In order to estimate the remaining driving range (RDR) in electric vehicles, the remaining discharge energy (E RDE ) of the applied battery system needs to be precisely predicted. Strongly affected by the load profiles, the available E RDE varies largely in real-world applications and requires specific determination. However, the commonly-used direct calculation (DC) method might result in certain energy prediction errors by relating the E RDE directly to the current state of charge (SOC). To enhance the E RDE accuracy, this paper presents a battery energy prediction (EP) method based on the predictive control theory, in which a coupled prediction of future battery state variation, battery model parameter change, and voltage response, is implemented on the E RDE prediction horizon, and the E RDE is subsequently accumulated and real-timely optimized. Three EP approaches with different model parameter updating routes are introduced, and the predictive-adaptive energy prediction (PAEP) method combining the real-time parameter identification and the future parameter prediction offers the best potential. Based on a large-format lithium-ion battery, the performance of different E RDE calculation methods is compared under various dynamic profiles. Results imply that the EP methods provide much better accuracy than the traditional DC method, and the PAEP could reduce the E RDE error by more than 90% and guarantee the relative energy prediction error under 2%, proving as a proper choice in online E RDE prediction. The correlation of SOC estimation and E RDE calculation is then discussed to illustrate the

  18. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  19. Smart Construction of Integrated CNTs/Li4Ti5O12 Core/Shell Arrays with Superior High-Rate Performance for Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhujun; Xia, Xinhui; Zhou, Cheng-Ao; Zhong, Yu; Wang, Yadong; Deng, Shengjue; Wang, Weiqi; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2018-03-01

    Exploring advanced high-rate anodes is of great importance for the development of next-generation high-power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) core/shell arrays on carbon cloth (CC) as integrated high-quality anode are constructed via a facile combined chemical vapor deposition-atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. ALD-synthesized LTO is strongly anchored on the CNTs' skeleton forming core/shell structures with diameters of 70-80 nm the combined advantages including highly conductive network, large surface area, and strong adhesion are obtained in the CC-LTO@CNTs core/shell arrays. The electrochemical performance of the CC-CNTs/LTO electrode is completely studied as the anode of LIBs and it shows noticeable high-rate capability (a capacity of 169 mA h g -1 at 1 C and 112 mA h g -1 at 20 C), as well as a stable cycle life with a capacity retention of 86% after 5000 cycles at 10 C, which is much better than the CC-LTO counterpart. Meanwhile, excellent cycling stability is also demonstrated for the full cell with LiFePO 4 cathode and CC-CNTs/LTO anode (87% capacity retention after 1500 cycles at 10 C). These positive features suggest their promising application in high-power energy storage areas.

  20. Model-based dynamic multi-parameter method for peak power estimation of lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, F.; Xiong, R.; He, H.; Li, W.; Aussems, J.E.E.

    2012-01-01

    A model-based dynamic multi-parameter method for peak power estimation is proposed for batteries and battery management systems (BMSs) used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The available power must be accurately calculated in order to not damage the battery by over charging or over discharging or

  1. Intergrown SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene ternary composite as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zheng; Gao, Renmei [Shanghai University, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China); Tao, Haihua [Inspection Center of Industrial Products and Raw Materials of SHCIQ (China); Yuan, Shuai [Shanghai University, Research Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (China); Xu, Laiqiang; Xia, Saisai; Zhang, Haijiao, E-mail: hjzhang128@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, a lot of metal oxides with high theoretical capacity have widely investigated as the high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a simple, facile and effective one-pot hydrothermal strategy toward ternary SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composite has been developed by using SnCl{sub 2} and TiOSO{sub 4} as the starting materials. The obtained composite demonstrates a unique structure and high surface areas, in which both SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are well grown on the surface of graphene. More interestingly, the SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are intergrowth together, totally different with the traditional ternary hybrids. When used as anode material for LIBs, the introduction of TiO{sub 2} plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural stability of the electrode during Li{sup +} insertion/extraction, which can effectively prevent the aggregation of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The electrochemical tests indicate that as-prepared SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composite exhibits a high capacity of 1276 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the composite also maintains the specific capacity of 611 mA h g{sup −1} at an ultrahigh current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}, which is superior to those of the reported SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}/graphene hybrids. Accordingly, the remarkable electrochemical performance of ternary SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}@graphene composites is mainly attributed to their unique nanostructure, high surface areas, and the synergistic effect not only between graphene and metal oxides but also between the intergrown SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.Graphical abstractIntergrown SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been successfully anchored onto the graphene nanosheets as high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes.

  2. High-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries from nanostructured LiFePO4 synthesized by highly-flexible and scalable flame spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, N. A.; Wennig, S.; Hardt, S.; Heinzel, A.; Schulz, C.; Wiggers, H.

    2012-10-01

    Olivine, LiFePO4 is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its low cost, environmental acceptability and high stability. Its low electric conductivity prevented it for a long time from being used in large-scale applications. Decreasing its particle size along with carbon coating significantly improves electronic conductivity and lithium diffusion. With respect to the controlled formation of very small particles with large specific surface, gas-phase synthesis opens an economic and flexible route towards high-quality battery materials. Amorphous FePO4 was synthesized as precursor material for LiFePO4 by flame spray pyrolysis of a solution of iron acetylacetonate and tributyl phosphate in toluene. The pristine FePO4 with a specific surface from 126-218 m2 g-1 was post-processed to LiFePO4/C composite material via a solid-state reaction using Li2CO3 and glucose. The final olivine LiFePO4/C particles still showed a large specific surface of 24 m2 g-1 and were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrocopy (XPS) and elemental analysis. Electrochemical investigations of the final LiFePO4/C composites show reversible capacities of more than 145 mAh g-1 (about 115 mAh g-1 with respect to the total coating mass). The material supports high drain rates at 16 C while delivering 40 mAh g-1 and causes excellent cycle stability.

  3. Highly efficient solid-state synthesis of carbon-encapsulated ultrafine MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals as high rate lithium-ion battery anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boyang, E-mail: byliu@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Shao, Yingfeng, E-mail: shaoyf@lnm.imech.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics (China); Zhang, Yuliang, E-mail: ylzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fuhua, E-mail: fhzhang@shmtu.edu.cn; Zhong, Ning, E-mail: ningzhong@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, College of Ocean Science and Engineering (China); Li, Wenge, E-mail: wgli@shmtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Maritime University, Merchant Marine College (China)

    2016-12-15

    A simple and highly efficient method is developed for the one-step in situ preparation of carbon-encapsulated MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals (MoO{sub 2}@C) with core-shell structure for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode. The synthesis is depending on the solid-state reaction of cyclopentadienylmolybdenum tricarbonyl dimer with ammonium persulfate in an autoclave at 200 °C for 30 min. The large amount of heat generated during the explosive reaction cleaves the cyclopentadiene ligands into small carbon fragments, which form carbon shell after oxidative dehydrogenation coating on the MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals, resulting in the formation of core-shell structure. The MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals have an equiaxial morphology with an ultrafine diameter of 2–8 nm, and the median size is 4.9 nm. Hundreds of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals are encapsulated together by the worm-like carbon shell, which is amorphous and about 3–5 nm in thickness. The content of MoO{sub 2} nanocrystals in the nanocomposite is about 69.3 wt.%. The MoO{sub 2}@C anode shows stable cyclability and retains a high reversible capacity of 443 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 3 A g{sup −1}, owing to the effective protection of carbon shell.

  4. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  5. First-Principles Study of MoO3/Graphene Composite as Cathode Material for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhua; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Hong; Wei, Kaiyuan; Ni, Shuang; Cui, Yixiu; Shi, Siqi

    2018-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the adsorption and diffusion behavior of Li in MoO3 bulk, on MoO3 (010) surface and in MoO3/graphene composite. Our results indicate that, in case of MoO3 bulk, Li diffusion barriers in the interlayer and intralayer spaces are 0.55 eV and 0.58 eV respectively, which are too high to warrant fast Lithium-ion charge/discharge processes. While on MoO3 (010) surface, Li exhibits a diffusion barrier as low as 0.07 eV which guarantees an extremely fast Li diffusion rate during charge/discharge cycling. However, in MoO3/graphene monolayer, Li diffusion barrier is at the same level as that on MoO3 (010) surface, which also ensures a very rapid Li charge/discharge rate. The rapid Li charge/discharge rate in this system originates from the removal of the upper dangling O1 atoms which hinder the Li diffusion on the lower MoO3 layer. Besides this, due to the interaction between Li and graphene, the Li average binding energy increases to 0.14 eV compared to its value on MoO3 (010) surface which contributes to a higher voltage. Additionally, the increased ratio of surface area provides more space for Li storage and the capacity of MoO3/graphene composite increases up to 279.2 mAhg-1. The last but not the least, due to the high conductivity of graphene, the conductivity of MoO3/graphene composite enhances greatly which is beneficial for electrode materials. In the light of present results, MoO3/graphene composite exhibits higher voltage, good conductivity, large Li capacity and very rapid Li charge/discharge rate, which prove it as a promising cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs).

  6. Superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity of SnO2/graphene composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lilai; An, Maozhong; Yang, Peixia; Zhang, Jinqiu

    2015-03-12

    SnO2/graphene composite with superior cycle performance and high reversible capacity was prepared by a one-step microwave-hydrothermal method using a microwave reaction system. The SnO2/graphene composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The size of SnO2 grains deposited on graphene sheets is less than 3.5 nm. The SnO2/graphene composite exhibits high capacity and excellent electrochemical performance in lithium-ion batteries. The first discharge and charge capacities at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) are 2213 and 1402 mA h g(-1) with coulomb efficiencies of 63.35%. The discharge specific capacities remains 1359, 1228, 1090 and 1005 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at current densities of 100, 300, 500 and 700 mA g(-1), respectively. Even at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the first discharge and charge capacities are 1502 and 876 mA h g(-1), and the discharge specific capacities remains 1057 and 677 mA h g(-1) after 420 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The SnO2/graphene composite demonstrates a stable cycle performance and high reversible capacity for lithium storage.

  7. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  8. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of 100 Ah cylindrical lithium ion battery for electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Moon, Seong-In; Yum, Duk-Hyeng; Yun, Seong-Kyu

    A total of 100 Ah class lithium ion cells with C/LiCoO 2 cell system for electric vehicles (EVs) was developed. EV-size lithium ion battery was developed by Sony, KERI/STC, SAFT, VARTA, Sanyo and Matsushita. GS battery and Hitachi have developed also stationary type large scale (70-80 Ah) lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion battery module for EVs was demonstrated by Sony/Nissan and KERI/STC in 1996. At present, the performance of developed EV-cells was up to 115 Wh/kg and 286 W/kg of specific power at 80% DOD. We assume our EV cells to have 248 and 242 km driving distance per one charge with DST-120 mode and ECE-15 mode, respectively. Finally, we performed safety/abuse tests of developed lithium ion cell.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO4/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhaorong; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji; Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO 4 /C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO 4 as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li 2 CO 3 as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H 2 -95% N 2 . The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO 4 /carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m -3 . The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g -1 , respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm -3 , at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO 4 /carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g -1 and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm -3 .

  11. One-step argon/nitrogen binary plasma jet irradiation of Li4Ti5O12 for stable high-rate lithium ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chun-Kai; Chuang, Shang-I.; Bao, Qi; Liao, Yen-Ting; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure Ar/N2 binary plasma jet irradiation has been introduced into the manufacturing process of lithium ions batteries as a facile, green and scalable post-fabrication treatment approach, which enhanced significantly the high-rate anode performance of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12). Main emission lines in Ar/N2 plasma measured by optical emission spectroscopy reveal that the dominant excited high-energy species in Ar/N2 plasma are N2*, N2+, N∗ and Ar∗. Sufficient oxygen vacancies have been evidenced by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectra. Nitrogen doping has been achieved simultaneously by the surface reaction between pristine Li4Ti5O12 particles and chemically reactive plasma species such as N∗ and N2+. The variety of Li4Ti5O12 particles on the surface of electrodes after different plasma processing time has been examined by grazing incident X-Ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) confirm that the Ar/N2 atmospheric plasma treatment facilitates Li+ ions diffusion and reduces the internal charge-transfer resistance. The as-prepared Li4Ti5O12 anodes exhibit a superior capacity (132 mAh g-1) and excellent stability with almost no capacity decay over 100 cycles under a high C rate (10C).

