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Sample records for high phase velocities

  1. High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field

  2. Sound velocities of the 23 Å phase at high pressure and implications for seismic velocities in subducted slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, N.; Chen, T.; Qi, X.; Inoue, T.; Li, B.

    2017-12-01

    Dense hydrous phases are believed to play an important role in transporting water back into the deep interior of the Earth. Recently, a new Al-bearing hydrous Mg-silicate, named the 23 Å phase (ideal composition Mg12Al2Si4O16(OH)14), was reported (Cai et al., 2015), which could be a very important hydrous phase in subducting slabs. Here for the first time we report the measurements of the compressional and shear wave velocities of the 23 Å phase under applied pressures up to 14 GPa and room temperature, using a bulk sample with a grain size of less than 20 μm and density of 2.947 g/cm3. The acoustic measurements were conducted in a 1000-ton uniaxial split-cylinder multi-anvil apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry techniques (Li et al., 1996). The pressures were determined in situ by using an alumina buffer rod as the pressure marker (Wang et al., 2015). A dual-mode piezoelectric transducer enabled us to measure P and S wave travel times simultaneously, which in turn allowed a precise determination of the sound velocities and elastic bulk and shear moduli at high pressures. A fit to the acoustic data using finite strain analysis combined with a Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds calculation yields: Ks0 = 113.3 GPa, G0 = 42.8 GPa, and K' = 3.8, G' = 1.9 for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. The velocities (especially for S wave) of this 23 Å phase (ambient Vp = 7.53 km/s, Vs = 3.72 km/s) are lower than those of phase A, olivine, pyrope, etc., while the Vp/Vs ratio (from 2.02 to 1.94, decreasing with increasing pressure) is quite high. These results suggest that a hydrous assemblage containing 23 Å phase should be distinguishable from a dry one at high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Al-bearing subducted slabs.

  3. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  4. Effect of Phase Transformations on Seismic Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M.; Triplett, R.

    2017-12-01

    The radial velocity structure of the Earth consists of smooth variations of velocities with depth punctuated by abrupt changes of velocity, which are typically due to multivariant phase transformations, where high - low pressure phases can coexist. In this mixed phase region, both the effective shear and bulk moduli will be significantly reduced by the dynamic interaction of the propagating wave and the phase transition if the period of the wave is long enough relative to the kinetic time so that some of the transition can take place. In this presentation, we will give examples from both laboratory studies of phases transitions of Earth minerals and the calculated velocity profile based on our models. We focus on understanding the time limiting factor of the phase transformation in order to extrapolate laboratory results to Earth observations. Both the olivine to ringwoodite transition and KLB-1 partial melting are explored. We find that when the transformation requires diffusion, the kinetics are often slowed down considerably and as a result the diffusivity of atoms become the limiting factor of characteristic time. Specifically Fe-Mg exchange rate in the olivine-ringwoodite phase transition becomes the limiting factor that seismic waves are likely to sample. On the other hand, partial melting is an extremely fast phase transformation at seismic wave periods. We present evidence that ultrasonic waves, with a period of a few tens of nanoseconds, are slowed by the reduction of the effective elastic moduli in this case.

  5. Propagation of the Semidiurnal Internal Tide: Phase Velocity Versus Group Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2017-12-01

    The superposition of two waves of slightly different wavelengths has long been used to illustrate the distinction between phase velocity and group velocity. The first-mode M2 and S2 internal tides exemplify such a two-wave model in the natural ocean. The M2 and S2 tidal frequencies are 1.932 and 2 cycles per day, respectively, and their superposition forms a spring-neap cycle in the semidiurnal band. The spring-neap cycle acts like a wave, with its frequency, wave number, and phase being the differences of the M2 and S2 internal tides. The spring-neap cycle and energy of the semidiurnal internal tide propagate at the group velocity. Long-range propagation of M2 and S2 internal tides in the North Pacific is observed by satellite altimetry. Along a 3,400 km beam spanning 24°-54°N, the M2 and S2 travel times are 10.9 and 11.2 days, respectively. For comparison, it takes the spring-neap cycle 21.1 days to travel over this distance. Spatial maps of the M2 phase velocity, the S2 phase velocity, and the group velocity are determined from phase gradients of the corresponding satellite observed internal tide fields. The observed phase and group velocities agree with theoretical values estimated using the World Ocean Atlas 2013 annual-mean ocean stratification.

  6. A new phase coding method using a slice selection gradient for high speed flow velocity meaurements in NMR tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, C.H.; Cho, Z.H.; California Univ., Irvine

    1986-01-01

    A new phase coding method using a selection gradient for high speed NMR flow velocity measurements is introduced and discussed. To establish a phase-velocity relationship of flow under the slice selection gradient and spin-echo RF pulse, the Bloch equation was numerically solved under the assumption that only one directional flow exists, i.e. in the direction of slice selection. Details of the numerical solution of the Bloch equation and techniques related to the numerical computations are also given. Finally, using the numerical calculation, high speed flow velocity measurement was attempted and found to be in good agreement with other complementary controlled measurements. (author)

  7. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures

  8. High speed ultrasonic system to measure bubbles velocities in a horizontal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Jian Su; Farias, Marcos S.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Lamy, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a non invasive technique consisting of a high speed ultrasonic multitransducer pulse-echo system was developed to characterize gas-liquid two-phase flow parameters that are important in the study of the primary refrigeration circuit of nuclear reactors. The high speed ultrasonic system consists of two transducers (10 MHz/φ 6.35 mm), a generator/multiplexer board, and software that selects and has a data acquisition system of the ultrasonic signals. The resolutions of the system and the pulse time generated from each transducer are, respectively, 10 ns and 1.06 ms. The system initially was used in the local instantaneous measurement of gas-liquid interface in a circular horizontal pipe test section made of a 5 m long stainless steel pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter, where the elongated bubbles velocity was measured (Taylor bubbles). The results show that the high speed ultrasonic pulse-echo system provides good results for the determination of elongated bubbles velocities. (author)

  9. Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function

  10. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  11. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    OpenAIRE

    Jicha Miroslav; Lizal Frantisek; Jedelsky Jan

    2012-01-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused...

  12. Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.

    2004-01-01

    NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)

  13. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  14. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  15. Solid phase stability of molybdenum under compression: Sound velocity measurements and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiulu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 621010 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Zhongli [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); College of Physics and Electric Information, Luoyang Normal University, 471022 Luoyang, Henan (China); Jin, Ke; Xi, Feng; Yu, Yuying; Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Cai, Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-07

    The high-pressure solid phase stability of molybdenum (Mo) has been the center of a long-standing controversy on its high-pressure melting. In this work, experimental and theoretical researches have been conducted to check its solid phase stability under compression. First, we performed sound velocity measurements from 38 to 160 GPa using the two-stage light gas gun and explosive loading in backward- and forward-impact geometries, along with the high-precision velocity interferometry. From the sound velocities, we found no solid-solid phase transition in Mo before shock melting, which does not support the previous solid-solid phase transition conclusion inferred from the sharp drops of the longitudinal sound velocity [Hixson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 637 (1989)]. Then, we searched its structures globally using the multi-algorithm collaborative crystal structure prediction technique combined with the density functional theory. By comparing the enthalpies of body centered cubic structure with those of the metastable structures, we found that bcc is the most stable structure in the range of 0–300 GPa. The present theoretical results together with previous ones greatly support our experimental conclusions.

  16. Functional analysis of third ventriculostomy patency with phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, S.; Bhadelia, R.A.; Estin, D.; Heilman, C.B.; Wolpert, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore the utility of cine phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements in determining the functional status of third ventriculostomies, and to correlate the quantitative velocity data with clinical follow-up. We examined six patients with third ventriculostomies and 12 normal subjects by phase-contrast MRI. The maximum craniocaudal to maximum caudocranial velocity range was measured at regions of interest near the third ventricular floor, and in cerebrospinal fluid anterior to the upper pons and spinal cord on midline sagittal images. Ratios of the velocities of both the third ventricle and prepontine space to the space anterior to the spinal cord were obtained. The velocities near the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern were significantly higher in patients than in normal subjects, but the velocity anterior to the spinal cord was similar between the groups. The velocity ratios, used to normalize individual differences, were also higher in patients than in controls. Two patients had lower velocity ratios than their fellows at the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern; one required a shunt 11 months later, while in the other, who had a third ventricular/thalamic tumor, the lower values probably reflect distortion of the third ventricular floor. We conclude that phase-contrast MR velocity measurements, specifically the velocity ratio between the high pontine cistern and the space anterior to the spinal cord, can help determine the functional status of third ventriculostomies. (orig.)

  17. Interferometric phase velocity measurements in the auroral electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labelle, J.; Kinter, P.M.; Kelley, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    A double-probe electric field detector and two spatially separated fixed-bias Langmuir probes were flown on a Taurus-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range in March 1982. Interesting wave data have been obtained from about 10 s of the downleg portion of the flight during which the rocket passed through the auroral electrojet. Here the electric field receiver and both density fluctuation (deltan/n) receivers responded to a broad band of turbulence centered at 105 km altitude and at frequencies generally below 4 kHz. Closer examination of the two deltan/n turbulent waveforms reveals that they are correlated, and from the phase difference between the two signals, the phase velocity of the waves in the rocket reference frame is inferred. The magnitude and direction of the observed phase velocity are consistent either with waves which travel at the ion sound speed (Csub(s)) or with waves which travel at the electron drift velocity. The observed phase velocity varies by about 50% over a 5 km altitude range - an effect which probably results from shear in the zonal neutral wind, although unfortunately no simultaneous neutral wind measurements exist to confirm this. (author)

  18. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  19. Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara

    2016-05-18

    Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips.

  20. High-magnification velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Phil; Fernandez, Erik; Ali, Mohd; Alvi, Farrukh

    2014-11-01

    The Resonance-Enhanced Microjet (REM) actuator developed at our laboratory produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet flowing into a cylindrical cavity with a single orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1 mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and 2-component particle image velocimetry. The challenges of these measurements at such small scales and supersonic velocities are discussed. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces supersonic pulsed jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s. This is the first direct measurement of the velocity field and its temporal evolution produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations, velocity field measurements, and simulations using Implicit LES for a similar microactuator. With high, unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of flow control applications.

  1. Velocity bunching of high-brightness electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Anderson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity bunching has been recently proposed as a tool for compressing electron beam pulses in modern high brightness photoinjector sources. This tool is familiar from earlier schemes implemented for bunching dc electron sources, but presents peculiar challenges when applied to high current, low emittance beams from photoinjectors. The main difficulty foreseen is control of emittance oscillations in the beam in this scheme, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process at moderate energies. This paper presents two scenarios in which velocity bunching, combined with emittance control, is to play a role in nascent projects. The first is termed ballistic bunching, where the changing of relative particle velocities and positions occur in distinct regions, a short high gradient linac, and a drift length. This scenario is discussed in the context of the proposed ORION photoinjector. Simulations are used to explore the relationship between the degree of bunching, and the emittance compensation process. Experimental measurements performed at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory of the surprisingly robust bunching process, as well as accompanying deleterious transverse effects, are presented. An unanticipated mechanism for emittance growth in bends for highly momentum chirped beam was identified and studied in these experiments. The second scenario may be designated as phase space rotation, and corresponds closely to the recent proposal of Ferrario and Serafini. Its implementation for the compression of the electron beam pulse length in the PLEIADES inverse Compton scattering (ICS experiment at LLNL is discussed. It is shown in simulations that optimum compression may be obtained by manipulation of the phases in low gradient traveling wave accelerator sections. Measurements of the bunching and emittance control achieved in such an implementation at PLEIADES, as well as aspects of the use of velocity-bunched beam directly

  2. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  3. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddinika, M K; Ito, D; Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  4. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko; Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  5. MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.

    1999-11-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)

  6. Spatiotemporal Signal Analysis via the Phase Velocity Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattor, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The phase velocity transform (PVT) is an integral transform that divides a function of space and time into components that propagate at uniform phase velocities without distortion. This paper examines the PVT as a method to analyze spatiotemporal fluctuation data. The transform is extended to systems with discretely sampled data on a periodic domain, and applied to data from eight azimuthally distributed probes on the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). This reveals features not shown by Fourier analysis, particularly regarding nonsinusoidal mode structure. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Transverse Oscillations for Phased Array Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    of superficial blood vessels. To broaden the usability of the method, it should be expanded to a phased array geometry enabling vector velocity imaging of the heart. Therefore, the scan depth has to be increased to 10-15 cm. This paper presents suitable pulse echo fields (PEF). Two lines are beamformed...... (correlation coefficient, R: -0.76), and therefore predict estimator performance. CV is correlated with the standard deviation (R=0.74). The results demonstrate the potential for using a phased array for vector velocity imaging at larger depths, and potentially for imaging the heart....

  8. Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.

    2003-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  9. High-efficiency toroidal current drive using low-phase-velocity kinetic Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.

    1991-09-01

    A method for obtaining efficient current drive in Tokamaks using low-phase-velocity (v ρ = ω/K parallel ∝ 0.1v te ) kinetic Alfen wave is proposed. The wave momentum, imparted primarily to the trapped electrons by Landau damping, is stored as the canonical angular momentum via the Ware pinch. In steady state, collisions restore the pinched electrons to their original phase-space configuration, in the process releasing the stored canonical angular momentum to the background ions and electrons in proportion to the respective collision frequencies. Despite the loss of a part of the original impulse to the plasma ions, well over half the wave momentum is ultimately delivered to the bulk-plasma electrons, resulting in an efficient current drive. A normalized current-drive efficiency γ = R 0 20 > I/P ∝ 2 would be feasible using the subthermal kinetic-Alfen-wave current drive in a Tokamak of reactor parameters. Optimum antenna loading conditions are described. The problem of accessibility is discussed. In an elongated, high-β plasma with a density dependence n e ∝ (1-ρ 2 ) Χn , accessibility is restricted to ρ > or approx. 3/(4A Χn ), where A is the aspect ratio. For current drive at still lower values of ρ, operation in conjunction with fast-wave current drive is suggested. (orig.)

  10. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  11. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Claude Ahyi, A.; Raju, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier studies regarding acoustic scattering resonances and the dispersive phase velocities of the surface waves that generate them, have demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves from the known acoustic resonance frequencies, and their accuracy. This possi...

  12. Energy Demodulation Algorithm for Flow Velocity Measurement of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow velocity measurement was an important research of oil-gas-water three-phase flow parameter measurements. In order to satisfy the increasing demands for flow detection technology, the paper presented a gas-liquid phase flow velocity measurement method which was based on energy demodulation algorithm combing with time delay estimation technology. First, a gas-liquid phase separation method of oil-gas-water three-phase flow based on energy demodulation algorithm and blind signal separation technology was proposed. The separation of oil-gas-water three-phase signals which were sampled by conductance sensor performed well, so the gas-phase signal and the liquid-phase signal were obtained. Second, we used the time delay estimation technology to get the delay time of gas-phase signals and liquid-phase signals, respectively, and the gas-phase velocity and the liquid-phase velocity were derived. At last, the experiment was performed at oil-gas-water three-phase flow loop, and the results indicated that the measurement errors met the need of velocity measurement. So it provided a feasible method for gas-liquid phase velocity measurement of the oil-gas-water three-phase flow.

  13. Two-phase velocity measurements around cylinders using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Philip, O.G.; Schmidl, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The particle Image Velocimetry flow measurement technique was used to study both single-phase flow and two-phase flow across a cylindrical rod inserted in a channel. First, a flow consisting of only a single-phase fluid was studied. The experiment consisted of running a laminar flow over four rods inserted in a channel. The water flow rate was 126 cm{sup 3}/s. Then a two-phase flow was studied. A mixture of water and small air bubbles was used. The water flow rate was 378 cm{sup 3}/s and the air flow rate was approximately 30 cm{sup 3}/s. The data are analyzed to obtain the velocity fields for both experiments. After interpretation of the velocity data, forces acting on a bubble entrained by the vortex were calculated successfully. The lift and drag coefficients were calculated using the velocity measurements and the force data.

  14. Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Marcher, Jønne; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    .79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations......, but with a poorer performance compared with a 128-element transducer. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the TO method is suitable for use in conjunction with a phased-array transducer, and that 2-D vector velocity estimation is possible down to a depth of 15 cm....

  15. Longitudinal sound velocities, elastic anisotropy, and phase transition of high-pressure cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.

  16. Control of group velocity by phase-changing collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the influence of phase-changing collisions on the group velocities in Doppler-broadened, cycling, degenerate two-level systems where F e =F g +1 and F g >0, interacting with pump and probe lasers, that exhibit electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). Two model systems are considered: the N system where the pump and probe are polarized perpendicularly, and EIA is due to transfer of coherence (TOC), and the double two-level system (TLS) where both lasers have the same polarization, and EIA is due to transfer of population (TOP). For the case of Doppler-broadened EIA TOC, which occurs at low pump intensity, there is a switch from positive to negative dispersion and group velocity, as the rate of phase-changing collisions is increased. For the case of EIA TOP at low pump intensity, the dispersion and group velocity remain negative even when the collision rate is increased. Pressure-induced narrowing, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the negative dispersion and a decrease in the magnitude of the negative group velocity, occurs in both EIA TOC and EIA TOP, at low pump intensity. When the pump intensity is increased, a switch from negative to positive dispersion and group velocity, with increasing collision rate, also occurs in the double TLS system. However, the effect is far smaller than in the case of the N system at low pump intensity

  17. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  18. Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-08-05

    A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.

  19. Lossy effects on the lateral shifts in negative-phase-velocity medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of the lateral shifts of the reflected and transmitted beams were performed, using the stationary-phase approach, for the planar interface of a conventional medium and a lossy negative-phase-velocity medium. The lateral shifts exhibit different behaviors beyond and below a certain angle, for both incident p-polarized and incident s-polarized plane waves. Loss in the negative-phase-velocity medium affects lateral shifts greatly, and may cause changes from negative to positive values for p-polarized incidence

  20. Auditory velocity discrimination in the horizontal plane at very high velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissen, Ilja; Féron, François-Xavier; Guastavino, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    We determined velocity discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions for sounds revolving around the listener at very high velocities. Sounds used were a broadband white noise and two harmonic sounds with fundamental frequencies of 330 Hz and 1760 Hz. Experiment 1 used velocities ranging between 288°/s and 720°/s in an acoustically treated room and Experiment 2 used velocities between 288°/s and 576°/s in a highly reverberant hall. A third experiment addressed potential confounds in the first two experiments. The results show that people can reliably discriminate velocity at very high velocities and that both thresholds and Weber fractions decrease as velocity increases. These results violate Weber's law but are consistent with the empirical trend observed in the literature. While thresholds for the noise and 330 Hz harmonic stimulus were similar, those for the 1760 Hz harmonic stimulus were substantially higher. There were no reliable differences in velocity discrimination between the two acoustical environments, suggesting that auditory motion perception at high velocities is robust against the effects of reverberation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.

  2. Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.

    2016-05-01

    The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.

  3. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...

  4. High-order-harmonic generation from solids: The contributions of the Bloch wave packets moving at the group and phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao-Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Huan; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2018-01-01

    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce an alternative perspective in the coordinate space combined with the motion of the Bloch electron wave packets moving at group and phase velocities under the laser fields. This model interprets the origins of the two contributions (intra- and interband transitions) in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes by investigating the local and global behaviours of the wave packets. It also elucidates the underlying physical picture of the HHG intensity enhancement by means of carrier-envelope phase, chirp, and inhomogeneous fields. It provides a deep insight into the emission of high-order harmonics from solids. This model is instructive for experimental measurements and provides an alternative avenue to distinguish mechanisms of the HHG from solids in different laser fields.

  5. A new method of measuring centre-of-mass velocities of radially pulsating stars from high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Fossati, L.

    2018-03-01

    We present a radial velocity analysis of 20 solar neighbourhood RR Lyrae and three Population II Cepheid variables. We obtained high-resolution, moderate-to-high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for most stars; these spectra covered different pulsation phases for each star. To estimate the gamma (centre-of-mass) velocities of the programme stars, we use two independent methods. The first, `classic' method is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. The second method is based on the analysis of absorption-line profile asymmetry to determine both pulsational and gamma velocities. This second method is based on the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique applied to analyse the line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra. We obtain measurements of the pulsation component of the radial velocity with an accuracy of ±3.5 km s-1. The gamma velocity was determined with an accuracy of ±10 km s-1, even for those stars having a small number of spectra. The main advantage of this method is the possibility of obtaining an estimation of gamma velocity even from one spectroscopic observation with uncertain pulsation phase. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows that the projection factor p varies as a function of the pulsation phase - this is a key parameter, which converts observed spectral line radial velocity variations into photospheric pulsation velocities. As a by-product of our study, we present 41 densely spaced synthetic grids of LSD profile bisectors based on atmospheric models of RR Lyr covering all pulsation phases.

  6. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  7. Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006 is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.

  8. Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun

    2016-11-01

    It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.

  9. On the use of nuclear magnetic resonance to measure velocity and its fluctuations in single-phase and two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the use of NMR to measure velocity and its fluctuations in single-phase and two-phase flows. PGSE and imaging sequences have been used to determine the velocity distributions in upward turbulent pipe flows. NMR signals have been analysed in detail and the main artifacts have been characterized and suppressed. The measuring technique has been validated by comparison with a reference published data. A first comparison to 'homemade' hot-wire results in single-phase flow of water is presented and is very promising. Preliminary NMR results in two-phase flows emphasize the interest of NMR to benchmark velocity measurements in two-phase flows. Prospects of research have been identified, which will pave the way for the sequel of this research. (author) [fr

  10. Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.

    2000-06-01

    The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)

  11. A software to measure phase-velocity dispersion from ambient-noise correlations and its application to the SNSN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2017-04-01

    Graphical software for phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces, called GSpecDisp, is presented. It is an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. It measures phase-velocity dispersion curves in the frequency domain based on matching of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. The inputs are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format. It can measure two types of phase-velocity dispersion curves; 1- average phase-velocity of a region, and 2- single-pair phase velocity. The average phase-velocity dispersion curve of a region can be used as a reference curve to automatically select the dispersion curves from each single-pair cross-correlation in that region. It also allows the users to manually refine the selections. Therefore, no prior knowledge is needed for an unknown region. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor, including diagonal and off-diagonal components of the tensor. First, we explain how GSpecDisp is applied to measure phase-velocity dispersion curves. Then, we demonstrate measurement results on synthetic and real data from the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN). We compare the results with two other methods of phase-velocity dispersion measurements. Finally, we compare phase-velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves obtained from different components of the correlation tensor.

  12. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P.; Zeidan, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  13. Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P. [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Modelling and High Performance Computing, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Zeidan, D. [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.

  14. GSpecDisp: A matlab GUI package for phase-velocity dispersion measurements from ambient-noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari

    2018-01-01

    We present a graphical user interface (GUI) package to facilitate phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces. The package, called GSpecDisp, provides an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. The selection of a dispersion curve can be done automatically or manually within the package. The data are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format, but GSpecDisp measures phase velocity in the spectral domain. Two types of phase-velocity dispersion measurements can be carried out with GSpecDisp; (1) average velocity of a region, and (2) single-pair phase velocity. Both measurements are done by matching the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. Advantages of these two types of measurements are that no prior knowledge about surface-wave dispersion in the region is needed, and that phase velocity can be measured up to that period for which the inter-station distance corresponds to one wavelength. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor. First, we briefly present the theory behind the methods that are used, and then describe different modules of the package. Finally, we validate the developed algorithms by applying them to synthetic and real data, and by comparison with other methods. The source code of GSpecDisp can be downloaded from: https://github.com/Hamzeh-Sadeghi/GSpecDisp

  15. Deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 0 to 90 0 C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 0 C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreted in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or inertial coasting step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number

  16. On-line velocity measurements using phase probes at the SuperHILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-12-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non- destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The system uses three probes in each line to obtain accurate velocity measurements at all beam energies. Automatic gain control and signal analysis are performed so that the energy/nucleon along with up to three probe signals are displayed on a vector graphics display with a refresh rate better than twice per second. The system uses a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, features simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and is controlled by a touch-screen operator interface. It is accurate to within /+-/0.25% and has provisions for on-line calibration tests. The phase probes thus provide a velocity measurement independent of the mass defect associated with the use of crystal detectors, which can become significant for heavy elements. They are now used as a routine tuning aid to ensure proper bunch structure, and as a beam velocity monitor. 3 refs., 5 figs

  17. High-velocity frictional properties of gabbro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akito; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    High-velocity friction experiments have been performed on a pair of hollow-cylindrical specimens of gabbro initially at room temperature, at slip rates from 7.5 mm/s to 1.8 m/s, with total circumferential displacements of 125 to 174 m, and at normal stresses to 5 MPa, using a rotary-shear high-speed friction testing machine. Steady-state friction increases slightly with increasing slip rate at slip rates to about 100 mm/s (velocity strengthening) and it decreases markedly with increasing slip rate at higher velocities (velocity weakening). Steady-state friction in the velocity weakening regime is lower for the non-melting case than the frictional melting case, due perhaps to severe thermal fracturing. A very large peak friction is always recognized upon the initiation of visible frictional melting, presumably owing to the welding of fault surfaces upon the solidification of melt patches. Frictional properties thus change dramatically with increasing displacement at high velocities, and such a non-linear effect must be incorporated into the analysis of earthquake initiation processes.

  18. Two-receiver measurements of phase velocity: cross-validation of ambient-noise and earthquake-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kästle, Emanuel D.; Soomro, Riaz; Weemstra, C.; Boschi, Lapo; Meier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Phase velocities derived from ambient-noise cross-correlation are compared with phase velocities calculated from cross-correlations of waveform recordings of teleseismic earthquakes whose epicentres are approximately on the station–station great circle. The comparison is conducted both for Rayleigh

  19. Southern high-velocity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)

  20. Effects of resistance training using known vs unknown loads on eccentric-phase adaptations and concentric velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Davó, J L; Sabido, R; Behm, D G; Blazevich, A J

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare both eccentric- and concentric-phase adaptations in highly trained handball players to 4 weeks of twice-weekly rebound bench press throw training with varying loads (30%, 50% and 70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) using either known (KL) or unknown (UL) loads and to examine the relationship between changes in eccentric- and concentric-phase performance. Twenty-eight junior team handball players were divided into two experimental groups (KL or UL) and a control group. KL subjects were told the load prior each repetition, while UL were blinded. For each repetition, the load was dropped and then a rebound bench press at maximum velocity was immediately performed. Both concentric and eccentric velocity as well as eccentric kinetic energy and musculo-articular stiffness prior to the eccentric-concentric transition were measured. Results showed similar increases in both eccentric velocity and kinetic energy under the 30% 1-RM but greater improvements under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads for UL than KL. UL increased stiffness under all loads (with greater magnitude of changes). KL improved concentric velocity only under the 30% 1-RM load while UL also improved under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads. Improvements in concentric movement velocity were moderately explained by changes in eccentric velocity (R 2 =.23-.62). Thus, UL led to greater improvements in concentric velocity, and the improvement is potentially explained by increases in the speed (as well as stiffness and kinetic energy) of the eccentric phase. Unknown load training appears to have significant practical use for the improvement of multijoint stretch-shortening cycle movements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Surface wave phase velocities between Bulgaria and the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gaždová, Renata; Kolínský, Petr; Popova, I.; Dimitrova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 16-23 ISSN 1803-1447. [OVA´11 – New Knowledge and Measurements in Seismology, Engineering Geophysics and Geotechnics. Ostrava, 12.04.2011-14.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : surface waves * phase velocity * shear wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.caag.cz/egrse/2011-2/03%20gazdova_ova.pdf

  2. Phase and group velocities for Lamb waves in DOP-26 iridium alloy sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A.; McGuire, D.J.

    1994-07-01

    The relatively coarse grain structure of iridium weldments limits the ultrasonic inspection of these structures to frequencies in the low megahertz range. As the material thickness is nominally 0.635 mm for clad vent set capsules, the low frequencies involved necessarily entail the generation of Lamb waves m the specimen. These waves are, of course, dispersive and detailed knowledge of both the phase and group velocities is required in order to determine accurately the location of flaws detected using Lamb waves. Purpose of this study is to elucidate the behavior of Lamb waves propagating in the capsule alloy and to quantify the velocities so that accurate flaw location is ensured. We describe a numerical technique for computing the phase velocities of Lamb waves (or of any other type of guided wave) and derive the group velocities from this information. A frequency-domain method is described for measuring group velocity when multiple Lamb modes are present and mutually interfering in the time domain, and experimental confirmation of the group velocity is presented for the capsule material

  3. Application of two-component phase doppler interferometry to the measurement of particle size, mass flux, and velocities in two-phase flows

    OpenAIRE

    McDonell, VG; Samuelsen, GS

    1989-01-01

    The application of two-component interferometry is described for the spatially-resolved measurement of particle size, velocity and mass flux as well as continuous phase velocity. Such a capability is important to develop an understanding of the physical processes attendant to two-phase flow systems, especially those involving liquid atomization typical of a wide class of combustion systems. Adapted from laser anemometry, the technique (phase Doppler interferometry) measures single particle ev...

  4. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase ...

  5. Measurement of transient two-phase flow velocity using statistical signal analysis of impedance probe signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavell, W.H.; Mullens, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A computational algorithm has been developed to measure transient, phase-interface velocity in two-phase, steam-water systems. The algorithm will be used to measure the transient velocity of steam-water mixture during simulated PWR reflood experiments. By utilizing signals produced by two, spatially separated impedance probes immersed in a two-phase mixture, the algorithm computes the average transit time of mixture fluctuations moving between the two probes. This transit time is computed by first, measuring the phase shift between the two probe signals after transformation to the frequency domain and then computing the phase shift slope by a weighted least-squares fitting technique. Our algorithm, which has been tested with both simulated and real data, is able to accurately track velocity transients as fast as 4 m/s/s

  6. The influence of gas phase velocity fluctuations on primary atomization and droplet deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmatzis, A.; Masri, A. R.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of grid-generated velocity fluctuations on the primary atomization and subsequent droplet deformation of a range of laminar liquid jets are examined using microscopic high-speed backlit imaging of the break-up zone and laser Doppler anemometry of the gas phase separately. This is done for fixed gas mean flow conditions in a miniature wind tunnel experiment utilizing a selection of fuels, turbulence-generating grids and two syringe sizes. The constant mean flow allows for an isolated study of velocity fluctuation effects on primary atomization in a close approximation to homogeneous decaying turbulence. The qualitative morphology of the primary break-up region is examined over a range of turbulence intensities, and spectral analysis is performed in order to ascertain the break-up frequency which, for a case of no grid, compares well with the existing literature. The addition of velocity fluctuations tends to randomize the break-up process. Slightly downstream of the break-up region, image processing is conducted in order to extract a number of metrics, which do not depend on droplet sphericity, and these include droplet aspect ratio and orientation, the latter quantity being somewhat unconventional in spray characterization. A turbulent Weber number which takes into account gas phase fluctuations is utilized to characterize the resulting droplet shapes, in addition to a mean Weber number . Above a a clear positive relationship exists between the mean aspect ratio of droplets and the turbulent Weber number where is varied by altering all relevant variables including the velocity root mean square, the initial droplet diameter, the surface tension and the density.