  12. In situ electrochemical creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets with favorable performance as a high tap density anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qian; Sha, Yujing; Zhao, Bote; Chen, Yubo; Tadé, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cobalt oxide nanosheets in situ electrochemical generated from commercial LiCoO_2. • TEM indicates creation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from coarse layered LiCoO_2_. • Coarse-type LiCoO_2 with high tap density shows promising anode performance. • Optimizing weight ratio of LiCoO_2 in electrode, a high capacity was achieved. - Abstract: Cobalt oxides are attractive alternative anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). To improve the performance of conversion-type anode materials such as cobalt oxides, well dispersed and nanosized particulate morphology is typically required. In this study, we describe the in situ electrochemical generation of cobalt oxide nanosheets from commercial micrometer-sized LiCoO_2 oxide as an anode material for LIBs. The electrode material as prepared was analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM and TEM. The electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and by a constant current galvanostatic discharge–charge test. The material shows a high tap density and promising anode performance in terms of capacity, rate performance and cycling stability. A capacity of 560 mA h g"−"1 is still achieved at a current density of 1000 mA g"−"1 by increasing the amount of additives in the electrode to 40 wt%. This paper provides a new technique for developing a high-performance conversion-type anode for LIBs.

  13. Hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhongqing [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University of Technology, Ningbo 315016, Zhejiang (China); Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang, Zhong-Jie, E-mail: zhongjiejiang1978@hotmail.com [New Energy Research Institute, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China)

    2016-09-15

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 400 mA g{sup −1}, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres which consists of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li{sup +} storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.67}CO{sub 3} microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs

  14. Hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres architectured with sub-nanoparticles as a high performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Haibo; Xie, Guiting; Cheng, Si; Zhen, Zihao; Jiang, Zhongqing; Huang, Jianlin; Jiang, Yu; Chen, Bohong; Jiang, Zhong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    A simple two-step procedure, which involves the synthesis of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres through a hydrothermal process and the subsequent calcination, has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), these hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres could exhibit a stable reversible capability of ∼723.7 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 400 mA g"−"1, which is much higher than those of the ZnMn_2O_4 based materials reported previously, indicating the great potential of using them as the anode for the LIBs. This is further supported by their better rate capability and higher cycling stability. Careful analysis has shown that the unique porous structure of the hierarchical porous ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres which consists of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles plays an important role in their higher electrochemical performance, since it allows the accommodation of the volume expansion during the repeated discharge–charge cycles, preventing them from the structural destruction, and increase the accessibility of the electrode material to the Li"+ storage, making a better utilization of active materials and an easy diffusion of electrolytes in and out of the electrode material. - Graphical abstract: The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres with a hierarchical porous morphology consisting of the ZnMn_2O_4 sub-nanoparticles have been synthesized by the calcination of the Zn_0_._3_3Mn_0_._6_7CO_3 microspheres and could exhibit superior electrochemical performance when used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • A simple procedure has been used to synthesize the ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres. • The ZnMn_2O_4 microspheres exhibit excellent performance when used in LIBs. • The porous structure plays a crucial role in their high performance. • These spheres exhibit a good morphology retention

  15. Graphene-doped carbon/Fe3O4 porous nanofibers with hierarchical band construction as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jianxin; Zhao, Shuyuan; Lian, Yanping; Zhou, Mengjuan; Wang, Lidan; Ding, Bin; Cui, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and thermal treatment. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 show unique dark/light banding with a hierarchical porous structure. • Doped graphene induces a uniform distribution of smaller size Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. • Doped graphene provides more active sites and accommodate the volume change. • GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g after 100 cycles. - Abstract: Porous graphene-doped carbon/Fe 3 O 4 (GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 ) nanofibers are synthesized via in-situ electrospinning and subsequent thermal treatment for use as lithium-ion battery anode materials. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solution containing ferric acetylacetone and graphene oxide nanosheets is used as the electrospinning precursor solution. The resulting porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers show unique dark/light banding and a hierarchical porous structure. These nanofibers have a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 323.0 m 2 /g with a total pore volume of 0.337 cm 3 /g, which is significantly greater than that of a sample without graphene and C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofibers. The GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 nanofiber electrode displays a reversible capacity of 872 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g after 100 cycles, excellent cycling stability, and superior rate capability (455 mA/g at 5 A/g). The excellent performance of porous GN@C/Fe 3 O 4 is attributed to the material’s unique structure, including its striped topography, hierarchical porous structure, and inlaid flexible graphene, which not only provides more accessible active sites for lithium-ion insertion and high-efficiency transport pathways for ions and electrons, but also accommodates the volume change associated with lithium insertion/extraction. Moreover, the zero-valent iron and graphene in the porous nanofibers enhance the conductivity of the electrodes.

  16. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    The three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Carbon nanofibers with highly dispersed tin and tin antimonide nanoparticles: Preparation via electrospinning and application as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jiwei; Shu, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional carbon nanofibers with highly dispersed tin (Sn) and tin antimonide (SnSb) nanoparticles are prepared by electrospinning in the presence of antimony-doped tin oxide (denoted as ATO) wet gel as the precursor. The effect of ATO dosage on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the as-fabricated Sn-SnSb/C composite nanofibers is investigated. Results indicate that ATO wet gel as the precursor can effectively improve the dispersion of Sn nanoparticles in carbon fiber and prevent them from segregation during the electrospinning and subsequent calcination processes. The as-prepared Sn-SnSb/C nanofibers as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries exhibit high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Particularly, the electrode made from Sn-SnSb/C composite nanofibers obtained with 0.9 g of ATO gel has a high specific capacity of 779 mAh·g-1 and 378 mAh·g-1 at the current density of 50 mA·g-1 and 5 A·g-1, respectively, and it exhibits a capacity retention of 97% after 1200 cycles under the current density of 1 A·g-1. This is because the carbon nanofibers can form a continuous conductive network to buffer the volume change of the electrodes while Sn and Sn-SnSb nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the carbon nanofibers are free of segregation, thereby contributing to electrochemical performances of the electrodes.

  18. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  19. Performance Enhancement of Silicon Alloy-Based Anodes Using Thermally Treated Poly(amide imide) as a Polymer Binder for High Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwi Soo; Kim, Sang-Hyung; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Kim, Seon Kyung; Park, Cheolho; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-04-05

    The development of silicon-based anodes with high capacity and good cycling stability for next-generation lithium-ion batteries is a very challenging task due to the large volume changes in the electrodes during repeated cycling, which results in capacity fading. In this work, we synthesized silicon alloy as an active anode material, which was composed of silicon nanoparticles embedded in Cu-Al-Fe matrix phases. Poly(amide imide)s, (PAI)s, with different thermal treatments were used as polymer binders in the silicon alloy-based electrodes. A systematic study demonstrated that the thermal treatment of the silicon alloy electrodes at high temperature made the electrodes mechanically strong and remarkably enhanced the cycling stability compared to electrodes without thermal treatment. The silicon alloy electrode thermally treated at 400 °C initially delivered a discharge capacity of 1084 mAh g(-1) with good capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. This superior cycling performance was attributed to the strong adhesion of the PAI binder resulting from enhanced secondary interactions, which maintained good electrical contacts between the active materials, electronic conductors, and current collector during cycling. These findings are supported by results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and a surface and interfacial cutting analysis system.

  20. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  1. Phase-pure β-NiMoO4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jee Hyun; Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2015-01-01

    Phase-pure β-NiMoO 4 yolk-shell spheres for lithium-ion battery anodes were prepared for the first time by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. The yolk-shell-structured β-NiMoO 4 powders exhibited high initial discharge/charge capacities (1634/1253 mA h g −1 ) at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 . After 200 cycles, these powders exhibited a high discharge capacity of 1292 mA h g −1 , whereas the initial discharge capacity (1341 mA h g −1 ) of the filled structured NiMoO 4 powders was dramatically decreased to 479 mA h g −1 . The significant enhancement of the cycling performance of the β-NiMoO 4 powders with ultrafine crystallite size was attributed to the structural stability of the yolk-shell structure

  2. Porous Hollow Superlattice NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 Mesocrystals as a Highly Reversible Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a promising high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, NiMn2O4 always suffers from the poor intrinsic conductivity and the architectural collapse originating from the volume expansion during cycle. Herein, a combined structure and architecture modulation is proposed to tackle concurrently the two handicaps, via a facile and well-controlled solvothermal approach to synthesize NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 mesocrystals with superlattice structure and hollow multi-porous architecture. It is demonstrated that the obtained NiCo1.5Mn0.5O4 sample is made up of a new mixed-phase NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 compound system, with a high charge capacity of 532.2 mAh g−1 with 90.4% capacity retention after 100 cycles at a current density of 1 A g−1. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effects of the superlattice structure and the hollow multi-porous architecture of the NiMn2O4/NiCo2O4 compound. The superlattice structure can improve ionic conductivity to enhance charge transport kinetics of the bulk material, while the hollow multi-porous architecture can provide enough void spaces to alleviate the architectural change during cycling, and shorten the lithium ions diffusion and electron-transportation distances.

  3. Modification of Ni-Rich FCG NMC and NCA Cathodes by Atomic Layer Deposition: Preventing Surface Phase Transitions for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Dahlberg, Kevin; King, David M.; David, Lamuel A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus; Dhar, Subhash; Mahajan, Vishal; Lee, Myongjai; Albano, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The energy density of current lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on layered LiMO2 cathodes (M = Ni, Mn, Co: NMC; M = Ni, Co, Al: NCA) needs to be improved significantly in order to compete with internal combustion engines and allow for widespread implementation of electric vehicles (EVs). In this report, we show that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich FCG NMC and NCA active material particles could substantially improve LIB performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging, which delivers significantly increased specific energy utilization. Our results show that Al2O3 coating improved the NMC cycling performance by 40% and the NCA cycling performance by 34% at 1 C/-1 C with respectively 4.35 V and 4.4 V UCV in 2 Ah pouch cells. High resolution TEM/SAED structural characterization revealed that Al2O3 coatings prevented surface-initiated layered-to-spinel phase transitions in coated materials which were prevalent in uncoated materials. EIS confirmed that Al2O3-coated materials had significantly lower increase in the charge transfer component of impedance during cycling. The ability to mitigate degradation mechanisms for Ni-rich NMC and NCA illustrated in this report provides insight into a method to enable the performance of high-voltage LIBs.

  4. One-pot synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS2 as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiuhong; Wu, Zhenjun; Ma, Zhaoling; Dou, Shuo; Wu, Jianghong; Tao, Li; Wang, Xin; Ouyang, Canbing; Shen, Anli; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS 2 nanosheets were successfully prepared and used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. • The as-prepared anode materials show excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. • The materials show high reversible capacity for lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene supported MoS 2 (MoS 2 /NS-G) nanosheets were prepared through a one-pot thermal annealing method. The as prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra and electrochemical techniques. The MoS 2 /NS-G shows high reversible capacity about 1200 mAh/g at current density of 150 mA/g and excellent stability in Li-ion batteries. It was demonstrated the co-doping of graphene by N and S could significantly enhance the durability of MoS 2 as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

  5. Facile Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube (ZnO/NCNT composite, prepared though a simple one-step sol-gel synthetic technique, has been explored for the first time as an anode material. The as-prepared ZnO/NCNT nanocomposite preserves a good dispersity and homogeneity of the ZnO nanoparticles (~6 nm which deposited on the surface of NCNT. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm homogeneously deposited on the surface of NCNT. ZnO/NCNT composite, when evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling ability and rate capability compared with the ZnO/CNT counterpart. A relatively large reversible capacity of 1013 mAh·g−1 is manifested at the second cycle and a capacity of 664 mAh·g−1 is retained after 100 cycles. Furthermore, the ZnO/NCNT system displays a reversible capacity of 308 mAh·g−1 even at a high current density of 1600 mA·g−1. These electrochemical performance enhancements are ascribed to the reinforced accumulative effects of the well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles and doping nitrogen atoms, which can not only suppress the volumetric expansion of ZnO nanoparticles during the cycling performance but also provide a highly conductive NCNT network for ZnO anode.