  7. The deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 to 90 deg C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 deg C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreteω in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or ''inertial coasting'' step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number (10 5 ). (author)

  8. Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiromichi; Abe, Yutaka; Kimura, Ko-ji

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, characteristics of low mass velocity two-phase flow was analyzed based on a concept that pressure energy of two-phase flow is converted into acceleration work, gravitational work and frictional work, and the pressure energy consumption rate should be minimum at the stable two-phase flow condition. Experimental data for vertical upward air-water two-phase flow at atmospheric pressure was used to verify this concept and the turbulent model used in this method is optimized with the data. (author)

  9. High resolution measurement of the velocity profiles of channel flows using the particle image velocimetry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizi Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The high resolution velocity profiles of a uniform steady channel flow and a flow beneath waves were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The velocity profiles for each flow were calculated for both components. It is shown that the profiles obtained are very precise, displaying the point velocities from a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel up to the water surface across the water depth. In the case of the wave-induced flow, the profiles are shown under the respective wave phases and given in a plane representation. High resolution measurement of point velocities in a flow is achievable using PIV and invaluable when applied to a complex flow. (Author)

  10. High accuracy velocity control method for the french moving-coil watt balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcu, Suat; Chassagne, Luc; Haddad, Darine; Alayli, Yasser; Juncar, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel method of velocity control dedicated to the French moving-coil watt balance. In this project, a coil has to move in a magnetic field at a velocity of 2 mm s -1 with a relative uncertainty of 10 -9 over 60 mm. Our method is based on the use of both a heterodyne Michelson's interferometer, a two-level translation stage, and a homemade high frequency phase-shifting electronic circuit. To quantify the stability of the velocity, the output of the interferometer is sent into a frequency counter and the Doppler frequency shift is recorded. The Allan standard deviation has been used to calculate the stability and a σ y (τ) of about 2.2x10 -9 over 400 s has been obtained

  11. High resolution 3-D shear wave velocity structure in South China from surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, S.; Guo, Z.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using continuous data from a total of 638 seismic stations, including 484 from CEArray between 2008 and 2013 and 154 from SINOPROBE between 2014 and 2015, we perform both ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave tomography across South China. Combining Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 6and 40s periods from ambient noise tomography and Rayleigh wave phase velocity between 20and 140s from teleseismic two-plane-wave tomography, we obtain phase velocity maps between 6 and140 s periods. We then invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity to construct a 3-D shear wave velocity structure of South China by Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Similar to other inversion results, our results correspond topography well. Moreover, our results also reveal that velocity structure of the eastern South China in mantle depth is similar to eastern North China, the core of the western South China, Sichuan Block (SB),still exists thick lithosphere. However, owing to much more data employed and some data quality control techniques in this research, our results reveal more detailed structures. Along Qinling-Dabie Orogenic Belt (QDOB), North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) and the Sichuan-Yunnan Rhombic Block (SYRB), there are obvious high speed anomalies in depths of 10-20 km, which possibly imply ancient intrusions. Moreover, it seems that Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) has already cut through QDOB, forming a deep fracture cutting through the crust of the whole China continent. Although SB still exists thick lithosphere, there are indications for thermal erosion. At the same time, the lithosphere of the central SYRB seems to be experiencing delamination process, obviously forming a barrier to prevent the hot Tibetan Plateau (TP) mantle material from flowing further southeast. Upwelling hot mantle material possibly triggered by this delamination process might be the cause of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province. There exists an intercontinental low velocity layer in the crust of the TP

  12. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumo, T.

    1997-01-01

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors

  13. 3D Vector Velocity Estimation using a 2D Phased Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    of using the TO method for estimation 3D velocity vectors, and the proposed decoupling is demonstrated. A 64x64 and a 32x32 elements transducer are emulated using Field II. Plug flow with a speed of 1 m/s in a small region is rotated in the XY -plane. A binary flow example with [vx,vy]=[1,0] and [0,1] m......A method to estimate the three dimensional (3D) velocity vector is presented is this paper. 3D velocity vector techniques are needed to measure the full velocity and characterize the complicated flow patterns in the human body. The Transverse Oscillation (TO) method introduces oscillations...... matrix transducer. For the 32x32 transducer, the mean and standard deviation for the speed are 0.94 0.11 m/s and for the angle bias -0.487.7. The simulation study clearly demonstrates, that the new method can be used to estimate the 3D velocity vector using a 2D phased matrix array, and that the velocity...

  14. A Centerless Circular Array Method: Extracting Maximal Information on Phase Velocities of Rayleigh Waves From Microtremor Records From a Simple Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, I.; Tada, T.; Shinozaki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a Centerless Circular Array (CCA) method of microtremor exploration, an algorithm that enables to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves by analyzing vertical-component records of microtremors that are obtained with an array of three or five seismic sensors placed around a circumference. Our CCA method shows a remarkably high performance in long-wavelength ranges because, unlike the frequency-wavenumber spectral method, our method does not resolve individual plane-wave components in the process of identifying phase velocities. Theoretical considerations predict that the resolving power of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges depends upon the SN ratio, or the ratio of power of the propagating components to that of the non-propagating components (incoherent noise) contained in the records from the seismic array. The applicability of our CCA method to small-sized arrays on the order of several meters in radius has already been confirmed in our earlier work (Cho et al., 2004). We have deployed circular seismic arrays of different sizes at test sites in Japan where the underground structure is well documented through geophysical exploration, and have applied our CCA method to microtremor records to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The estimates were then checked against "model" phase velocities that are derived from theoretical calculations. For arrays of 5, 25, 300 and 600 meters in radii, the estimated and model phase velocities demonstrated fine agreement within a broad wavelength range extending from a little larger than 3r (r: the array radius) up to at least 40r, 14r, 42r and 9r, respectively. This demonstrates the applicability of our CCA method to arrays on the order of several to several hundreds of meters in radii, and also illustrates, in a typical way, the markedly high performance of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges. We have also invented a mathematical model that enables to evaluate the SN ratio in a given

  15. Magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, M.J.; Goshorn, D.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Johnston, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in the superconductor La 1.8 Sr 0.2 CuO 4-y is studied. The sound velocity anomaly near T c is shown to be unambiguously related to superconductivity. Below T c , the sound velocity is found to be sensitive to the dynamics of a pinned flux lattice. A combination of sound velocity and magnetization measurements suggests three regimes of pinning behavior. A generic pinning ''phase diagram'' is obtained in the superconducting state. An anomalous peak effect in the magnetization is also observed at intermediate field strengths

  16. Experimental observation of both negative and positive phase velocities in a two-dimensional sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Mao, Yi-Wei; Zi, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Both negative and positive phase velocities for acoustic waves have been experimentally established in a two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal (SC) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in air at first. With the increase of the SCs thickness layer by layer in the experiments, phase shifts decrease in the second band but increase in the first band, showing the negative and the positive phase velocities, respectively. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the SC is constructed by the phase information, which is consistent well with the theoretical results. These abundant characteristics of acoustic wave propagation in the SC might be useful for the device applications

  17. Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column by radiotracer residence time distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Ghiyas Ud; Chughtai, Imran Rafiq; Inayat, Mansoor Hameed; Khan, Iqbal Hussain

    2008-12-01

    Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase have been investigated for a range of dispersed and continuous phase superficial velocities in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. Axial dispersion model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system. It has been observed that increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity results in a decrease in its axial dispersion and increase in its slip velocity while its holdup increases till a maximum asymptotic value is achieved. An increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase increases the axial dispersion and holdup of dispersed phase until a maximum value is obtained, while slip velocity of dispersed phase is found to decrease in the beginning and then it increases with increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase.

  18. Development of a generalized correlation for phase-velocity measurements obtained from impedance-probe pairs in two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations

  19. Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1997-12-31

    The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  20. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  1. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity

  2. Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-09-01

    Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG-triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6-fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Thus

  3. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  4. An investigation of time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking and its application to phase-velocity extraction from ambient noise's empirical Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Niu, Fenglin; Yang, Yingjie; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    The time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking (tf-PWS) technique based on the S transform has been employed in stacking empirical Green's functions (EGFs) derived from ambient noise data, mainly due to its superior power in enhancing weak signals. Questions such as the induced waveform distortion and the feasibility of phase-velocity extraction are yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we investigate these issues by conducting extensive numerical tests with both synthetic data and USArray transportable array (TA) ambient noise data. We find that the errors in the measured phase velocities associated with waveform distortion caused by the tf-PWS depend largely on the way of how the inverse S transform (IST) is implemented. If frequency IST is employed in tf-PWS, the corresponding errors are generally less than 0.1 per cent, sufficiently small that the measured phase velocities can be safely used in regular surface wave tomography. On the other hand, if a time IST is used in tf-PWS, then the extracted phase velocities are systematically larger than those measured from linearly stacked ones, and the discrepancy can reach as much as ˜0.4 per cent at some periods. Therefore, if tf-PWS is used in stacking EGFs, then frequency IST is preferred to transform the stacked S spectra back to the time domain for the stacked EGFs.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase –5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ∼12,000 km s –1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s –1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s –1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  6. Atmospheric kinematics of high velocity long period variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Radial velocities of atomic absorption lines of three long period variables, RT Cyg, Z Oph and S Car, have been analysed in order to understand velocity gradients and discontinuities in their atmospheres. Phase coverage is from five days before maximum to 73 days after maximum for RT Cyg, from 17 days before to 44 days after maximum for Z Oph, and at 9 days before maximum for S Car. On a few spectrograms double lines were seen. All spectrograms were analysed by a four-parameter regression programme to yield the dependence of the radial velocity on the excitation potential, first ionization potential, wavelength and line strength, as indicators of the depth of line formation. The data were analysed to yield the velocity discontinuity across shock waves and velocity gradients between shock waves. Near maximum light the radial velocities cannot be understood by the presence of one shock only but rather require two shocks. The lower shock becomes apparent at the longer wavelengths. Consistent parameters are obtained if these stars are fundamental mode pulsators with total masses in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 solar mass and effective radii in the range of 0.85 to 1.5 x 10 13 cm. (author)

  7. Weak-anisotropy approximations of P-wave phase and ray velocities for anisotropy of arbitrary symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2016), s. 403-418 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : weak anisotropy * P-wave * phase velocity * ray velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  8. A study of the condensation of a high-velocity vapor jet on a coflowing turbulent liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsiannikov, V. A.; Levin, A. A.

    A method for the experimental determination of the local value of the heat transfer coefficient under conditions of jet condensation is proposed which employs a heat balance expression in differential form. The method is used in an experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics of the condensation of a high-velocity coaxial jet of a slightly superheated (3 percent) steam on a coflowing cylindrical turbulent water jet. In the experiment, the relative velocities reach hundreds of m/s; the temperature nonequilibrium of the phases is high, as is the steam flow mass density during the initial contact; heat transfer between the phases is significant. The results can be used as the basis for determining experimental criterial dependences for jet condensation.

  9. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  10. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin; Gladden, Lynn; Holland, Daniel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane; Valkonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging

  11. Influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone In Vitro: Prediction of the biot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 20 marrow-filled and water-filled bovine femoral trabecular bone samples. The mean phase velocities at frequencies between 0.6 and 1.2 MHz exhibited significant negative dispersions for both the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. The magnitudes of the dispersions showed no significant differences between the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. In contrast, replacement of marrow by water led to a mean increase in the phase velocity of 27 m/s at frequencies from 0.6 to 1.2 MHz. The theoretical phase velocities of the fast wave predicted by using the Biot model for elastic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media showed good agreements with the measurements.

  12. Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB

    2013-10-01

    To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.

  13. Influence of Velocity on Variability in Gait Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each...... velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity...

  14. SIMULATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS. I. HYDRODYNAMICS AND HIGH-VELOCITY HIGH IONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) traveling through the hot, tenuous medium in the Galactic halo. A suite of models was created using the FLASH hydrodynamics code, sampling various cloud sizes, densities, and velocities. In all cases, the cloud-halo interaction ablates material from the clouds. The ablated material falls behind the clouds where it mixes with the ambient medium to produce intermediate-temperature gas, some of which radiatively cools to less than 10,000 K. Using a non-equilibrium ionization algorithm, we track the ionization levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the gas throughout the simulation period. We present observation-related predictions, including the expected H I and high ion (C IV, N V, and O VI) column densities on sightlines through the clouds as functions of evolutionary time and off-center distance. The predicted column densities overlap those observed for Complex C. The observations are best matched by clouds that have interacted with the Galactic environment for tens to hundreds of megayears. Given the large distances across which the clouds would travel during such time, our results are consistent with Complex C having an extragalactic origin. The destruction of HVCs is also of interest; the smallest cloud (initial mass ∼ 120 M sun ) lost most of its mass during the simulation period (60 Myr), while the largest cloud (initial mass ∼ 4 x 10 5 M sun ) remained largely intact, although deformed, during its simulation period (240 Myr).

  15. The 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake: Investigation of rupture velocity, risetime, and high-frequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid global search algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear problem of calculating slip amplitude, rake, risetime, and rupture time on a finite fault. Thirty-five strong motion velocity records are inverted by this method over the frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz for the Northridge earthquake. Four regions of larger-amplitude slip are identified: one near the hypocenter at a depth of 17 km, a second west of the hypocenter at about the same depth, a third updip from the hypocenter at a depth of 10 km, and a fourth updip from the hypocenter and to the northwest. The results further show an initial fast rupture with a velocity of 2.8 to 3.0 km/s followed by a slow termination of the rupture with velocities of 2.0 to 2.5 km/s. The initial energetic rupture phase lasts for 3 s, extending out 10 km from the hypocenter. Slip near the hypocenter has a short risetime of 0.5 s, which increases to 1.5 s for the major slip areas removed from the hypocentral region. The energetic rupture phase is also shown to be the primary source of high-frequency radiation (1-15 Hz) by an inversion of acceleration envelopes. The same global search algorithm is used in the envelope inversion to calculate high-frequency radiation intensity on the fault and rupture time. The rupture timing from the low- and high-frequency inversions is similar, indicating that the high frequencies are produced primarily at the mainshock rupture front. Two major sources of high-frequency radiation are identified within the energetic rupture phase, one at the hypocenter and another deep source to the west of the hypocenter. The source at the hypocenter is associated with the initiation of rupture and the breaking of a high-stress-drop asperity and the second is associated with stopping of the rupture in a westerly direction.

  16. Shear wave crustal velocity model of the Western Bohemian Massif from Love wave phase velocity dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/

  17. Relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro: Application of a stratified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2012-08-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21-0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.

  18. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  19. Automated measurement and classification of pulmonary blood-flow velocity patterns using phase-contrast MRI and correlation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerom, Joshua F P; Kellenberger, Christian J; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2009-01-01

    An automated method was evaluated to detect blood flow in small pulmonary arteries and classify each as artery or vein, based on a temporal correlation analysis of their blood-flow velocity patterns. The method was evaluated using velocity-sensitive phase-contrast magnetic resonance data collected in vitro with a pulsatile flow phantom and in vivo in 11 human volunteers. The accuracy of the method was validated in vitro, which showed relative velocity errors of 12% at low spatial resolution (four voxels per diameter), but was reduced to 5% at increased spatial resolution (16 voxels per diameter). The performance of the method was evaluated in vivo according to its reproducibility and agreement with manual velocity measurements by an experienced radiologist. In all volunteers, the correlation analysis was able to detect and segment peripheral pulmonary vessels and distinguish arterial from venous velocity patterns. The intrasubject variability of repeated measurements was approximately 10% of peak velocity, or 2.8 cm/s root-mean-variance, demonstrating the high reproducibility of the method. Excellent agreement was obtained between the correlation analysis and radiologist measurements of pulmonary velocities, with a correlation of R2=0.98 (P<.001) and a slope of 0.99+/-0.01.

  20. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2009-06-01

    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100Msolar star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the core of a young massive star cluster). In this process, one of the binary components becomes gravitationally bound to the very massive star, while the second one is ejected, sometimes with a high speed. We performed three-body scattering experiments and found that early B-type stars (the progenitors of the majority of neutron stars) can be ejected with velocities of >~200-400kms-1 (typical of pulsars), while 3-4Msolar stars can attain velocities of >~300-400kms-1 (typical of the bound population of halo late B-type stars). We also found that the ejected stars can occasionally attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity.

  1. Automatic discrimination of bubbles and slugs in two-phase gas-liquid flow and measurement of the respective velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitremann, J.M.; Guilpin, C.; Postaire, J.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the interface velocity in a two-phase gas-liquid flow is a difficult problem, owing to the dispersion of the velocity components of individual bubbles, gas-slugs, droplets, waves, etc. An entirely automatic method is presented, it gives the velocity of slugs and bubbles independently, by discrimination of local phase probe signals into a 'slug' signal and a 'bubble' signal feeding a shape-recognition program. Both discriminated void fractions are also calculated by the apparatus [fr

  2. Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt

  3. The effects of varying resistance-training loads on intermediate- and high-velocity-specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Bishop, P; Hunter, G; Fleisig, G

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in velocity-specific adaptations in moderately resistance-trained athletes who trained with either low or high resistances. The study used tests of sport-specific skills across an intermediate- to high-velocity spectrum. Thirty NCAA Division I baseball players were randomly assigned to either a low-resistance (40-60% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) training group or a high-resistance (70-90% 1RM) training group. Both of the training groups intended to maximallv accelerate each repetition during the concentric phase (IMCA). The 10 weeks of training consisted of 4 training sessions a week using basic core exercises. Peak force, velocity, and power were evaluated during set angle and depth jumps as well as weighted jumps using 30 and 50% 1RM. Squat 1RMs were also tested. Although no interactions for any of the jump tests were found, trends supported the hypothesis of velocity-specific training. Percentage gains suggest that the combined use of heavier training loads (70-90% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak force in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. Trends also show that the combined use of lighter training loads (40-60% 1RM) and IMCA tend to increase peak power and peak velocity in the lower-body leg and hip extensors. The high-resistance group improved squats more than the low-resistance group (p training loads and IMCA to increase 1RM strength in the lower bodies of resistance-trained athletes.

  4. Relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro: application of a stratified model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21 - 0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.

  5. Relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro: application of a stratified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21 - 0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.

  6. Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We then observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.

  7. Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Here, we describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.

  8. Cardiac magnetic resonance: is phonocardiogram gating reliable in velocity-encoded phase contrast imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas; Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan; Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of phonocardiogram (PCG) gated velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Flow quantification above the aortic valve was performed in 68 patients by acquiring a retrospectively PCG- and a retrospectively ECG-gated velocity-encoded GE-sequence at 1.5 T. Peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), forward volume (FV), reverse volume (RV), net forward volume (NFV), as well as the regurgitant fraction (RF) were assessed for both datasets, as well as for the PCG-gated datasets after compensation for the PCG trigger delay. PCG-gated image acquisition was feasible in 64 patients, ECG-gated in all patients. PCG-gated flow quantification overestimated PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037) and underestimated FV (Δ -4.9 ± 15.7 ml; P = 0.015) and NFV (Δ -4.5 ± 16.5 ml; P = 0.033) compared with ECG-gated imaging. After compensation for the PCG trigger delay, differences were only observed for PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037). Wide limits of agreement between PCG- and ECG-gated flow quantification were observed for all variables (PV: -23.9 to 31.4 cm/s; AV: -4.5 to 3.9 cm/s; FV: -35.6 to 25.9 ml; RV: -8.0 to 7.2 ml; NFV: -36.8 to 27.8 ml; RF: -10.4 to 10.2 %). The present study demonstrates that PCG gating in its current form is not reliable enough for flow quantification based on velocity-encoded phase contrast gradient echo (GE) sequences. (orig.)

  9. New sensor for measurement of low air flow velocity. Phase I final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Hashemian, M.; Riggsbee, E.T.

    1995-08-01

    The project described here is the Phase I feasibility study of a two-phase program to integrate existing technologies to provide a system for determining air flow velocity and direction in radiation work areas. Basically, a low air flow sensor referred to as a thermocouple flow sensor has been developed. The sensor uses a thermocouple as its sensing element. The response time of the thermocouple is measured using an existing in-situ method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test. The response time results are then converted to a flow signal using a response time-versus-flow correlation. The Phase I effort has shown that a strong correlation exists between the response time of small diameter thermocouples and the ambient flow rate. As such, it has been demonstrated that thermocouple flow sensors can be used successfully to measure low air flow rates that can not be measured with conventional flow sensors. While the thermocouple flow sensor developed in this project was very successful in determining air flow velocity, determining air flow direction was beyond the scope of the Phase I project. Nevertheless, work was performed during Phase I to determine how the new flow sensor can be used to determine the direction, as well as the velocity, of ambient air movements. Basically, it is necessary to use either multiple flow sensors or move a single sensor in the monitoring area and make flow measurements at various locations sweeping the area from top to bottom and from left to right. The results can then be used with empirical or physical models, or in terms of directional vectors to estimate air flow patterns. The measurements can be made continuously or periodically to update the flow patterns as they change when people and objects are moved in the monitoring area. The potential for using multiple thermocouple flow sensors for determining air flow patterns will be examined in Phase II

  10. Pacing the phasing of leg and arm movements in breaststroke swimming to minimize intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josje van Houwelingen

    Full Text Available In swimming propelling efficiency is partly determined by intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. The higher these fluctuations are at a given average swimming velocity, the less efficient is the propulsion. This study explored whether the leg-arm coordination (i.e. phase relation ϕ within the breaststroke cycle can be influenced with acoustic pacing, and whether the so induced changes are accompanied by changes in intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. Twenty-six participants were asked to couple their propulsive leg and arm movements to a double-tone metronome beat and to keep their average swimming velocity constant over trials. The metronome imposed five different phase relations ϕi (90, 135, 180, 225 and 270° of leg-arm coordination. Swimmers adjusted their technique under the influence of the metronome, but failed to comply to the velocity requirement for ϕ = 90 and 135°. For imposed ϕ = 180, 225 and 270°, the intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations increased with increasing ϕ, while average swimming velocity did not differ. This suggests that acoustic pacing may be used to adjust ϕ and thereby performance of breaststroke swimming given the dependence of propelling efficiency on ϕ.

  11. Assessment of the Influence Factors on Nasal Spray Droplet Velocity Using Phase-Doppler Anemometry (PDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H.; Guo, Changning

    2011-01-01

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box–Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actua...

  12. High velocity properties of the dynamic frictional force between ductile metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerberg, James Edward; Hollan, Brad L.; Germann, Timothy C.; Ravelo, Ramon J.

    2010-01-01

    The high velocity properties of the tangential frictional force between ductile metal interfaces seen in large-scale NonEquilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulations are characterized by interesting scaling behavior. In many cases a power law decrease in the frictional force with increasing velocity is observed at high velocities. We discuss the velocity dependence of the high velocity branch of the tangential force in terms of structural transformation and ultimate transition, at the highest velocities, to confined fluid behavior characterized by a critical strain rate. The particular case of an Al/Al interface is discussed.

  13. Measurement of acoustic velocity components in a turbulent flow using LDV and high-repetition rate PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Olivier; Piot, Estelle; Sebbane, Delphine; Simon, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides theoretical details and experimental validation results to the approach proposed by Minotti et al. (Aerosp Sci Technol 12(5):398-407, 2008) for measuring amplitudes and phases of acoustic velocity components (AVC) that are waveform parameters of each component of velocity induced by an acoustic wave, in fully turbulent duct flows carrying multi-tone acoustic waves. Theoretical results support that the turbulence rejection method proposed, based on the estimation of cross power spectra between velocity measurements and a reference signal such as a wall pressure measurement, provides asymptotically efficient estimators with respect to the number of samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the estimator uncertainties can be simply estimated, accounting for the characteristics of the measured flow turbulence spectra. Two laser-based measurement campaigns were conducted in order to validate the acoustic velocity estimation approach and the uncertainty estimates derived. While in previous studies estimates were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), it is demonstrated that high-repetition rate particle image velocimetry (PIV) can also be successfully employed. The two measurement techniques provide very similar acoustic velocity amplitude and phase estimates for the cases investigated, that are of practical interest for acoustic liner studies. In a broader sense, this approach may be beneficial for non-intrusive sound emission studies in wind tunnel testings.

  14. Measurement of phase interaction in dispersed gas-particle two-phase flow by phase-doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergheni Ali Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For simultaneous measurement of size and velocity distributions of continuous and dispersed phases in a two-phase flow a technique phase-Doppler anemometry was used. Spherical glass particles with a particle diameter range from 102 up to 212 µm were used. In this two-phase flow an experimental results are presented which indicate a significant influence of the solid particles on the flow characteristics. The height of influence of these effects depends on the local position in the jet. Near the nozzle exit high gas velocity gradients exist and therefore high turbulence production in the shear layer of the jet is observed. Here the turbulence intensity in the two-phase jet is decreased compared to the single-phase jet. In the developed zone the velocity gradient in the shear layer is lower and the turbulence intensity reduction is higher. .

  15. Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution: advances in biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmochemical and nano technological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakha, M.I.; Semionkina, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    . Characteristics of this system demonstrated a high stability, precision and accuracy in the measurement of Moessbauer spectra in 4096 channels. In spite of substantial increase in the measurement time, spectra measured with a high velocity resolution permitted to obtain Moessbauer hyperfine parameters with systematic errors at least 8 times less than in the case of spectra measurement in 512 channels as well as to fit complicated Moessbauer spectra with better quality. Various applications of Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution demonstrated new possibilities of technique. Biomedical applications. New results were obtained in the study of human liver ferritin, its pharmaceutically important models as well as liver and spleen tissues from normal and leukemia chicken; in comparative study of various human and animals' normal oxyhemoglobins and oxyhemoglobins from patients; in the study of iron containing pharmaceutical products. Cosmochemical applications. In the study of various meteorites new results were obtained in analysis of Fe-Ni alloys with variations in Ni concentration, in the study of silicate phases and Fe-Ni phosphides with crystallographically non-equivalent sites for Fe. Nanotechnological applications. New results were obtained in the study of cupric ferrite nanoparticles with tin oxide adding as well as in the study of ferric oxide nanoparticles developed for magnetic fluids for biomedical purposes. (author)

  17. Heat transfer and velocity characteristics of single- and two-phase flows in a subsonic model gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicen, A.F.; Khezzar, L.; Schmidt, M.; Whitelaw, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Heat transfer and velocity measurements are reported for single- and two-phase flows in the wake of an in-bore projectile propelled by an inert gas at an initial gauge pressure of 8 bars to an exit velocity over 40 m/s in ∼ 33 ms. The results show that with the single phase the turbulent velocity boundary layers occupy over 20% of the barrel radius and that the wall heat transfer increases with distance from the breech and decreases with time during the shot. In the initial chamber, and later in the shot, the heat transfer results are close to those obtained from a convection correlation for a steady turbulent boundary layer, contrary to those at locations swept by the projectile, which are higher by up to 50% throughout the shot. The two-phase flow results show that 55-μm particles with loadings of 1.3% and 4% by volume initially lag the fluid and this lag increases with distance from the breech. Later in the shot the particles catch up and lead the decelerating fluid by an amount that is greater, with the higher particle loading and with a tendency for the particle velocity to increase around the edge of the boundary layer

  18. Effect of particle velocity fluctuations on the inertia coupling in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Consistent forms for the interfacial force, the interfacial pressure, the Reynolds stresses and the particle stress have been derived for the inviscid, irrotational incompressible flow of fluid in a dilute suspension of spheres. The particles are assumed to have a velocity distribution, giving rise to an effective pressure and stress in the particle phase. The velocity fluctuations also contribute in the fluid Reynolds stress and in the (elastic) stress field inside the spheres. The relation of these constitutive equations to the force on an individual sphere is discussed

  19. Microstructure Characterization of WCCo-Mo Based Coatings Produced Using High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Islak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been carried out in order to investigate the microstructural properties of WCCo-Mo composite coatings deposited onto a SAE 4140 steel substrate by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF thermal spray. For this purpose, the Mo quantity added to the WCCo was changed as 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt. % percents. The coatings are compared in terms of their phase composition, microstructure and hardness. Phase compound and microstructure of coating layers were examined using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. XRD results showed that WCCo-Mo composite coatings were mainly composed of WC, W2C, Co3W3C, Mo2C, MoO2, Mo and Co phases. The average hardness of the coatings increased with increasing Mo content.

  20. On The Ion Drift Contribution To The Phase Velocity of Electrojet Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Pellinen, R.; Danskin, D.; Nozawa, S.

    The ion drift effect is often ignored in the interpretation of VHF Doppler measure- ments. For example, in the STARE experiment it is assumed that the line-of-sight velocity measured at large flow angles is simply a cosine component of the true elec- tron drift. Previous studies seem to support this assumption, though only to a certain degree. In this study we consider a 3.5-hour morning event of joint STARE-EISCAT observa- tions for which the STARE-Finland radar velocity was mainly larger than the EISCAT convection component. A moderate 5-20 deg offset between the EISCAT convection azimuth and its STARE estimate was also observed. We show that both the STARE- Finland radar velocity "over-speed" and the azimuthal offset between the EISCAT and STARE convection vectors can be explained by fluid plasma theory arguments if the ion drift contribution to the irregularity phase velocity under the condition of moder- ate backscatter off-orthogonality is taken into account. The ion effects were enhanced because of a lifting up of the entire E-region seen by the EISCAT. It perhaps resulted in an increase of the STARE echo heights and aspect angles. The latter are of the order of 1 deg at the top of the electrojet layer. We also compare STARE convection magni- tudes and true velocities measured by the EISCAT to study the potential impact of the ion motions on the STARE velocity estimates.

  1. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  2. South Ilan Plain High-Resolution 3-D S-Wave Velocity from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Xun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located at a pivotal point where the Ryukyu trench subduction zone, the northern Taiwan crustal stretching zone, and the ongoing arc-continent collision zone converge. In contrast to the North Ilan Plain, the South Ilan Plain exhibits a thin unconsolidated sedimentary layer with depths ranging from 0 - 1 km, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements relative to Penghu island. We deployed a dense network of 43 short-period vertical component Texan instruments from June to November 2013 in this study, covering most of the South Ilan Plain and its vicinity. We then used the ambient noise tomography method for simultaneous phase and group Rayleigh wave velocity measurements to invert a high-resolution 3-D S-wave for shallow structures (up to a depth of 2.5 km in the South Ilan Plain. We used the fast marching method for ray tracing to deal with ray bending in an inhomogeneous medium. The resulting rays gradually bend toward high velocity zones with increasing number of iterations. The high velocity zone results are modified by more iterations and the resolutions become higher because ray crossings are proportional to ray densities for evenly distributed stations. The final results agreed well with known sedimentary basement thickness patterns. We observed nearly EW trending fast anomalies beneath the mountainous terrain abutting to the South Ilan Plain. The Chingshui location consistently exhibited a low S-wave velocity zone to a depth of 1.5 km.

  3. Fast Slip Velocity in a High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzardi, Q.; Sparks, G.; Maaß, R.

    2018-04-01

    Due to fluctuations in nearest-neighbor distances and chemistry within the unit cell, high-entropy alloys are believed to have a much higher resistance to dislocation motion than pure crystals. Here, we investigate the coarse-grained dynamics of a number of dislocations being active during a slip event. We found that the time-resolved dynamics of slip is practically identical in Au and an Al0.3CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy, but much faster than in Nb. Differences between the FCC-crystals are seen in the spatiotemporal velocity profile, with faster acceleration and slower velocity relaxation in the high-entropy alloy. Assessing distributions that characterize the intermittently evolving plastic flow reveals material-dependent scaling exponents for size, duration, and velocity-size distributions. The results are discussed in view of the underlying dislocation mobility.

  4. Pacing the phasing of leg and arm movements in breaststroke swimming to minimize intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houwelingen, Josje; Roerdink, Melvyn; Huibers, Alja V.; Evers, Lotte L.W.; Beek, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    In swimming propelling efficiency is partly determined by intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. The higher these fluctuations are at a given average swimming velocity, the less efficient is the propulsion. This study explored whether the leg-arm coordination (i.e. phase relation ϕ) within the

  5. Crystal structure and elasticity of Al-bearing phase H under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Al has significant effect on properties of minerals. We reported crystal structure and elasticity of phase H, an important potential water reservoir in the mantle, which contains different Al using first principles simulations for understanding the effect of Al on the phase H. The crystal and elastic properties of Al end-member phase H (Al2O4H2 are very different from Mg end-member (MgSiO4H2 phase H and two aluminous phase H (Mg0.875Si0.875Al0.25O4H2 (12.5at%Al and Mg0.75Si0.75Al0.5O4H2 (25at% Al. However differences between Mg end-member phase H and aluminous phase H are slight except for the O-H bond length and octahedron volume. Al located at different crystal positions (original Mg or Si position of aluminous phase H has different AlO6 octahedral volumes. For three Al-bearing phase H, bulk modulus (K, shear modulus (G, compressional wave velocity (Vp and shear wave velocity (Vs increase with increasing Al content. Under high pressure, density of phase H increases with increasing Al content. The Al content affects the symmetry of the phase H and then affects the density and elastic constants of phase H. The total ground energy of phase H also increases with increasing Al content. So an energy barrier for the formation of solid solution of phase H with δ-phase AlOOH is expected. However, if the phase H with δ-phase AlOOH solid solution does exit in the mantle, it may become an important component of the mantle or leads to a low velocity layer at the mantle.

  6. Current injection phase thermography for low-velocity impact damage identification in composite laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grammatikos, S.A.; Kordatos, E.Z.; Matikas, T.E.; David, C.; Paipetis, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel Current injection phase thermography NDE method has been developed. • Blind impact damage has been successfully detected in composite laminates. • Carbon nanotubes enhance detection by improving of through thickness conductivity. • Detection is feasible with considerably less energy than for IR excited thermography. - Abstract: An innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique is presented based on current stimulated thermography. Modulated electric current is injected to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminates as an external source of thermal excitation. Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) is concurrently employed to identify low velocity impact induced (LVI) damage. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated for both plain and with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) modified laminates, which are subjected to low-velocity impact damaged composite laminates at different energy levels. The presence of the nano reinforcing phase is important in achieving a uniform current flow along the laminate, as it improves the through thickness conductivity. The acquired thermographs are compared with optical PPT, C-scan images and Computer Tomography (CT) representations. The typical energy input for successful damage identification with current injection is three to four orders of magnitude less compared to the energy required for optical PPT

  7. HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.

  8. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100 M-circle dot star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary

  9. Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2012-02-28

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter which can significantly influence inhalation drug delivery performance. Together with the droplet size, this parameter determines the efficiency of the deposition of MDI products at different sites within the lungs. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the instantaneous droplet velocity emitted from MDIs as well as the corresponding droplet size distribution. The nine commercial MDI products surveyed showed significantly different droplet velocities, indicating that droplet velocity could be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of MDI products. The droplet velocity for all tested MDI products decreased when the testing distance was increased from 3 cm to 6 cm from the front of mouthpiece, with CFC formulations showing a larger decrease than HFA formulations. The mean droplet diameters of the nine MDIs were also significantly different from one-another. Droplet size measurements made using PDA (a number-based technique) could not be directly compared to results obtained using laser light scattering measurements (a volume-based technique). This work demonstrates that PDA can provide unique information useful for characterizing MDI aerosol plumes and evaluating MDI drug delivery efficiency. PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Treatment Protocol for High Velocity/High Energy Gunshot Injuries to the Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Micha; Leiser, Yoav; Emodi, Omri; Krausz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Major causes of facial combat injuries include blasts, high-velocity/high-energy missiles, and low-velocity missiles. High-velocity bullets fired from assault rifles encompass special ballistic properties, creating a transient cavitation space with a small entrance wound and a much larger exit wound. There is no dispute regarding the fact that primary emergency treatment of ballistic injuries to the face commences in accordance with the current advanced trauma life support (ATLS) recommendations; the main areas in which disputes do exist concern the question of the timing, sequence, and modes of surgical treatment. The aim of the present study is to present the treatment outcome of high-velocity/high-energy gunshot injuries to the face, using a protocol based on the experience of a single level I trauma center. A group of 23 injured combat soldiers who sustained bullet and shrapnel injuries to the maxillofacial region during a 3-week regional military conflict were evaluated in this study. Nine patients met the inclusion criteria (high-velocity/high-energy injuries) and were included in the study. According to our protocol, upon arrival patients underwent endotracheal intubation and were hemodynamically stabilized in the shock-trauma unit and underwent total-body computed tomography with 3-D reconstruction of the head and neck and computed tomography angiography. All patients underwent maxillofacial surgery upon the day of arrival according to the protocol we present. In view of our treatment outcomes, results, and low complication rates, we conclude that strict adherence to a well-founded and structured treatment protocol based on clinical experience is mandatory in providing efficient, appropriate, and successful treatment to a relatively large group of patients who sustain various degrees of maxillofacial injuries during a short period of time. PMID:23449809

  11. A Predictive Velocity Observer in Wire Bonder’s Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire bonder is a typical high speed machine. The motion speed of XY-stage is the key factor of bonding efficiency. However, phase lag elements in the servo system limit the bandwidth and slow down the system’s response. A predictive velocity observer is proposed to compensate for those phase lags. Then, the velocity loop controller can be designed as for a servo system which does not have those phase lags. Loop gains are enlarged and bandwidth is enlarged correspondingly. Then, the motion speed is improved and settling time is decreased. Experiment results verify that the predictive velocity observer provided a significant phase lead and the performance of wire bonder is improved.

  12. Assessment of the influence factors on nasal spray droplet velocity using phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2011-03-01

    Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box-Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actuation parameters and formulation properties on nasal spray droplet velocity using a set of placebo formulations. The DOE study shows that all four input factors (stroke length, actuation velocity, concentration of the gelling agent, and concentration of the surfactant) have significant influence on droplet velocity. An optimized quadratic model generated from the DOE results describes the inherent relationships between the input factors and droplet velocity thus providing a better understanding of the input factor influences. Overall, PDA provides a new in vitro characterization method for the evaluation of inhalation drugs through assessment of spray velocity and may assist in product development to meet drug delivery equivalency requirements. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  13. MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of Hα from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ≈100 rad m –2 which are generally well correlated with decelerated Hα emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ≈8 μG along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or Hα at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth Hα morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (≈1 Rayleigh) Hα intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas

  14. Magnetic resonance velocity imaging of liquid and gas two-phase flow in packed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, M H; Holland, D J; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F

    2009-02-01

    Single-phase liquid flow in porous media such as bead packs and model fixed bed reactors has been well studied by MRI. To some extent this early work represents the necessary preliminary research to address the more challenging problem of two-phase flow of gas and liquid within these systems. In this paper, we present images of both the gas and liquid velocities during stable liquid-gas flow of water and SF(6) within a packing of 5mm spheres contained within columns of diameter 40 and 27 mm; images being acquired using (1)H and (19)F observation for the water and SF(6), respectively. Liquid and gas flow rates calculated from the velocity images are in agreement with macroscopic flow rate measurements to within 7% and 5%, respectively. In addition to the information obtained directly from these images, the ability to measure liquid and gas flow fields within the same sample environment will enable us to explore the validity of assumptions used in numerical modelling of two-phase flows.

  15. Metastable structure formation during high velocity grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, A.N.; Klyuev, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable structures in surface layers of samples are; investigated during force high-velocity abrasive grinding. Samples of martensitic (40Kh13), austenitic (12Kh18N10T), ferritic (05Kh23Yu5) steels and some alloys, in particular KhN77TYuR (EhI437B), were grinded for one pass at treatment depth from 0.17 up to 2.6 mm. It is established that processes of homogenizing, recrystallization and coagulation are; developed during force high-velocity grinding along with polymorphic transformations in the zone of thermomechanical effect, that leads to changes of physical and mechanical properties of the surface

  16. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  17. Governing equations for a seriated continuum: an unequal velocity model for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Hughes, E.D.

    1975-05-01

    The description of the flow of two-phase fluids is important in many engineering devices. Unexpected transient conditions which occur in these devices cannot, in general, be treated with single-component momentum equations. Instead, the use of momentum equations for each phase is necessary in order to describe the varied transient situations which can occur. These transient conditions can include phases moving in the opposite directions, such as steam moving upward and liquid moving downward, as well as phases moving in the same direction. The derivation of continuity and momentum equations for each phase and an overall energy equation for the mixture are presented. Terms describing interphase forces are described. A seriated (series of) continuum is distinguished from an interpenetrating medium by the representation of interphase friction with velocity differences in the former and velocity gradients in the latter. The seriated continuum also considers imbedded stationary solid surfaces such as occur in nuclear reactor cores. These stationary surfaces are taken into account with source terms. Sufficient constitutive equations are presented to form a complete set of equations. Methods are presented to show that all these coefficients are determinable from microscopic models and well known experimental results. Comparison of the present deviation with previous work is also given. The equations derived here may also be employed in certain multiphase, multicomponent flow applications. (U.S.)

  18. Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, P.

    1997-07-01

    Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film

  19. Temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high-Tc superconductors in normal state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishoyi, K.C.; Rout, G.C.; Behera, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical calculation of temperature dependence of velocity of sound in high temperature superconductors is addressed in this paper. The influence of model parameters of the system in its normal phase is investigated through numerical calculations. The results at the room temperature as well as low temperatures (∼ 25 K), are discussed. The dimensionless parameters involved in the calculations are the electron-phonon coupling (g), staggered magnetic field (h), hybridization (V), position of the f-level (d), temperature (t) and the conduction band width (ω). The model Hamiltonian contains the antiferromagnetism in conduction electrons of cooper and the electron-phonon interaction through the hybridization between conduction electrons and f-electrons of impurity atoms. The phonon Green's functions are calculated by Zubarev's technique. The velocity of sound is calculated in the long wavelength and finite temperature limit. (author)

  20. High-frame-rate Imaging of a Carotid Bifurcation using a Low-complexity Velocity Estimation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method developed by combining synthetic aperture sequential beamforming and directional transverse oscillation is used to image a carotid bifurcation. Ninety-six beamformed lines are sent from the probe to the host system for each VFI frame, enabling...... the possibility of wireless transmission. The velocity is estimated using a relatively inexpensive 2-D phase-shift approach, and real-time performance can be achieved in mobile devices. However, high-frame-rate velocities can be obtained by sending the data to a cluster of computers. The objective of this study...... is to demonstrate the scalability of the method’s performance according to the needs of the user and the processing capabilities of the host system. In vivo measurements of a carotid bifurcation of a 54-year-old volunteer were conducted using a linear array transducer connected to the SARUS scanner. The velocities...

  1. A survey of high-velocity H I in the Cetus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The region 02sup(h) 16sup(m) 0 0 surrounding the Cohen and Davies complex of high-velocity clouds has been surveyed in the 21-cm line of H I using the Jodrell Bank MK II radio telescope (beamwidth 31 x 34 arcmin). The high-velocity cloud complex was sampled every 2sup(m) in right ascension and every 0 0 .5 in declination. The observations cover a velocity range of 2100 km s -1 with a resolution of 7.3 km s -1 and an rms noise level of 0.025 K. No HVCs were found outside the velocity range -400 to +100 km s -1 . The data are presented on microfiche as a set of contour maps showing 21-cm line temperature as a function of declination and radial velocity at constant values of right ascension. Discussion is centred on the very-high-velocity clouds at velocities of -360 to -190 km s -1 . It is concluded that they are probably debris from the tidal interaction between our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. (author)

  2. Magnetic phase diagram of Ba3CoSb2O9 as determined by ultrasound velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, G.; Lapointe-Major, M.; Poirier, M.; Quilliam, J. A.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Using high-resolution sound velocity measurements we have obtained a very precise magnetic phase diagram of Ba3CoSb2O9 , a material that is considered to be an archetype of the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet. Results obtained for the field parallel to the basal plane (up to 18 T) show three phase transitions, consistent with predictions based on simple two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg models and previous experimental investigations. The phase diagram obtained for the field perpendicular to the basal plane clearly reveals an easy-plane character of this compound and, in particular, our measurements show a single first-order phase transition at Hc 1=12.0 T which can be attributed to a spin flop between an umbrella-type configuration and a coplanar V -type order where spins lie in a plane perpendicular to the a b plane. At low temperatures, softening of the lattice within some of the ordered phases is also observed and may be a result of residual spin fluctuations.

  3. Reliability of force-velocity relationships during deadlift high pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Boyas, Sébastien; Jubeau, Marc; Rahmani, Abderrahmane

    2017-11-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the within- and between-session reliability of force, velocity and power performances and to assess the force-velocity relationship during the deadlift high pull (DHP). Nine participants performed two identical sessions of DHP with loads ranging from 30 to 70% of body mass. The force was measured by a force plate under the participants' feet. The velocity of the 'body + lifted mass' system was calculated by integrating the acceleration and the power was calculated as the product of force and velocity. The force-velocity relationships were obtained from linear regression of both mean and peak values of force and velocity. The within- and between-session reliability was evaluated by using coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results showed that DHP force-velocity relationships were significantly linear (R² > 0.90, p  0.94), mean and peak velocities showed a good agreement (CV reliable and can therefore be utilised as a tool to characterise individuals' muscular profiles.

  4. Condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, G.; Christensen, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents a phenomenological and mathematical model of condensation shocks in high momentum two-phase flows in condensing injectors. The characteristics of the shock were related to the mode of vapor bubble collapse. Using cavitation terminology, the bubble collapse can be classified as inertially controlled or thermally controlled. Inertial bubble collapse occurs rapidly whereas, a thermally controlled collapse results in a significantly longer collapse time. The interdependence between the bubble collapse mode and the momentum and pressure of the flow, was analyzed in this study. For low-temperature-high-velocity flows a steep pressure rise with complete condensation was obtained. For a high-temperature-low velocity flow with noncondensables, low pressure recovery with incomplete condensation was observed. These trends are in agreement with previous experimental observations

  5. Wavelet phase analysis of two velocity components to infer the structure of interscale transfers in a turbulent boundary-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keylock, Christopher J [Sheffield Fluid Mechanics Group and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Nishimura, Kouichi, E-mail: c.keylock@sheffield.ac.uk [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)

  6. Wavelet phase analysis of two velocity components to infer the structure of interscale transfers in a turbulent boundary-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keylock, Christopher J; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)

  7. Simulation of High-Speed Droplet Impact Against Dry Substrates with Partial Velocity Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoki; Ando, Keita

    2017-11-01

    High-speed droplet impact can be used to clean substrates such as silicon wafers. Radially spreading shear flow after the impact may allow for mechanically removing contaminant particles at substrate surfaces. Since it is a big challenge to experimentally explore such complicated flow that exhibits contact line motion and water hammer, its flow feature is not well understood. Here, we aim to numerically evaluate shear flow caused by the impact of a spherical water droplet (of submillimeter sizes) at high speed (up to 50 m/s) against a dry rigid wall. We model the flow based on compressible Navier-Stokes equations with Stokes' hypothesis and solve them by a high-order-accurate finite volume method equipped with shock and interface capturing. To treat the motion of a contact line between the three phases (the droplet, the rigid wall, and the ambient air) in a robust manner, we permit velocity slip at the wall with Navier's model, for wall slip is known to come into play under steep velocity gradients that can arise from high-speed droplet impact. In our presentation, we will examine radially spreading flow after the droplet impact and the resulting wall shear stress generation from the simulation. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17J02211.

  8. A Two-Radius Circular Array Method: Extracting Independent Information on Phase Velocities of Love Waves From Microtremor Records From a Simple Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, T.; Cho, I.; Shinozaki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We have invented a Two-Radius (TR) circular array method of microtremor exploration, an algorithm that enables to estimate phase velocities of Love waves by analyzing horizontal-component records of microtremors that are obtained with an array of seismic sensors placed around circumferences of two different radii. The data recording may be done either simultaneously around the two circles or in two separate sessions with sensors distributed around each circle. Both Rayleigh and Love waves are present in the horizontal components of microtremors, but in the data processing of our TR method, all information on the Rayleigh waves ends up cancelled out, and information on the Love waves alone are left to be analyzed. Also, unlike the popularly used frequency-wavenumber spectral (F-K) method, our TR method does not resolve individual plane-wave components arriving from different directions and analyze their "vector" phase velocities, but instead directly evaluates their "scalar" phase velocities --- phase velocities that contain no information on the arrival direction of waves --- through a mathematical procedure which involves azimuthal averaging. The latter feature leads us to expect that, with our TR method, it is possible to conduct phase velocity analysis with smaller numbers of sensors, with higher stability, and up to longer-wavelength ranges than with the F-K method. With a view to investigating the capabilities and limitations of our TR method in practical implementation to real data, we have deployed circular seismic arrays of different sizes at a test site in Japan where the underground structure is well documented through geophysical exploration. Ten seismic sensors were placed equidistantly around two circumferences, five around each circle, with varying combinations of radii ranging from several meters to several tens of meters, and simultaneous records of microtremors around circles of two different radii were analyzed with our TR method to produce

  9. Correlations of drift velocity for gas-liquid two-phase flow in rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Matsuura, Keizo; Serizawa, Akimi

    2004-01-01

    A new correlation was developed for the drift velocity for low inlet liquid flux in rod bundle. Based on authors' previous analysis of drift velocity for large diameter pipe, an analysis was made on the drift velocity in rod bundle. It is assumed that the large bubble of which size is several subchannel diameter behaves as slug bubble. Under this assumption, it becomes very important how to define equivalent diameter for rod bundle. In view of physical consideration of slug bubble behavior and previous analysis, an equivalent diameter based on the wetted perimeter was found to be most appropriate. Using this equivalent diameter, experimental data of drift velocity in rod bundle were correlated with dimensional analysis. It was found out that for small diameter (dimensionless diameter less than 48) drift velocity increased with square root of diameter which is same dependency of ordinary slug flow correlation. For larger diameter (dimensionless diameter is more than 48), drift velocity is almost constant and same as that of dimensionless diameter of 48. The physical meaning of this result was considered to be the instability of interface of large slug bubble. The density ratio between gas and liquid and viscosity of liquid phase were found to be the main parameters which affect the drift velocity. This is physically reasonable because density ratio is related to the buoyancy force and liquid viscosity is related to shear force near solid wall. The experimental data were correlated by density ratio and dimensionless liquid viscosity. The obtained dimensionless correlation for the drift velocity in rod bundle successfully correlated experimental data for various rod bundles (equivalent diameters), pressures, liquid fluxes etc. It is also consistent with the drift flux correlation for round tube. (author)

  10. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  11. On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...

  12. THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10 5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10 10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s –1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.

  13. Evaluation of droplet velocity and size from nasal spray devices using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning

    2010-03-30

    To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. High-velocity winds from a dwarf nova during outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, F. A.; Mason, K. O.

    1982-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectrum of the dwarf nova TW Vir during an optical outburst shows shortward-shifted absorption features with edge velocities as high as 4800 km/s, about the escape velocity of a white dwarf. A comparison of this spectrum with the UV spectra of other cataclysmic variables suggests that mass loss is evident only for systems with relatively high luminosities (more than about 10 solar luminosities) and low inclination angles with respect to the observer's line of sight. The mass loss rate for cataclysmic variables is of order 10 to the -11th solar mass per yr; this is from 0.01 to 0.001 of the mass accretion rate onto the compact star in the binary. The mass loss may occur by a mechanism similar to that invoked for early-type stars, i.e., radiation absorbed in the lines accelerates the accreting gas to the high velocities observed.

  15. Relationship between lower limbs kinematic variables and effectiveness of sprint during maximum velocity phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Konieczny, Grzegorz; Grzesik, Kamila; Stawarz, Mateusz; Winiarski, Sławomir; Rokita, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between time of running over a 15-25 m section of a 30-meter run along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity observed in ankle, knee and hip joints. Therefore, the authors attempted to answer the question of whether a technique of lower limbs movement during the phase of sprint maximum velocity significantly correlates with the time of running over this section. A group of 14 young people from the Lower Silesia Voivodeship Team participated in the experiment. A Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using Noraxon MyoMotion system. There were observed statistically significant relationships between sprint time over a section from 15 to 25 m and left hip rotation (positive) and between this time and left and right ankle joint dorsi-plantar flexion (negative). During the maximum velocity phase of a 30 m sprint, the effect of dorsi-plantar flexion performed in the whole range of motion was found to be beneficial. This can be attributed to the use of elastic energy released in the stride cycle. Further, hip rotation should be minimized, which makes the stride aligned more along a line of running (a straight line) instead of from side to side.

  16. Generation of the auroral electron velocity distribution by stochastic acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Cook, A.C.; Wang, Z.-S.; Angelis, U. de.

    1990-07-01

    In a further development of the wave theory of the aurora, it is demonstrated, using a Monte-Carlo numerical model, that the characteristic peak in the auroral electron velocity distribution can be generated stochastically through resonant interactions between an initially monotonic distribution and lower-hybrid electrostatic turbulence. The principal requirement is that the velocity spectrum of resonant waves has a sharp cut-off at high velocity. It is then shown that a cut-off is expected as a natural consequence of the difference between the phase and group velocities of lower-hybrid waves. The possibility is considered that a second peak, sometimes observed at lower velocities, is due to the same statistical mechanism, arising from the damping of waves of low phase velocity. An enhancement of wave intensity is found at higher velocities, where momentum flows preferentially from electrons to waves. The relation between the wave theory and the currently prevailing potential-difference theory emerges clearly from the analysis. (author)

  17. High-definition velocity-space tomography of fast-ion dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function in a fusion plasma is usually a photon-starved tomography method due to limited optical access and signal-to-noise ratio of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy as well as the strive for high-resolution images. In high-definition tomography...... information to reconstruct where in velocity space the measurements and the simulation disagree. This alternative approach is demonstrated for four-view as well as for two-view FIDA measurements. The high-definition tomography tools allow us to study fast ions in sawtoothing plasmas and the formation of NBI...

  18. Velocity navigator for motion compensated thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Florian; Krafft, Axel J; Yung, Joshua P; Stafford, R Jason; Elliott, Andrew; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry is sensitive to breathing motion that leads to incorrect phase differences. In this work, a novel velocity-sensitive navigator technique for triggering MR thermometry image acquisition is presented. A segmented echo planar imaging pulse sequence was modified for velocity-triggered temperature mapping. Trigger events were generated when the estimated velocity value was less than 0.2 cm/s during the slowdown phase in parallel to the velocity-encoding direction. To remove remaining high-frequency spikes from pulsation in real time, a Kalman filter was applied to the velocity navigator data. A phantom experiment with heating and an initial volunteer experiment without heating were performed to show the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a breath-hold experiment was conducted for comparison. A temperature rise of ΔT = +37.3°C was seen in the phantom experiment, and a root mean square error (RMSE) outside the heated region of 2.3°C could be obtained for periodic motion. In the volunteer experiment, a RMSE of 2.7°C/2.9°C (triggered vs. breath hold) was measured. A novel velocity navigator with Kalman filter postprocessing in real time significantly improves the temperature accuracy over non-triggered acquisitions and suggests being comparable to a breath-held acquisition. The proposed technique might be clinically applied for monitoring of thermal ablations in abdominal organs.

  19. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Panda, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. → The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. → The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. → Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T c cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  20. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S K [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  1. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S.K. [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  2. Unsupervised Learning Through Randomized Algorithms for High-Volume High-Velocity Data (ULTRA-HV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlberg, Kevin Thomas [Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, MA (United States); Ballard, Grey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mahoney, Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Through long-term investments in computing, algorithms, facilities, and instrumentation, DOE is an established leader in massive-scale, high-fidelity simulations, as well as science-leading experimentation. In both cases, DOE is generating more data than it can analyze and the problem is intensifying quickly. The need for advanced algorithms that can automatically convert the abundance of data into a wealth of useful information by discovering hidden structures is well recognized. Such efforts however, are hindered by the massive volume of the data and its high velocity. Here, the challenge is developing unsupervised learning methods to discover hidden structure in high-volume, high-velocity data.

  3. Detection of various phases in liquids from the hypersound velocity and damping near closed phase-separation regions of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, K. V.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaban, I. A.; Chaikov, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis revealed that experimental results obtained in our studies on hypersound propagation in a guaiacol-glycerol solution in the vicinity of the closed phase-separation region, double critical point, and special point, as well as the origin of these regions, can be explained by the presence of two different phases (I and II) of the solution with phase-transition temperature T 0 . Temperature T 0 coincides with the temperature at the center of closed phase-separation regions, as well as with the double critical point and with the special point. In (Frenkel) phase I, molecules are in potential wells whose depth exceeds the thermal energy of a molecule, while thermal energy in (gaslike) phase II is higher than the potential well depth. At the lower critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase I is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. At the upper critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase II is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. The observed broad dome of the hypersound absorption coefficient near T 0 can be explained by the contribution associated with fluctuations of the order parameter corresponding to the transition from phase I to phase II. The difference in the temperature coefficients of hypersound velocity on different sides of T 0 and some other effects are also explained

  4. Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol

    2010-01-01

    Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.

  5. Analysis of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques and the applicability of the drift flux model for their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.

    1982-11-01

    An extensive and detailed investigation of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlating noise signals of information carriers (neutrons, gammas, visible light) modulated by the two-phase flow and registered by two axially placed detectors outside the flow is pursued. To this end, a detailed analysis of velocity measurements in experimental loops and a large number of velocity measurements in a commercial BWR is undertaken, and the applicability and limitations of the drift flux model for their interpretation is investigated. On the basis of this extensive analysis, the authors propose a physically plausible explanation for the deviations in the upper part of the core, expound on why the drift flux model is, to a great extent, not suitable for interpreting two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques reported in the present work, and conclude that due to the large number of uncertainties and the lack of detailed knowledge about the kind of microstructures of the flow which the detectors prefer to ''sample'', one can safely assume that at least in the lower half of the core the velocity measured can be well approximated by the velocity of the centre of volume, from which the mass fluxes can readily be computed. (Auth.)

  6. Inversion of Surface Wave Phase Velocities for Radial Anisotropy to an Depth of 1200 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate three dimensional radial anisotropy to an depth of 1200 km. Radial anisotropy describes the difference in velocity between horizontally polarized Rayleigh waves and vertically polarized Love waves. Its presence in the uppermost 200 km mantle has well been documented by different groups, and has been regarded as an indicator of mantle convection which aligns the intrinsically anisotropic minerals, largely olivine, to form large scale anisotropy. However, there is no global agreement on whether anisotropy exists in the region below 200 km. Recent models also associate a fast vertically polarized shear wave with vertical upwelling mantle flow. The data used in this study is the globally isotropic phase velocity models of fundamental and higher mode Love and Rayleigh waves (Visser, 2008). The inclusion of higher mode surface wave phase velocity provides sensitivities to structure at depth that extends to below the transition zone. While the data is the same as used by Visser (2008), a quite different parameterization is applied. All the six parameters - five elastic parameters A, C, F, L, N and density - are now regarded as independent, which rules out possible biased conclusions induced by scaling relation method used in several previous studies to reduce the number of parameters partly due to limited computing resources. The data need to be modified by crustal corrections (Crust2.0) as we want to look at the mantle structure only. We do this by eliminating the perturbation in surface wave phase velocity caused by the difference in crustal structure with respect to the referent model PREM. Sambridge's Neighborhood Algorithm is used to search the parameter space. The introduction of such a direct search technique pales the traditional inversion method, which requires regularization or some unnecessary priori restriction on the model space. On the contrary, the new method will search the full model space, providing probability density

  7. Carotid near-occlusion frequently has high peak systolic velocity on Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khangure, Simon R.; Machnowska, Matylda; Fox, Allan J.; Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Aviv, Richard I. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Neuroradiology Division, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroimaging, Toronto (Canada); Benhabib, Hadas [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Medical Imaging, Neuroradiology Division, Toronto, ON (Canada); Groenlund, Christer [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeaa (Sweden); Herod, Wendy [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Maggisano, Robert [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Sjoeberg, Anders [Umeaa University, Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeaa (Sweden); Umeaa University, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeaa (Sweden); Wester, Per [Umeaa University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet Danderyds Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences, Stockholm (Sweden); Hopyan, Julia [University of Toronto, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Toronto (Canada); Johansson, Elias [Umeaa University, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeaa (Sweden); Umeaa University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2018-01-15

    Carotid near-occlusion is a tight atherosclerotic stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) resulting in decrease in diameter of the vessel lumen distal to the stenosis. Near-occlusions can be classified as with or without full collapse, and may have high peak systolic velocity (PSV) across the stenosis, mimicking conventional > 50% carotid artery stenosis. We aimed to determine how frequently near-occlusions have high PSV in the stenosis and determine how accurately carotid Doppler ultrasound can distinguish high-velocity near-occlusion from conventional stenosis. Included patients had near-occlusion or conventional stenosis with carotid ultrasound and CT angiogram (CTA) performed within 30 days of each other. CTA examinations were analyzed by two blinded expert readers. Velocities in the internal and common carotid arteries were recorded. Mean velocity, pulsatility index, and ratios were calculated, giving 12 Doppler parameters for analysis. Of 136 patients, 82 had conventional stenosis and 54 had near-occlusion on CTA. Of near-occlusions, 40 (74%) had high PSV (≥ 125 cm/s) across the stenosis. Ten Doppler parameters significantly differed between conventional stenosis and high-velocity near-occlusion groups. However, no parameter was highly sensitive and specific to separate the groups. Near-occlusions frequently have high PSV across the stenosis, particularly those without full collapse. Carotid Doppler ultrasound does not seem able to distinguish conventional stenosis from high-velocity near-occlusion. These findings question the use of ultrasound alone for preoperative imaging evaluation. (orig.)

  8. Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.

  9. Quantification of intravoxel velocity standard deviation and turbulence intensity by generalizing phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Ebbers, Tino

    2006-10-01

    Turbulent flow, characterized by velocity fluctuations, is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. A clinical noninvasive tool for assessing turbulence is lacking, however. It is well known that the occurrence of multiple spin velocities within a voxel during the influence of a magnetic gradient moment causes signal loss in phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). In this paper a mathematical derivation of an expression for computing the standard deviation (SD) of the blood flow velocity distribution within a voxel is presented. The SD is obtained from the magnitude of PC-MRI signals acquired with different first gradient moments. By exploiting the relation between the SD and turbulence intensity (TI), this method allows for quantitative studies of turbulence. For validation, the TI in an in vitro flow phantom was quantified, and the results compared favorably with previously published laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) results. This method has the potential to become an important tool for the noninvasive assessment of turbulence in the arterial tree.

  10. Evaluation of a Candidate Trace Contaminant Control Subsystem Architecture: The High Velocity, Low Aspect Ratio (HVLA) Adsorption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayatin, Matthew J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gas-phase trace contaminant control adsorption process flow is constrained as required to maintain high contaminant single-pass adsorption efficiency. Specifically, the bed superficial velocity is controlled to limit the adsorption mass-transfer zone length relative to the physical adsorption bed; this is aided by traditional high-aspect ratio bed design. Through operation in this manner, most contaminants, including those with relatively high potential energy are readily adsorbed. A consequence of this operational approach, however, is a limited available operational flow margin. By considering a paradigm shift in adsorption architecture design and operations, in which flows of high superficial velocity are treated by low-aspect ratio sorbent beds, the range of well-adsorbed contaminants becomes limited, but the process flow is increased such that contaminant leaks or emerging contaminants of interest may be effectively controlled. To this end, the high velocity, low aspect ratio (HVLA) adsorption process architecture was demonstrated against a trace contaminant load representative of the International Space Station atmosphere. Two HVLA concept packaging designs (linear flow and radial flow) were tested. The performance of each design was evaluated and compared against computer simulation. Utilizing the HVLA process, long and sustained control of heavy organic contaminants was demonstrated.