  6. 3D macroporous electrode and high-performance in lithium-ion batteries using SnO2 coated on Cu foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Ji Hyun; Choi, Myounggeun; Park, Hyeji; Cho, Yong-Hun; Dunand, David C.; Choe, Heeman; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional porous architecture makes an attractive electrode structure, as it has an intrinsic structural integrity and an ability to buffer stress in lithium-ion batteries caused by the large volume changes in high-capacity anode materials during cycling. Here we report the first demonstration of a SnO2-coated macroporous Cu foam anode by employing a facile and scalable combination of directional freeze-casting and sol-gel coating processes. The three-dimensional interconnected anode is composed of aligned microscale channels separated by SnO2-coated Cu walls and much finer micrometer pores, adding to surface area and providing space for volume expansion of SnO2 coating layer. With this anode, we achieve a high reversible capacity of 750 mAh g−1 at current rate of 0.5 C after 50 cycles and an excellent rate capability of 590 mAh g−1 at 2 C, which is close to the best performance of Sn-based nanoscale material so far. PMID:26725652

  7. Scalable Production of the Silicon-Tin Yin-Yang Hybrid Structure with Graphene Coating for High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Tan, Yingling; Hu, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Qinghui; Zhang, Zijiao; Zhu, Guoying; Yu, Qian; Jin, Zhong; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-10

    Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next-generation advanced lithium-ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires, and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate an urgent demand of low-cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology, and porosity. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and low-cost process to produce a porous yin-yang hybrid composite anode with graphene coating through high energy ball-milling and selective chemical etching. With void space to buffer the expansion, the produced functional electrodes demonstrate stable cycling performance of 910 mAh g -1 over 600 cycles at a rate of 0.5C for Si-graphene "yin" particles and 750 mAh g -1 over 300 cycles at 0.2C for Sn-graphene "yang" particles. Therefore, we open up a new approach to fabricate alloy anode materials at low-cost, low-energy consumption, and large scale. This type of porous silicon or tin composite with graphene coating can also potentially play a significant role in thermoelectrics and optoelectronics applications.

  8. In situ preparation of Fe3O4 in a carbon hybrid of graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes as high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewen; Hassan Siddique, Ahmad; Huang, Heran; Fang, Qile; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Xufeng; Lu, Huanming; Liu, Zhaoping

    2017-11-01

    A new conductive carbon hybrid combining both reduced graphene nanoscrolls and carbon nanotubes (rGNSs-CNTs) is prepared, and used to host Fe3O4 nanoparticles through an in situ synthesis method. As an anode material for LIBs, the obtained Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows good electrochemical performance. At a current density of 0.1 A g-1, the anode material shows a high reversible capacity of 1232.9 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Even at a current density of 1 A g-1, it still achieves a high reversible capacity of 812.3 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles. Comparing with bare Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/rGO composite anode materials without nanoscroll structure, Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs shows much better rate capability with a reversible capacity of 605.0 and 500.0 mAh g-1 at 3 and 5 A g-1, respectively. The excellent electrochemical performance of the Fe3O4@rGNSs-CNTs anode material can be ascribed to the hybrid structure of rGNSs-CNTs, and their strong interaction with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which on one hand provides more pathways for lithium ions and electrons, on the other hand effectively relieves the volume change of Fe3O4 during the charge-discharge process.

  9. Core-shell composite of hierarchical MoS2 nanosheets supported on graphitized hollow carbon microspheres for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Beibei; Zhao, Xiaojun; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a core-shell composite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets grown on hollow carbon microspheres is synthesized by a hydrothermal and a subsequent annealing route. The result shows that well-graphitized hollow-carbon@highlycrystallineMoS 2 (HC@MoS 2 ) was obtained after the four-step reaction. And it is found that the synthesized MoS 2 is consist of 2H and 1T phases. The lithium storage property of the composite is investigated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Benefited from the special morphology and structure, a stable capacity of 970 mAh g −1 for over 100 cycles at a current density of 0.25 A g −1 is realized on the material. Even at a high current density of 4 A g −1 , a reversible capacity as high as 560 mAh g −1 is delivered. Moreover, the reasons for the excellent electrochemical performance of the material are explored and discussed in detail.

  10. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-05-16

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 100 mA g(-1), superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g(-1) after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1)). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance.

  11. In Situ Synthesis of Tungsten-Doped SnO2 and Graphene Nanocomposites for High-Performance Anode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Shi, Liyi; Chen, Guorong; Ba, Chaoqun; Wang, Zhuyi; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-05-24

    The composite of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide was synthesized through a simple one-pot hydrothermal method. According to the structural characterization of the composite, tungsten ions were doped in the unit cells of tin dioxide rather than simply attaching to the surface. Tungsten-doped SnO 2 was in situ grown on the surface of graphene sheet to form a three-dimensional conductive network that enhanced the electron transportation and lithium-ion diffusion effectively. The issues of SnO 2 agglomeration and volume expansion could be also avoided because the tungsten-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on a graphene sheet. As a result, the nanocomposite electrodes of tungsten-doped SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide exhibited an excellent long-term cycling performance. The residual capacity was still as high as 1100 mA h g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 after 100 cycles. It still remained at 776 mA h g -1 after 2000 cycles at the current density of 1A g -1 .

  12. Synthesis of SiC decorated carbonaceous nanorods and its hierarchical composites Si@SiC@C for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chundong [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: liyi@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Ostrikov, Kostya [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, Industrial Innovation Program, CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Yang, Yonggang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Wenjun, E-mail: apwjzh@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2015-10-15

    SiC- based nanomaterials possess superior electric, thermal and mechanical properties. However, due to the tricky synthesis process, which needs to be carried out under high temperature with multi-step reaction procedures, the further application is dramatically limited. Herein, a simple as well as a controllable approach is proposed for synthesis of SiC- based nanostructures under low temperature. Phenyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane was chosen as the starting material to react with magnesium at 650 °C, following which SiC@C nanocomposites were finally obtained, and it maintains the original bent rod-like architecture of polysilsesquioxanes. The possible formation process for the nanocomposites can proposed as well. The electrochemical behaviour of nanocomposites was accessed, verifying that the synthesized SiC@C nanocomposites deliver good electrochemical performance. Moreover, SiC@C also shows to be a promising scaffold in supporting Si thin film electrode in achieving stable cycling performance in lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • SiC@C bent nanorods were synthesized with a magnesium reaction approach. • Carbon nanorod spines studded with ultrafine β-SiC nanocrystallines was realized. • The synthesized SiC@C keeps the original rod-like structure of polysilsesquioxanes. • The possible formation process for the nanocomposites was analysed and proposed. • Si@SiC@C nanocomposites reveal good electrochemical performance in LIBs.

  13. Synthesis of Fe3O4 cluster microspheres/graphene aerogels composite as anode for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Zhou, Yu; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Zhixing; Li, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    Iron oxides are considered as attractive electrode materials because of their capability of lithium storage, but their poor conductivity and large volume expansion lead to unsatisfactory cycling stability. We designed and synthesized a novel Fe3O4 cluster microspheres/Graphene aerogels composite (Fe3O4/GAs), where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were assembled into cluster microspheres and then embedded in 3D graphene aerogels framework. In the spheres, the sufficient free space between Fe3O4 nanoparticles could accommodate the volume change during cycling process. Graphene aerogel works as flexible and conductive matrix, which can not only significantly increase the mechanical stress, but also further improve the storage properties. The Fe3O4/GAs composite as an anode material exhibits high reversible capability and excellent cyclic capacity for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). A reversible capability of 650 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1 can be maintained. The superior storage capabilities of the composites make them potential anode materials for LIBs.

  14. Anchoring ZnO Nanoparticles in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel binary nanocomposite, ZnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnO/NG, is synthesized via a facile solution method. In this prepared ZnO/NG composite, highly-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are anchored uniformly on the N-doped graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical properties of the ZnO/NG composite as anode materials are systematically investigated in lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the ZnO/NG composite can maintain the reversible specific discharge capacity at 870 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Besides the enhanced electronic conductivity provided by interlaced N-doped graphene nanosheets, the excellent lithium storage properties of the ZnO/NG composite can be due to nanosized structure of ZnO particles, shortening the Li+ diffusion distance, increasing reaction sites, and buffering the ZnO volume change during the charge/discharge process.

  15. A flexible mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-rGO nanocomposite film as free-standing anode for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kunxu; Gao, Hanyang; Hu, Guoxin

    2018-01-01

    Advanced flexible electrode is crucial in the development of flexible energy storage devices for emerging wearable and portable electronics. Herein, a free-standing flexible mesoporous Li4Ti5O12-rGO (LTO-rGO) nanocomposite film is rationally designed and fabricated for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). This efficient synthesis involves the growth of lithium titanate hydrate (LTH) precursors on the graphene oxide (GO) by a hydrothermal reaction, assembly into LTH-GO film by vacuum filtration with some extra GO added, and subsequent conversion into LTO-rGO nanocomposite film through calcination. When rGO content in the LTO-rGO film is set, the addition sequence of GO is found to affect its textural and mechanical properties. The resultant free-standing LTO-rGO electrode, taking advantages of high Li4Ti5O12 loading of 73.9%, mesoporous layer-stacked channels with good electron/ion conductivity, good mechanical strength, and enlarged electrode/electrolyte contact area, delivers excellent electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacity of 135.4 mAh g-1 at 40 C) over the electrode of conventional configuration. Moreover, no organic but all inorganic reagents are used in the synthesis, offering an eco-friendly, cost-efficient, and easily scalable way to fabricate binder-free flexible electrode for LIBs.

  16. Ultrathin Nanosheet Assembled Sn0.91 Co0.19 S2 Nanocages with Exposed (100) Facets for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Gu, Peng; Zhang, Guangxun; Lu, Yao; Huang, Kesheng; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2018-02-01

    Ultrathin 2D inorganic nanomaterials are good candidates for lithium-ion batteries, as well as the micro/nanocage structures with unique and tunable morphologies. Meanwhile, as a cost-effective method, chemical doping plays a vital role in manipulating physical and chemical properties of metal oxides and sulfides. Thus, the design of ultrathin, hollow, and chemical doped metal sulfides shows great promise for the application of Li-ion batteries by shortening the diffusion pathway of Li ions as well as minimizing the electrode volume change. Herein, ultrathin nanosheet assembled Sn 0.91 Co 0.19 S 2 nanocages with exposed (100) facets are first synthesized. The as-prepared electrode delivers an excellent discharge capacity of 809 mA h g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 with a 91% retention after 60 discharge-charge cycles. The electrochemical performance reveals that the Li-ion batteries prepared by Sn 0.91 Co 0.19 S 2 nanocages have high capacity and great cycling stability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g -1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g -1 and 1185 mA h g -1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g -1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  18. N-Doped Dual Carbon-Confined 3D Architecture rGO/Fe3O4/AC Nanocomposite for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ranran; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Jie; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming

    2018-04-25

    To address the issues of low electrical conductivity, sluggish lithiation kinetics and dramatic volume variation in Fe 3 O 4 anodes of lithium ion battery, herein, a double carbon-confined three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite architecture was synthesized by an electrostatically assisted self-assembly strategy. In the constructed architecture, the ultrafine Fe 3 O 4 subunits (∼10 nm) self-organize to form nanospheres (NSs) that are fully coated by amorphous carbon (AC), formatting core-shell structural Fe 3 O 4 /AC NSs. By further encapsulation by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layers, a constructed 3D architecture was built as dual carbon-confined rGO/Fe 3 O 4 /AC. Such structure restrains the adverse reaction of the electrolyte, improves the electronic conductivity and buffers the mechanical stress of the entire electrode, thus performing excellent long-term cycling stability (99.4% capacity retention after 465 cycles relevant to the second cycle at 5 A g -1 ). Kinetic analysis reveals that a dual lithium storage mechanism including a diffusion reaction mechanism and a surface capacitive behavior mechanism coexists in the composites. Consequently, the resulting rGO/Fe 3 O 4 /AC nanocomposite delivers a high reversible capacity (835.8 mA h g -1 for 300 cycles at 1 A g -1 ), as well as remarkable rate capability (436.7 mA h g -1 at 10 A g -1 ).

  19. Confined SnO2 quantum-dot clusters in graphene sheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengling; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Kai; Hui, Zeyu; Pan, Hui; Chen, Zhixin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Di; Wang, Da-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Construction of metal oxide nanoparticles as anodes is of special interest for next-generation lithium-ion batteries. The main challenge lies in their rapid capacity fading caused by the structural degradation and instability of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer during charge/discharge process. Herein, we address these problems by constructing a novel-structured SnO2-based anode. The novel structure consists of mesoporous clusters of SnO2 quantum dots (SnO2 QDs), which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The mesopores inside the clusters provide enough room for the expansion and contraction of SnO2 QDs during charge/discharge process while the integral structure of the clusters can be maintained. The wrapping RGO sheets act as electrolyte barrier and conductive reinforcement. When used as an anode, the resultant composite (MQDC-SnO2/RGO) shows an extremely high reversible capacity of 924 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1, superior capacity retention (96%), and outstanding rate performance (505 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at 1000 mA g−1). Importantly, the materials can be easily scaled up under mild conditions. Our findings pave a new way for the development of metal oxide towards enhanced lithium storage performance. PMID:27181691

  20. Facile synthesis of hollow Sn–Co@PMMA nanospheres as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries via galvanic replacement reaction and in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Anni; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Dou, Peng; Ma, Daqian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Xinhua, E-mail: xhxutju@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Hollow Sn–Co nanospheres were synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method. • PMMA layers were uniform coated on the surface of Sn–Co composites via in situ emulsion polymerization. • The coating layers are beneficial to suppress the aggregation and stabilize the SEI formation on the surface. • Excellent cycling stability and rate capability were obtained by coating PMMA protective layers on the surface of hollow Sn–Co nanospheres. - Abstract: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated hollow Sn–Co nanospheres (Sn–Co@PMMA) with superior electrochemical performance had been synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method followed by an in situ emulsion polymerization route. The properties were investigated in detail and results show that the hollow Sn–Co nanospheres were evenly coated with PMMA. Benefiting from the protection of the PMMA layers, the hollow Sn–Co@PMMA nanocomposite is capable of retaining a high capacity of 590 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles with a coulomb efficiency above 98%, revealing better electrochemical properties compared with hollow Sn–Co anodes. The PMMA coating could help accommodate the mechanical strain caused by volume expansion and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed on the electrode. Such a facile process could be further extended to other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. A rationally designed composite of alternating strata of Si nanoparticles and graphene: a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Huang, Kai; Qi, Xiang; Gao, Tian; Liu, Yuping; Zou, Xianghua; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhong, Jianxin

    2013-09-21

    We have successfully fabricated a free-standing Si-re-G (reduced graphene) alternating stratum structure composite through a repeated process of filtering liquid exfoliated graphene oxide and uniformly dispersed Si solution, followed by the reduction of graphene oxide. The as-prepared free-standing flexible alternating stratum structure composite was directly evaluated as the anode for rechargeable lithium half-cells without adding any polymer binder, conductive additives or using current collectors. The half cells based on this new alternating structure composite exhibit an unexpected capacity of 1500 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at 1.35 A g(-1). Our rationally proposed strategy has incorporated the long cycle life of carbon and the high lithium-storage capacity of Si into one entity using the feasible and scalable vacuum filtration technique, rendering this new protocol as a readily applicable means of addressing the practical application challenges associated with the next generation of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with CNTs as a high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Li, Qin; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2018-04-17

    Metal silicates are good candidates for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), however, their electrochemical performance is hindered by their poor electrical conductivity and volume expansion during Li+ insertion/desertion. In this work, one-dimensional core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (referred to as CNT@MnSiO3) with good conductivity and electrochemical performance has been successfully synthesized using a solvothermal process under moderate conditions. In contrast to traditional composites of CNTs and nanoparticles, the CNT@MnSiO3 composite in this work is made up of CNTs with a layer of MnSiO3 on the surface. The one-dimensional CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes provide a useful channel for transferring Li+ ions during the discharge/charge process, which accelerates the Li+ diffusion speed. The CNTs inside the structure not only enhance the conductivity of the composite, but also prevent volume expansion. A high reversible capacity (920 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1 over 650 cycles) and good rate performance were obtained for CNT@MnSiO3, showing that this strategy of synthesizing coaxial CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes offers a promising method for preparing other silicates for LIBs or other applications.

  3. Structure Interlacing and Pore Engineering of Zn2GeO4 Nanofibers for Achieving High Capacity and Rate Capability as an Anode Material of Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jinwen; Cao, Minhua

    2016-01-20

    An interlaced Zn2GeO4 nanofiber network with continuous and interpenetrated mesoporous structure was prepared using a facile electrospinning method followed by a thermal treatment. The mesoporous structure in Zn2GeO4 nanofibers is directly in situ constructed by the decomposition of polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP), while the interlaced nanofiber network is achieved by the mutual fusion of the junctions between nanofibers in higher calcination temperatures. When used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), it exhibits superior lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The pore engineering and the interlaced network structure are believed to be responsible for the excellent lithium storage performance. The pore structure allows for easy diffusion of electrolyte, shortens the pathway of Li(+) transport, and alleviates large volume variation during repeated Li(+) extraction/insertion. Moreover, the interlaced network structure can provide continuous electron/ion pathways and effectively accommodate the strain induced by the volume change during the electrochemical reaction, thus maintaining structural stability and mechanical integrity of electrode materials during lithiation/delithiation process. This strategy in current work offers a new perspective in designing high-performance electrodes for LIBs.

  4. Facile synthesis of hollow Sn–Co@PMMA nanospheres as high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries via galvanic replacement reaction and in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Anni; Yang, Hongyan; Meng, Haowen; Dou, Peng; Ma, Daqian; Xu, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow Sn–Co nanospheres were synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method. • PMMA layers were uniform coated on the surface of Sn–Co composites via in situ emulsion polymerization. • The coating layers are beneficial to suppress the aggregation and stabilize the SEI formation on the surface. • Excellent cycling stability and rate capability were obtained by coating PMMA protective layers on the surface of hollow Sn–Co nanospheres. - Abstract: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-coated hollow Sn–Co nanospheres (Sn–Co@PMMA) with superior electrochemical performance had been synthesized via a facile galvanic replacement method followed by an in situ emulsion polymerization route. The properties were investigated in detail and results show that the hollow Sn–Co nanospheres were evenly coated with PMMA. Benefiting from the protection of the PMMA layers, the hollow Sn–Co@PMMA nanocomposite is capable of retaining a high capacity of 590 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles with a coulomb efficiency above 98%, revealing better electrochemical properties compared with hollow Sn–Co anodes. The PMMA coating could help accommodate the mechanical strain caused by volume expansion and stabilize the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formed on the electrode. Such a facile process could be further extended to other anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

  5. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis and electrospinning carboxymethyl cellulose lithium (CMC-Li) modified 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) high-rate lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Shao, Ziqiang; Liu, Minglong; Wang, Jianquan; Li, Pengfa; Zhao, Ming

    2014-02-15

    New cellulose derivative CMC-Li was synthesized, and nanometer CMC-Li fiber was applied to lithium-ion battery and coated with AQ by electrospinning. Under the protection of inert gas, modified AQ/carbon nanofibers (CNF)/Li nanometer composite material was obtained by carbonization in 280 °C as lithium battery anode materials for the first time. The morphologies and structures performance of materials were characterized by using IR, (1)H NMR, SEM, CV and EIS, respectively. Specific capacity was increased from 197 to 226.4 mAhg(-1) after modification for the first discharge at the rate of 2C. Irreversible reduction reaction peaks of modified material appeared between 1.5 and 1.7 V and the lowest oxidation reduction peak of the difference were 0.42 V, the polarization was weaker. Performance of cell with CMC-Li with the high degree of substitution (DS) was superior to that with low DS. Cellulose materials were applied to lithium battery to improve battery performance by electrospinning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke, E-mail: zhouyk888@hotmail.com; Song, Yijie

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO{sub 4}/N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO{sub 4} modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO{sub 4} to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Freeze-drying synthesis of three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 modified with well-dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yingke; Song, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs is synthesized by a freeze-drying method. • The N-CNTs conductive network enhances the electron transport within the LiFePO 4 electrode. • The continuous pores accelerate the diffusion of lithium ions. • LiFePO 4 /N-CNTs demonstrates an excellent electrochemical Li-insertion performance. - Abstract: The three-dimensional porous LiFePO 4 modified with uniformly dispersed nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method. The morphology and structure of the porous composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the electrochemical performances are evaluated using the constant current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are uniformly dispersed inside the porous LiFePO 4 to construct a superior three-dimensional conductive network, which remarkably increases the electronic conductivity and accelerates the diffusion of lithium ion. The porous composite displays high specific capacity, good rate capability and excellent cycling stability, rendering it a promising positive electrode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  10. Different types of pre-lithiated hard carbon as negative electrode material for lithium-ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Xifeng; Wang, Jing; Shi, Jingli; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two types of HC materials with different properties as negative electrode. • Lithium ion intercalation plateau of HC affects electrochemical performance of LIC. • The electrochemical performance of LIC is operated at different potential ranges. • The selection of HC and appropriate potential range of LIC have been proposed. - ABSTRACT: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) are assembled with activated carbon (AC) cathode and pre-lithiated hard carbon (HC) anode. Two kinds of HC materials with different physical and electrochemical behaviors have been investigated as the negative electrodes for LIC. Compared with spherical HC, the irregular HC shows a distinct lithium ion intercalation plateau in the charge–discharge process. The existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau for irregular HC greatly affects the electrochemical behavior of HC negative electrode and AC positive electrode. The effect of working potential range on the electrochemical performance of LIC-SH and LIC-IH is investigated by the galvanostatic charging–discharging, electrochemical impedance tests and cycle performance testing. The charge–discharge potential range of the irregular HC negative electrode is lower than the spherical HC electrode due to the existence of lithium ion intercalation plateau, which is conducive to the sufficient utilization of the AC positive electrode. The working potential range of LIC should be controlled to realize the optimization of electrochemical performance of LIC. LIC-IH at the working potential range of 2.0-4.0 V exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance, high energy density up to 85.7 Wh kg −1 and power density as high as 7.6 kW kg −1 (based on active material mass of two electrodes), excellent capacity retention about 96.0% after 5000 cycles.

  11. Analysis of influence of heat exchange conditions on the outer surface of the lithium-ion battery to electrolyte temperature under the conditions of high current loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a lithium-ion battery using the software package ANSYS Electric and ANSYS Fluent has been carried out. Time dependence of the electrolyte temperature on the various heat exchange conditions on the outer surface has been obtained.

  12. Graphene encapsulated Fe3O4 nanorods assembled into a mesoporous hybrid composite used as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Xiao, Xinxin; Engelbrekt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of new anode materials and engineering their fine structures are the core elements in the development of new-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To this end, we herein report a novel nanostructured composite consisting of approximately 75% Fe3O4 nanorods and 25% reduced graphene...