  11. Phase Velocity Estimation of a Microstrip Line in a Stoichiometric Periodically Domain-Inverted LiTaO3 Modulator Using Electro-Optic Sampling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Hisatake

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the phase velocity of a modulation microwave in a quasi-velocity-matched (QVM electro-optic (EO phase modulator (QVM-EOM using EO sampling which is accurate and the most reliable technique for measuring voltage waveforms at an electrode. The substrate of the measured QVM-EOM is a stoichiometric periodically domain-inverted LiTaO3 crystal. The electric field of a standing wave in a resonant microstrip line (width: 0.5 mm, height: 0.5 mm is measured by employing a CdTe crystal as an EO sensor. The wavelength of the traveling microwave at 16.0801 GHz is determined as 3.33 mm by fitting the theoretical curve to the measured electric field distribution. The phase velocity is estimated as vm=5.35×107 m/s, though there exists about 5% systematic error due to the perturbation by the EO sensor. Relative dielectric constant of εr=41.5 is led as the maximum likelihood value that derives the estimated phase velocity.

  12. On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of

  13. Rheology of serpentinite in high-temperature and low-slip-velocity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Uehara, S.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takeda, N.; Masuda, K.

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to clarify the rheology of serpentinite experimentally, related both the sliding velocity and the temperature. The frictional behavior of serpentinite is of particular interest in the study of earthquake generation processes along subducting plates and transform faults. Previous studies [Reinen et al., 1991-93] revealed that the serpentinites indicated two-mechanical behaviors at velocity-step test: ‘state-variable dominated behavior’ at relatively higher velocity (0.1-10 μm/sec) and ‘flow-dominated behavior’ at lower velocity (less than 0.1 μm/sec). Such complexity on the frictional behavior could make it complicated to forecast on the slip acceleration process from the plate motion velocity to the earthquake. Even under the room-temperature condition, those multiple behavior could be observed, thus, serpentinite can be a model substance to present a new constitutive law at the brittle-ductile transition regime. We, therefore, focus to discuss the transient behaviors of serpentinite at the velocity-step test. We used a gas-medium, high-pressure, and high-temperature triaxial testing machine belonging to the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. Sliding deformation was applied on the thin zone of the serpentinite gouge (1.0 g of almost pure antigorite powder) sandwiched between two alumina blocks with oblique surfaces at 30° to the axis. All experiments were carried out under a set of constant conditions, 100 MPa of the confining pressure (Ar-gas) and 30 MPa of the pore pressure (distilled water). The temperature conditions were varied from the room-temperature to 500° C, and three sliding velocity-regimes were adopted: low (0.0115 - 0.115 μm/sec), middle (0.115 - 1.15 μm/sec) and high (1.15 - 11.5 μm/sec) velocity regimes. In each velocity regime, the sliding velocity was increased or decreased in a stepwise fashion, and then we observed the transient behaviors until it reached the

  14. Two-phase modeling of DDT: Structure of the velocity-relaxation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapila, A.K.; Son, S.F.; Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Stewart, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of the velocity relaxation zone in a hyperbolic, nonconservative, two-phase model is examined in the limit of large drag, and in the context of the problem of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a granular explosive. The primary motivation for the study is the desire to relate the end states across the relaxation zone, which can then be treated as a discontinuity in a reduced, equivelocity model, that is computationally more efficient than its parent. In contrast to a conservative system, where end states across thin zones of rapid variation are determined principally by algebraic statements of conservation, the nonconservative character of the present system requires an explicit consideration of the structure. Starting with the minimum admissible wave speed, the structure is mapped out as the wave speed increases. Several critical wave speeds corresponding to changes in the structure are identified. The archetypal structure is partly dispersed, monotonic, and involves conventional hydrodynamic shocks in one or both phases. The picture is reminiscent of, but more complex than, what is observed in such (simpler) two-phase media as a dusty gas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s –1 ) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M B = –19.46 mag and Δm 15 (B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v Si = 13,400 km s –1 ). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s –1 . After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF

  16. Theoretical Research Progress in High-Velocity/Hypervelocity Impact on Semi-Infinite Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhou Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the hypervelocity kinetic weapon and hypersonic cruise missiles research projects being carried out, the damage mechanism for high-velocity/hypervelocity projectile impact on semi-infinite targets has become the research keystone in impact dynamics. Theoretical research progress in high-velocity/hypervelocity impact on semi-infinite targets was reviewed in this paper. The evaluation methods for critical velocity of high-velocity and hypervelocity impact were summarized. The crater shape, crater scaling laws and empirical formulae, and simplified analysis models of crater parameters for spherical projectiles impact on semi-infinite targets were reviewed, so were the long rod penetration state differentiation, penetration depth calculation models for the semifluid, and deformed long rod projectiles. Finally, some research proposals were given for further study.

  17. Management of High-Velocity Injuries of the Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Jacob S; Brennan, Joseph; Holt, G Richard

    2017-11-01

    Trauma centers must prepare to manage high-velocity injuries resulting from a mass casualty incidents as global terrorism becomes a greater concern and an increasing risk. The most recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have significantly improved understanding of battlefield trauma and how to appropriately address these injures. This article applies combat surgery experience to civilian situations, outlines the physiology and kinetics of high-velocity injuries, and reviews applicable triage and management strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development of a high velocity rain erosion test method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Teak; Jin, Doo Han [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyung [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    The nose of a missile, flying through raining region with a supersonic speed, is subjected to the rain erosion because the nose is made of a brittle ceramic material. A simple yet very effective rain erosion test method is developed. The sabot assembly similar to the hypodermic syringe carries specific amount of water is launched by a low pressure air gun. After the stopper stop the sabot assembly by impact, the steel plunger continues moving toward to squeeze the silicon rubber in front. The pressurized silicon rubber then is squeezed through the orifice in front of the sabot at high velocity, thus, accelerates the water droplet to higher velocity. The droplet velocity up to 800m/s is successfully attained using a low pressure air gun. The ceramic specimen assembly is placed in front of the high speed water droplet and the rain erosion damage on the surface of the specimen is observed.

  19. Low-velocity superconducting accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews the status of RF superconductivity as applied to low-velocity accelerating properties. Heavy-ion accelerators must accelerate efficiently particles which travel at a velocity much smaller than that of light particles, whose velocity changes along accelerator, and also different particles which have different velocity profiles. Heavy-ion superconducting accelerators operate at frequencies which are lower than high-energy superconducting accelerators. The present paper first discusses the basic features of heavy-ion superconducting structures and linacs. Design choices are then addressed focusing on structure geometry, materials, frequency, phase control, and focusing. The report also gives an outline of the status of superconducting booster projects currently under way at the Argonne National Laboratory, SUNY Stony Brook, Weizmann Institute, University of Washington, Florida State, Saclay, Kansas State, Daresbury, Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Legnaro, Bombay, Sao Paulo, ANU (Canberra), and Munich. Recent developments and future prospects are also described. (N.K.) 68 refs

  20. Strong Velocity-Weakening of Nanograins at High Slip-Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, R.; Hirose, T.; Ando, J.

    2008-12-01

    It has been observed that slip localization zones in some experimental and natural faults consist of crystalline or amorphous nanograins of different minerals. Prolonged grinding of silicate rocks (e.g., quartz rock and granite) is known to produce amorphous silica nanograins and mechanical properties of the material (especially under wet condition) have been attributed to a mechanism of fault weakening. Also, recent high- velocity friction tests on carbonate rocks showed that faults can be weakened by thermal decomposition of calcite into nanograins of lime and carbon dioxide and the lubrication effect of the nanograins would be critical for the fault weakening. However, mechanical behavior(s) and friction mechanism(s) of fault slip zones with nanograins, especially at high slip-rates, are still poorly understood, despite their potential importance to the understanding of seismic faulting. In this contribution, we show you our experimental results indicating velocity-weakening of nanograins (probably caused by still unknown mechanical behaviors of nanograins) rather than by temperature-related weakening behavior. In our high-velocity friction tests on Carrara marble at seismic slip-rates, we have tried to "cool" the simulated fault with liquid nitrogen and compressed air during frictional sliding, and found, in the simulated fault coated with nanopowders of lime (CaO) formed by thermal decomposition, no correlation between friction and temperature measured with thermocouples (i.e., no temperature-related weakening behavior), although strong "velocity-weakening" behavior appeared. The observation was confirmed by another experiment: from (1) the calculated "maximum" sliding surface temperature [Carslaw and Jaeger, 1959] using the mechanical data, with an assumption of strong slip localization into a very thin layer, and (2) the measured temperature with thermocouples at a place just below the sliding surface and close to the periphery of the specimen, it was found

  1. Method of LSD profile asymmetry for estimating the center of mass velocities of pulsating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britavskiy, N.; Pancino, E.; Tsymbal, V.; Romano, D.; Cacciari, C.; Clementini, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present radial velocity analysis for 20 solar neighborhood RR Lyrae and 3 Population II Cepheids. High-resolution spectra were observed with either TNG/SARG or VLT/UVES over varying phases. To estimate the center of mass (barycentric) velocities of the program stars, we utilized two independent methods. First, the 'classic' method was employed, which is based on RR Lyrae radial velocity curve templates. Second, we provide the new method that used absorption line profile asymmetry to determine both the pulsation and the barycentric velocities even with a low number of high-resolution spectra and in cases where the phase of the observations is uncertain. This new method is based on a least squares deconvolution (LSD) of the line profiles in order to an- alyze line asymmetry that occurs in the spectra of pulsating stars. By applying this method to our sample stars we attain accurate measurements (+- 2 kms^-1) of the pulsation component of the radial velocity. This results in determination of the barycentric velocity to within 5 kms^-1 even with a low number of high- resolution spectra. A detailed investigation of LSD profile asymmetry shows the variable nature of the project factor at different pulsation phases, which should be taken into account in the detailed spectroscopic analysis of pulsating stars.

  2. Decomposition of group-velocity-locked-vector-dissipative solitons and formation of the high-order soliton structure by the product of their recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Li, Lei; Geng, Ying; Wang, Hanxiao; Su, Lei; Zhao, Luming

    2018-02-01

    By using a polarization manipulation and projection system, we numerically decomposed the group-velocity-locked-vector-dissipative solitons (GVLVDSs) from a normal dispersion fiber laser and studied the combination of the projections of the phase-modulated components of the GVLVDS through a polarization beam splitter. Pulses with a structure similar to a high-order vector soliton could be obtained, which could be considered as a pseudo-high-order GVLVDS. It is found that, although GVLVDSs are intrinsically different from group-velocity-locked-vector solitons generated in fiber lasers operated in the anomalous dispersion regime, similar characteristics for the generation of pseudo-high-order GVLVDS are obtained. However, pulse chirp plays a significant role on the generation of pseudo-high-order GVLVDS.

  3. Velocity fluctuations in polar solar wind: a comparison between different solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar solar wind is a fast, tenuous and steady flow that, with the exception of a relatively short phase around the Sun's activity maximum, fills the high-latitude heliosphere. The polar wind properties have been extensively investigated by Ulysses, the first spacecraft able to perform in-situ measurements in the high-latitude heliosphere. The out-of-ecliptic phases of Ulysses cover about seventeen years. This makes possible to study heliospheric properties at high latitudes in different solar cycles. In the present investigation we focus on hourly- to daily-scale fluctuations of the polar wind velocity. Though the polar wind is a quite uniform flow, fluctuations in its velocity do not appear negligible. A simple way to characterize wind velocity variations is that of performing a multi-scale statistical analysis of the wind velocity differences. Our analysis is based on the computation of velocity differences at different time lags and the evaluation of statistical quantities (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the different ensembles. The results clearly show that, though differences exist in the three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere between the investigated solar cycles, the velocity fluctuations in the core of polar coronal holes exhibit essentially unchanged statistical properties.

  4. Velocity fluctuations in polar solar wind: a comparison between different solar cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar solar wind is a fast, tenuous and steady flow that, with the exception of a relatively short phase around the Sun's activity maximum, fills the high-latitude heliosphere. The polar wind properties have been extensively investigated by Ulysses, the first spacecraft able to perform in-situ measurements in the high-latitude heliosphere. The out-of-ecliptic phases of Ulysses cover about seventeen years. This makes possible to study heliospheric properties at high latitudes in different solar cycles. In the present investigation we focus on hourly- to daily-scale fluctuations of the polar wind velocity. Though the polar wind is a quite uniform flow, fluctuations in its velocity do not appear negligible. A simple way to characterize wind velocity variations is that of performing a multi-scale statistical analysis of the wind velocity differences. Our analysis is based on the computation of velocity differences at different time lags and the evaluation of statistical quantities (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis for the different ensembles. The results clearly show that, though differences exist in the three-dimensional structure of the heliosphere between the investigated solar cycles, the velocity fluctuations in the core of polar coronal holes exhibit essentially unchanged statistical properties.

  5. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1983-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandems in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S 6 - 16 + on He and Ar at 6-20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl 16 + + Ar collisions at 20, 10 and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  6. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandens in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S/sup 6-16+/ on He and Ar at 6 to 20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl 16 + + Ar collisions at 20, 10, and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  7. Analytical and numerical studies of approximate phase velocity matching based nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves for the detection of evenly distributed microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Xu, G H; Tao, T F; Zhang, Q; Tse, P W

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1–S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived

  8. Experimental and numerical studies of high-velocity impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.; Swegle, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    Developments are reported in both experimental and numerical capabilities for characterizing the debris spray produced in penetration events. We have performed a series of high-velocity experiments specifically designed to examine the fragmentation of the projectile during impact. High-strength, well-characterized steel spheres (6.35 mm diameter) were launched with a two-stage light-gas gun to velocities in the range of 3 to 5 km/s. Normal impact with PMMA plates, thicknesses of 0.6 to 11 mm, applied impulsive loads of various amplitudes and durations to the steel sphere. Multiple flash radiography diagnostics and recovery techniques were used to assess size, velocity, trajectory and statistics of the impact-induced fragment debris. Damage modes to the primary target plate (plastic) and to a secondary target plate (aluminum) were also evaluated. Dynamic fragmentation theories, based on energy-balance principles, were used to evaluate local material deformation and fracture state information from CTH, a three-dimensional Eulerian solid dynamics shock wave propagation code. The local fragment characterization of the material defines a weighted fragment size distribution, and the sum of these distributions provides a composite particle size distribution for the steel sphere. The calculated axial and radial velocity changes agree well with experimental data, and the calculated fragment sizes are in qualitative agreement with the radiographic data. A secondary effort involved the experimental and computational analyses of normal and oblique copper ball impacts on steel target plates. High-resolution radiography and witness plate diagnostics provided impact motion and statistical fragment size data. CTH simulations were performed to test computational models and numerical methods.

  9. Throwing velocities, anthropometric characteristics, and efficacy indices of women's European water polo subchampions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Pedro E; Abraldes, J Arturo; Ferragut, Carmen; Rodríguez, Nuria; Argudo, Francisco M; Vila, Helena

    2011-11-01

    Water polo is a team sport characterized by a high-intensity, intermittent activity, where technical and tactical aspect are of a great importance. For that reason, the main aim of this study was to define the anthropometrical characteristics, maximum isometric grip strength, training and competition throwing velocities, and the efficacy indices in female high-level water polo players. A second purpose was to examine the differences between the throwing velocities in training vs. European championships in the water polo female national team. Ten elite trained female water polo players participated in this study. Before the competitive phase of their season, the following measures were taken: standard anthropometry, static and dynamic training throwing velocities, and hand-grip dynamometry. In the competitive phase, efficacy indices, average and maximum throwing velocities from all the participants were also determined. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between different training situations and different competitive throwing velocities. We concluded that elite female water polo players modify their throwing velocity depending if the throw is performed during training or competitive situation.

  10. Determining the most stable breathing phase for respiratory gating using velocity deformable registration in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, Y.; Wightman, F.; Roxby, P.; Kron, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Respiratory gated radiotherapy is a high-precision technique where the treatment beam is turned on during a predetermined phase of the breathing cycle in order to minimise dose to surrounding healthy dose sensitive structures. We aim to compare inspiration and expiration phases to determine which is more stable in the breathing cycle to perform respiratory gating. Methods Nine patients underwent a planning time resolved 4DCT (Philips Brilliance 16-multislice widebore) and repeat 4DCT during weeks I, 3 and 5 of a radical course of radiotherapy for lung cancer. Inspiration scans were co-registered to the same phase image of the original planning CT using rigid and then deformable registration with Velocity software. The process was repeated for scans at exhalation phase. The deformation matrix for the diaphragm was used to compare the reproducibility of breathing phases. In the majority of patients (seven of nine) the expiration phase was found to be the more stable compared with inspiration. The maximum diaphragm displacement exceeded 3 cm in one case for the registered inhalation images while the deformation was typically half of that in the exhalation images. Interestingly, several patients showed significant differences in deformation for the left and right diaphragm. Conclusions In a group of lung cancer patients we found the expiration phase to be more reproducible for delivering respiratory gated RT, when compared with inspiration.

  11. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  12. Development of two-dimensional velocity field measurement using particle tracking velocimetry on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)

  13. High velocity electromagnetic particle launcher for aerosol production studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.A.; Rader, D.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the development of a new device for study of metal combustion, breakup and production of aerosols in a high velocity environment. Metal wires are heated and electromagnetically launched with this device to produce molten metal droplets moving at velocities ranging up to about Mach 1. Such tests are presently intended to simulate the behavior of metal streamers ejected from a high-explosive detonation. A numerical model of the launcher performance in terms of sample properties, sample geometry and pulser electrical parameters is presented which can be used as a tool for design of specific test conditions. Results from several tests showing the range of sample velocities accessible with this device are described and compared with the model. Photographic measurements showing the behavior of tungsten and zirconium metal droplets are presented. Estimates of the Weber breakup and drag on the droplets, as well as calculations of the droplet trajectories, are described. Such studies may ultimately be useful in assessing environmental hazards in the handling and storage of devices containing metallic plutonium

  14. Phase and group velocity tracing analysis of projected wave packet motion along oblique radar beams – qualitative analysis of QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kuo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.

  15. Employment of a novel ultrasonic method to investigate high pressure phase transitions in oleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Zduniak, M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, the variation of sound velocity with hydrostatic pressure for oleic acid is evaluated up to 350 MPa. During the measurement, we identified the phase transformation of oleic acid and the presence of the hysteresis of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. From the performed measurements, it can be seen that the dependence of sound velocity on pressure can be used to investigate phase transformations in natural oils. Ultrasonic waves were excited and detected using piezoelectric LiNbO3(Y-36 cut) 5 MHz transducers. The phase velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves was measured using a cross-correlation method to evaluate the time of flight.

  16. Elastic Wave Velocity Measurements on Mantle Peridotite at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, G. W.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, B.

    2002-12-01

    With the success of conducting ultrasonic measurements at high pressure and high temperature in large volume high pressure apparatus with in-situ measurement of the sample length by X-ray imaging, it is now possible to measure elastic wave velocities on aggregate samples with candidate compositions of the mantle to the conditions of the Earth's transition zone in the laboratory. These data can be directly compared with seismic data to distinguish the compositional models in debate. In this work, we carried out velocity measurements on natural peridotite KLB-1 at the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Fine powered sample of natural KLB-1 was used as starting material. Specimens for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed and equilibrated at various pressure and temperature conditions along geotherm up to the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized with density measurement, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. Bench top P and S wave velocities of KLB-1 sample sintered at 3-4 GPa and 1400 degree centigrade showed a very good agreement with the VRH average of pyrolite. High pressure and high temperature measurements was conducted up to 7 GPa and 800 degree centigrade using ultrasonic interferometric method in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging. The utilization of X-ray imaging technique provides direct measurements of sample lengths at high pressure and high temperature, ensuring a precise determination of velocities. The results of P and S wave velocities at high pressure and high temperature as well as their comparison with calculated pyrolite model will be presented.

  17. Precise zero-sound velocity measurements in the A and A1 phases of 3He near T/sub c/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.F.; Ihas, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have made phase-velocity change measurements for 5 and 15 MHz zero sound within a few microkelvin of the 3 He superfluid transition, T/sub c/, at 31.1 bar. The results show no marked feature at homega = 2Δ(T). However, there is a marked reduction in the slope of dc/dT upon passing from the A-phase into the Al-phase. 2 references

  18. The influence of slip velocity and temperature on permeability during and after high-velocity fault slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Tadai, O.; Hirose, T.; Lin, W.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid transport properties in fault zones play an important role in dynamic processes during large earthquakes. If the permeability in a fault zone is low, high pore-fluid pressures caused by thermal pressurization (Sibson, 1973) or shear-induced compaction (Blanpied et al., 1992) can lead to an apparent reduction of fault strength. Changes in porosity and permeability of fault rocks within a fault zone during earthquakes and the subsequent progressive recovery of these properties may have a large influence on earthquake recurrence (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). A rotary shear apparatus was used to investigate changes of fluid transport properties in a fault zone by real-time measurement of gas flow rates during and after shearing of hollow sandstone and granite cylinders at various slip rates. Our apparatus measures permeability parallel to the slip plane in both the slip zone and wall rocks. In all cases, permeability decreased rapidly with an increase of friction, but recovered soon after slip, reaching a steady state within several tens of minutes. The rate of reduction of permeability increased with increasing slip velocity. Permeability did not recover to pre-slip levels after low-velocity tests but recovered to exceed them after high-velocity tests. Frictional heating of gases at the slip surface increased gas viscosity, which increased gas flow rate to produce an apparent permeability increase. The irreversible permeability changes of the low-velocity tests were caused by gouge formation due to wearing and smoothing of the slip surface. The increase of permeability after high-velocity tests was caused by mesoscale fracturing in response to rapid temperature rise. Changes of pore fluid viscosity contributed more to changes of flow rate than did permeability changes caused by shear deformation, although test results from different rocks and pore fluids might be different. References Blanpied, M.L., Lockner, D.A., Byerlee, J.D., 1992. An earthquake mechanism

  19. Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru

    2004-01-01

    Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions

  20. Response of partially premixed flames to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.T.; Lee, J.G.; Quay, B.D.; Santavicca, D.A. [Center for Advanced Power Generation, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    This article describes an experimental investigation of the forced response of a swirl-stabilized partially premixed flame when it is subjected to acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations. The flame's response is analyzed using phase-resolved CH{sup *} chemiluminescence images and flame transfer function (FTF) measurements, and compared with the response of a perfectly premixed flame under acoustic perturbations. The nonlinear response of the partially premixed flame is manifested by a partial extinction of the reaction zone, leading to rapid reduction of flame surface area. This nonlinearity, however, is observed only when the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and the equivalence ratio at the combustor inlet is close to zero. The condition, {delta}{phi}{sub {phi}}'-V'{approx}0 , indicates that reactant mixtures with high equivalence ratio impinge on the flame front with high velocity, inducing large fluctuations of the rate of heat release. It is found that the phase difference between the acoustic velocity and equivalence ratio nonuniformities is a key parameter governing the linear/nonlinear response of a partially premixed flame, and it is a function of modulation frequency, inlet velocity, fuel injection location, and fuel injector impedance. The results presented in this article will provide insight into the response of a partially premixed flame, which has not been well explored to date. (author)

  1. Exploring Capabilities of Electrical Capacitance Tomography Sensor and Velocity Analysis of Two-Phase R-134A Flow Through a Sudden Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    area ratio φ angle of rod density of liquid phase (kg/m3) density of vapor phase (kg/m3) ...heat transfer in order to manage the ever-increasing airframe and engine heat loads. Two-phase liquid -vapor refrigerant systems are one solution for...the heat removal from these systems. However, they require more study before implementation. This study examines the velocities of two-phase liquid

  2. The role of ECoG magnitude and phase in decoding position, velocity and acceleration during continuous motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri eHammer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In neuronal population signals, including the electroencephalogram (EEG and electrocorticogram (ECoG, the low-frequency component (LFC is particularly informative about motor behavior and can be used for decoding movement parameters for brain-machine interface (BMI applications. An idea previously expressed, but as of yet not quantitatively tested, is that it is the LFC phase that is the main source of decodable information. To test this issue, we analyzed human ECoG recorded during a game-like, one-dimensional, continuous motor task with a novel decoding method suitable for unfolding magnitude and phase explicitly into a complex-valued, time-frequency signal representation, enabling quantification of the decodable information within the temporal, spatial and frequency domains and allowing disambiguation of the phase contribution from that of the spectral magnitude. The decoding accuracy based only on phase information was substantially (at least 2 fold and significantly higher than that based only on magnitudes for position, velocity and acceleration. The frequency profile of movement-related information in the ECoG data matched well with the frequency profile expected when assuming a close time-domain correlate of movement velocity in the ECoG, e.g., a (noisy copy of hand velocity. No such match was observed with the frequency profiles expected when assuming a copy of either hand position or acceleration. There was also no indication of additional magnitude-based mechanisms encoding movement information in the LFC range. Thus, our study contributes to elucidating the nature of the informative low-frequency component of motor cortical population activity and may hence contribute to improve decoding strategies and BMI performance.

  3. Phase reconstruction from velocity-encoded MRI measurements – A survey of sparsity-promoting variational approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant developments in the reconstruction of magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. While showing a strong improvement in reconstruction quality compared to classical approaches, the vast number of different methods, and the challenges in setting them up, often leaves the user with the difficult task of choosing the correct approach, or more importantly, not selecting a poor approach. In this paper, we survey variational approaches for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging, where the flow field will be smooth but interfaces between the fluid and surrounding material will be sharp, but are challenging to represent sparsely. As an example we demonstrate the variational approaches on velocity imaging of water flowing through a packed bed of solid particles. We evaluate Wavelet regularisation against Total Variation and the relatively recent second order Total Generalised Variation regularisation. We combine these regularisation schemes with a contrast enhancement approach called Bregman iteration. We verify for a variety of sampling patterns that Morozov\\'s discrepancy principle provides a good criterion for stopping the iterations. Therefore, given only the noise level, we present a robust guideline for setting up a variational reconstruction scheme for MR velocity imaging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The efficiency of ceramic-faced metal targets at high-velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkachev, V. F.; Konyaev, A. A.; Pakhnutova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents experimental results and engineering evaluation concerning the efficiency of composite materials to be used as an additional protection during the high- velocity interaction of a tungsten rod with a target in the velocity range of 1...5 km/s. The main parameter that characterizes the high-velocity interaction of a projectile with a layered target is the penetration depth. Experimental data, numerical simulation and engineering evaluation by modified models are used to determine the penetration depth. Boron carbide, aluminum oxide, and aluminum nickelide are applied as a front surface of targets. Based on experimental data and numerical simulation, the main characteristics of ceramics are determined, which allows composite materials to be effectively used as additional elements of protection.

  5. Measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow around horizontal tube bundle using SF6-water. Simulating high-pressure high-temperature gas-liquid two-phase flow of PWR/SG secondary coolant side at normal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imai, Ryoj; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve prediction accuracy of analysis code used for design and development of industrial products, technology had been developed to create and evaluate constitutive equation incorporated in analysis code. The experimental facility for PWR/SG U tubes part was manufactured to measure local void fraction and gas-liquid interfacial velocity with forming gas-liquid upward two-phase flow simulating high-pressure high-temperature secondary coolant (water-steam) rising vertically around horizontal tube bundle. The experimental facility could reproduce flow field having gas-liquid density ratio equivalent to real system with no heating using SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) gas at normal temperature and pressure less than 1 MPa, because gas-liquid density ratio, surface tension and gas-liquid viscosity ratio were important parameters to determine state of gas-liquid two-phase flow and gas-liquid density ratio was most influential. Void fraction was measured by two different methods of bi-optical probe and conductivity type probe. Test results of gas-liquid interfacial velocity vs. apparent velocity were in good agreement with existing empirical equation within 10% error, which could confirm integrity of experimental facility and appropriateness of measuring method so as to set up original constitutive equation in the future. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation

  7. Comparison between length and velocity gauges in quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    , and acceleration forms, and two gauges, the length and velocity gauges. The relationships among the harmonic phases obtained from the Fourier transform of the three forms are discussed in detail. Although quantum mechanics is gauge invariant and the length and velocity gauges should give identical results, the two...... gauges present different computation efficiencies, which reflects the different behavior in terms of characteristics of the physical couplings acting in the two gauges. In order to obtain convergence, more angular momentum states are required in the length gauge, while more grid points are required...

  8. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  9. Skeleton sled velocity profiles: a novel approach to understand critical aspects of the elite athletes' start phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T

    2018-06-01

    The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors. Stepwise regression revealed four variables (pre-load velocity, pre-load distance, load effectiveness, velocity drop) to explain 99% variance in performance (β weights: 1.70, -0.81, 0.25, -0.07, respectively). Sprint times and jump ability were associated (r ± 90% CI) with pre-load velocity (-0.70 ± 0.27 and 0.88 ± 0.14, respectively) and distance (-0.48 ± 0.39 and 0.67 ± 0.29, respectively), however, unclear relationships between both physical measures and load effectiveness (0.33 ± 0.44 and -0.35 ± 0.48, respectively) were observed. Athletes should develop accelerative ability to attain higher velocity earlier on the track. Additionally, the loading phase should not be overlooked and may be more influenced by technique than physical factors. Future studies should utilise this novel approach when evaluating skeleton starts or interventions to enhance performance.

  10. Experimental study of the positive leader velocity as a function of the current in the initial and final-jump phases of a spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. G.; Bazelyan, E. M.; Bulatov, M. U.; Kuzhekin, I. P.; Makalsky, L. M.; Sukharevskij, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.

    2008-01-01

    A positive leader in air at gap lengths of up to 8 m was studied experimentally on an open experimental stand. The voltage source was a 6-MV pulsed voltage generator or an artificial charged aerosol cloud. The dependence of the leader velocity on the current in the range 0.2-8 A was determined by simultaneously recording the optical picture and electric parameters of the discharge. Particular attention was paid to the final-jump phase of the discharge, when the gap was completely bridged by the streamer zone of the leader. It is shown that the character of the dependence of the leader velocity on the current in this phase remains unchanged; hence, the final-jump phase can be used in experiments in which the current has to be varied within a wide range. For this purpose, one can use a damping resistance, which is inefficient in the initial phase. The parameters of the power-law dependence of the leader velocity on the current at currents of a few amperes are established reliably. It is found that the power-law dependence with constant parameters is inapplicable to calculate the leader velocity at currents of about 0.1 A, which correspond to the lower limit of the leader viability.