  13. Prelithiated Silicon Nanowires as an Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian; Hu, Liangbing; McDowell, Matthew T.; Jackson, Ariel; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for the next-generation high-energy lithium ion battery (LIB), while sulfur and some other lithium-free materials have recently shown high promise as cathode materials. To make a full battery out

  14. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV 3 O 8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g -1 at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g -1 , respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V 4+ ) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV 3 O 8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV 3 O 8 without detectable V 4+ (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  15. Lithium-Ion Battery Storage for the Grid—A Review of Stationary Battery Storage System Design Tailored for Applications in Modern Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems have gained increasing interest for serving grid support in various application tasks. In particular, systems based on lithium-ion batteries have evolved rapidly with a wide range of cell technologies and system architectures available on the market. On the application side, different tasks for storage deployment demand distinct properties of the storage system. This review aims to serve as a guideline for best choice of battery technology, system design and operation for lithium-ion based storage systems to match a specific system application. Starting with an overview to lithium-ion battery technologies and their characteristics with respect to performance and aging, the storage system design is analyzed in detail based on an evaluation of real-world projects. Typical storage system applications are grouped and classified with respect to the challenges posed to the battery system. Publicly available modeling tools for technical and economic analysis are presented. A brief analysis of optimization approaches aims to point out challenges and potential solution techniques for system sizing, positioning and dispatch operation. For all areas reviewed herein, expected improvements and possible future developments are highlighted. In order to extract the full potential of stationary battery storage systems and to enable increased profitability of systems, future research should aim to a holistic system level approach combining not only performance tuning on a battery cell level and careful analysis of the application requirements, but also consider a proper selection of storage sub-components as well as an optimized system operation strategy.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Zhaorong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)], E-mail: czr_56@163.com; Lv Haojie; Tang Hongwei; Li Huaji [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yuan Xiaozi; Wang Haijiang [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1W5 (Canada)

    2009-08-01

    To achieve a high-energy-density lithium electrode, high-density LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite cathode material for a lithium-ion battery was synthesized using self-produced high-density FePO{sub 4} as a precursor, glucose as a C source, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a Li source, in a pipe furnace under an atmosphere of 5% H{sub 2}-95% N{sub 2}. The structure of the synthesized material was analyzed and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the charge/discharge process. The tap-density of the synthesized LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite powder with a carbon content of 7% reached 1.80 g m{sup -3}. The charge/discharge tests show that the cathode material has initial charge/discharge capacities of 190.5 and 167.0 mAh g{sup -1}, respectively, with a volume capacity of 300.6 mAh cm{sup -3}, at a 0.1C rate. At a rate of 5C, the LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon composite shows a high discharge capacity of 98.3 mAh g{sup -1} and a volume capacity of 176.94 mAh cm{sup -3}.

  17. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K{sup +})-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K{sup +} ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O{sub 1−δ} (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K{sup +}-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g{sup −1} for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K{sup +} ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  18. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K + )-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K + ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline K x Cu 1−x O 1−δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K + -doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g −1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g −1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g −1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K + ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  19. Potassium-doped copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method as an anode material for high-performance lithium ion secondary battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Trang Vu; Rai, Alok Kumar; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-06-01

    A simple and efficient approach was developed to synthesize CuO nanoparticles with improved electrochemical performance. Potassium (K+)-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple and cost-effective solvothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C for 5 h under air atmosphere. For comparison, an undoped CuO sample was also synthesized under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the K+ ion doping caused no change in the phase structure, and highly crystalline KxCu1-xO1-δ (x = 0.10) powder without any impurity was obtained. As an anode material for a lithium ion battery, the K+-doped CuO nanoparticle electrode exhibited better capacity retention with a reversible capacity of over 354.6 mA h g-1 for up to 30 cycles at 0.1 C, as well as a high charge capacity of 162.3 mA h g-1 at a high current rate of 3.2 C, in comparison to an undoped CuO electrode (275.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and 68.9 mA h g-1 at 3.2 C). The high rate capability and better cycleability of the doped electrode can be attributed to the influence of the K+ ion nanostructure on the increased electronic conductivity, diffusion efficiency, and kinetic properties of CuO during the lithiation and delithiation process.

  20. Stress Dispersed Cu Metal Anode by Laser Multiscale Patterning for Lithium-Ion Batteries with High Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Young So

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric power production continues to increase as the industry advances, and the demand for high-capacity batteries for efficient operation of the electric power produced is higher than ever before. Si has been attracting a great deal of attention recently as an anode electrode material because of its high theoretical capacity. However, it suffers from significant capacity-loss, resulting from the volume-expansion of Si during charge and discharge cycles. Inspired by the multiscale structures commonly found in nature, we attempt to solve this problem by patterning the surface of the Cu current-collector. To this end, we develop a direct, one-step method using laser patterning to manufacture a multiscale structure on the surface of the current-collector. The inherent exfoliation characteristic of the Cu current-collector allows the spontaneous formation of the multiscale structure while being irradiated with a laser. A micro/nano structure, with a different surface area, is fabricated by varying the laser output at three levels, and the batteries prepared with the fabricated Cu current-collector are tested to evaluate their charge-discharge characteristics and electrochemical impedance. The results show that the multiscale structure reduces mechanical stress. The initial capacity of the Cu current-collector is proportional to the laser output, and the initial capacity of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector, fabricated at the highest laser output, is 396.7% higher than that of the coin cell prepared with a bare Cu current-collector. The impedance is inversely proportional to the laser output. The charge transfer resistance of the coin cell prepared with the Cu current-collector and irradiated with the highest laser output is 190.2% lower than that of the coin cell prepared with the bare Cu current-collector.

  1. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  2. Porous worm-like NiMoO4 coaxially decorated electrospun carbon nanofiber as binder-free electrodes for high performance supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaodong; Li, Xiao; Yang, Tao; Wang, Kai; Wang, Hongbao; Song, Yan; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-03-01

    The peculiar architectures consisting of electrospun carbon nanofibers coaxially decorated by porous worm-like NiMoO4 were successfully fabricated for the first time to address the poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability of the state-of-the-art NiMoO4-based electrodes caused by the insufficient structural stability, dense structure and low conductivity. The porous worm-like structure endows the electrode high capacitance/capacity due to large effective specific surface area and short electron/ion diffusion channels. Moreover, the robust integrated electrode with sufficient internal spaces can self-accommodate volume variation during charge/discharge processes, which is beneficial to the structural stability and integrity. By the virtue of rational design of the architecture, the hybrid electrode delivered high specific capacitance (1088.5 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), good rate capability (860.3 F g-1 at 20 A g-1) and long lifespan with a capacitance retention of 73.9% after 5000 cycles when used as supercapacitor electrode. For lithium-ion battery application, the electrode exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1132.1 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1. Notably, 689.7 mAh g-1 can be achieved even after 150 continuous cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. In the view of their outstanding electrochemical performance and the cost-effective fabrication process, the integrated nanostructure shows great promising applications in energy storage.

  3. The hierarchical cobalt oxide-porous carbons composites and their high performance as an anode for lithium ion batteries enhanced by the excellent synergistic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Huanlei; Chen, Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The CoO/PBCs composites with unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs) have been successfully synthesized. • The unique structure is aggregated by CoO rods anchored on the surface or inside the porous carbons. • The CoO/PBCs composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: The designed metal oxide-carbon composites are always considered as a potential candidate for high-performance electrode materials. In this work, we fabricated the CoO rods-porous carbon composites with a unique hierarchical architecture by utilizing porous biocarbons derived from kapok fibers (KFs). As the composites of CoO nanocrystals with the mean size of 10 nm and graphene-like carbon sheets, the CoO rods are homogeneously anchored on or inside the porous carbons, thus achieving a 3D hierarchical porous structure. When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-obtained composites exhibit the high lithium storage of 1057 mAh g"−"1. More importantly, the CoO rods/porous biocarbons composites display a superior long-term stable reversible capacity of about 550 mAh g"−"1 at the high current density of 5 A g"−"1 after 600 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance of the obtained composites has been attributed to the synergistic effect between CoO nanoparticles and porous biocarbons, which makes the composites favorable for fast electronic and ionic transfer, and superior stable structure. Therefore, we believe that the designed preparation of metal oxide architectures in low-cost and renewable porous biocarbons will be a valuable direction for exploring advanced electrode materials.

  4. High performance of mesoporous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black composite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Hui; Xu, Yunlong; Ji, Mandi; Zhang, Huang; Zhao, Zhen; Zhao, Chongjun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mesoporous γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB composite was synthesized via solvothermal method. • KB was used as a carbon template to improve electrochemical performance of γ-Fe 2 O 3 . • 3D network structure can relieve volume change and improve the ionic transport. • The composite exhibited an ultrahigh capacity and high rate performance. - Abstract: A type of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticle/Ketjen Black (KB) composite material is synthesized by a solvothermal method combined with precursor thermal transformation. The structure and morphology are characterized by XRD, raman spectra, TG, nitrogen sorption, SEM, TEM and EDS. The results show that the composite has a uniform nanoporous network and well-dispersed γ-Fe 2 O 3 particles with a size of ca. 5 nm are embedded in the mesopores of KB. The γ-Fe 2 O 3 /KB exhibits superior eletrochemical performances to the bare γ-Fe 2 O 3 , especially at high current rate. The discharge capacity of the composite is 1100 mAh·g −1 at the first cycle and remains 988.8 mAh·g −1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C. Moreover, it also maintains a high discharge capacity of 697.8 mAh·g −1 at 2 C and 410.1 mAh·g −1 at 5 C after 100 cycles, respectively. Such improved electrochemical performances could be attributed to the superior conductivity and favorable structure of KB, which contributes to the improvement in electronic conductivity and structure stability of γ-Fe 2 O 3 during the lithium ion insertion/desertion process

  5. Novel peapoded Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles for high-rate and ultralong-life rechargeable lithium ion batteries at room and lower temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity retained). The low-temperature measurements also demonstrate that the electrochemical performances of the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite are remarkably improved at various rate currents (at the low-temperature of -25 °C, a high Coulombic efficiency of about 99% can be achieved after 500 cycles at 10 C).In this paper, a novel peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite architecture with high conductivity is firstly designed and synthesized to be used as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. In the synthesis, Na2Ti3O7 nanotubes act as precursors and sacrificial templates, and glucose molecules serve as the green carbon source, thus the peapod-like Li4Ti5O12-C composite can be fabricated by a facile hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent solid-state process. Compared to the previous reports, the as-prepared samples obtained by our new strategy exhibit excellent electrochemical performances, such as outstanding rate capability (an extremely reversible capability of 148 mA h g-1, 125 mA h g-1 at 30 C and 90 C, respectively) as well as excellent cycling performance (about 5% capacity loss after 5000 cycles at 10 C with 152 mA h g-1 capacity

  6. Two-step carbon coating of lithium vanadium phosphate as high-rate cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Quan; Zhao, Yanming

    2012-10-01

    Carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 was firstly prepared at 850 °C via two-step reaction method combined sol-gel and conventional solid-state synthesis by using VPO4/carbon as an intermediate. Two different carbon sources, citric acid and glucose as carbon additives in sequence, ultimately deduced double carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 as a high-rate cathode material. The Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon with 4.39% residual carbon has a splendid electronic conductivity of 4.76×10-2 S cm-1. Even in the voltage window of 2.5-4.8 V, the Li3V2(PO4)3/carbon cathode can retain outstanding rate ability (170.4 mAh g-1 at 1.2 C, 101.9 mAh g-1 at 17 C), and no degradation is found after 120 C current rate. These phenomena show that the two-step carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 can act as a fast charge-discharge cathode material for high-power Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, it's believed that this synthesize method can be easily transplanted to prepare other lithiated vanadium-based phosphates.

  7. A graphene–SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} ternary nanocomposite electrode as a high stability lithium-ion anode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jicai [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China); Roll Forging Research Institute, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025, Jilin (China); Wang, Juan; Zhou, Meixin; Li, Yi [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Yu, Kaifeng, E-mail: yukf@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In this work, a solvothermal method combined with a hydrothermal two-step method is developed to synthesize graphene–SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} ternary nanocomposite, in which the nanometer-sized TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles form in situ uniformly anchored on the surface of graphene sheets, as high stability and capacity lithium-ion anode materials. Compared to graphene–TiO{sub 2}, bulk TiO{sub 2} and grapheme–SnO{sub 2} composites, the as-prepared nanocomposite delivers a superior rate performance of 499.3 mAhg{sup −1} at 0.2 C and an outstanding stability cycling capability (1073.4 mAhg{sup −1} at 0.2 C after 50 cycles), due to the synergistic effects contributed from individual components, for example, high specific capacity of SnO{sub 2}, excellent conductivity of 3D graphene networks. - Graphical abstract: Graphene–SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite is synthesized by a hydrothermal two-step method. The composite exhibits higher reversible capacity and better cycle/rate performance due to the unique structure. - Highlights: • We have synthesized a graphene–SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by a two-step method to improve the cycling performance. • Graphene–SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite is synthesized by a hydrothermal two-step method. • The composite exhibits higher reversible capacity and better cycle/rate performance due to the unique structure.

  8. 3-dimensional porous NiCo2O4 nanocomposite as a high-rate capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yudi; Ru, Qiang; Song, Xiong; Hu, Shejun; Guo, Lingyun; Chen, Xiaoqiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • D-glucose molecules as organic carbon source, have a crucial effect on the morphology and pore distribution of the synthetic products. • Facile synthesis: solvothermal method. • High rate capacity: 625 mAh g −1 at 4.4 C. • Improved long-term cycling stability: 1389 mAh g −1 after 180 cycles at 0.55 C. - Abstract: In this work, organic carbon modified NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO@C) nanocomposite with porous 3-dimensional (3D) structure was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in D-glucose-mediated processes. A detailed research reveals that D-glucose molecules play an important role in the formation of the porous 3D structure and also provide a conductive carbon network within the NCO@C nanocomposite materials. Such a porous 3D interconnected carbonaceous nanostructure applied as electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) shows that its reversible capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability are significantly enhanced in comparison with those of pure NiCo 2 O 4 (NCO) electrode. The as-prepared NCO@C composite electrode with porous 3D nanostructure displays a higher discharge specific capacity of 1389 mAh g −1 even after 180 cycles at a current rate of 0.55 C. Furthermore, this composite material also presents a high rate capacity, when the current rate gradually increases to 0.55 C, 1.1 C, 2.2 C, and 4.4 C, the reversible capacity can still render about 1082, 1029, 850, and 625 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance indicated that the NCO@C nanocomposite might be a very promising candidate to replace conventional graphite-based anode materials for LIBs

  9. 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with nanosheet constituents as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Shiqiang [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Wang, Jiazhao; Wang, Jun [University of Wollongong, Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (Australia); Li, Lin; Yang, Yun; Feng, Chuanqi, E-mail: cfeng@hubu.edu.cn [Hubei University, Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Applications of Organic Functional Molecules (China); Sun, Ziqi, E-mail: ziqi.sun@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres with ultrathin nanosheet constituents are first synthesized as anode materials for the lithium-ion battery. It is interesting that the single-crystalline nanosheets allow rapid electron/ion transport on the inside, and the high porosity ensures fast diffusion of liquid electrolyte in energy storage applications. The electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres deliver an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. Particularly, when the current density is increased to 800 mA/g, the reversible capacity of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} anode still arrived at 456 mAh/g over 50 cycles. The large and reversible capacities and stable charge–discharge cycling performance indicate that Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} is a promising anode material for lithium battery applications.Graphical abstractThe electrochemical properties of Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as anode demonstrates that 3D Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} microspheres delivered an initial capacity of 1855 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g. When the current density was increased to 800 mA/g, the Fe{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} still behaved high reversible capacity and good cycle performance.

  10. A graphene–SnO_2–TiO_2 ternary nanocomposite electrode as a high stability lithium-ion anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Jicai; Wang, Juan; Zhou, Meixin; Li, Yi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yu, Kaifeng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a solvothermal method combined with a hydrothermal two-step method is developed to synthesize graphene–SnO_2–TiO_2 ternary nanocomposite, in which the nanometer-sized TiO_2 and SnO_2 nanoparticles form in situ uniformly anchored on the surface of graphene sheets, as high stability and capacity lithium-ion anode materials. Compared to graphene–TiO_2, bulk TiO_2 and grapheme–SnO_2 composites, the as-prepared nanocomposite delivers a superior rate performance of 499.3 mAhg"−"1 at 0.2 C and an outstanding stability cycling capability (1073.4 mAhg"−"1 at 0.2 C after 50 cycles), due to the synergistic effects contributed from individual components, for example, high specific capacity of SnO_2, excellent conductivity of 3D graphene networks. - Graphical abstract: Graphene–SnO_2–TiO_2 nanocomposite is synthesized by a hydrothermal two-step method. The composite exhibits higher reversible capacity and better cycle/rate performance due to the unique structure. - Highlights: • We have synthesized a graphene–SnO_2–TiO_2 nanocomposite by a two-step method to improve the cycling performance. • Graphene–SnO_2–TiO_2 nanocomposite is synthesized by a hydrothermal two-step method. • The composite exhibits higher reversible capacity and better cycle/rate performance due to the unique structure.

  11. In-situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified lithium vanadium phosphate for high-rate lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Guo, Haifu; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-decorated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is synthesized via microwave irradiation. • Both Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and RGO can be simultaneously achieved through this route. • The GO is reduced by microwave irradiation not the carbon. • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /RGO displays excellent high-rate ability and cyclic stability. - Abstract: We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation. By treating graphene oxide and the precursor of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 in a commercial microwave oven, both reduced graphene oxide and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 could be simultaneously synthesized within 5 min. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of as-synthesized graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD result indicates that single-phase graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with monoclinic structure can be obtained. Both SEM and TEM images show that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocrystals are embedded in the reduced graphene oxide sheets which could provide an easy path for the electrons and Li-ions during the cycling process. Compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 electrode, graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits a better high-rate ability and cyclic stability. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the good conductivity of reduced graphene oxide which enhances the electrons and Li-ions transport on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . Thus, this simple and rapid method could be promising to synthesize graphene-modified electrode materials

  12. Cr3+ and Nb5+ co-doped Ti2Nb10O29 materials for high-performance lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Yu, Shu; Ma, Yu; Lin, Chunfu; Xu, Zhihao; Zhao, Hua; Wu, Shunqing; Zheng, Peng; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Li, Jianbao; Wang, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Ti2Nb10O29 is an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries due to its large specific capacity and high safety. However, its poor electronic/ionic conductivity significantly limits its rate capability. To tackle this issue, a Cr3+-Nb5+ co-doping is employed, and a series of CrxTi2-2xNb10+xO29 compounds are prepared. The co-doping does not change the Wadsley-Roth shear structure but increases the unit-cell volume and decreases the particle size. Due to the increased unit-cell volumes, the co-doped samples show increased Li+-ion diffusion coefficients. Experimental data and first-principle calculations reveal significantly increased electronic conductivities arising from the formation of impurity bands after the co-doping. The improvements of the electronic/ionic conductivities and the smaller particle sizes in the co-doped samples significantly contribute to improving their electrochemical properties. During the first cycle at 0.1 C, the optimized Cr0.6Ti0.8Nb10.6O29 sample delivers a large reversible capacity of 322 mAh g-1 with a large first-cycle Coulombic efficiency of 94.7%. At 10 C, it retains a large capacity of 206 mAh g-1, while that of Ti2Nb10O29 is only 80 mAh g-1. Furthermore, Cr0.6Ti0.8Nb10.6O29 shows high cyclic stability as demonstrated in over 500 cycles at 10 C with tiny capacity loss of only 0.01% per cycle.

  13. Convenient and high-yielding strategy for preparing nano-ZnMn_2O_4 as anode material in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tong; Gao, Yu; Yue, Huijuan; Qiu, Hailong; Guo, Zhendong; Wei, Yingjin; Wang, Chunzhong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A convenient combustion assist coprecipitation approach to synthesis nano-ZnMn2O4 anode material with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • ZnMn_2O_4 material has been gained from a novel combustion approach. • The ZnMn_2O_4 generated at 800 °C exhibits the best electrochemical performance. • This convenient method enables scale-up production of transition metal oxides. - Abstract: Time and energy saving synthesis method is crucial to the scale up applications of energy conversion and storage materials. In this report, we demonstrate a convenient and novel approach to fabricate the highly crystalline ZnMn_2O_4 nanoparticles as anode materials for Li rechargeable batteries. Pure phase ZnMn_2O_4 samples can be feasibly obtained under different calcination temperature from the precursor via combustion assisted coprecipitation method. Various techniques are used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. Sample gained at 800 °C exhibits the best electrochemical property for lithium ion batteries. A reversible specific capacity of 716 mAh g"−"1 can be retained under a current density of 100 mA g"−"1 after 90 circles. Even the current density elevated up to 1000 mA g"−"1, the reversible capacity of the material still can be kept as high as 500 mAh g"−"1 after 1200 cycles. The outstanding performance compared to the other samples benefits from its good crystallinity and uniform dispersion with appropriate particle size.

  14. Evaluation of different methods for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    The impedance represents one of the most important performance parameters of the Lithium-ion batteries since it used for power capability calculations, battery pack and system design, cooling system design and also for state-of-health estimation. In the literature, different approaches...... are presented for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc current pulses are the most used ones; each of these approaches has its own advantages and drawbacks. The goal of this paper is to investigate which of the most encountered impedance measurement...... approaches is the most suitable for measuring the impedance of Lithium-ion batteries during ageing....

  15. Two-dimensional Thermal Modeling of Lithium-ion Battery Cell Based on Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Thermal modeling of lithium-ion batteries is gaining its importance together with increasing power density and compact design of the modern battery systems in order to assure battery safety and long lifetime. Thermal models of lithium-ion batteries are usually either expensive to develop...... and accurate or equivalent thermal circuit based with moderate accuracy and without spatial temperature distribution. This work presents initial results that can be used as a fundament for the cost-efficient development of the two-dimensional thermal model of lithium-ion battery based on multipoint...

  16. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  17. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladeji, I. [Planar Energy Devices, Inc.; Wood, D. L. [ORNL; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  18. Structural and Electrochemical Investigation during the First Charging Cycles of Silicon Microwire Array Anodes for High Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Föll

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microwire arrays embedded in Cu present exceptional performance as anode material in Li ion batteries. The processes occurring during the first charging cycles of batteries with this anode are essential for good performance. This paper sheds light on the electrochemical and structural properties of the anodes during the first charging cycles. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractommetry, and fast Fourier transformation impedance spectroscopy are used for the characterization. It was found that crystalline phases with high Li content are obtained after the first lithiation cycle, while for the second lithiation just crystalline phases with less Li are observable, indicating that the lithiated wires become amorphous upon cycling. The formation of a solid electrolyte interface of around 250 nm during the first lithiation cycle is evidenced, and is considered a necessary component for the good cycling performance of the wires. Analog to voltammetric techniques, impedance spectroscopy is confirmed as a powerful tool to identify the formation of the different Si-Li phases.

  19. Carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nanorods as superior anode material for high rate lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongjun; Shen, Laifa; Rui, Kun; Li, Hongsen; Zhang, Xiaogang, E-mail: azhangxg@nuaa.edu.cn

    2013-09-25

    Highlights: •A novel approach has been developed to fabricate 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods by a wet-chemical route. •Carbon coating layer effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance electronic conductivity. •The Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanorods exhibit remarkable rate capability and long cycle life. -- Abstract: We describe a novel approach for the synthesis of carbon coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C) nanorods for high rate lithium ion batteries. The carbon coated TiO{sub 2} nanotubes using the glucose as carbon source are first synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The commercial anatase TiO{sub 2} powder is immersed in KOH sulotion and subsequently transforms into Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C in LiOH solution under hydrothermal condition. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and Raman spectra are performed to characterize their morphologies and structures. Compared with the pristine Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, one-dimensional (1D) Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C nanostructures show much better rate capability and cycling stability. The 1D Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C architectures effectively restrict the particle growth and enhance their electronic conductivity, enabling fast ion and electron transport.