  11. Distances, metallicities and origins of high-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H; Wakker, BP; Peletier, RF; Schwarz, UJ; KraanKorteweg, RC; Henning, PA; Andernach, H

    2000-01-01

    A review is given of distances of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) derived from absorption-line measurements, and of the metallicities of HVCs. Chain A definitely lies in the Galactic halo, between 2.5 and 7 kpc above the plane. The distance limits available for other HVCs allow a variety of locations:

  12. Fundamental research of two-phase flows with high liquid/gas density ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi; Saito, Yasushi; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Kensuke; Suzuki, Tohru

    2000-07-01

    In order to analyze the boiling of a fuel-steel mixture pool formed during the core disruptive accident in a fast breeder reactor, it is important to understand the flow characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase pools containing molten reactor materials. Since the liquid/gas density ratio is high, the characteristics of such two-phase flows may differ from those of ordinary flows such as water/air flow. In this study, as a fundamental research of two-phase flows with a high liquid/gas density ratio, the experiments were performed to visualize and measure molten metal (lead-bismuth)/nitrogen gas two-phase flows using a neutron radiography technique. From these experiments, fundamental data such as bubble shapes, void fractions and liquid velocity fields were obtained. In addition, the momentum exchange model of SIMMER-III, which has been developed by JNC, was assessed and improved using the experimental data. In the visualization by neutron radiography, it was found that deformed ellipsoidal bubbles could be seen with smaller gas flux or lower void fractions, and spherical cap bubbles could be seen with larger gas flux or higher void fractions. In addition, a correlation applicable to SIMMER-III was proposed through a comparison between the experimental data and traditional empirical correlations. Furthermore, a visualization experiment using gold-cadmium tracer particles showed that the image processing technique used in the quantification of void fractions is applicable to the measurement of the liquid velocity fields. On the other hand, in the analysis by SIMMER-III, it was confirmed that the original momentum exchange model was appropriate for ellipsoidal bobby flows and that the accuracy of SIMMER-III for cap bubbly flows was much improved with the proposed correlation. Moreover, a new procedure, in which the appropriate drag coefficient could be automatically selected according to bubble shape, was developed. The SIMMER-III code improved through this study can

  13. Influence of velocity on variability in gait kinematics: implications for recognition in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjaer, Tine; Lynnerup, Niels; Simonsen, Erik B

    2014-09-01

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) footage is often available from crime scenes and may be used to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, the footage comprises incomplete gait cycles at different velocities, making gait pattern identification from crimes difficult. This study investigated the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity for the suspect and perpetrator is recommended. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Distinguishing zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebrebrhan, M.; Ibanescu, M.; Johnson, Steven G.; Soljacic, M.; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We examine differences between various zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals, including those that arise from Bragg diffraction, anticrossings, and band repulsion. Zero-group velocity occurs at points where the group velocity changes sign, and therefore is conceptually related to 'left-handed' media, in which the group velocity is opposite to the phase velocity. We consider this relationship more quantitatively in terms of the Fourier decomposition of the modes, by defining a measure of how much the ''average'' phase velocity is parallel to the group velocity--an anomalous region is one in which they are mostly antiparallel. We find that this quantity can be used to qualitatively distinguish different zero-group-velocity points. In one dimension, such anomalous regions are found never to occur. In higher dimensions, they are exhibited around certain zero-group-velocity points, and lead to unusual enhanced confinement behavior in microcavities

  15. Numerical simulation of a high velocity impact on fiber reinforced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Vinckier, David

    1994-01-01

    Whereas the calculation of a high velocity impact on isotropical materials can be done on a routine basis, the simulation of the impact and penetration process into nonisotropical materials such as reinforced concrete or fiber reinforced materials still is a research task.We present the calculation of an impact of a metallic fragment on a modern protective wall structure. Such lightweight protective walls typically consist of two layers, a first outer layer made out of a material with high hardness and a backing layer. The materials for the backing layer are preferably fiber reinforced materials. Such types of walls offer a protection against fragments in a wide velocity range.For our calculations we used a non-linear finite element Lagrange code with explicit time integration. To be able to simulate the high velocity penetration process with a continuous erosion of the impacting metallic fragment, we used our newly developed contact algorithm with eroding surfaces. This contact algorithm is vectorized to a high degree and especially robust as it was developed to work for a wide range of contact-impact problems. To model the behavior of the fiber reinforced material under the highly dynamic loads, we present a material model which initially was developed to calculate the crash behavior (automotive applications) of modern high strength fiber-matrix systems. The model can describe the failure and the postfailure behavior up to complete material crushing.A detailed simulation shows the impact of a metallic fragment with a velocity of 750ms -1 on a protective wall with two layers, the deformation and erosion of fragment and wall material and the failure of the fiber reinforced material. ((orig.))

  16. An investigation of airborne GPS/INS for high accuracy position and velocity determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H.; Cannon, M.E. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geomatics Engineering; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    An airborne test using a differential GPS-INS system in a Twin Otter was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of using the integrated system for cm-level position and cm/s velocity. The INS is a miniaturized ring-laser gyro IMU jointly developed by Sandia and Honeywell while the GPS system consists of the NovAtel GPSCard{trademark}. INS position, velocity and attitude data were computed using Sandia`s SANDAC flight computer system and logged at 4 Hz and GPS data was acquired at a 1 Hz rate. The mission was approximately 2.5 hours in duration and the aircraft reached separations of up to 19 km from the base station. The data was post-processed using a centralized Kalman filter approach in which the double differenced carrier phase measurements are used to update the INS data. The INS position is in turn used to detect and correct GPS carrier phase cycle slips and also to bridge GPS outages. Results are presented for the GPS-only case and also for integrated GPS/INS.

  17. Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, T.; Hogsett, S.; Ishii, M.

    1998-01-01

    Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well with one by the photographic method. The filter to validate the hotfilm anemometry for measuring the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity in bubbly flow was developed based on removing the signal due to the passing bubbles. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter, liquid velocity, and turbulent intensity of vertical upward air-water flow in a round tube with inner diameter of 50.8 mm were measured by using these methods. A total of 54 data sets were acquired consisting of three superficial gas flow rates, 0.039, 0.067, and 0.147 m/s, and three superficial liquid flow rates, 0.60, 1.00, and 1.30 m/s. The measurements were performed at the three locations: L/D=2, 32, and 62. This data is expected to be used for the development of reliable constitutive relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in two-phase flow. (author)

  18. Pressure evolution of the high-frequency sound velocity in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, M.; Sette, F.; D'Astuto, M.; Lorenzen, M.; Mermet, A.; Monaco, G.; Verbeni, R.; Loubeyre, P.; Le Toullec, R.; Ruocco, G.; Cunsolo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The high-frequency sound velocity v ∞ of liquid water has been determined to densities of 1.37 g/cm 3 by inelastic x-ray scattering. In comparison to the hydrodynamic sound velocity v 0 , the increase of v ∞ with density is substantially less pronounced, indicating that, at high density, the hydrogen-bond network is decreasingly relevant to the physical properties of liquid water. Furthermore, we observe an anomaly in v ∞ at densities around 1.12 g/cm 3 , contrasting the smooth density evolution of v 0

  19. Atomic beam formed by the vaporization of a high velocity pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    A description of an atomic beam formed by vaporizing an electrostatically accelerated high velocity pellet is given. Uniformly sized droplets of neon will be formed by the mechanical disintegration of liquid jet and frozen by adiabatic vaporization in vacuum. The pellets produced will be charged and accelerated by contacting a needle held at high potential. The accelerated pellets will be vaporized forming a pulse of mono-energetic atoms. The advantages are that a wide range of energies will be possible. The beam will be mono-energetic. The beam is inheretly pulsed, allowing a detailed time of flight velocity distribution measurement. The beam will have a high instantaneous intensity. The beam will be able to operate into an ultra high vacuum chamber

  20. Vertical Rise Velocity of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Estimated from Equatorial Atmosphere Radar Observations and High-Resolution Bubble Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, T.; Ajith, K. K.; Yamamoto, M.; Niranjan, K.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPBs from a space weather point of view. The development of EPBs is presently believed as an evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have already developed a 3D high-resolution bubble (HIRB) model with a grid spacing of as small as 1 km and presented nonlinear growth of EPBs which shows very turbulent internal structures such as bifurcation and pinching. As EPBs have field-aligned structures, the latitude range that is affected by EPBs depends on the apex altitude of EPBs over the dip equator. However, it was not easy to observe the apex altitude and vertical rise velocity of EPBs. Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) in Indonesia is capable of steering radar beams quickly so that the growth phase of EPBs can be captured clearly. The vertical rise velocities of the EPBs observed around the midnight hours are significantly smaller compared to those observed in postsunset hours. Further, the vertical growth of the EPBs around midnight hours ceases at relatively lower altitudes, whereas the majority of EPBs at postsunset hours found to have grown beyond the maximum detectable altitude of the EAR. The HIRB model with varying background conditions are employed to investigate the possible factors that control the vertical rise velocity and maximum attainable altitudes of EPBs. The estimated rise velocities from EAR observations at both postsunset and midnight hours are, in general, consistent with the nonlinear evolution of EPBs from the HIRB model.

  1. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observation of Plasma Velocity-Space Cascade Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chasapis, A.; Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.; Gershman, D. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Phan, T.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is investigated using high-resolution ion velocity distributions, measured by theMagnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. The particle distributionmanifests large fluctuations, suggesting a cascade-like process in velocity space, invoked by theoristsfor many years. This complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermitetransform that reveals a power law distribution of moments. A Kolmogorov approach leads directlyto a range of predictions for this phase-space cascade. The scaling theory is in agreement withobservations, suggesting a new path for the study of plasma turbulence in weakly collisional spaceand astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Zero-velocity solitons in high-index photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation in slow-light states of high-index photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) is studied numerically. To avoid divergencies in dispersion and nonlinear parameters around the zero-velocity mode, a time-propagating generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is formulated. Calculated slow-...

  3. Study on flow regimes of high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Peng; Chen Xiaoping; Liang Cai; Pu Wenhao; Zhou Yun; Xu Pan; Zhao Changsui

    2009-01-01

    High-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying of pulverized coal is a key technology in the field of large-scale entrained bed coal gasification. Flow regime plays an important role in two-phase flow because it affects not only flow behavior and safety operation, but also the reliability of practical processes. Few references and experiences in high-pressure and dense-phase conveying are available, especially for the flow regimes. And because of the high stickiness and electrostatic attraction of pulverized coal to the pipe wall, it is very difficult to make out the flow regimes in the conveying pipe by visualization method. Thus quartz powder was chosen as the conveyed material to study the flow regime. High-speed digital video camera was employed to photograph the flow patterns. Experiments were conducted on a pilot scale experimental setup at the pressure up to 3.6MPa. With the decrease in superficial gas velocity, three distinguishable flow regimes were observed: stratified flow, dune flow and plug flow. The characteristics of pressure traces acquired by high frequency response pressure transmitter and their EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) characteristics were correlated strongly with the flow regimes. Combining high-speed photography and pressure signal analysis together can make the recognition of flow patterns in the high-pressure and dense-phase pneumatic conveying system more accurate. The present work will lead to better understanding of the flow regime transition under high-pressure.

  4. Measurement of the velocity of sound in crystals by pulsed neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, B.T.M.; Carlile, C.J.; Ward, R.C.; David, W.I.F.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-03-01

    The diffraction method of observing elementary excitations in crystals has been applied to the study of one-phonon thermal diffuse scattering from pyrolytic graphite on a high resolution pulsed neutron diffractometer. The variation of the phase velocity of sound as a function of direction in the crystal and efficient method of determining sound velocities in crystals under extreme conditions. (author)

  5. Kinematics of Local, High-Velocity K dwarfs in the SUPERBLINK Proper Motion Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bokyoung; Lepine, Sebastien

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of 345,480 K stars within 2 kpc of the Sun, based on data from the SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with high proper motions (> 40 mas/yr), combined with data from the 2MASS survey and from the first GAIA release, which together yields proper motions accurate to ~2 mas/yr. All K dwarfs were selected based on their G-K colors, and photometric distances were estimated from a re-calibrated color-magnitude relationship for K dwarfs. We plot transverse velocities VT in various directions on the sky, to examine the local distribution of K dwarfs in velocity space. We have also obtained radial velocity information for a subsample of 10,128 stars, from RAVE and SDSS DR12, which we use to construct spatial velocity (U, V, W) plots. About a third (123,350) of the stars are high-velocity K dwarfs, with motions consistent with the local Galactic halo population. Our kinematic analysis suggests that their velocity-space distribution is very uniform, and we find no evidence of substructure that might arise, e.g., from local streams or moving groups.

  6. Sound velocity and equation-of-state measurements in high pressure fluid and solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A piston--cylinder apparatus was used to obtain P, V, T, and simultaneous values of longitudinal sound velocity in helium fluid throughout the ranges 75 to 300 0 K and 3 to 20 kbar. Some 670 data sets were obtained for the fluid and used in a double-process least-squares fit to an equation of state of the Benedict type. Additional measurements extended across the melting line into the solid phase at pressures up to 18 kbar. Measurements of the compressibility are compared with those obtained by Stewart along the 4 0 K isotherm up to 20 kbar. We discuss the use of helium as a pressure medium in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. Essentially no data are given

  7. High Precision UTDR Measurements by Sonic Velocity Compensation with Reference Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Stade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasonic sensor design with sonic velocity compensation is developed to improve the accuracy of distance measurement in membrane modules. High accuracy real-time distance measurements are needed in membrane fouling and compaction studies. The benefits of the sonic velocity compensation with a reference transducer are compared to the sonic velocity calculated with the measured temperature and pressure using the model by Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. In the experiments the temperature was changed from 25 to 60 °C at pressures of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 MPa. The set measurement distance was 17.8 mm. Distance measurements with sonic velocity compensation were over ten times more accurate than the ones calculated based on the model. Using the reference transducer measured sonic velocity, the standard deviations for the distance measurements varied from 0.6 to 2.0 µm, while using the calculated sonic velocity the standard deviations were 21–39 µm. In industrial liquors, not only the temperature and the pressure, which were studied in this paper, but also the properties of the filtered solution, such as solute concentration, density, viscosity, etc., may vary greatly, leading to inaccuracy in the use of the Belogol’skii, Sekoyan et al. model. Therefore, calibration of the sonic velocity with reference transducers is needed for accurate distance measurements.

  8. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  9. Complex network analysis of phase dynamics underlying oil-water two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Cai, Qing; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Jin, Ning-De

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the complicated flow behaviors arising from high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows is an important problem of significant challenge. We design a high-speed cycle motivation conductance sensor and carry out experiments for measuring the local flow information from different oil-in-water flow patterns. We first use multivariate time-frequency analysis to probe the typical features of three flow patterns from the perspective of energy and frequency. Then we infer complex networks from multi-channel measurements in terms of phase lag index, aiming to uncovering the phase dynamics governing the transition and evolution of different oil-in-water flow patterns. In particular, we employ spectral radius and weighted clustering coefficient entropy to characterize the derived unweighted and weighted networks and the results indicate that our approach yields quantitative insights into the phase dynamics underlying the high water cut and low velocity oil-water flows. PMID:27306101

  10. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K; Okada, H; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. On the peculiarities of LDA method in two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplavski, S. V.; Boiko, V. M.; Nesterov, A. U.

    2016-10-01

    Popular applications of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) in gas dynamics are reviewed. It is shown that the most popular method cannot be used in supersonic flows and two-phase flows with high concentrations of particles. A new approach to implementation of the known LDA method based on direct spectral analysis, which offers better prospects for such problems, is presented. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for gas-liquid jets. Owing to the progress in laser engineering, digital recording of spectra, and computer processing of data, the method is implemented at a higher technical level and provides new prospects of diagnostics of high-velocity dense two-phase flows.

  12. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  13. Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))

  14. A new atomic force microscopy based technique for studying nanoscale friction at high sliding velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambe, Nikhil S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-01-01

    Tribological studies on the micro/nanoscale conducted using an atomic force microscope (AFM) have been limited to low sliding velocities ( -1 ) due to inherent instrument limitations. Studies of tribological properties of materials, coatings and lubricants that find applications in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems and magnetic head-media in magnetic storage devices that operate at high sliding velocities have thus been rendered inadequate. We have developed a new technique to study nanotribological properties at high sliding velocities (up to 10 mm s -1 ) by modifying the commercial AFM set-up. A custom calibrated nanopositioning piezo stage is used for mounting samples and scanning is achieved by providing a triangular input voltage pulse. A capacitive sensor feedback control system is employed to ensure a constant velocity profile during scanning. Friction data are obtained by processing the AFM laser photo-diode signals using a high sampling rate data acquisition card. The utility of the modified set-up for nanoscale friction studies at high sliding velocities is demonstrated using results obtained from various tests performed to study the effect of scan size, rest time, acceleration and velocity on the frictional force for single crystal silicon (100) with native oxide

  15. Studying the instantaneous velocity field in gas-sheared liquid films in a horizontal duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Joao; Tokarev, Mikhail; Cherdantsev, Andrey; Hann, David; Hewakandamby, Buddhika; Azzopardi, Barry

    2016-11-01

    In annular flow, the experimental validation of the basic assumptions on the liquid velocity profile is vital for developing theoretical models of the flow. However, the study of local velocity of liquid in gas-sheared films has proven to be a challenging task due to the highly curved and disturbed moving interface of the phases, small scale of the area of interrogation, high velocity gradients and irregular character of the flow. This study reports on different optical configurations and interface-tracking methods employed in a horizontal duct in order to obtain high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) data in such types of complex flows. The experimental envelope includes successful measurements in 2D and 3D waves regimes, up to the disturbance wave regime. Preliminary data show the presence of complex structures in the liquid phase, which includes re-circulation areas below the liquid interface due to the gas-shearing action, together with non-uniform transverse movements of the liquid phase close to the wall due to the presence of 3D waves at the interface. With the aid of the moving interface-tracking, PIV, time-resolved particle-tracking velocimetry and vorticity measurements were performed.

  16. Isolated Bacterial Spores at High-velocity Survive Surface Impacts in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; Barney, Brandon

    We present experiments in which bacterial spores were found to survive being accelerated in vacuum to velocities in the range 30-120 m/s and impacted on a dense target. In these experiments, spores of Bacillus subtilis spores were charged using electrospray at atmospheric pressure, dried, and then introduced into high vacuum. Through choice of skimmers and beam tubes, different velocity ranges were achieved. An image-charge detector observed the charged spores, providing total charge and velocity. The spores then impacted a glass target within a collection vessel. After the experiment, the collection vessel contents were extracted and cultured. Several positive and negative controls were used, including the use of antibiotic-resistant spores and antibiotic-containing (rifampicin) agar for culturing. These impact velocities are of particular interest for possible transport of bacterial spores from Mars to Phobos, and may have implications for planetary protection in a Phobos sample return mission. In addition, bacteria may reach similar velocities during a spacecraft crash (e.g., within components, or from spacecraft to surface materials during impact, etc.), raising concerns about forward contamination. The velocities of interest to transport of life between planets (panspermia) are somewhat higher, but these results complement shock-based experiments and contribute to the general discussion of impact survivability of organisms.

  17. High-efficiency helical traveling-wave tube with dynamic velocity taper and advanced multistage depressed collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Arthur N.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Force, Dale A.; Dombro, Louis; Long, James A.

    A NASA-sponsored research and development contract has been established with the Watkins-Johnson Company to fabricate high-efficiency 20-watt helical traveling wave tubes (TWTs) operating at 8.4 to 8.43 GHz. The TWTs employ dynamic velocity tapers (DVTs) and advanced multistage depressed collectors (MDCs) having electrodes with low secondary electron emission characteristics. The TWT designs include two different DVTs; one for maximum efficiency and the other for minimum distortion and phase shift. The MDC designs include electrodes of untreated and ion-textured graphite as well as copper which has been treated for secondary electron emission suppression. Objectives of the program include achieving at least 55 percent overall efficiency. Tests with the first TWTs (with undepressed collectors) indicate good agreement between predicted and measured RF efficiencies with as high as 30 percent improvement in RF efficiency over conventional helix designs.

  18. High-efficiency helical traveling-wave tube with dynamic velocity taper and advanced multistage depressed collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Arthur N.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Force, Dale A.; Dombro, Louis; Long, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A NASA-sponsored research and development contract has been established with the Watkins-Johnson Company to fabricate high-efficiency 20-watt helical traveling wave tubes (TWTs) operating at 8.4 to 8.43 GHz. The TWTs employ dynamic velocity tapers (DVTs) and advanced multistage depressed collectors (MDCs) having electrodes with low secondary electron emission characteristics. The TWT designs include two different DVTs; one for maximum efficiency and the other for minimum distortion and phase shift. The MDC designs include electrodes of untreated and ion-textured graphite as well as copper which has been treated for secondary electron emission suppression. Objectives of the program include achieving at least 55 percent overall efficiency. Tests with the first TWTs (with undepressed collectors) indicate good agreement between predicted and measured RF efficiencies with as high as 30 percent improvement in RF efficiency over conventional helix designs.

  19. Two-step simulation of velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Schmidt number in turbulent jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, K. Jeff; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of passive scalar in the high Schmidt number turbulent mixing process requires higher computational cost than that of velocity fields, because the scalar is associated with smaller length scales than velocity. Thus, full simulation of both velocity and passive scalar with high Sc for a practical configuration is difficult to perform. In this work, a new approach to simulate velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Sc is suggested to reduce the computational cost. First, the velocity fields are resolved by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Then, by extracting the velocity information from LES, the scalar inside a moving fluid blob is simulated by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). This two-step simulation method is applied to a turbulent jet and provides a new way to examine a scalar mixing process in a practical application with smaller computational cost. NSF, Samsung Scholarship.

  20. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING 56Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    2013-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M ☉ star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that 56 Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter (∼>3500 km s –1 ) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of 56 Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity 56 Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, 56 Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s –1 can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of 56 Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of 56 Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s –1 . We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of 56 Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required

  1. Visualization and measurement of liquid velocity field of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yasushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2000-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, a possibility of re-criticality is anticipated in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. One of the mechanisms to suppress the re-criticality is the boiling of steel in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool because of the negative void reactivity effect. To evaluate the reactivity change due to boiling, it is necessary to know the characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. For this purpose, boiling bubbles in a molten fuel-steel mixture pool were simulated by adiabatic gas bubbles in a liquid metal pool to study the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture. Visualization of the two-phase mixture and measurements of liquid phase velocity and void fraction were conducted by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. From these measurements, the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. (author)

  2. Simultaneous two-phase flow measurement of spray mixing process by means of high-speed two-color PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Xu, Min; Hung, David L S

    2014-01-01

    In this article, a novel high-speed two-color PIV optical diagnostic technique has been developed and applied to simultaneously measure the velocity flow-fields of a multi-hole spark-ignition direct injection (SIDI) fuel injector spray and its ambient gas in a high-pressure constant volume chamber. To allow for the phase discrimination between the fuel droplets and ambient gas, a special tracer-filter system was designed. Fluorescent seeding particles with Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of 4.8 µm were used to trace the gas inside the chamber. With a single high-speed Nd:YLF laser sheet (527 nm) as the incident light source, the Mie-scattering signal marked the phase of the fuel spray, while the fluorescent signal generated from the seeding particles tracked the phase of ambient gas. A high-speed camera, with an image-doubler (mounted in front of the camera lens) that divided the camera pixels into two parts focusing on the same field of view, was used to collect the Mie-scattering signal and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) signal simultaneously with two carefully selected optical filters. To accommodate the large dynamic range of velocities in the two phases (1–2 orders of magnitude difference), two separation times (dt) were introduced. This technique was successfully applied to the liquid spray and ambient gas two-phase flow measurement. The measurement accuracy was compared with those from LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) measurement and good agreement was obtained. Ambient gas motion surrounding the fuel spray was investigated and characterized into three zones. The momentum transfer process between the fuel spray and ambient gas in each zone was analyzed. The two-phase flow interaction under various superheated conditions was investigated. A strengthened momentum transfer from the liquid spray to the ambient was observed with increased superheat degree. (paper)

  3. Production of Babbitt Coatings by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A. R. C.; Ettouil, F. B.; Moreau, C.; Savoie, S.; Schulz, R.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents HVOF as an alternative means to produce dense Babbitt coatings by thermal spray. A radial injection setup and low fuel flow rates were used to minimize heat transfer to the low melting point alloy. In-flight particle diagnostic systems were used to correlate spray parameters with the changes in particle velocity and thermal radiation intensity. The use of particles with larger diameters resulted in higher deposition efficiencies. It was shown that HVOF Babbitt coatings combine a dense structure and a fine distribution of intermetallic phases when compared to more traditional babbitting techniques.

  4. Turbulence, dynamic similarity and scale effects in high-velocity free-surface flows above a stepped chute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan; Chanson, Hubert

    2009-07-01

    In high-velocity free-surface flows, air entrainment is common through the interface, and intense interactions take place between turbulent structures and entrained bubbles. Two-phase flow properties were measured herein in high-velocity open channel flows above a stepped chute. Detailed turbulence measurements were conducted in a large-size facility, and a comparative analysis was applied to test the validity of the Froude and Reynolds similarities. The results showed consistently that the Froude similitude was not satisfied using a 2:1 geometric scaling ratio. Lesser number of entrained bubbles and comparatively greater bubble sizes were observed at the smaller Reynolds numbers, as well as lower turbulence levels and larger turbulent length and time scales. The results implied that small-size models did underestimate the rate of energy dissipation and the aeration efficiency of prototype stepped spillways for similar flow conditions. Similarly a Reynolds similitude was tested. The results showed also some significant scale effects. However a number of self-similar relationships remained invariant under changes of scale and confirmed the analysis of Chanson and Carosi (Exp Fluids 42:385-401, 2007). The finding is significant because self-similarity may provide a picture general enough to be used to characterise the air-water flow field in large prototype channels.

  5. Supernovae-generated high-velocity compact clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalinewich, A.; Beniamini, P.

    2018-05-01

    Context. A previous study claimed the discovery of an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). This hypothetical black hole was invoked in order to explain the high-velocity dispersion in one of several dense molecular clouds near the Galactic center. The same study considered the possibility that this cloud was due to a supernova explosion, but disqualified this scenario because no X-rays were detected. Aims: We here check whether a supernova explosion could have produced that cloud, and whether this explanation is more likely than an IMBH. More specifically, we wish to determine whether a supernova inside a dense molecular cloud would emit in the X-rays. Methods: We have approached this problem from two different directions. First, we performed an analytic calculation to determine the cooling rate by thermal bremsstrahlung and compared this time to the lifetime of the cloud. Second, we estimated the creation rate of these dense clouds in the central molecular zone (CMZ) region near the Galactic center, where they were observed. Based on this rate, we can place lower bounds on the total mass of IMBHs and clouds and compare this to the masses of the components of the CMZ. Results: We find that the cooling time of the supernova remnant inside a molecular cloud is shorter than its dynamical time. This means that the temperature in such a remnant would be much lower than that of a typical supernova remnant. At such a low temperature, the remnant is not expected to emit in the X-rays. We also find that to explain the rate at which such dense clouds are created requires fine-tuning the number of IMBHs. Conclusions: We find the supernova model to be a more likely explanation for the formation of high-velocity compact clouds than an IMBH.

  6. Penetration of Liquid Jets into a High-velocity Air Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelko, Louis J

    1950-01-01

    Data are presented showing the penetration characteristics of liquid jets directed approximately perpendicular to a high-velocity air stream for jet-nozzle-throat diameters from 0.0135 to 0.0625 inch, air stream densities from 0.0805 to 0.1365 pound per cubic foot, liquid jet velocities from 168.1 to 229.0 feet per second and a liquid jet density of approximately 62 pounds per cubic foot. The data were analyzed and a correlation was developed that permitted the determination of the penetration length of the liquid jet for any operation condition within the range of variables investigated.

  7. Local gas- and liquid-phase measurements for air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Sun, X.; Williams, M.; Fu, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Local gas- and liquid-phase measurements of various gas-liquid two-phase flows, including bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, and churn-turbulent flows, were performed in an acrylic vertical channel with a rectangular cross section of 30 mm x 10 mm and height of 3.0 m. All the measurements were carried out at three measurement elevations along the flow channel, with z/D h = 9, 72, and 136, respectively, to study the flow development. The gas-phase velocity, void fraction, and bubble number frequency were measured using a double-sensor conductivity probe. A high-speed imaging system was utilized to perform the flow regime visualization and to provide additional quantitative information of the two-phase flow structure. An image processing scheme was developed to obtain the gas-phase velocity, void fraction, Sauter mean diameter, bubble number density, and interfacial area concentration. The liquid-phase velocity and turbulence measurements were conducted using a particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system, which enables whole-field and high-resolution data acquisition. An optical phase separation method, which uses fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique, is adopted to extract the velocity information of the liquid phase. An image pre-processing scheme is imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noises due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the images captured by the PIV-PLIF system. Due to the better light access and less bubble distortion in the narrow rectangular channel, the PIV-PLIF system were able to perform reasonably well in flows of even higher void fractions as compared to the situations with circular pipe test sections. The flow conditions being studied covered various flow regime transitions, void fractions, and liquid-phase flow Reynolds numbers. The obtained experimental data can also be used to validate two-phase CFD results. (author)

  8. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  9. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  10. Inter-relationship between CSF dynamics and CSF to-and-fro movement in the cervical region as assessed by MR velocity imaging with phase encoding in hydrocephalic and normal patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Sumio; Wachi, Akihiko; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sumie, Hirotoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The to-and-fro velocity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at C-1 and C-2 spinal-cord levels was measured by means of MR velocity-imaging technique, and the correlation of changes in velocity and various biophysical factors influencing the intracranial pressure environment were analyzed. Eight hydrocephalic patients, male and female, of different ages (both infants and adults), and 11 normal volunteers with a similar age range were investigated. The to-and-fro CSF movement was measured by means of phase-shift techniques with a bipolar gradient pulse. The cerebrospinal opening pressure was also recorded in 6 of the 8 hydrocephalic patients, either through a ventricular catheter reservoir or a spinal catheter inserted in the lumbosacral subarachnoid space; the CSF pulse amplitude, the pressure volume index (PVI), and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro) were also evaluated during the procedure. CSF flowed towards caudally in the early systolic phase of a cardiac stroke, but the flow direction was reversed in the early diastolic phase when the maximum flow rate was reached. Although such a flow pattern was commonly observed in all normal and hydrocephalic subjects, whatever the age, there was a marked difference in flow rate between the infants and the pediatric-adults groups, -i.e., it was 5-10 mm/sec for the former and 10-20 mm/sec for the latter. An abnormally high flow rate (33.0 mm/sec) was observed in the hydrocephalic patients when there was a malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A close correlation was found to exist among the changes in the CSF flow velocity, the CSF pressure amplitude, and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro), but not in the PVI. The measurement of the CSF flow velocity by MR velocity imaging appears to have an important role not only in the investigation of CSF dynamics, but also in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies as hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. (author)

  11. Measurements of liquid-phase turbulence in gas–liquid two-phase flows using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinquan; Doup, Benjamin; Sun, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-phase turbulence measurements were performed in an air–water two-phase flow loop with a circular test section of 50 mm inner diameter using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. An optical phase separation method-–planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique—which uses fluorescent particles and an optical filtration technique, was employed to separate the signals of the fluorescent seeding particles from those due to bubbles and other noises. An image pre-processing scheme was applied to the raw PIV images to remove the noise residuals that are not removed by the PLIF technique. In addition, four-sensor conductivity probes were adopted to measure the radial distribution of the void fraction. Two benchmark tests were performed: the first was a comparison of the PIV measurement results with those of similar flow conditions using thermal anemometry from previous studies; the second quantitatively compared the superficial liquid velocities calculated from the local liquid velocity and void fraction measurements with the global liquid flow rate measurements. The differences of the superficial liquid velocity obtained from the two measurements were bounded within ±7% for single-phase flows and two-phase bubbly flows with the area-average void fraction up to 18%. Furthermore, a preliminary uncertainty analysis was conducted to investigate the accuracy of the two-phase PIV measurements. The systematic uncertainties due to the circular pipe curvature effects, bubble surface reflection effects and other potential uncertainty sources of the PIV measurements were discussed. The purpose of this work is to facilitate the development of a measurement technique (PIV-PLIF) combined with image pre-processing for the liquid-phase turbulence in gas–liquid two-phase flows of relatively high void fractions. The high-resolution data set can be used to more thoroughly understand two-phase flow behavior, develop liquid-phase turbulence models, and assess high

  12. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.

    1998-02-01

    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  13. EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Meng Xiangcun

    2013-01-01

    The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 ∼ MS ∼< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.