  20. Preparation of a Si/SiO2 -Ordered-Mesoporous-Carbon Nanocomposite as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingxing; Liu, Renpin; Han, Lei; Luo, Fenqiang; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jianbiao; Qian, Qingrong; Chen, Qinghua; Wei, Mingdeng

    2018-04-03

    In this work, an Si/SiO 2 -ordered-mesoporous carbon (Si/SiO 2 -OMC) nanocomposite was initially fabricated through a magnesiothermic reduction strategy by using a two-dimensional bicontinuous mesochannel of SiO 2 -OMC as a precursor, combined with an NaOH etching process, in which crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles were encapsulated into the OMC matrix. Not only can such unique porous crystal Si/amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the OMC matrix mitigate the volume change of active materials during the cycling process, but they can also improve electrical conductivity of Si/SiO 2 and facilitate the Li + /Na + diffusion. When applied as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the Si/SiO 2 -OMC composite displayed superior reversible capacity (958 mA h g -1 at 0.2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and good cycling life (retaining a capacity of 459 mA h g -1 at 2 A g -1 after 1000 cycles). For sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), the composite maintained a high capacity of 423 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at 0.05 A g -1 and an extremely stable reversible capacity of 190 mA h g -1 was retained even after 500 cycles at 1 A g -1 . This performance is one of the best long-term cycling properties of Si-based SIB anode materials. The Si/SiO 2 -OMC composites exhibited great potential as an alternative material for both lithium- and sodium-ion battery anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bio-assisted synthesis of mesoporous Li3V2(PO4)3 for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Du, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Shen, Jianxing; Li, Mei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a biomimetic way for obtaining mesoporous biocarbon coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (MBC-LVP). • This method is to apply yeasts as a structural template and a biocarbon source. • The MBC-LVP has uniform particles and fine biocarbon coating network structure. • The MBC-LVP exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances. - Abstract: The mesoporous biocarbon coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (MBC-LVP) cathode material is synthesized by a biotemplate-assisted sol–gel reaction process using low-cost beer waste brewing yeasts (BWBYs) as both structural template and biocarbon source. The structure and electrochemical performances of MBC-LVP were investigated using Raman spectra, thermogravimetric measurements (TGA), adsorption–desorption isotherms and pore-size-distribution curves, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM and HRTEM), and electrochemical methods. The results show that the MBC-LVP synthesized at 750 °C has a hierarchical nanostructure, which consist of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 crystal nanoparticles and amorphous biocarbons network (11.5%) with hierarchical mesoporous structures (slit shape mesopores, open wormlike mesopores and plugged mesopores). This hierarchical nanostructure facilitates electron and lithium ion diffusion. The MBC-LVP electrode has high discharge capacity (about 205 mAh g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 C in the voltage region of 3.0–4.8 V and the diffusion coefficient of Li + -ions determined by CV and EIS is higher than those of olivine LiFePO 4 . We have revealed the formation mechanism of MBC-LVP, the possible lithium pathways in the MBC-LVP and established a relation between the structure and the ionic and electronic transport properties

  2. Coupling Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals on 3D graphene hybrid aerogel for high-performance lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hailin; Hai, Yang; Li, Dongzhi; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Lin, Yemao; Yang, Bo; Fan, Haosen; Zhu, Caizhen

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid aerogel by dispersing Mo2C@C core-shell nanocrystals into three-dimensional (3D) graphene (Mo2C@C-GA) has been successfully prepared through two-step methods. Firstly, carbon-coated MoO2 nanocrystals uniformly anchor on 3D graphene aerogel (MoO2@C-GA) via hydrothermal reaction. Then the MoO2@C-GA precursor is transformed into Mo2C@C-GA after the following carbonization process. Furthermore, the freeze-drying step plays an important role in the resulting pore size distribution of the porous networks. Moreover, graphene aerogels exhibit extremely low densities and superior electrical properties. When evaluated as anode material for lithium ion battery, Mo2C@C-GA delivers excellent rate capability and stable cycle performance when compared with C-GA and Mo2C nanoparticles. Mo2C@C-GA exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 1461.4 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, and retains a reversible capacity of 1089.8 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. Even at high current density of 5 A g-1, a discharge capacity of 623.5 mA h g-1 can be still achieved. The excellent performance of Mo2C@C-GA could be attributed to the synergistic effect of Mo2C@C nanocrystals and the 3D graphene conductive network.

  3. Mesostructured niobium-doped titanium oxide-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composite as an anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Keebum; Sohn, Hiesang; Yoon, Songhun

    2018-02-01

    Mesostructured niobium (Nb)-doped TiO2-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composites are synthesized by a hydrothermal process for application as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The composites have a hierarchical porous structure with the Nb-TiO2 nanoparticles homogenously distributed throughout the porous carbon matrix. The Nb content is controlled (0-10 wt%) to investigate its effect on the physico-chemical properties and electrochemical performance of the composite. While the crystalline/surface structure varied with the addition of Nb (d-spacing of TiO2: 0.34-0.36 nm), the morphology of the composite remained unaffected. The electrochemical performance (cycle stability and rate capability) of the Nb-TiO2-C composite anode with 1 wt% Nb doping improved significantly. First, a full cut-off potential (0-2.5 V vs. Li/Li+) of Nb-doped composite anode (1 wt%) provides a higher energy utilization than that of the un-doped TiO2-C anode. Second, Nb-TiO2-C composite anode (1 wt%) exhibits an excellent long-term cycle stability (100% capacity retention, 297 mAh/g at 0.5 C after 100 cycles and 221 mAh/g at 2 C after 500 cycles) and improved rate-capability (192 mAh/g at 5 C), respectively (1 C: 150 mA/g). The superior electrochemical performance of Nb-TiO2-C (1 wt%) could be attributed to the synergistic effect of improved electronic conductivity induced by optimal Nb doping (1 wt%) and lithium-ion penetration (high diffusion kinetics) through unique pore structures.

  4. Advanced lithium ion cells with litium manganese spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerlein, P.; Herr, R.; Kloss, M.; Kuempers, J.; Maul, M.; Meissner, E. [Varta Batterie AG, Kelkheim (Germany). Forschungs- und Entwicklungszentrum

    1999-09-01

    For electric vehicle propulsion, a number of alternative concepts exist. One approach is the so-called full electric vehicle (EV), which is exclusively driven by a battery. Another alternative is the hybrid vehicle concept, where a combustion engine and a battery are used for propulsion. Both concepts differ in the requirements for the battery used. This leads to the fact that for each application a special type of battery has to be tailored, resulting in a high-energy battery for the EV application and a high-power battery for hybrid vehicles. Both requirements, the high-energy and the high-power requirement, can be met by lithium ion batteries. With lithium manganese oxide and carbon as active materials, high-energy cells were realised with an energy density of 115 WH/kg and a specific pulse power of 500 W/kg, as well as high-power cells with an energy density of 60 Wh/kg and a specific pulse power of 850 W/kg. Both types of cells show good cycle life and good performance at low temperatures. (orig.)

  5. A Three-Dimensional Nanoporous Silicon Anode for High-Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I program is directed toward the development of novel, nanoporous silica anodes for low-earth-orbiting (LEO) spacecraft power applications. Silica...

  6. Novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 platelets: High performance cathode materials for lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Hailong; Wu, Xiaomin; Li, Huan; Wei, Mingdeng

    2014-02-01

    A simple and versatile method for preparation of novel sodium intercalated (NH4)2V6O16 is developed via a simple hydrothermal route. It is found that ammonium sodium vanadium bronze displays higher discharge capacity and better rate cyclic stability than ammonium vanadium bronze as lithium-ion battery cathode material because of smaller charge transfer resistance, which would favor superior discharge capacity and rate performance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Materials for lithium-ion battery safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Pei, Allen; Cui, Yi

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered to be one of the most important energy storage technologies. As the energy density of batteries increases, battery safety becomes even more critical if the energy is released unintentionally. Accidents related to fires and explosions of LIBs occur frequently worldwide. Some have caused serious threats to human life and health and have led to numerous product recalls by manufacturers. These incidents are reminders that safety is a prerequisite for batteries, and serious issues need to be resolved before the future application of high-energy battery systems. This Review aims to summarize the fundamentals of the origins of LIB safety issues and highlight recent key progress in materials design to improve LIB safety. We anticipate that this Review will inspire further improvement in battery safety, especially for emerging LIBs with high-energy density.

  8. Bio-synthesis participated mechanism of mesoporous LiFePO4/C nanocomposite microspheres for lithium ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; He, W.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    specific surface area (203 m2 g-1). The microsphere is composed of densely aggregated nanoparticles and interconnected nanopores. The open mesoporous structure allows lithium ions easily to penetrate into the spheres, while a thorough coating of the biocarbon network on the surface of the LiFePO4...... nanoparticles facilitates lithium ion and electron diffusion. The MP-LFP/C-NC-MS have high discharge capacity of about 158.5 mA h g−1 at the current density of 0.1 C, discharge capacity of 122 mA h g−1 at 10 C, and high capacity retention rate. Therefore the mesoporous microspheres are an ideal type of cathode......-active materials for making high-power Li-ion batteries....

  9. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  10. Nano silicon for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Michael; Buqa, Hilmi; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Hahn, Matthias; Wuersig, Andreas; Scheifele, Werner; Novak, Petr; Koetz, Ruediger; Veit, Claudia; Petrat, Frank-Martin

    2006-01-01

    New results for two types of nano-size silicon, prepared via thermal vapour deposition either with or without a graphite substrate are presented. Their superior reversible charge capacity and cycle life as negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries have already been shown in previous work. Here the lithiation reaction of the materials is investigated more closely via different electrochemical in situ techniques: Raman spectroscopy, dilatometry and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS). The Si/graphite compound material shows relatively high kinetics upon discharge. The moderate relative volume change and low gas evolution of the nano silicon based electrode, both being important points for a possible future use in real batteries, are discussed with respect to a standard graphite electrode

  11. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer batteries. The modified PE membrane via plasma modification process plays a critical role in improving wettability and electrolyte retention, interfacial adhesion between separators and electrodes, and cycle performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries. This paper suggests that the performance of lithium-ion polymer batteries can be greatly enhanced by the plasma modification of commercial separators with proper functional materials for targeted application.

  12. Lithium-ion battery performance improvement based on capacity recovery exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddahech, Akram; Briat, Olivier; Vinassa, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Experiments on combined power-cycling/calendar aging of high-power lithium battery. •Recovery phenomenon on battery capacity when we stop power-cycling. •Full discharge at rest time is a potential source for battery life prolongation. •Temperature impact on capacity recovery and battery aging. -- Abstract: In this work, the performance recovery phenomenon when aging high-power lithium-ion batteries used in HEV application is highlighted. This phenomenon consists in the increase on the battery capacity when power-cycling is stopped. The dependency of this phenomenon on the stop-SOC value is demonstrated. Keeping battery at a fully discharged state preserves a large amount of charge from the SEI-electrolyte interaction when they are in the positive electrode during rest time. Results from power cycling and combined aging, calendar/power-cycling, of a 12 A h-commercialized lithium-ion battery, at two temperatures (45 °C and 55 °C), are presented and obtained results are discussed

  13. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  14. Higher-capacity lithium ion battery chemistries for improved residential energy storage with micro-cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcovich, K.; Henquin, E.R.; Kenney, B.; Davidson, I.J.; Saldanha, N.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterized two novel high capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. • A numerical discharge model was run to characterize Li-ion cell behavior. • Engineering model of Li-ion battery pack developed from cell fundamentals. • ESP-r model integrated micro-cogeneration and high capacity Li-ion storage. • Higher capacity batteries shown to improve micro-cogeneration systems. - Abstract: Combined heat and power on a residential scale, also known as micro-cogeneration, is currently gaining traction as an energy savings practice. The configuration of micro-cogeneration systems is highly variable, as local climate, energy supply, energy market and the feasibility of including renewable type components such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels are all factors. Large-scale lithium ion batteries for electrical storage in this context can provide cost savings, operational flexibility, and reduced stress on the distribution grid as well as a degree of contingency for installations relying upon unsteady renewables. Concurrently, significant advances in component materials used to make lithium ion cells offer performance improvements in terms of power output, energy capacity, robustness and longevity, thereby enhancing their prospective utility in residential micro-cogeneration installations. The present study evaluates annual residential energy use for a typical Canadian home connected to the electrical grid, equipped with a micro-cogeneration system consisting of a Stirling engine for supplying heat and power, coupled with a nominal 2 kW/6 kW h lithium ion battery. Two novel battery cathode chemistries, one a new Li–NCA material, the other a high voltage Ni-doped lithium manganate, are compared in the residential micro-cogeneration context with a system equipped with the presently conventional LiMn 2 O 4 spinel-type battery

  15. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  16. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai; Qiu, Jingyi; Zhang, Songtong; Li, Meng; Zhu, Xiayu; Wang, Liming; Ming, Jun

    2017-01-01

    , electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  17. FePO4 nanoparticles embedded in a large mesoporous carbon matrix as a high-capacity and high-rate cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lian; Wu, Ping; Xie, Kongwei; Li, Jianping; Xu, Bin; Cao, Gaoping; Chen, Yu; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Self-made nano-CaCO 3 templated LMC as a novel supporting matrix for FePO 4 cathode. ► The 3D porous structure of LMC is well retained in LMC–FePO 4 nanohybrid. ► Its reaction kinetics of lithium insertion/extraction is significantly improved. ► Markedly higher capacities and rate capability by virtue of its structure superiority. -- Abstract: By using large mesoporous carbon (LMC) as a novel host matrix, LMC–FePO 4 nanohybrid has been synthesized through a facile homogeneous precipitation process and subsequent annealing approach. When evaluated as a cathode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the LMC–FePO 4 nanohybrid exhibits higher specific capacities, improved rate capability, and better cycling performance by virtue of its unique structural characteristics

  18. Multilayered Si nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide hybrid as a high-performance lithium-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jingbo; Huang, Xingkang; Zhou, Guihua; Cui, Shumao; Hallac, Peter B; Jiang, Junwei; Hurley, Patrick T; Chen, Junhong

    2014-02-01

    Multilayered Si/RGO anode nanostructures, featuring alternating Si nanoparticle (NP) and RGO layers, good mechanical stability, and high electrical conductivity, allow Si NPs to easily expand between RGO layers, thereby leading to high reversible capacity up to 2300 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 C (120 mA g(-1) ) and 87% capacity retention (up to 630 mAh g(-1) ) at 10 C after 152 cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Graphene-encapsulated hollow Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle aggregates as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyun; Ji, Ge; Ma, Yue; Lee, Jim Yang; Lu, Jianmei

    2011-08-01

    Graphene-encapsulated ordered aggregates of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with nearly spherical geometry and hollow interior were synthesized by a simple self-assembly process. The open interior structure adapts well to the volume change in repetitive Li(+) insertion and extraction reactions; and the encapsulating graphene connects the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles electrically. The structure and morphology of the graphene-Fe(3)O(4) composite were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the composite for reversible Li(+) storage was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and constant current charging and discharging. The results showed a high and nearly unvarying specific capacity for 50 cycles. Furthermore, even after 90 cycles of charge and discharge at different current densities, about 92% of the initial capacity at 100 mA g(-1) was still recoverable, indicating excellent cycle stability. The graphene-Fe(3)O(4) composite is therefore a capable Li(+) host with high capacity that can be cycled at high rates with good cycle life. The unique combination of graphene encapsulation and a hollow porous structure definitely contributed to this versatile electrochemical performance.

  20. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...... competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour...... is required. This paper aims to investigate, based on a laboratory developed lifetime model, the degradation behaviour of the performance parameters (i.e., capacity and power capability) of a Lithium-ion battery cell when it is subjected to a field measured mission profile, which is characteristic...

  1. A review of thermal management and safety for lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed Madani, Seyed; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2017-01-01

    performance. Therefore,thermal management of batteries is essential for various purposes containing thermal runaway and longstanding of cell functioning period. The favorable outcome of electricdriven vehicles (EDVs) depends on the lithium-ion battery technology. Notwithstanding, the safety concern...... is a considerable technical problem and has become an important factor which might postpones subsequent extension of lithium-ion batteries. This paper reviews different methods for thermal management of lithium-ion batteries. Various methods such as using Phase change materials and using air cooling, straight......Decreasing of fossil fuel sources and ecological worries has spurred global attention in the expansion of developing energy storing systems for electric vehicles (EVs). As a consequence of escalating appeal on new dependable power supplier for hybrid electric vehicles, lithium-ion (Li...

  2. Highly Conductive In-SnO2/RGO Nano-Heterostructures with Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Palmieri, Alessandro; He, Junkai; Meng, Yongtao; Beauregard, Nicole; Suib, Steven L.; Mustain, William E.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of emerging technologies for high energy density electrochemical storage has led many researchers to look for alternative anode materials to graphite. The most promising conversion and alloying materials do not yet possess acceptable cycle life or rate capability. In this work, we use tin oxide, SnO2, as a representative anode material to explore the influence of graphene incorporation and In-doping to increase the electronic conductivity and concomitantly improve capacity retention and cycle life. It was found that the incorporation of In into SnO2 reduces the charge transfer resistance during cycling, prolonging life. It is also hypothesized that the increased conductivity allows the tin oxide conversion and alloying reactions to both be reversible, leading to very high capacity near 1200 mAh/g. Finally, the electrodes show excellent rate capability with a capacity of over 200 mAh/g at 10C. PMID:27167615

  3. Mesoporous CNT@TiO2-C Nanocable with Extremely Durable High Rate Capability for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xin, Huolin; Li, Xiaodong; Cheng, Jianli; Yang, Guangcheng; Nie, Fude

    2014-01-01

    A well-designed nanostructure CNT@TiO2-C with fine anatase TiO2 particle (glucose in the hydrothermal process not only solves the interfacial incompatibility between CNTs and titanate sol and controls the nucleation and growth of TiO2 particles, but also introduces a uniform, glucose-derived, carbon-layer on the TiO2 particles. The nanosized TiO2 particle, high conducting network, and interconnected nanopores of the CNT@TiO2-C nanocable greatly improve its electrochemical performances, especially rate capability. The CNT@TiO2-C nanocables show remarkable rate capability with reversible charge capacity of 297, 240, 210,178 and 127 mAh g-1 at 1C, 5C, 10C, 20C and 50C, respectively, as well as excellent high rate cycling stability with capacity retention of 87% after 2000 cycles at 50C.

  4. High rate performance of the carbon encapsulated Li4Ti5O12 for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qi; Tang, Shun; Liang, Jiyuan; Zhao, Jinxing; Lan, Qian; Liu, Chang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng

    Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is attractive alternative anode material with excellent cyclic performance and high rate after coating modifications of the conductive materials. Anatase TiO2 and glucose were applied of the synthesis of the carbon coated LTO (C@LTO). XRD results showed that all the major diffractions from the spinel structure of LTO can be found in the C@LTO such as (1 1 1), (3 1 1), (4 0 0) but there are no observations of the Carbon diffraction peaks. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) data shows C@LTO resistance was nearly half of the LTO value. Rate performance showed that capacity of C@LTO was higher than that of the pure LTO from 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, which indicates that this is a promising approach to prepare the high performance LTO anode.

  5. Spherical nano-SnSb/MCMB/carbon core–shell composite for high stability lithium ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun; Sun, Dawei; Zhang, Beibei; Hou, Xianhua

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-step design of spherical nano-SnSb/MCMB/carbon core–shell composite for high stability and long life lithium battery electrodes has been introduced. The core–shell composite was successfully synthesized via co-precipitation and subsequent pyrolysis. The resultant composite sphere consisted of nanosized SnSb alloy and mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB, 10 μm) embedded in a carbon matrix pyrolyzed from glucose and petroleum pitch, in which the MCMB was treated to be the inner core to offer mechanical support and efficient electron conducting pathway. The composite material exhibited a unique stability with a retention discharge capacity rate of 83.52% with reversible capacity of 422.5 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles and a high initial coulombic efficiency of 83.53%. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the structural stability of the composite sphere during the charging–discharging process

  6. Robust Strategy for Crafting Li5Cr7Ti6O25@CeO2 Composites as High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Yi, Ting-Feng; Li, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Chao-Feng

    2017-07-19

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 composites as a high-performance anode material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld refinement results show that the CeO 2 coating does not alter the structure of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 but increases the lattice parameter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicates that all samples have similar morphologies with a homogeneous particle distribution in the range of 100-500 nm. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) prove that CeO 2 layer successfully formed a coating layer on a surface of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles and supplied a good conductive connection between the Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 particles. The electrochemical characterization reveals that Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode shows the highest reversibility of the insertion and deinsertion behavior of Li ion, the smallest electrochemical polarization, the best lithium-ion mobility among all electrodes, and a better electrochemical activity than the pristine one. Therefore, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) electrode indicates the highest delithiation and lithiation capacities at each rate. At 5 C charge-discharge rate, the pristine Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 only delivers an initial delithiation capacity of ∼94.7 mAh g -1 , and the delithiation capacity merely achieves 87.4 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. However, Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 @CeO 2 (3 wt %) delivers an initial delithiation capacity of 107.5 mAh·g -1 , and the delithiation capacity also reaches 100.5 mAh g -1 even after 100 cycles. The cerium dioxide modification is a direct and efficient approach to improve the delithiation and lithiation capacities and cycle property of Li 5 Cr 7 Ti 6 O 25 at large current densities.

  7. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Mingkai Liu; Yuqing Liu; Yuting Zhang; Yiliao Li; Peng Zhang; Yan Yan; Tianxi Liu

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of ?closed? pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersio...

  8. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Liu, Enzuo, E-mail: ezliu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Chunnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); Li, Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhao, Naiqin, E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  9. Thermally fabricated MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrids as high performance anode in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.K., E-mail: sunil111954@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Kartick, B. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Choudhury, S. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF Dresden), Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Stamm, M. [Department of Nanostructured Materials, Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. (IPF Dresden), Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Physical Chemistry of Polymer Materials, 01062, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    MoS{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide (MoS{sub 2}-rGO: where rGO = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) hybrids have been fabricated using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4} and graphite oxide as single source precursors of MoS{sub 2} and thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide respectively. These individual precursors were initially subjected to grinding for 30 min followed by heating at 1200 °C for 15 min and characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed co-dispersion of MoS{sub 2} on thermally exfoliated graphite oxide. Electrochemical studies of these hybrids as anode materials showed that MoS{sub 2}-rGO (7 wt%) exhibited superior reversible capacity, cycling stability, enhanced rate performance (780 mAhg{sup −1}) and rate capability (880 mAhg{sup −1}) over pristine MoS{sub 2} and other hybrids. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2}-graphene hybrids are synthesized by high temperature from individual precursors. • These hybrids have been used as anode material in LIB. • MoS{sub 2}-graphene (7 wt%) exhibited superior reversible capacity and cycling stability. • It showed high rate performance (780 mA h g{sup −1}) and rate capability (880 mA h g{sup −1}). • Enhanced performance at lower graphene makes it most attractive anode material in LIB.

  10. Targeted synthesis of novel hierarchical sandwiched NiO/C arrays as high-efficiency lithium ion batteries anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Wenxiang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the novel 2D sandwich-like NiO/C arrays on Ti foil are successfully designed and fabricated for the first time via simple and controllable hydrothermal process. In this strategy, we use green glucose as carbon source and ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheet arrays as precursor for NiO nanoparticles and sacrificial templates for coupled graphitized carbon layers. This advanced sandwiched composite can not only provide large surface area for numerous active sites and continuous contact between active materials and electrolyte, but also protect the active nanoparticles from aggregation, pulverization and peeling off from conductive substrates. Furthermore, the porous structure derived from lots of substances loss under high-temperature calcinations can effectively buffer possible volume expansion and facilitate ion transfer. In this article, sandwiched NiO/C arrays, utilized as anode for LIBs, demonstrated high specific capacity (∼1458 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1) and excellent rate performance and cyclablity (∼95.7% retention after 300 cycles).

  11. High rate performance of the carbon encapsulated Li4Ti5O12 for lithium ion battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cheng

    Full Text Available Li4Ti5O12 (LTO is attractive alternative anode material with excellent cyclic performance and high rate after coating modifications of the conductive materials. Anatase TiO2 and glucose were applied of the synthesis of the carbon coated LTO (C@LTO. XRD results showed that all the major diffractions from the spinel structure of LTO can be found in the C@LTO such as (111, (311, (400 but there are no observations of the Carbon diffraction peaks. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS data shows C@LTO resistance was nearly half of the LTO value. Rate performance showed that capacity of C@LTO was higher than that of the pure LTO from 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 1 C, 2 C, 5 C and 10 C, which indicates that this is a promising approach to prepare the high performance LTO anode. Keywords: Li-ion batteries, Rate performance, Carbon materials, Li4Ti5O12 anode

  12. Electrochemical behavior of sebaconitrile