  14. Characterization of Medication Velocity and Size Distribution from Pressurized Metered-Dose Inhalers by Phase Doppler Anemometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Abubaker; Matida, Edgar

    2016-12-01

    Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system. In the current study, particle velocity and size distribution were measured at three different locations along the centerline of a pMDI spray using Phase Doppler Anemometry. pMDIs from four different pharmaceutical companies were tested, each using salbutamol sulfate as the medication. Measurements along at the pMDI centerline (at 0, 75, and 100 mm downstream of the inhaler mouthpiece) showed that the spray velocities were bimodal in time for all four pMDI brands. The first peak occurred as the spray was leaving the mouthpiece, while the second peak (at the same location, 0 mm) occurred at around 60, 95, 95, and 115 milliseconds later, respectively, for the four tested inhalers, with a drop in the velocity between the two peaks. Three probability density functions (PDFs) were tested, and the Rosin-Rammler PDF best fit the empirical data, as determined using a chi-squared test. These results suggest that there is a difference in the mean particle velocities at the centerline for the tested pMDIs and the diameter of released particles varied statistically for each brand.

  15. Upper mantle compositional variations and discontinuity topography imaged beneath Australia from Bayesian inversion of surface-wave phase velocities and thermochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Zunino, Andrea; Deschamps, F.

    2013-01-01

    Here we discuss the nature of velocity heterogeneities seen in seismic tomography images of Earth's mantle whose origins and relation to thermochemical variations are yet to be understood. We illustrate this by inverting fundamental-mode and higher-order surface-wave phase velocities for radial....../Fe and Mg/Si values relative to surrounding mantle. Correlated herewith are thermal variations that closely follow surface tectonics. We also observe a strong contribution to lateral variations in structure and topography across the “410 km” seismic discontinuity from thermochemically induced phase......-wave tomography models with other regional models is encouraging. Radial anisotropy is strongest at 150/200 km depth beneath oceanic/continental areas, respectively, and appears weak and homogeneous below. Finally, geoid anomalies are computed for a subset of sampled model and compared to observations....

  16. Electronic Instability at High Flux-Flow Velocities in High-Tc Superconducting Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doettinger, S. G.; Huebener, R. P.; Gerdemann, R.

    1994-01-01

    At high flux-flow velocities in type-II superconductors the nonequilibrium distribution of the quasiparticles leads to an electronic instability and an aburpt switching into a state with higher electric resistivity, as predicted by Larkin and Ovchinnikow (LO). We report the first obervation...... of this effect in a high-temperature superconductor, namely in epitaxial c-axis oriented films of YBa(2)Cu3O(7)-(delta). Using the LO therory, we have extracted from out results the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rare tau(in)(-1), which strongly decreases with decreasing temperature below T-c...

  17. On pattern recognition of fireballs and isobars in the Lobachevsky velocity space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelev, E.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that a multidimensional statistical analysis of high particle jets means the classification of invariant pictures for their kinematics into types (with the production of fireballs and isobars and without one or the other) and recognition of statistical patterms for fireballs and isobars in the Lobachevsky velocity space (invariant phase space in high energy physics). The concept of likeness (closeness) of single-type pictures is taken as basis for such a classification. Two known methods of formalizing this concept are generalized in application to the noneuclidean metric of the velocity space

  18. Generation of net sediment transport by velocity skewness in oscillatory sheet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Yong; Chen, Genfa; Wang, Fujun; Tang, Xuelin

    2018-01-01

    This study utilizes a qualitative approach and a two-phase numerical model to investigate net sediment transport caused by velocity skewness beneath oscillatory sheet flow and current. The qualitative approach is derived based on the pseudo-laminar approximation of boundary layer velocity and exponential approximation of concentration. The two-phase model can obtain well the instantaneous erosion depth, sediment flux, boundary layer thickness, and sediment transport rate. It can especially illustrate the difference between positive and negative flow stages caused by velocity skewness, which is considerably important in determining the net boundary layer flow and sediment transport direction. The two-phase model also explains the effect of sediment diameter and phase-lag to sediment transport by comparing the instantaneous-type formulas to better illustrate velocity skewness effect. In previous studies about sheet flow transport in pure velocity-skewed flows, net sediment transport is only attributed to the phase-lag effect. In the present study with the qualitative approach and two-phase model, phase-lag effect is shown important but not sufficient for the net sediment transport beneath pure velocity-skewed flow and current, while the asymmetric wave boundary layer development between positive and negative flow stages also contributes to the sediment transport.

  19. Thermoconvective flow velocity in a high-speed magnetofluid seal after it has stopped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    Convective flow is investigated in the high-speed (linear velocity of the shaft seal is more than 1 m/s) magnetofluid shaft seal after it has been stopped. Magnetic fluid is preliminarily heated due to viscous friction in the moving seal. After the shaft has been stopped, nonuniform heated fluid remains under the action of a high-gradient magnetic field. Numerical analysis has revealed that in this situation, intense thermomagnetic convection is initiated. The velocity of magnetic fluid depends on its viscosity. For the fluid with viscosity of 2 × 10-4 m2/s the maximum flow velocity within the volume of magnetic fluid with a characteristic size of 1 mm can attain a value of 10 m/s.

  20. Thermoconvective flow velocity in a high-speed magnetofluid seal after it has stopped

    OpenAIRE

    Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    Convective flow is investigated in the high-speed (linear velocity of the shaft seal is more than 1 m/s) magnetofluid shaft seal after it has been stopped. Magnetic fluid is preliminarily heated due to viscous friction in the moving seal. After the shaft has been stopped, nonuniform heated fluid remains under the action of a high-gradient magnetic field. Numerical analysis has revealed that in this situation, intense thermomagnetic convection is initiated. The velocity of magnetic fluid depen...

  1. MATTER MIXING IN ASPHERICAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: A SEARCH FOR POSSIBLE CONDITIONS FOR CONVEYING {sup 56}Ni INTO HIGH VELOCITY REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Masaomi; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ito, Hirotaka; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Tolstov, Alexey [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki, E-mail: masaomi.ono@riken.jp [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-08-20

    We perform two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions of a 16.3 M{sub Sun} star with a compact hydrogen envelope. Observations of SN 1987A have provided evidence that {sup 56}Ni synthesized by explosive nucleosynthesis is mixed into fast moving matter ({approx}>3500 km s{sup -1}) in the exploding star. In order to clarify the key conditions for reproducing such high velocity of {sup 56}Ni, we revisit matter mixing in aspherical core-collapse supernova explosions. Explosions are initiated artificially by injecting thermal and kinetic energies around the interface between the iron core and the silicon-rich layer. Perturbations of 5% or 30% amplitude in the radial velocities are introduced at several points in time. We find that no high velocity {sup 56}Ni can be obtained if we consider bipolar explosions with perturbations (5% amplitude) of pre-supernova origins. If large perturbations (30% amplitude) are introduced or exist due to some unknown mechanism in a later phase just before the shock wave reaches the hydrogen envelope, {sup 56}Ni with a velocity of 3000 km s{sup -1} can be obtained. Aspherical explosions that are asymmetric across the equatorial plane with clumpy structures in the initial shock waves are investigated. We find that the clump sizes affect the penetration of {sup 56}Ni. Finally, we report that an aspherical explosion model that is asymmetric across the equatorial plane with multiple perturbations of pre-supernova origins can cause the penetration of {sup 56}Ni clumps into fast moving matter of 3000 km s{sup -1}. We show that both aspherical explosions with clumpy structures and perturbations of pre-supernova origins may be necessary to reproduce the observed high velocity of {sup 56}Ni. To confirm this, more robust three-dimensional simulations are required.

  2. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels.

  3. Resonant coherent ionization in grazing ion/atom-surface collisions at high velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de Abajo, F J [Dept. de Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain); Pitarke, J M [Materia Kondentsatuaren Fisika Saila, Zientzi Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Univ., Bilbo (Spain)

    1994-05-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of a fast ion/atom with an oriented crystal surface under grazing incidence conditions is shown to contribute significantly to ionize the probe for high enough velocities and motion along a random direction. The dependence of this process on both the distance to the surface and the velocity of the projectile is studied in detail. We focus on the case of hydrogen moving with a velocity above 2 a.u. Comparison with other mechanisms of charge transfer, such as capture from inner shells of the target atoms, permits us to draw some conclusions about the charge state of the outgoing projectiles. (orig.)

  4. Resonant coherent ionization in grazing ion/atom-surface collisions at high velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Pitarke, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of a fast ion/atom with an oriented crystal surface under grazing incidence conditions is shown to contribute significantly to ionize the probe for high enough velocities and motion along a random direction. The dependence of this process on both the distance to the surface and the velocity of the projectile is studied in detail. We focus on the case of hydrogen moving with a velocity above 2 a.u. Comparison with other mechanisms of charge transfer, such as capture from inner shells of the target atoms, permits us to draw some conclusions about the charge state of the outgoing projectiles. (orig.)

  5. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  6. High Velocity Spectroscopic Binary Orbits from Photoelectric Radial Velocities: BD+20 5152, a Possible Triple System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperauskas J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectroscopic orbit of a high proper motion star, BD+20 5152, is calculated from 34 CORAVEL-type radial velocity measurements. The star has a slightly eccentric orbit with a period of 5.70613 d, half-amplitude of 47.7 km/s and eccentricity of 0.049. The center-of-mass velocity of the system is -24.3 km/s. BD+20 5152 seems to be a triple system consisting of a G8 dwarf as a primary component and of two K6-M0 dwarfs as secondary and tertiary components. This model is based on the analysis of its UBVRI and JHK magnitudes. According to the SuperWASP photometry, spots on the surface of the primary are suspected. The excessive brightness in the Galex FUV and NUV magnitudes and a non-zero eccentricity suggest the age of this system to be less than 1 Gyr.

  7. Ultrasonic spectroscopy study into the nature of a high-temperature phase transformation in V203

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, G.O.; Drichko, I.L.; Lakhtman, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    The velocity of longitudinal sound wave propagation in V 2 O 3 vanadium sesquioxide was studied in the temperature range of 250-550 K in a wide range of ultrasound frequencies from 70 to 1500 MHz. The investigation was carried out in order to obtain the dynamic characteristics of the transition and to define the nature of high-temperature anomalies in V 2 O 3 . The sound velocity dispersion was observed. The frequency dependence of the sound velocity can be adequately described by the Mandelstam-Leontovich formula. Values and temperature dependences of tau, Vsub(infinity) and (Vsub(infinity)-Vsub(0)/Vsub(infinity) were calculated where tau is the relaxation time; Vsub(0), Vsub(infinity) are the values of velocitiea when ω→0 and ω→infinity respectively. The acoustic anomalies in the temperature range under investigation are shown to be well described qualitatively by the overlapping zone model. A deep maximum in the sound velocity at T=520 K can be explained by fluctuations in the neighbourhood of the magnetic phase transformation

  8. One-dimensional transient unequal velocity two-phase flow by the method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, F.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of two-phase flow is important when one is analyzing the accidental loss of coolant or when analyzing industrial processes. If a pipe in the steam generator of a nuclear reactor breaks, the flow will remain critical (or choked) for almost the entire blowdown. For this reason the knowledge of the two-phase maximum (critical) flow rate is important. A six-equation model--consisting of two continuity equations, two energy equations, a mixture momentum equation, and a constitutive relative velocity equation--is solved numerically by the method of characteristics for one-dimensional, transient, two-phase flow systems. The analysis is also extended to the special case of transient critical flow. The six-equation model is used to study the flow of a nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the critical flow condition is at the entrance. A four-equation model is used to study the pressure-pulse propagation rate in an isothermal air-water system, and the results that are found are compared with the experimental data. Proper initial and boundary conditions are obtained for the blowdown problem. The energy and mass exchange relations are evaluated by comparing the model predictions with results of void-fraction and heat-transfer experiments. A simplified two-equation model is obtained for the special case of two incompressible phases. This model is used in the preliminary analysis of batch sedimentation. It is also used to predict the shock formation in the gas-solid fluidized bed

  9. Further experiments for mean velocity profile of pipe flow at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, N.; Terao, Y.; Wada, Y.; Tsuji, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports further experimental results obtained in high Reynolds number actual flow facility in Japan. The experiments were performed in a pipe flow with water, and the friction Reynolds number was varied up to Reτ = 5.3 × 104. This high Reynolds number was achieved by using water as the working fluid and adopting a large-diameter pipe (387 mm) while controlling the flow rate and temperature with high accuracy and precision. The streamwise velocity was measured by laser Doppler velocimetry close to the wall, and the mean velocity profile, called log-law profile U+ = (1/κ) ln(y+) + B, is especially focused. After careful verification of the mean velocity profiles in terms of the flow rate accuracy and an evaluation of the consistency of the present results with those from previously measurements in a smaller pipe (100 mm), it was found that the value of κ asymptotically approaches a constant value of κ = 0.384.

  10. Study of axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyas Ud Din; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Hameed Inayat, Mansoor; Hussain Khan, Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and (99m)Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer (99m)Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.

  11. Study of axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiyas Ud Din; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Mansoor Hameed Inayat; Iqbal Hussain Khan

    2009-01-01

    Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and 99m Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer 99m Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.

  12. Void fraction and velocity measurement of simulated bubble in a rotating disc using high frame rate neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y; Mishima, K; Matsubayashi, M

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate measurement error of local void fraction and velocity field in a gas-molten metal two-phase flow by high-frame-rate neutron radiography, experiments using a rotating stainless-steel disc, which has several holes of various diameters and depths simulating gas bubbles, were performed. Measured instantaneous void fraction and velocity field of the simulated bubbles were compared with the calculated values based on the rotating speed, the diameter and the depth of the holes as parameters and the measurement error was evaluated. The rotating speed was varied from 0 to 350 rpm (tangential velocity of the simulated bubbles from 0 to 1.5 m/s). The effect of shutter speed of the imaging system on the measurement error was also investigated. It was revealed from the Lagrangian time-averaged void fraction profile that the measurement error of the instantaneous void fraction depends mainly on the light-decay characteristics of the fluorescent converter. The measurement error of the instantaneous local void fraction of simulated bubbles is estimated to be 20%. In the present imaging system, the light-decay characteristics of the fluorescent converter affect the measurement remarkably, and so should be taken into account in estimating the measurement error of the local void fraction profile.

  13. Void fraction and velocity measurement of simulated bubble in a rotating disc using high frame rate neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate measurement error of local void fraction and velocity field in a gas-molten metal two-phase flow by high-frame-rate neutron radiography, experiments using a rotating stainless-steel disc, which has several holes of various diameters and depths simulating gas bubbles, were performed. Measured instantaneous void fraction and velocity field of the simulated bubbles were compared with the calculated values based on the rotating speed, the diameter and the depth of the holes as parameters and the measurement error was evaluated. The rotating speed was varied from 0 to 350 rpm (tangential velocity of the simulated bubbles from 0 to 1.5 m/s). The effect of shutter speed of the imaging system on the measurement error was also investigated. It was revealed from the Lagrangian time-averaged void fraction profile that the measurement error of the instantaneous void fraction depends mainly on the light-decay characteristics of the fluorescent converter. The measurement error of the instantaneous local void fraction of simulated bubbles is estimated to be 20%. In the present imaging system, the light-decay characteristics of the fluorescent converter affect the measurement remarkably, and so should be taken into account in estimating the measurement error of the local void fraction profile

  14. 3D shear wave velocity structure revealed with ambient noise tomography on a DAS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.

    2017-12-01

    An 8700-m Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable was deployed at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 in a 1.5 by 0.5 km study area. The layout of the DAS array was designed with a zig-zag geometry to obtain relatively uniform areal and varied angular coverage, providing very dense coverage with a one-meter channel spacing. This array continuously recorded signals of a vibroseis truck, earthquakes, and traffic noise during the 15-day deployment. As shown in a previous study (Zeng et al., 2017), ambient noise tomography can be applied to DAS continuous records to image shear wave velocity structure in the near surface. To avoid effects of the vibroseis truck operation, only continuous data recorded during the nighttime was used to compute noise cross-correlation functions for channel pairs within a given linear segment. The frequency band of whitening was set at 5 to 15 Hz and the length of the cross-correlation time window was set to 60 second. The phase velocities were determined using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methodology. The phase velocity dispersion curve was then used to invert for shear wave velocity profiles. A preliminarily velocity model at Brady's Hot Springs (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2015) was used as the starting model and the sensitivity kernels of Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities were computed with this model. As the sensitivity kernel shows, shear wave velocity in the top 200 m can be constrained with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities in our frequency band. With the picked phase velocity data, the shear wave velocity structure can be obtained via Occam's inversion (Constable et al., 1987; Lai 1998). Shear wave velocity gradually increases with depth and it is generally faster than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2015) model. Furthermore, that model has limiting constraints at shallow depth. The strong spatial variation is interpreted to reflect the different sediments and

  15. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  16. Numerical modeling and investigation of two-phase reactive flow in a high-low pressure chambers system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel two-dimensional two-phase flow model is established for the high-low pressure chambers system. • A strong packing of particles is observed at the projectile base and will cause the pressure to rise faster. • Different length–diameter ratios can affect the flow behavior through the vent-holes obviously. • The muzzle velocity decreases with the length–diameter ratio of the high-pressure chamber. - Abstract: A high-low pressure chambers system is proposed to meet the demands of low launch acceleration for informative equipment in many special fields such as Aeronautics, Astronautics and Weaponry. A two-dimensional two-phase flow numerical model is established to describe the complex physical process based on a modified two-fluid theory, which takes into account gas production, interphase drag, intergranular stress, and heat transfer between two phases. In order to reduce the computational cost, the parameters in the high-pressure chamber at the instant the vent-holes open are calculated by the zero-dimensional model as the initial conditions for the two-phase flow simulation in the high-low pressure chambers system. The simulation results reveal good agreement with the experiments and the launch acceleration of a projectile can be improved by this system. The propellant particles can be tracked clearly in both chambers and a strong packing of particles at the base of projectile will cause the pressure to rise faster than at other areas both in the axis and radial directions. The length–diameter ratio of the high-pressure chamber (a typical multi-dimensional parameter) is investigated. Different length–diameter ratios can affect the maximum pressure drop and the loss of total pressure impulse through the vent-hole, then the muzzle velocity and the launch acceleration of projectiles can be influenced directly. This article puts forward a new prediction tool for the understanding and design of transient processes in high-low pressure

  17. An HST/COS legacy survey of high-velocity ultraviolet absorption in the Milky Way's circumgalactic medium and the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P.; Nuza, S. E.; Fox, A. J.; Wakker, B. P.; Lehner, N.; Ben Bekhti, N.; Fechner, C.; Wendt, M.; Howk, J. C.; Muzahid, S.; Ganguly, R.; Charlton, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The Milky Way is surrounded by large amounts of diffuse gaseous matter that connects the stellar body of our Galaxy with its large-scale Local Group (LG) environment. Aims: To characterize the absorption properties of this circumgalactic medium (CGM) and its relation to the LG we present the so-far largest survey of metal absorption in Galactic high-velocity clouds (HVCs) using archival ultraviolet (UV) spectra of extragalactic background sources. The UV data are obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are supplemented by 21 cm radio observations of neutral hydrogen. Methods: Along 270 sightlines we measure metal absorption in the lines of Si II, Si III, C II, and C iv and associated H I 21 cm emission in HVCs in the velocity range | vLSR | = 100-500 km s-1. With this unprecedented large HVC sample we were able to improve the statistics on HVC covering fractions, ionization conditions, small-scale structure, CGM mass, and inflow rate. For the first time, we determine robustly the angular two point correlation function of the high-velocity absorbers, systematically analyze antipodal sightlines on the celestial sphere, and compare the HVC absorption characteristics with that of damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) and constrained cosmological simulations of the LG (CLUES project). Results: The overall sky-covering fraction of high-velocity absorption is 77 ± 6 percent for the most sensitive ion in our survey, Si III, and for column densities log N(Si III)≥ 12.1. This value is 4-5 times higher than the covering fraction of 21 cm neutral hydrogen emission at log N(H I)≥ 18.7 along the same lines of sight, demonstrating that the Milky Way's CGM is multi-phase and predominantly ionized. The measured equivalent-width ratios of Si II, Si III, C II, and C iv are inhomogeneously distributed on large and small angular scales, suggesting a complex spatial distribution of multi-phase gas that surrounds the

  18. Void fraction and interfacial velocity in gas-liquid upward two-phase flow across tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, T.; Tomomatsu, K.; Takamatsu, H.; Nishikawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    Tube failures due to flow-induced vibration are a major problem in heat exchangers and many studies on the problem of such vibration have been carried out so far. Most studies however, have not focused on two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles, but have concentrated mainly on tube vibration behavior like fluid damping, fluid elastic instability and so on. Such studies are not satisfactory for understanding the design of heat exchangers. Tube vibration behavior is very complicated, especially in the case of gas-liquid two-phase flow, so it is necessary to investigate two-phase flow behavior as well as vibration behavior before designing heat exchangers. This paper outlines the main parameters that characterize two-phase behavior, such as void fraction and interfacial velocity. The two-phase flow analyzed here is gas-liquid upward flow across a horizontal tube bundle. The fluids tested were HCFC-123 and steam-water. HCFC-123 stands for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. Its chemical formula is CHCl 2 CF 3 , which has liquid and gas densities of 1335 and 23.9 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.40 MPa and 1252 and 45.7 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.76 MPa. The same model tube bundle was used in the two tests covered in this paper, to examine the similarity law of two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles using HCFC-123 and steam-water two-phase flow. We also show numerical simulation results for the two fluid models in this paper. We do not deal with vibration behavior and the relationship between vibration behavior and two-phase flow behavior. (author)

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW Warm spraying—a novel coating process based on high-velocity impact of solid particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kuroda et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1 the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2 the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3 various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC–Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.

  20. Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.

    2010-03-16

    Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.

  1. Noncommutative nature of the addition of noncollinear velocities in special relativity and the geometric phase method (commemorating the publication centennial of A Sommerfeld's work)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malykin, Grigorii B

    2010-01-01

    In 1909, Arnold Sommerfeld used geometric calculations to show that the relativistic addition of two noncollinear velocities on an imaginary-radius sphere is a noncommutative operation. Sommerfeld was the first to use the geometric phase method to calculate the angle between the resulting velocities depending on the order in which they are added. For this, he related the value of this angle to the excess of the spherical triangle formed by the two original velocities and their sum. In 1931, Sommerfeld applied his method to analyze the Thomas precession. (from the history of physics)

  2. A Discovery of a Compact High Velocity Cloud-Galactic Supershell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geumsook; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kang, Ji-hyun; Gibson, Steven J.; Peek, Joshua Eli Goldston; Douglas, Kevin A.; Korpela, Eric J.; Heiles, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    High velocity clouds (HVCs) are neutral hydrogen (HI) gas clouds having very different radial velocities from those of the Galactic disk material. While some large HVC complexes are known to be gas streams tidally stripped from satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, there are relatively isolated and small angular-sized HVCs, so called “compact HVCs (CHVCs)”, the origin of which remains controversial. There are about 300 known CHVCs in the Milky Way, and many of them show a head-tail structure, implying a ram pressure interaction with the diffuse Galactic halo gas. It is, however, not clear whether CHVCs are completely dissipated in the Galactic halo to feed the multi-phase circumgalactic medium or they can survive their trip through the halo and collide with the Galactic disk. The colliding CHVCs may leave a gigantic trail in the disk, and it had been suggested that some of HI supershells that require ≧ 3 x 1052 erg may be produced by the collision of such HVCs.Here we report the detection of a kiloparsec (kpc)-size supershell in the outskirts of the Milky Way with the compact HVC 040+01-282 (hereafter, CHVC040) at its geometrical center using the “Inner-Galaxy Arecibo L-band Feed Array” HI 21 cm survey data. The morphological and physical properties of both objects suggest that CHVC040, which is either a fragment of a nearby disrupted galaxy or a cloud that originated from an intergalactic accreting flow, collided with the disk ˜5 Myr ago to form the supershell. Our results show that some compact HVCs can survive their trip through the Galactic halo and inject energy and momentum into the Milky Way disk.

  3. Very low sound velocities in iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O: Implications for the core-mantle boundary region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, J.K.; Jackson, J.M.; Sturhahn, W.

    2010-01-01

    The sound velocities of (Mg .16 Fe .84 )O have been measured to 121 GPa at ambient temperature using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. The effect of electronic environment of the iron sites on the sound velocities were tracked in situ using synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy. We found the sound velocities of (Mg .16 Fe .84 )O to be much lower than those in other presumed mantle phases at similar conditions, most notably at very high pressures. Conservative estimates of the effect of temperature and dilution on aggregate sound velocities show that only a small amount of iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O can greatly reduce the average sound velocity of an assemblage. We propose that iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O be a source of ultra-low velocity zones. Other properties of this phase, such as enhanced density and dynamic stability, strongly support the presence of iron-rich (Mg,Fe)O in localized patches above the core-mantle boundary.

  4. Peculiar velocity effects in high-resolution microwave background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challinor, Anthony; Leeuwen, Floor van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the impact of peculiar velocity effects due to the motion of the solar system relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on high resolution CMB experiments. It is well known that on the largest angular scales the combined effects of Doppler shifts and aberration are important; the lowest Legendre multipoles of total intensity receive power from the large CMB monopole in transforming from the CMB frame. On small angular scales aberration dominates and is shown here to lead to significant distortions of the total intensity and polarization multipoles in transforming from the rest frame of the CMB to the frame of the solar system. We provide convenient analytic results for the distortions as series expansions in the relative velocity of the two frames, but at the highest resolutions a numerical quadrature is required. Although many of the high resolution multipoles themselves are severely distorted by the frame transformations, we show that their statistical properties distort by only an insignificant amount. Therefore, the cosmological parameter estimation is insensitive to the transformation from the CMB frame (where theoretical predictions are calculated) to the rest frame of the experiment

  5. Superhilac real-time velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.

    1987-03-01

    Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non-destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The existing system has been improved to provide the following features: a display refresh rate better than twice per second, a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and a touch-screen operator interface. These improvements allow the system to be used as a routine tuning aid and beam velocity monitor

  6. Description of turbulent velocity and temperature fields of single phase flow through tight rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monir, C.

    1991-02-01

    A two-dimensional procedure, VANTACY-II, describing the turbulent velocity and temperature fields for single phase flow in tight lattices is presented and validated. The flow is assumed to be steady, incrompressible and hydraulic and thermal fully developed. First, the state of art of turbulent momentum and heat transport in tight lattices is documented. It is shown that there is a necessity for experimental investigations in the field of turbulent heat transport. The presented new procedure is based on the turbulence model VELASCO-TUBS by NEELEN. The numerical solution of the balance equations is done by the finite element method code VANTACY by KAISER. The validation of the new procedure VANTACY-II is done by comparing the numerically calculated data for the velocity and temperature fields and for natural mixing with the experimental data of SEALE. The comparison shows a good agreement of experimental and numerically computed data. The observed differences can be mainly attributed to the model of the turbulent PRANDTL number used in the new procedure. (orig.) [de

  7. Studies in boiling heat transfer in two phase flow through tube arrays: nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and maximum heat flux as a function of velocity and quality of Freon-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, R.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficient and the maximum heat flux were studied experimentally as functions of velocity, quality and heater diameter for single-phase flow, and two-phase flow of Freon-113 (trichlorotrifluorethane). Results show: (1) peak heat flux: over 300 measured peak heat flux data from two 0.875-in. and four 0.625-in.-diameter heaters indicated that: (a) for pool boiling, single-phase and two-phase forced convection boiling the only parameter (among hysteresis, rate of power increase, aging, presence and proximity of unheated rods) that has a statistically significant effect on the peak heat flux is the velocity. (b) In the velocity range (0 0 position or the point of impact of the incident fluid) and the top (180 0 position) of the test element, respectively

  8. Thermal SiO as a probe of high velocity motions in regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, D.; Genzel, R.; Hjalmarson, A.; Nyman, L.A.; Roennaeng, B.

    1982-01-01

    New observations of the v = 0, J = = 2→1 line of SiO at 86.8 GHz show a close association of the thermal SiO emission and infrared and maser sources in regions of star formation. In addition to SiO emission with low velocity dispersion (Δν -1 ), we report the first detection of high velocity (''plateau'') emission toward W49 and W51. The low velocity SiO component may come from the core of the molecular cloud which contains the infrared and maser sources. The ''plateau'' may indicate mass clusters. In Orion KL, the positional centroid of the high velocity SiO emission (Vertical BarΔνVertical Bar> or =20 km s -1 ) is near that of the component we identify as the ''18 km s -1 flow''. However, the centriods of the blue- and redshifted wings are displaced from each other by a few arcseconds, to the NW and NE of the position of the 18 km s -1 component. The mass-loss rates of the high velocity flow and the 18 km s -1 flow are similar

  9. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I.; Heikal, M. R.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields

  10. Structure analysis of turbulent liquid phase by POD and LSE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, S., E-mail: shahzad-munir@comsats.edu.pk; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Siddiqui, M. I. [Department of Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Heikal, M. R., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my; Aziz, A. Rashid A., E-mail: morgan.heikal@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, vortical structures and turbulence characteristics of liquid phase in both single liquid phase and two-phase slug flow in pipes were studied. Two dimensional velocity vector fields of liquid phase were obtained by Particle image velocimetry (PIV). Two cases were considered one single phase liquid flow at 80 l/m and second slug flow by introducing gas at 60 l/m while keeping liquid flow rate same. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Linear stochastic estimation techniques were used for the extraction of coherent structures and analysis of turbulence in liquid phase for both cases. POD has successfully revealed large energy containing structures. The time dependent POD spatial mode coefficients oscillate with high frequency for high mode numbers. The energy distribution of spatial modes was also achieved. LSE has pointed out the coherent structured for both cases and the reconstructed velocity fields are in well agreement with the instantaneous velocity fields.

  11. From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Thomas; Rues, Ingo; Nardini, Germano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    2014-07-01

    By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.

  12. The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A

    2016-12-08

    The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro performance of ceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, H; Garcia-Giralt, N; Fernández, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Guilemany, J M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings obtained by plasma-spraying have been used for many years to improve biological performance of bone implants, but several studies have drawn attention to the problems arising from high temperatures and the lack of mechanical properties. In this study, plasma-spraying is substituted by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray, with lower temperatures reached, and TiO2 is added in low amounts to hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical properties. Four conditions have been tested to evaluate which are those with better biological properties. Viability and proliferation tests, as well as differentiation assays and morphology observation, are performed with human osteoblast cultures onto the studied coatings. The hydroxyapatite-TiO2 coatings maintain good cell viability and proliferation, especially the cases with higher amorphous phase amount and specific surface, and promote excellent differentiation, with a higher ALP amount for these cases than for polystyrene controls. Observation by SEM corroborates this excellent behaviour. In conclusion, these coatings are a good alternative to those used industrially, and an interesting issue would be improving biological behaviour of the worst cases, which in turn show the better mechanical properties.

  14. Observations of high-velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects: HH 24--27 and HH 1--2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1982-01-01

    High-velocity CO has been detected in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 24--27. These observations indicate that there are two sources of high-velocity outflow; one centered on an infrared source near HH 26, and the second centered roughly 2' south of HH 24. The redshifted and blueshifted wings in both sources are spatially separated suggesting that the high-velocity gas is due to energetic bipolar outflow from young stars embedded in the molecular cloud. The association of Herbig-Haro objects with regions of high-velocity gas suggests a common origin for both in the interaction of a stellar wind with the ambient molecular cloud. The mass loss rates implied by our observations, assuming that the rate of mass loss has been constant throughout the dynamical lifetime of the bipolar lobes, are roughly 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 for both sources. We have also searched for high-velocity gas near HH 1--2 but found no evidence for mass outflow in this region

  15. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky eMehta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO and medial gastrocnemius (MG muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1 inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2 inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans, which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans. In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p<0.05 during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p<0.05 during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments.

  16. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jensen, Niels G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in a micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.

  17. Optimization of edge state velocity in the integer quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, H.; Novakovic, B.; Nakamura, J.; Fallahi, S.; Povolotskyi, M.; Klimeck, G.; Rahman, R.; Manfra, M. J.

    2018-02-01

    Observation of interference in the quantum Hall regime may be hampered by a small edge state velocity due to finite phase coherence time. Therefore designing two quantum point contact (QPCs) interferometers having a high edge state velocity is desirable. Here we present a new simulation method for designing heterostructures with high edge state velocity by realistically modeling edge states near QPCs in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) regime. Using this simulation method, we also predict the filling factor at the center of QPCs and their conductance at different gate voltages. The 3D Schrödinger equation is split into 1D and 2D parts. Quasi-1D Schrödinger and Poisson equations are solved self-consistently in the IQHE regime to obtain the potential profile, and quantum transport is used to solve for the edge state wave functions. The velocity of edge states is found to be /B , where is the expectation value of the electric field for the edge state. Anisotropically etched trench gated heterostructures with double-sided delta doping have the highest edge state velocity among the structures considered.

  18. Application of neural networks to prediction of phase transport characteristics in high-pressure two-phase turbulent bubbly flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, A.-S.; Kuo, T.-C.; Ling, P.-H.

    2003-01-01

    The phase transport phenomenon of the high-pressure two-phase turbulent bubbly flow involves complicated interfacial interactions of the mass, momentum, and energy transfer processes between phases, revealing that an enormous effort is required in characterizing the liquid-gas flow behavior. Nonetheless, the instantaneous information of bubbly flow properties is often desired for many industrial applications. This investigation aims to demonstrate the successful use of neural networks in the real-time determination of two-phase flow properties at elevated pressures. Three back-propagation neural networks, trained with the simulation results of a comprehensive theoretical model, are established to predict the transport characteristics (specifically the distributions of void-fraction and axial liquid-gas velocities) of upward turbulent bubbly pipe flows at pressures covering 3.5-7.0 MPa. Comparisons of the predictions with the test target vectors indicate that the averaged root-mean-squared (RMS) error for each one of three back-propagation neural networks is within 4.59%. In addition, this study appraises the effects of different network parameters, including the number of hidden nodes, the type of transfer function, the number of training pairs, the learning rate-increasing ratio, the learning rate-decreasing ratio, and the momentum value, on the training quality of neural networks.

  19. Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-11-11

    The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.

  20. Amphibious Shear Velocity Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, H. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Abers, G. A.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    The amphibious Cascadia Initiative crosses the coastline of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) deploying seismometers from the Juan de Fuca ridge offshore to beyond the volcanic arc onshore. This allows unprecedented seismic imaging of the CSZ, enabling examination of both the evolution of the Juan de Fuca plate prior to and during subduction as well as the along strike variability of the subduction system. Here we present new results from an amphibious shear velocity model for the crust and upper mantle across the Cascadia subduction zone. The primary data used in this inversion are surface-wave phase velocities derived from ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave data in the 10 - 20 s period band, and teleseismic earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the 20 - 160 s period band. Phase velocity maps from these data reflect major tectonic structures including the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, Juan de Fuca lithosphere that is faster than observations in the Pacific for oceanic crust of its age, slow velocities associated with the accretionary prism, the front of the fast subducting slab, and the Cascades volcanic arc which is associated with slower velocities in the south than in the north. Crustal structures are constrained by receiver functions in the offshore forearc and onshore regions, and by active source constraints on the Juan de Fuca plate prior to subduction. The shear-wave velocities are interpreted in their relationships to temperature, presence of melt or hydrous alteration, and compositional variation of the CSZ.

  1. High-frame rate imaging of two-phase flow in a thin rectangular channel using fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, R; Mor, I; Dangendorf, V; Stark, M; Tittelmeier, K; Cortesi, M; Adams, R

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of performing high-frame-rate, fast neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a thin channel with rectangular cross section. The experiments have been carried out at the accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. A polychromatic, high-intensity fast neutron beam with average energy of 6 MeV was produced by 11.5 MeV deuterons hitting a thick Be target. Image sequences down to 10 ms exposure times were obtained using a fast-neutron imaging detector developed in the context of fast-neutron resonance imaging. Different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. Two phase flow parameters like the volumetric gas fraction, bubble size and mean bubble velocities have been measured. The first results are promising, improvements for future experiments are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Özer, Çaglar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  3. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Çaglar

    2016-01-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  4. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinquan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sun, Xiaodong, E-mail: sun.200@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Liu, Yang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, 635 Prices Fork Road, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  5. Liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xinquan; Sun, Xiaodong; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on liquid-phase turbulence measurements in air-water two-phase flows over a wide range of void fractions and flow regimes, spanning from bubbly, cap-bubbly, slug, to churn-turbulent flows. The measurements have been conducted in two test facilities, the first one with a circular test section and the second one with a rectangular test section. A particle image velocimetry-planar laser-induced fluorescence (PIV-PLIF) system was used to acquire local liquid-phase turbulence information, including the time-averaged velocity and velocity fluctuations in the streamwise and spanwise directions, and Reynolds stress. An optical phase separation method using fluorescent particles and optical filtration technique was adopted to extract the liquid-phase velocity information. An image pre-processing scheme was imposed on the raw PIV images acquired to remove noise due to the presence of bubble residuals and optically distorted particles in the raw PIV images. Four-sensor conductivity probes and high-speed images were also used to acquire the gas-phase information, which was aimed to understand the flow interfacial structure. The highest area-averaged void fraction covered in the measurements for the circular and rectangular test sections was about 40%.

  6. Some investigations on the mean and fluctuating velocities of an oscillating Taylor bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, Sara; Caballina, Ophelie; Souhar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The unsteady motion of an oscillating Taylor bubble has been studied. ► A non-dimensionalized velocity differential equation is numerically solved. ► The role of dimensionless numbers on the dynamics of the bubble is highlighted. ► Mean and fluctuating velocities and the phase shift are experimentally investigated. ► Correlations allowing the prediction of these latter parameters are proposed. - Abstract: The slug flow characterized by large elongated bubbles also called Taylor bubbles is widely encountered in nuclear reactor steam generators, cooling plants, reboilers, etc. The analysis of slug flow is very important as the instability caused by such flows can affect the safety features of nuclear reactors and other two-phase flow equipments. In this paper, we study the motion of a Taylor bubble rising in stagnant fluids in a vertical oscillating pipe. The investigation is restricted to high Reynolds numbers and to an intermediate range of Bond numbers where the effects of surface tension can be considered. The Froude number ranged between 0.22 and 0.33. Firstly, detailed analysis of models proposed in the literature for the motion of a Taylor bubble in an unsteady acceleration field is realized. The velocity differential equation obtained in the case of potential and axisymmetric flow without surface tension given in the literature is first non-dimensionalized to highlight dimensionless numbers. Then, the instantaneous velocity of the bubble is numerically determined. Mean and fluctuating velocities as well as the phase shift (U ¯ b , U f and φ) are estimated by using a technique based on the nonlinear least squares method. Results enable a discussion on the role played by dimensionless numbers on the dynamics of the bubble. It is found that the two parameters, the relative acceleration and the Bond number (a and Bo) have a governing role on the evolution of mean and fluctuating velocities while the ratio of the oscillation amplitude to

  7. Inversion of Love wave phase velocity using smoothness-constrained least-squares technique; Heikatsuka seiyakutsuki saisho jijoho ni yoru love ha iso sokudo no inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, S [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.

  8. Development of high velocity gas gun with a new trigger system-numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Z.; Homma, H.

    2018-02-01

    In development of high performance armor vests, we need to carry out well controlled experiments using bullet speed of more than 900 m/sec. After reviewing trigger systems used for high velocity gas guns, this research intends to develop a new trigger system, which can realize precise and reproducible impact tests at impact velocity of more than 900 m/sec. A new trigger system developed here is called a projectile trap. A projectile trap is placed between a reservoir and a barrel. A projectile trap has two functions of a sealing disk and triggering. Polyamidimide is selected for the trap material and dimensions of the projectile trap are determined by numerical analysis for several levels of launching pressure to change the projectile velocity. Numerical analysis results show that projectile trap designed here can operate reasonably and stresses caused during launching operation are less than material strength. It means a projectile trap can be reused for the next shooting.

  9. Phase transitions in solids under high pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, Vladimir Davydovich

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibria and kinetics of phase transformations under high pressureEquipment and methods for the study of phase transformations in solids at high pressuresPhase transformations of carbon and boron nitride at high pressure and deformation under pressurePhase transitions in Si and Ge at high pressure and deformation under pressurePolymorphic α-ω transformation in titanium, zirconium and zirconium-titanium alloys Phase transformations in iron and its alloys at high pressure Phase transformations in gallium and ceriumOn the possible polymorphic transformations in transition metals under pressurePressure-induced polymorphic transformations in АIBVII compoundsPhase transformations in AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductor compoundsEffect of pressure on the kinetics of phase transformations in iron alloysTransformations during deformation at high pressure Effects due to phase transformations at high pressureKinetics and hysteresis in high-temperature polymorphic transformations under pressureHysteresis and kineti...

  10. St 2-22 - Another Symbiotic Star with High-Velocity Bipolar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, T.; Zamanov, R.; Gałan, C.; Pietrukowicz, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report the detection of high-velocity components in the wings of Hα emission line in spectra of symbiotic binary star St 2-22 obtained in 2005. This finding encouraged us to start the present investigation in order to show that this poorly-studied object is a jet-producing system. We have used high-resolution optical and low-resolution near-infrared spectra, as well as available optical and infrared photometry, to evaluate some physical parameters of the St 2-22 components and characteristics of the jets. We confirm that St 2-22 is a S-type symbiotic star. Our results demonstrate that an unnoticed outburst, similar to those in classical symbiotic systems, occurred in the first half of 2005. During the outburst, collimated bipolar jets were ejected by the hot component of St 2-22 with an average velocity of about 1700 km/s.

  11. A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics

    2016-08-09

    An anisotropic, rate-­dependent, single-­crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-­crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-­rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-­rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.

  12. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Superconducting low-velocity linac for the Argonne positive-ion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Markovich, P.K.; Zinkann, G.P.; Clifft, B.; Benaroya, R.

    1989-01-01

    A low-velocity superconducting linac has been developed as part of a positive-ion injector system, which is replacing a 9 MV tandem as the injector for the ATLAS accelerator. The linac consists of an independently phased array of resonators, and is designed to accelerate various ions over a velocity range .008 < v/c < .06. The resonator array is formed of four different types of superconducting interdigital structures. The linac is being constructed in three phases, each of which will cover the full velocity range. Successive phases will increase the total accelerating potential and permit heavier ions to be accelerated. Assembly of the first phase was completed in early 1989. In initial tests with beam, a five-resonator array provided approximately 3.5 MV of accelerating potential and operated without difficulty for several hundred hours. The second phase is scheduled for completion in late 1989, and will increase the accelerating potential to more than 8 MV. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Volumetric velocity measurements in restricted geometries using spiral sampling: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Revstedt, Johan; Heiberg, Einar; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Bloch, Karin Markenroth

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of maximum velocity measurements using volumetric phase-contrast imaging with spiral readouts in a stenotic flow phantom. In a phantom model, maximum velocity, flow, pressure gradient, and streamline visualizations were evaluated using volumetric phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with velocity encoding in one (extending on current clinical practice) and three directions (for characterization of the flow field) using spiral readouts. Results of maximum velocity and pressure drop were compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, as well as corresponding low-echo-time (TE) Cartesian data. Flow was compared to 2D through-plane phase contrast (PC) upstream from the restriction. Results obtained with 3D through-plane PC as well as 4D PC at shortest TE using a spiral readout showed excellent agreements with the maximum velocity values obtained with CFD (spiral sequences were respectively 14 and 13 % overestimated compared to CFD. Identification of the maximum velocity location, as well as the accurate velocity quantification can be obtained in stenotic regions using short-TE spiral volumetric PC imaging.

  15. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-04-10

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  16. A new virtual instrument for estimating punch velocity in combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, K S; Scheeren, E; Nohama, P

    2013-01-01

    For improving the performance in combat sport, especially percussion, it is necessary achieving high velocity in punches and kicks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of 3D accelerometry in a Virtual Instrumentation System (VIS) designed for estimating punch velocity in combat sports. It was conducted in two phases: (1) integration of the 3D accelerometer with the communication interface and software for processing and visualization, and (2) applicability of the system. Fifteen karate athletes performed five gyaku zuki type punches (with reverse leg) using the accelerometer on the 3rd metacarpal on the back of the hand. It was performed nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test to determine differences in the mean linear velocity among three punches performed sequentially (p sport.

  17. C4N3H monolayer: A two-dimensional organic Dirac material with high Fermi velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongzhe; Zhang, Hongyu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianfu; Du, Youwei; Tang, Nujiang

    2017-11-01

    Searching for two-dimensional (2D) organic Dirac materials, which have more adaptable practical applications compared with inorganic ones, is of great significance and has been ongoing. However, only two such materials with low Fermi velocity have been discovered so far. Herein, we report the design of an organic monolayer with C4N3H stoichiometry that possesses fascinating structure and good stability in its free-standing state. More importantly, we demonstrate that this monolayer is a semimetal with anisotropic Dirac cones and very high Fermi velocity. This Fermi velocity is roughly one order of magnitude larger than the largest velocity ever reported in 2D organic Dirac materials, and it is comparable to that in graphene. The Dirac states in this monolayer arise from the extended π -electron conjugation system formed by the overlapping 2 pz orbitals of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Our finding paves the way to a search for more 2D organic Dirac materials with high Fermi velocity.

  18. The importance of high injection velocity to reduce plasma armature growth and drag in hypervelocity railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Dixon, W.R.; Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R.C.; Susoeff, A.R.; Asay, J.R.; Shaninpoor, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas are required to serve as armature in hypervelocity railguns. Typically, the plasmas are at temperatures of about 20-30,000 K and result in a high heat flux on the barrel wall. Slow moving plasmas radiate heat and melt the launcher wall causing it to ablate and resulting in a growth of the armature mass and length. As the velocity increases, the more massive and longer armature will result in greater viscous drag and ultimately limit the maximum achievable velocity. Several possible means of reducing the armature growth are possible. This paper discusses two of them, use of heat resistant barrel materials, and reduction of wall heating by reduction of exposure time through use of a high initial velocity. A summary of experimentally based, material ablation resistance calculations is presented. Second, the benefit of high injection velocity is evaluated. Finally, a joint SNLA and LLNL railgun research project based on the above considerations are described

  19. Towards high velocity deformation characterisation of metals and composites using Digital Image Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken; Berggreen, Christian; Boyd, S.W

    2010-01-01

    images and then extracting deformation data using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) from tensile testing in the intermediate strain rate regime available with the test machines. Three different materials, aluminium alloy 1050, S235 steel and glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) were tested at different......Characterisation of materials subject to high velocity deformation is necessary as many materials behave differently under such conditions. It is particularly important for accurate numerical simulation of high strain rate events. High velocity servo-hydraulic test machines have enabled material...... testing in the strain rate regime from 1 – 500 ε/s. The range is much lower than that experienced under ballistic, shock or impact loads, nevertheless it is a useful starting point for the application of optical techniques. The present study examines the possibility of using high speed cameras to capture...

  20. Investigating mechanically induced phase response of the tissue by using high-speed phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT), a functional extension of OCT, provides depth-resolved phase information with extra contrast. In cardiology, changes in the mechanical properties have been associated with tissue remodeling and disease progression. Here we present the capability of profiling structural deformation of the sample in vivo by using a highly stable swept source OCT system The system, operating at 1300 nm, has an A-line acquisition rate of 200 kHz. We measured the phase noise floor to be 6.5 pm±3.2 pm by placing a cover slip in the sample arm, while blocking the reference arm. We then conducted a vibrational frequency test by measuring the phase response from a polymer membrane stimulated by a pure tone acoustic wave from 10 kHz to 80 kHz. The measured frequency response agreed with the known stimulation frequency with an error < 0.005%. We further measured the phase response of 7 fresh swine hearts obtained from Green Village Packing Company through a mechanical stretching test, within 24 hours of sacrifice. The heart tissue was cut into a 1 mm slices and fixed on two motorized stages. We acquired 100,000 consecutive M-scans, while the sample is stretched at a constant velocity of 10 um/s. The depth-resolved phase image presents linear phase response over time at each depth, but the slope varies among tissue types. Our future work includes refining our experiment protocol to quantitatively measured the elastic modulus of the tissue in vivo and building a tissue classifier based on depth-resolved phase information.

  1. Growth responses of male broilers subjected to increasing air velocities at high ambient temperatures and a high dew point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, W A; Lott, B D; Branton, S L

    2005-06-01

    This study examined live performance responses of male broilers to increasing air velocity of 120 and 180 m/min reared under high cyclic temperatures (25-35-25 degrees C) with a 23 degrees C dew point from 21 to 49 d. Birds were reared in an environmental facility containing 2 wind tunnels (4 pens/tunnel) and 6 floor pens (control). At 21 d, 53 birds were placed in each pen of the wind tunnels and control group, respectively, and growth performance was determined weekly. Increasing air velocity from 120 to 180 m/min improved BW and BW gain from 29 to 35, 36 to 42, and 43 to 49 d of age leading to a cumulative advantage of 287 g in BW gain and a 10-point difference in feed conversion from 21 to 49 d of age. Subjecting birds to air velocity improved growth rate, feed consumption, and feed conversion at each weekly interval from 28 to 49 d over the control birds. These results indicate that male broilers approximating 2.0 to 3.0 kg respond to an air velocity of 180 m/min when exposed to high cyclic temperatures.

  2. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  3. Experimental and analytical study of high velocity impact on Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikarwar, Rahul S.; Velmurugan, Raman; Madhu, Velmuri

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, impact behavior of Kevlar/Epoxy composite plates has been carried out experimentally by considering different thicknesses and lay-up sequences and compared with analytical results. The effect of thickness, lay-up sequence on energy absorbing capacity has been studied for high velocity impact. Four lay-up sequences and four thickness values have been considered. Initial velocities and residual velocities are measured experimentally to calculate the energy absorbing capacity of laminates. Residual velocity of projectile and energy absorbed by laminates are calculated analytically. The results obtained from analytical study are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. It is observed from the study that 0/90 lay-up sequence is most effective for impact resistance. Delamination area is maximum on the back side of the plate for all thickness values and lay-up sequences. The delamination area on the back is maximum for 0/90/45/-45 laminates compared to other lay-up sequences.

  4. Numerical Material Model for Composite Laminates in High-Velocity Impact Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract A numerical material model for composite laminate, was developed and integrated into the nonlinear dynamic explicit finite element programs as a material user subroutine. This model coupling nonlinear state of equation (EOS, was a macro-mechanics model, which was used to simulate the major mechanical behaviors of composite laminate under high-velocity impact conditions. The basic theoretical framework of the developed material model was introduced. An inverse flyer plate simulation was conducted, which demonstrated the advantage of the developed model in characterizing the nonlinear shock response. The developed model and its implementation were validated through a classic ballistic impact issue, i.e. projectile impacting on Kevlar29/Phenolic laminate. The failure modes and ballistic limit velocity were analyzed, and a good agreement was achieved when comparing with the analytical and experimental results. The computational capacity of this model, for Kevlar/Epoxy laminates with different architectures, i.e. plain-woven and cross-plied laminates, was further evaluated and the residual velocity curves and damage cone were accurately predicted.

  5. Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (orig.)

  6. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  7. CUTLASS HF radar observations of high-velocity E-region echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky

    Full Text Available A short event of high-velocity E-region echo observations by the Pykkvibaer HF radar is analysed to study echo parameters and the echo relation to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability. The echoes were detected in several beams aligned closely to the magnetic L-shell direction. Two echo groups were identified: one group corresponded to the classical type 1 echoes with velocities close to the nominal ion-acoustic speed of 400 ms1 , while the other group had significantly larger velocities, of the order of 700 ms1 . The mutual relationship between the echo power, Doppler velocity, spectral width and elevation angles for these two groups was studied. Plotting of echo parameters versus slant range showed that all ~700 ms1 echoes originated from larger heights and distances of 500–700 km, while all ~400 ms1 echoes came from lower heights and from farther distances; 700–1000 km. We argue that both observed groups of echoes occurred due to the Farley-Buneman plasma instability excited by strong ( ~70 mVm1 and uniformly distributed electric fields. We show that the echo velocities for the two groups were different because the echoes were received from different heights. Such a separation of echo heights occurred due to the differing amounts of ionospheric refraction at short and large ranges. Thus, the ionospheric refraction and related altitude modulation of ionospheric parameters are the most important factors to consider, when various characteristics of E-region decametre irregularities are derived from HF radar measurements.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities; polar ionosphere

  8. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, T.P. Jr.; Marlborough, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus of 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars, and 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si iv doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km s -1 . Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotation effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be 10 -10 --10 -9 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . The data are suggestive that the extended atmospheres associated with Be star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection

  9. Influence of Isoinertial-Pneumatic Mixed Resistances on Force-Velocity Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrillon, Simon; Jidovtseff, Boris; Hug, François; Guilhem, Gaël

    2017-03-01

    Muscle strengthening is commonly based on the use of isoinertial loading, whereas variable resistances such as pneumatic loading may be implemented to optimize training stimulus. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of the ratio between pneumatic and isoinertial resistance on the force-velocity relationship during ballistic movements. A total of 15 participants performed 2 concentric repetitions of ballistic bench-press movements with intention to throw the bar at 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, and 90% of the maximal concentric repetition with 5 resistance ratios including 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, or 0% of pneumatic resistance, the additional load being isoinertial. Force-, velocity-, and power-time patterns were assessed and averaged over the concentric phase to determine the force-velocity and power-velocity relationships for each resistance ratio. Each 25% increase in the pneumatic part in the resistance ratio elicited higher movement velocity (+0.11 ± 0.03 m/s from 0% to 80% of the concentric phase) associated with lower force levels (-43.6 ± 15.2 N). Increased isoinertial part in the resistance ratio resulted in higher velocity toward the end of the movement (+0.23 ± 0.01 m/s from 90% to 100%). The findings show that the resistance ratio could be modulated to develop the acceleration phase and force toward the end of the concentric phase (pneumatic-oriented resistance). Inversely, isoinertial-oriented resistance should be used to develop maximal force and maximal power. Resistance modality could, therefore, be considered an innovative variable to modulate the training stimulus according to athletic purposes.

  10. Electron capture by highly charged low-velocity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Dubois, R.; Justiniano, E.; Gray, T.J.; Can, C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fast heavy ion beam to produce, by bombardment of gaseous targets, highly-charged low-velocity recoil ions, and the use of these secondary ions in turn as projectiles in studies of electron capture and ionization in low-energy collision systems. The interest in collisions involving low-energy highly-charged projectiles comes both from the somewhat simplifying aspects of the physics which attend the long-range capture and from applications to fusion plasmas, astrophysics and more speculative technology such as the production of X-ray lasers. The ions of interest in such applications should have both electronic excitation and center-of-mass energies in the keV range and cannot be produced by simply stripping fast heavy ion beams. Several novel types of ion source have been developed to produce low-energy highly-charged ions, of which the secondary ion recoil source discussed in this paper is one. (Auth.)

  11. Survey of high-velocity molecular gas in the vicinity of Herbig-Haro objects. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, S.; Snell, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of high-velocity molecular gas toward 49 Herbig-Haro objects is presented. Observations of the 12 CO J = 1-0 transition obtained with the 14 m telescope of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory reveal three new spatially extended high-velocity molecular outflows. One is in the NGC 1333 region near HH 12, and two are in the NGC 7129 region, the first near LkHα 234 and the second near a far-infrared source. The relationship between optical Herbin-Haro emission knots and large-scale motions of the ambient molecular material is investigated, and the properties of high-velocity molecular outflows in the vicinity of Herbig-Haro objects are discussed. Of 11 energetic outflows in the vicinity of Herbig-Haro objects, eight are found in four pairs separated by 0.2-1.0 pc. We estimate that energetic outflows characterized by mass loss rates > or =10 -7 M/sub sun/ yr -1 occur for at least 10 4 yr once in the lifetime of all stars with masses greater than 1M/sub sun/

  12. Influence and applicability of wire-mesh sensor to acquire two phase flow dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu

    2011-01-01

    Wire-mesh sensors (WMS) are able to measure void distributions and velocity profile at high speed. Immersing the wire-mesh affects the structure of two-phase flow. Experiments were performed for single rising air bubble in a vertical pipe of i.d. 50 mm and 224 mm at water velocities ranging from 0.05 to 0.52 m/s and 0.42 to 0.83 m/s. Distortion of a relatively large bubble with the wire-mesh was small in the water velocity over 0.25 m/s and confirmed by cross-correlation analysis as well. Bubble rising velocity acquired by WMS is in good agreement with that estimated high-speed camera in the experimental range. WMS has applicability to acquire two phase flow dynamics in the water velocity over 0.25 m/s. (author)

  13. Cool C-shocks and high-velocity flows in molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Brand, P.W.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    C-shocks can be driven through dense clouds when the neutrals and magnetic field interact weakly due to a paucity of ions. We develop a method for calculating C-shock properties with the aim of interpreting the observed high-velocity molecular hydrogen. A high Mach number approximation, corresponding to low temperatures, is employed. Under strong cooling conditions the flow is continuous even though a subsonic region may be present downstream. Analytic expressions for the maximum temperature, dissociation fraction, self-ionization level and J-shock transition are derived. (author)

  14. Rotational explanation of the high-velocity meolecular emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.O.; Biretta, J.A.; Martin, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    The high-velocity molecular emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud has been sampled using the J/sub N/=2 2 --1 1 rotational spectral line of the SO molecule. The resulting profile, including the high-velocity wings, has been reproduced using only known large-scale properties of the gas and applications of the results of published theoretical calculations. No new physical mechanism is required; observed rotation and conservation of angular momentum are sufficient to reproduce the line profile. The resulting physical state appears to be consistent with all known physical properties. This solution is not unique, but indicates the strengths and weaknesses of such a model for interpretation of Orion as well as the similarities of alternative explanations

  15. Complex C: A Low-Metallicity, High-Velocity Cloud Plunging into the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Wakker, Bart P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Bowers, C. W.; Danks, A. C.; Green, R. F.; Heap, S. R.; Joseph, C. L.; Kaiser, M. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence that high-velocity cloud (HVC) complex C is a low-metallicity gas cloud that is plunging toward the disk and beginning to interact with the ambient gas that surrounds the Milky Way. This evidence begins with a new high-resolution (7 km s-1 FWHM) echelle spectrum of 3C 351 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). 3C 351 lies behind the low-latitude edge of complex C, and the new spectrum provides accurate measurements of O I, Si II, Al II, Fe II, and Si III absorption lines at the velocity of complex C; N I, S II, Si IV, and C IV are not detected at 3 σ significance in complex C proper. However, Si IV and C IV as well as O I, Al II, Si II and Si III absorption lines are clearly present at somewhat higher velocities associated with a ``high-velocity ridge'' (HVR) of 21 cm emission. This high-velocity ridge has a similar morphology to and is roughly centered on complex C proper. The similarities of the absorption-line ratios in the HVR and complex C suggest that these structures are intimately related. In complex C proper we find [O/H]=-0.76+0.23-0.21. For other species the measured column densities indicate that ionization corrections are important. We use collisional and photoionization models to derive ionization corrections; in both models we find that the overall metallicity Z=0.1-0.3 Zsolar in complex C proper, but nitrogen must be underabundant. The iron abundance indicates that the complex C contains very little dust. The size and density implied by the ionization models indicate that the absorbing gas is not gravitationally confined. The gas could be pressure confined by an external medium, but alternatively we may be viewing the leading edge of the HVC, which is ablating and dissipating as it plunges into the Milky Way. O VI column densities observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) toward nine QSOs/AGNs behind complex C support this conclusion: N(O VI) is highest near 3C 351, and the O VI/H I

  16. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D., E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: sanchez@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-03-01

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  17. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis

  18. Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-03-27

    The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.

  19. Rebound mechanics of micrometre-scale, spherical particles in high-velocity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Baran; Yang, Hankang; Gouldstone, Andrew; Müftü, Sinan

    2017-08-01

    The impact mechanics of micrometre-scale metal particles with flat metal surfaces is investigated for high-velocity impacts ranging from 50 m s -1 to more than 1 km s -1 , where impact causes predominantly plastic deformation. A material model that includes high strain rate and temperature effects on the yield stress, heat generation due to plasticity, material damage due to excessive plastic strain and heat transfer is used in the numerical analysis. The coefficient of restitution e is predicted by the classical work using elastic-plastic deformation analysis with quasi-static impact mechanics to be proportional to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for the low and moderate impact velocities that span the ranges of 0-10 and 10-100 m s -1 , respectively. In the elastic-plastic and fully plastic deformation regimes the particle rebound is attributed to the elastic spring-back that initiates at the particle-substrate interface. At higher impact velocities (0.1-1 km s -1 ) e is shown to be proportional to approximately [Formula: see text]. In this deeply plastic deformation regime various deformation modes that depend on plastic flow of the material including the time lag between the rebound instances of the top and bottom points of particle and the lateral spreading of the particle are identified. In this deformation regime, the elastic spring-back initiates subsurface, in the substrate.

  20. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  1. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-01-01

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  2. Hydrogen distribution in a containment with a high-velocity hydrogen-steam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.; Claybrook, S.W.

    1982-09-01

    Hydrogen mixing and distribution tests are reported for a modeled high velocity hydrogen-steam release from a postulated small pipe break or release from a pressurizer relief tank rupture disk into the lower compartment of an Ice Condenser Plant. The tests, which in most cases used helium as a simulant for hydrogen, demonstrated that the lower compartment gas was well mixed for both hydrogen release conditions used. The gas concentration differences between any spatial locations were less than 3 volume percent during the hydrogen/steam release period and were reduced to less than 0.5 volume percent within 20 minutes after termination of the hydrogen source. The high velocity hydrogen/steam jet provided the dominant mixing mechanism; however, natural convection and forced air recirculation played important roles in providing a well mixed atmosphere following termination of the hydrogen source. 5 figures, 4 tables

  3. A study of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Lyophilized samples of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen were measured at room temperature using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution. An increase in the velocity resolution of Moessbauer spectroscopy permitted us to increase accuracy and decrease experimental error in determining the hyperfine parameters of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen. Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution may be very useful for revealing small differences in hyperfine parameters during biomedical research.

  4. Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, J.; Meijer, F. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

  5. Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-06-30

    With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die. The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S

    2015-06-01

    Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Superconducting RF for Low-Velocity and Intermediate-Velocity Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Terry L

    2005-01-01

    Existing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linacs are used to accelerate ions (protons through uranium) with velocities less than about 15% the speed of light, or electrons with velocities approximately equal to the speed of light. In the last ten years, prototype SRF cavities have completely covered the remaining range of velocities. They have demonstrated that SRF linacs will be capable of accelerating electrons from rest up to the speed of light, and ions from less than 1% up to the speed of light. When the Spallation Neutron Source is operational, SRF ion linacs will have covered the full range of velocities except for v/c ~ 0.15 to v/c ~ 0.5. A number of proposed projects (RIA, EURISOL) would span the latter range of velocities. Future SRF developments will have to address the trade-offs associated with a number of issues, including high gradient operation, longitudinal and transverse acceptance, microphonics, Lorentz detuning, operating temperature, cryogenic load, number of gaps or cells per cavity...

  8. High-energy radiation from collisions of high-velocity clouds and the Galactic disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Maria V.; Müller, A. L.; Romero, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) are interstellar clouds of atomic hydrogen that do not follow normal Galactic rotation and have velocities of a several hundred kilometres per second. A considerable number of these clouds are falling down towards the Galactic disc. HVCs form large and massive complexes, so if they collide with the disc a great amount of energy would be released into the interstellar medium. The cloud-disc interaction produces two shocks: one propagates through the cloud and the other through the disc. The properties of these shocks depend mainly on the cloud velocity and the disc-cloud density ratio. In this work, we study the conditions necessary for these shocks to accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration and we study the non-thermal radiation that is produced. We analyse particle acceleration in both the cloud and disc shocks. Solving a time-dependent two-dimensional transport equation for both relativistic electrons and protons, we obtain particle distributions and non-thermal spectral energy distributions. In a shocked cloud, significant synchrotron radio emission is produced along with soft gamma rays. In the case of acceleration in the shocked disc, the non-thermal radiation is stronger; the gamma rays, of leptonic origin, might be detectable with current instruments. A large number of protons are injected into the Galactic interstellar medium, and locally exceed the cosmic ray background. We conclude that under adequate conditions the contribution from HVC-disc collisions to the galactic population of relativistic particles and the associated extended non-thermal radiation might be important.

  9. Direct simultaneous measurement of intraglottal geometry and velocity fields in excised larynges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sid; Oren, Liran; Ying, Jun; Gutmark, Ephraim

    2014-04-01

    Current theories regarding the mechanisms of phonation are based on assumptions about the aerodynamics between the vocal folds during the closing phase of vocal fold vibration. However, many of these fundamental assumptions have never been validated in a tissue model. In this study, the main objective was to determine the aerodynamics (velocity fields) and the geometry of the medial surface of the vocal folds during the closing phase of vibration. The main hypothesis is that intraglottal vortices are produced during vocal fold closing when the glottal duct has a divergent shape and that these vortices are associated with negative pressures. Experiments using seven excised canine larynges. The particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) method was used to determine the velocity fields at low, mid-, and high subglottal pressures for each larynx. Modifications were made to previously described PIV methodology to allow the measurement of both the intraglottal velocity fields and the position of the medial aspects of the vocal fold. At relatively low subglottal pressures, little to no intraglottal vortices were seen. At mid- and high subglottal pressures, the flow separation vortices occurred and produced maximum negative pressures, relative to atmospheric, of -2.6 to -14.6 cm H2 O. Possible physiological and surgical implications are discussed. Intraglottal vortices produce significant negative pressures at mid- and high subglottal pressures. These vortices may be important in increasing maximum flow declination rate and acoustic intensity. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Evidence for mass loss at moderate to high velocity in Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Marlborough, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of intermediate resolution have been obtained with Copernicus for 12 objects classified as Be or shell stars and for 19 additional early B dwarfs. Some of these spectra show marked asymmetries in certain resonance lines, especially the Si IV doublet at 1400 A, indicating the presence in some cases of outflowing material with maximum velocities of nearly 1000 km/s. Direct evidence for mass loss at these velocities is seen for the first time in dwarf stars as late as B1.5; the only objects later than B0.5 which show this effect are Be or shell stars. Among the stars considered, there is a correlation between the presence of mass-loss effects and projected rotational velocity, suggesting that the ultraviolet flux from B1-B2 dwarfs is sufficient to drive high-velocity stellar winds only if rotational effects reduce the effective gravity near the equator. The mass-loss rate for one of the most active Be stars, 59 Cyg, is crudely estimated to be one billionth or one ten-billionth of a solar mass per year. The data suggest that the extended atmospheres associated with Be-star phenomena may be formed by mass ejection.

  11. LP 400-22, A Very Low Mass and High-Velocity White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane; Oswalt, Terry D.; Smith, J. Allyn; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11,080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32 +/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium-core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M,. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  12. Galactic hail: the origin of the high-velocity cloud complex C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraternali, F.; Marasco, A.; Armillotta, L.; Marinacci, F.

    High-velocity clouds consist of cold gas that appears to be raining down from the halo to the disc of the Milky Way. Over the past 50 years, two competing scenarios have attributed their origin either to gas accretion from outside the Galaxy or to circulation of gas from the Galactic disc powered by

  13. Friction properties and deformation mechanisms of halite(-mica) gouges from low to high sliding velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, L.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Han, R.; Shimamoto, T.; Spiers, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of friction as a function of slip rate is important in understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation. Many laboratory experiments investigating friction of fault rocks are either conducted in the low velocity regime (10−8–10−4 ms−1) or in the high velocity regime (0.01–1 m s−1).

  14. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  15. DISTRIBUTION AND ORIGIN OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS .3. CLOUDS, COMPLEXES AND POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAKKER, BP; VANWOERDEN, H

    1991-01-01

    We present the first complete catalogue of high-velocity clouds (HVCs), followed by a classification of these clouds into complexes and populations. The catalogue will form the basis for comparisons with theoretical models. The study described here yields the following conclusions: (1) Differential

  16. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas–water and oil–gas–water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the

  17. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  18. Evolution of star-bearing molecular clouds: the high-velocity HCO+ flow in NGC 2071

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, A.; Loren, R.B.; Sandqvist, A.; Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, Aa.

    1984-01-01

    The J = 1-0 and J = 302 lines of HCO + and H 13 CO + have been observed in the molecular cloud NGC 2071, where they map the dense portions of a bidirectional molecular flow. The high resolution (42'') of our observations has enabled us to determine the distribution of mass, momentum , and energy in the flow as a function of projected distance from the cluster. Both momentum and energy diminish with distance from the central cluster of infrared sources. The highest velocities at a given intensity in this dense flow occur in a limited region coincident with an infrared cluster and the densest part of the molecular cloud. Higher resolution (33'') CO and 13 CO observations reveal that the extreme velocities in the flow occur in regions displaced on opposite sides of the cluster, suggesting that the flow only becomes visible in molecular line emission at distances approx.0.1 pc from its supposed source. Lower velocity material containing most of the mass of the flow is found over larger regions, as expected if the flow has decelerated as it has evolved. Assuming conservation of momentum, the historical rate of momentum injection is found to have been roughly constant over a period of 10 4 years, suggesting a constancy of the average luminosity of the central cluster over that time. The J = 3--2 HCO + profile does not show the absorption which is a prominent feature of the J = 1--0 profile, and the J = 3--2 line appears to be a useful probe of conditions specific to the dense cores of clouds. The high velocity HCO + emission correlates very well with spatial and velocity events of molecular hydrogen emission. The abundance of HCO + [X(HCO + )approx.10 -8 ], and by inference the electron density, is similar in material at all velocities

  19. Combustion of a high-velocity hydrogen microjet effluxing in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. V.; Grek, G. R.; Korobeinichev, O. P.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Shmakov, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    This study is devoted to experimental investigation of hydrogen-combustion modes and the structure of a diffusion flame formed at a high-velocity efflux of hydrogen in air through round apertures of various diameters. The efflux-velocity range of the hydrogen jet and the diameters of nozzle apertures at which the flame is divided in two zones with laminar and turbulent flow are found. The zone with the laminar flow is a stabilizer of combustion of the flame as a whole, and in the zone with the turbulent flow the intense mixing of fuel with an oxidizer takes place. Combustion in these two zones can occur independently from each other, but the steadiest mode is observed only at the existence of the flame in the laminar-flow zone. The knowledge obtained makes it possible to understand more deeply the features of modes of microjet combustion of hydrogen promising for various combustion devices.

  20. High Velocity Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Resistance of Some ODS Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys were tested for cyclic, high velocity, oxidation, and hot corrosion resistance. These results were compared to the resistance of an advanced, NiCrAl coated superalloy. An ODS FeCrAl were identified as having sufficient oxidation and hot corrosion resistance to allow potential use in an aircraft gas turbine without coating.

  1. High resolution Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Lihua; Wu Jianping; Ding Zhifeng; Panza, G.F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China performed using ambient seismic noise observed at 190 broadband and 10 very broadband stations of the North-China Seismic Array. All available vertical component time-series for the 14 months span between January, 2007 and February, 2008 are cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave Green functions that are subsequently processed, with the multiple filter method, to isolate the group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave. Tomographic maps, with a grid spacing of 0.25 deg. x 0.25 deg., are computed at the periods of 4.5s, 12s, 20s, 28s. The maps at short periods reveal an evident lateral heterogeneity in the crust of North-China, quite well in agreement with known geological and tectonic features. The North China Basin is imaged as a broad low velocity area, while the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts and Ordos block are imaged as high velocity zones, and the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. The group velocity contours at 4.5s, 12s and 20s are consistent with the Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in the area of the Taihangshan fault, that cuts through the lower crust at least. Most of the historical strong earthquakes (M≥6.0) are located where the tomographic maps show zones with moderate velocity gradient. (author)

  2. High-Velocity Ly(Alpha) Emission from SMR 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Pun, Chu S. J.; Sonneborn, George

    1998-01-01

    The high-velocity Ly(Alpha) emission from SN 1987A observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) evidently comes from a reverse shock formed where the outer envelope of SN 1987A strikes ionized gas inside the inner circumstellar ring. The observations can be explained by a simple kinematic model, in which the Ly(Alpha) emission comes from hydrogen atoms with radial velocity approximately 15,000 km s(exp -1) crossing a reverse shock in the shape of a slightly prolate ellipsoid with equatorial radius 4.8 x 10(exp 17) cm or approximately 80% of the distance to the inner surface of the inner ring. N v double Lambda 1239, 1243 emission, if present, has a net luminosity approximately less than 30% times that of the Ly(Alpha) emission. Future STIS observations should enable us to predict the time of impact with the inner ring and to determine unambiguously whether or not N v emission is present. These observations will offer a unique opportunity to probe the structure of SN 1987A's circumstellar environment and the hydrodynamics and kinetics of very fast shocks.

  3. Precession feature extraction of ballistic missile warhead with high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huixia

    2018-04-01

    This paper establishes the precession model of ballistic missile warhead, and derives the formulas of micro-Doppler frequency induced by the target with precession. In order to obtain micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile warhead with precession, micro-Doppler bandwidth estimation algorithm, which avoids velocity compensation, is presented based on high-resolution time-frequency transform. The results of computer simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Sound velocity in the coolant of boiling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.; Parshin, D.A.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivec, E.Yu.

    2009-01-01

    To prevent resonant interaction between acoustic resonance and natural frequencies of FE, FA and RI oscillations, it is necessary to determine the value of EACPO. Based on results of calculations of EACPO and natural frequencies of FR, FA and RI oscillations values, it would be possible to reveal the dynamical loadings on metal that are dangerous for the initiation of cracking process in the early stage of negative condition appearance. To calculate EACPO it is necessary to know the Speed Velocity in Coolant. Now we do not have any data about real values of such important parameter as pressure pulsations propagation velocity in two phase environments, especially in conditions with variations of steam content along the length of FR, with taking into account the type of local resistances, flow geometry etc. While areas of resonant interaction of the single-phase liquid coolant with equipment and internals vibrations are estimated well enough, similar estimations in the conditions of presence of a gas and steam phase in the liquid coolant are inconvenient till now. Paper presents results of calculation of velocity of pressure pulsations distribution in two-phase flow formed in core of RBMK-1000 reactors. Feature of the developed techniques is that not only thermodynamic factors and effect of a speed difference between water and steam in a two phase flow but also geometrical features of core, local resistance, non heterogeneity in the two phase environment and power level of a reactor are considered. Obtained results evidence noticeable decreasing of velocity propagation of pressure pulsations in the presence of steam actions in the liquids. Such estimations for real RC of boiling nuclear reactors with steam-liquid coolant are obtained for the first time. (author)

  5. Hindrance Velocity Model for Phase Segregation in Suspensions of Poly-dispersed Randomly Oriented Spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroughi, S. A.; Huber, C.

    2015-12-01

    Crystal settling and bubbles migration in magmas have significant effects on the physical and chemical evolution of magmas. The rate of phase segregation is controlled by the force balance that governs the migration of particles suspended in the melt. The relative velocity of a single particle or bubble in a quiescent infinite fluid (melt) is well characterized; however, the interplay between particles or bubbles in suspensions and emulsions and its effect on their settling/rising velocity remains poorly quantified. We propose a theoretical model for the hindered velocity of non-Brownian emulsions of nondeformable droplets, and suspensions of spherical solid particles in the creeping flow regime. The model is based on three sets of hydrodynamic corrections: two on the drag coefficient experienced by each particle to account for both return flow and Smoluchowski effects and a correction on the mixture rheology to account for nonlocal interactions between particles. The model is then extended for mono-disperse non-spherical solid particles that are randomly oriented. The non-spherical particles are idealized as spheroids and characterized by their aspect ratio. The poly-disperse nature of natural suspensions is then taken into consideration by introducing an effective volume fraction of particles for each class of mono-disperse particles sizes. Our model is tested against new and published experimental data over a wide range of particle volume fraction and viscosity ratios between the constituents of dispersions. We find an excellent agreement between our model and experiments. We also show two significant applications for our model: (1) We demonstrate that hindered settling can increase mineral residence time by up to an order of magnitude in convecting magma chambers. (2) We provide a model to correct for particle interactions in the conventional hydrometer test to estimate the particle size distribution in soils. Our model offers a greatly improved agreement with

  6. Survivability of bare, individual Bacillus subtilis spores to high-velocity surface impact: Implications for microbial transfer through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brandon L.; Pratt, Sara N.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    Laboratory experiments show that endospores of Bacillus subtilis survive impact against a solid surface at velocities as high as 299 ±28 m/s. During impact, spores experience and survive accelerations of at least 1010 m/s2. The spores were introduced into a vacuum chamber using an electrospray source and accelerated to a narrow velocity distribution by entrainment in a differentially pumped gas flow. Different velocity ranges were studied by modifying the gas flow parameters. The spores were electrically charged, allowing direct measurement of the velocity of each spore as it passed through an image charge detector prior to surface impact. Spores impacted a glass surface and were collected for subsequent analysis by culturing. Most spores survived impact at all measured velocities. These experiments differ fundamentally from other studies that show either shock or impact survivability of bacteria embedded within or on the surface of a projectile. Bacteria in the present experiments undergo a single interaction with a solid surface at the full impact velocity, in the absence of any other effects such as cushioning due to microbe agglomerations, deceleration due to air or vapor, or transfer of impact shock through solid or liquid media. During these full-velocity impact events, the spores experience extremely high decelerations. This study is the first reported instance of accelerations of this magnitude experienced during a bacteria impact event. These results are discussed in the context of potential transfer of viable microbes in space and other scenarios involving surface impacts at high velocities.

  7. Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Edwin H

    2012-01-01

    Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than λ 0 /D (where λ 0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions. (methodological notes)

  8. High pressure phase transformations revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.

    2018-04-01

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  9. High pressure phase transformations revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I

    2018-04-25

    High pressure phase transformations play an important role in the search for new materials and material synthesis, as well as in geophysics. However, they are poorly characterized, and phase transformation pressure and pressure hysteresis vary drastically in experiments of different researchers, with different pressure transmitting media, and with different material suppliers. Here we review the current state, challenges in studying phase transformations under high pressure, and the possible ways in overcoming the challenges. This field is critically compared with fields of phase transformations under normal pressure in steels and shape memory alloys, as well as plastic deformation of materials. The main reason for the above mentioned discrepancy is the lack of understanding that there is a fundamental difference between pressure-induced transformations under hydrostatic conditions, stress-induced transformations under nonhydrostatic conditions below yield, and strain-induced transformations during plastic flow. Each of these types of transformations has different mechanisms and requires a completely different thermodynamic and kinetic description and experimental characterization. In comparison with other fields the following challenges are indicated for high pressure phase transformation: (a) initial and evolving microstructure is not included in characterization of transformations; (b) continuum theory is poorly developed; (c) heterogeneous stress and strain fields in experiments are not determined, which leads to confusing material transformational properties with a system behavior. Some ways to advance the field of high pressure phase transformations are suggested. The key points are: (a) to take into account plastic deformations and microstructure evolution during transformations; (b) to formulate phase transformation criteria and kinetic equations in terms of stress and plastic strain tensors (instead of pressure alone); (c) to develop multiscale continuum

  10. The high velocity, high adiabat, ``Bigfoot'' campaign and tests of indirect-drive implosion scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    To achieve hotspot ignition, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions must achieve high hotspot internal energy that is inertially confined by a dense shell of DT fuel. To accomplish this, implosions are designed to achieve high peak implosion velocity, good energy coupling between the hotspot and imploding shell, and high areal-density at stagnation. However, experiments have shown that achieving these simultaneously is extremely challenging, partly because of inherent tradeoffs between these three interrelated requirements. The Bigfoot approach is to intentionally trade off high convergence, and therefore areal-density, in favor of high implosion velocity and good coupling between the hotspot and shell. This is done by intentionally colliding the shocks in the DT ice layer. This results in a short laser pulse which improves hohlraum symmetry and predictability while the reduced compression improves hydrodynamic stability. The results of this campaign will be reviewed and include demonstrated low-mode symmetry control at two different hohlraum geometries (5.75 mm and 5.4 mm diameters) and at two different target scales (5.4 mm and 6.0 mm hohlraum diameters) spanning 300-430 TW in laser power and 0.8-1.7 MJ in laser energy. Results of the 10% scaling between these designs for the hohlraum and capsule will be presented. Hydrodynamic instability growth from engineering features like the capsule fill tube are currently thought to be a significant perturbation to the target performance and a major factor in reducing its performance compared to calculations. Evidence supporting this hypothesis as well as plans going forward will be presented. Ongoing experiments are attempting to measure the impact on target performance from increase in target scale, and the preliminary results will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.

  12. Spectral characteristics of aurorae connected with high-velocity flows of the solar wind from coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khviyuzova, T.A.; Leont'ev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Bright electron aurorae almost always followed by red lower edge occur when the Earth is being passed by high-velocity flows from coronal holes within the auroral range at the night meridian. In contrast to other types of the solar wind the high-velocity flows from coronal holes do not cause the occurrence of A type red polar aurorae, that is, the spectrum of electrons pouring into the Earth atmosphere in these cases is shifted towards higher energies

  13. High-velocity DC-VPS for diffusion and protecting barrier layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, R. H.; Franco, T.; Ruckdäschel, R.

    2006-12-01

    High-temperature fuel cells of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) type as direct converter of chemical into electrical energy show a high potential for reducing considerably the specific energy consumption in different application fields. Of particular interest are advanced lightweight planar cells for electricity supply units in cars and other mobile systems. Such cells, in one new design, consist mainly of metallic parts, for example, of ferrite steels. These cells shall operate in the temperature range of 700 to 800 °C where oxidation and diffusion processes can be of detrimental effect on cell performance for long-term operation. Problems arise in particular by diffusion of chromium species from the interconnect or the cell containment into the electrolyte/cathode interface forming insulating phases and by the mutual diffusion of substrate and anode material, for example, iron and chromium from the ferrite into the anode and nickel from the anode into the ferrite, which in both cases reduces performance and system lifetime. Additional intermediate layers of perovskite-type material, (e.g., doped LaCrO3) applied with high-velocity direct-current vacuum plasma spraying (DC-VPS) can reduce such effects considerably if they are stable and of high electronic conductivity.

  14. HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CO J = 7-6 EMISSION FROM THE ORION HOT CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Ray S.; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10.4 m telescope, we performed sensitive mapping observations of 12 CO J = 7-6 emission at 807 GHz toward Orion IRc2. The image has an angular resolution of 10'', which is the highest angular resolution data toward the Orion Hot Core published for this transition. In addition, thanks to the on-the-fly mapping technique, the fidelity of the new image is rather high, particularly in comparison with previous images. We have succeeded in mapping the northwest-southeast high-velocity molecular outflow, whose terminal velocity is shifted by ∼70-85 km s -1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the cloud. This yields an extremely short dynamical time scale of ∼900 years. The estimated outflow mass loss rate shows an extraordinarily high value, on the order of 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . Assuming that the outflow is driven by Orion IRc2, our result agrees with the picture so far obtained for a 20 M sun (proto)star in the process of formation.

  15. Microstructure and sound velocity of Ti-N-O synthetic inclusions in Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Gilmore, R.S.; Perocchi, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen and oxygen stabilize the alpha phase in titanium. Regions within Ti alloy parts containing high local levels of N and O can stabilize a hard-alpha phase. The ultrasonic properties of titanium-nitrogen-oxygen inclusions within Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) blocks were measured and related to inclusion chemistry. Sound velocities were measured on Ti-N-O alloy samples that had been prepared by powder metallurgy and ingot-melting techniques. The contributions to sound velocity from oxygen and nitrogen contents were determined. Then, Ti64 blocks were hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonded to contain inclusions of the Ti-N-O alloys. The signal-to-noise ratios of reflections from uncracked inclusions were found to be an increasing function of inclusion interstitial content and were related to changes in sound velocity with inclusion chemistry. Measurements were made of the reflectance of titanium-nitrogen inclusions in titanium and Ti64

  16. Evidence for small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle from joint analysis of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Dalton, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    It has been long observed that the rate of seafloor subsidence in the Pacific Ocean is lower than predicted by half-space cooling at ages older than 70 Myr. The magnitude, geographical distribution, onset time, and physical origin of the flattening are fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of oceanic lithosphere, and give important constraints on the Earth's heat budget and ocean volume throughout its history. However, none of these quantities is well established even after a long history of debates. Here, we present evidence from bathymetry and seismic tomography for the wide-scale operation of small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle. We track the temporal evolution of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor topography along age trajectories, which connect each piece of seafloor with the ridge segment that created it. The half-space cooling model (HSCM) and plate cooling model are used to predict the age dependence of phase velocity and bathymetry and to identify, for each age trajectory, the age at which the HSCM fails to explain the observations. The phase velocity and bathymetry are analyzed independently and yet yield identical results for more than 80% of points. We observe a wide range of ages at which the HSCM fails in the Atlantic and a much narrower range in the Pacific. We find that the age at which the HSCM fails is anti-correlated with the present-day depth of the ridge axis, with younger failure ages corresponding to deeper ridge axes and therefore colder mantle beneath the ridge.Such dependence is best explained by the small-scale convection model in which the effective viscosity of the lithosphere is regulated by the dehydration process that happens at the mid-ocean ridges. Decompression melting at a ridge removes water from the mantle and generates a depleted, dehydrated, and viscous layer. Since high mantle potential temperatures cause decompression melting to begin at greater depths, the thickness of the

  17. Characterization of microstructure and surface properties of hybrid coatings of WC-CoCr prepared by laser heat treatment and high velocity oxygen fuel spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shihong; Cho, Tong-Yul; Yoon, Jae-Hong; Fang, Wei; Song, Ki-O; Li Mingxi; Joo, Yun-Kon; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and microhardness of high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed WC-CoCr coatings were comparatively studied both before and after laser heat treatment of the coatings. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness testing were applied to investigate the microstructure, phase composition, porosity and microhardness. The results indicate that WC is still present, and W 2 C has appeared, while neither cobalt nor σ-CrCo is detectable. Co 4 W 2 C has appeared in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating after laser heat treatment as compared to the coating before laser treatment. The relative content of the W 2 C has not increased with laser treatment, but the laser treatment has essentially eliminated the porosity almost entirely, providing a more homogeneous and densified microstructure. The laser heat treatment has effected the formation of a denser compact coating on the substrate. After laser heat treatment, the thickness of the coating has decreased from 300 μm to 225 μm. This corresponds to an average porosity in the high velocity oxygen fuel-sprayed coating that is approximately five times greater than that in the subsequently laser heat-treated coating. The laser treatment has also resulted in an increased hardness of the coating near the surface, where the average value increased from Hv 0.2 = 1262.4 in the coating before laser heat treatment to Hv 0.2 = 1818.7 after laser heat treatment

  18. 2-D blood vector velocity estimation using a phase shift estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper

    are presented. Here the TO method is tested both in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the RASMUS scanner. Both simulations and flow phantom experiments indicate that the TO method can estimate the 2-D vector velocity with an acceptable low bias and standard deviation...... velocity estimation is discussed. The TO method is introduced, and the basic theory behind the method is explained. This includes the creation of the acoustic fields, beamforming, echo-canceling and the velocity estimator. In the second part of the thesis the eight papers produced during this PhD project...... when the angle between the blood and the ultrasound beam is above $50^\\circ$. Furthermore, the TO method is tested in-vivo where the scannings are performed by skilled sonographers. The in-vivo scannings resulted in a sequence of 2-D vector CFM images which showed 2-D flow patterns in the bifurcation...

  19. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  20. Flow velocity and volume measurement of superior and inferior mesenteric artery with cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Cooper, T.G.; Jenner, G.; Potchen, E.J.; Ishigaki, Takeo.

    1994-01-01

    The flow velocity and volume of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (SMA, IMA) were measured with cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in five healthy volunteers. Each volunteer was first measured in a fasting state, and then one, two, and three hours after a meal. The average SMA flow volume of the volunteers was 230.3±46.8 ml/min (mean±standard error) during the fasting state, and 714.7±207.7 ml/min, 339.2±85.7 ml/min, and 263.8±21.0 ml/min, respectively, at one, two, and three hours postmeal. The increase at one hour postmeal was statistically significant (p<0.05). The corresponding flow measurements in the IMA were 63.1±11.2 ml/min, 67.6±11.2 ml/min, 57.9±8.6 ml/min, and 53.2±6.8 ml/min. These values do not represent a statistically significant flow volume change in the IMA. In all volunteers, the SMA volumetric flow increased the most one hour after the food challenge (72-400% relative to baseline). Diastolic velocity in the SMA increased significantly one hour postmeal, but systolic velocity did not change significantly. The IMA did not demonstrate a significant change in either systolic or diastolic velocity. The difference between the SMA and IMA in the way of reacting against the food challenge is thought to represent the difference between the requirements of small and large intestine for blood supply after the food challenge. These data demonstrate the possibility of this modality for the assessment of conditions such as chronic mesenteric ischemia. (author)

  1. Free-surface velocity measurements using an optically recording velocity interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Wang Zhao; Liang Jing; Shan Yusheng; Zhou Chuangzhi; Xiang Yihuai; Lu Ze; Tang Xiuzhang

    2006-01-01

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) was developed for the free-surface velocity measurements in the equation of state experiments. The time history of free-surface velocity could be recorded by the electronic streak camera. In the experiments, ORVIS got a 179 ps time resolution, and a higher time resolution could be got by minimizing the delay time. The equation of state experiments were carried out on the high power excimer laser system called 'Heaven I' with laser wavelength of 248.4 nm, pulse duration of 25 ns and maximum energy 158 J. Free-surface velocity of 20 μm thick iron got 3.86 km/s with laser intensity of 6.24 x 10 11 W·cm -2 , and free-surface velocity of 100 μm thick aluminum with 100 μm CH foil at the front got 2.87 km/s with laser intensity 7.28 x 10 11 W·cm -2 . (authors)

  2. Evolution of the 1963 Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) from low and high velocity friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Han, R.; Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The final slip at about 30 m/s of the Vajont landslide (Northern Italy) on 9th October 1963 was preceded by a long creeping phase which was monitored over about three years. Creep was localized in cm-thick clay-rich (50% Ca-montmorillonite + smectite + illite + vermiculite, 40% calcite and 10% quartz) gouge layers. The velocity results in thermoviscoplastic model of the landslide (Veveakis et al., 2007) suggested that during creep, compaction and frictional heating released water from the clay-rich layer and, by increasing the pore-pressure in the slipping zone, determined the final collapse of the landslide. Here we investigated the frictional evolution of the clay-rich layers and the transition towards the final collapse. Experiments were carried out on the clayey gouge from the slipping zone at atmospheric humidity conditions ("dry") and in the presence of excess water ("saturated"). High velocity friction experiments were performed in a rotary shear apparatus at 1 MPa normal stress (about the normal stress at the sliding surface of the Vajont landslide), velocity v from 0.006 m/s to 1.31 m/s and displacements up to 34 m. The 1 mm-thick clayey gouges were sandwiched between marble cylindrical specimens (24.95 mm in diameter) and confined by Teflon rings to avoid gouge expulsion during the experiments. The fluid release during the experiments was monitored with a humidity sensor. Low velocity friction experiments were performed in a biaxial apparatus at 5 MPa normal stress, v from 1.0 10E-7 m/s to 1.0 10E-4 m/s (within the range at which the slide became critical, 2.0 10E-7 m/s, Veveakis et al., 2007) and displacements up to 0.02 m. In dry experiments, friction is 0.43-0.47 at v Vajont clays), and decreases to 0.03-0.05 at v > 0.006 m/s. At dry conditions, dilatancy was observed for v > 0.7 m/s suggesting fault pressurization by water release due to smectite-to-illite decomposition. Decomposition occurred at temperatures above 300°C, as confirmed by the

  3. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  4. Vibrational circular dichroism from ab initio molecular dynamics and nuclear velocity perturbation theory in the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, Arne [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Vuilleumier, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.vuilleumier@ens.fr [Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Sebastiani, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sebastiani@chemie.uni-halle.de [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-08-28

    We report the first fully ab initio calculation of dynamical vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the liquid phase using nuclear velocity perturbation theory (NVPT) derived electronic currents. Our approach is rigorous and general and thus capable of treating weak interactions of chiral molecules as, e.g., chirality transfer from a chiral molecule to an achiral solvent. We use an implementation of the NVPT that is projected along the dynamics to obtain the current and magnetic dipole moments required for accurate intensities. The gauge problem in the liquid phase is resolved in a twofold approach. The electronic expectation values are evaluated in a distributed origin gauge, employing maximally localized Wannier orbitals. In a second step, the gauge invariant spectrum is obtained in terms of a scaled molecular moments, which allows to systematically include solvent effects while keeping a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We give a thorough analysis and discussion of this choice of gauge for the liquid phase. At low temperatures, we recover the established double harmonic approximation. The methodology is applied to chiral molecules ((S)-d{sub 2}-oxirane and (R)-propylene-oxide) in the gas phase and in solution. We find an excellent agreement with the theoretical and experimental references, including the emergence of signals due to chirality transfer from the solute to the (achiral) solvent.

  5. The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Binns, Ashley

    2015-11-01

    Physical function declines up to 4% per year after the age of 65. High-velocity training is important for maintaining muscular power and ultimately, physical function; however, whether performing high-velocity training without external resistance increases functional fitness among older adults remains unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate loaded and unloaded high-velocity training on lower body muscular power and functional fitness in older adults. Fifty-seven community-dwelling older adults (n = 16 males, n = 41 females) participated in this study. Inclusion criteria comprised ≥65 years of age, ≥24 on the Mini-mental state examination and no falls within past year. Two groups completed a 20-week high-velocity training intervention. The non-weighted group (UNLOAD, n = 27) performed the protocol without external load while the intervention group (LOAD, n = 30) used external loads via exercise machines. Functional fitness was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Senior Fitness Test (SFT), hand-grip and lower body power measures. Multivariate ANOVA revealed that both groups had significant improvements for average (17.21%) and peak (9.26%) lower body power, along with the SFT arm curl (16.94%), chair stand (20.10%) and 8 ft. up-and-go (15.67%). Improvements were also noticed for SPPB 8 ft. walk (25.21%). However, improvements for all functional fitness measures were independent of training group. Unloaded high-velocity training increased functional fitness and power the same as loaded training. The ability of high-velocity movements to elicit gains in functional fitness without external loads may help health professionals develop fitness programs when time/space is limiting factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. High Velocity Horizontal Motions at the Edge of Sunspot Penumbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenaar-Daggett, Hermance J.; Shine, R.

    2010-05-01

    The outer edges of sunspot penumbrae have long been noted as a region of interesting dynamics including formation of MMFs, extensions and retractions of the penumbral tips, fast moving (2-3 km/s) bright features dubbed"streakers", and localized regions of high speed downflows interpreted as Evershed "sinks". Using 30s cadence movies of high spatial resolution G band and Ca II H images taken by the Hinode SOT/FPP instrument from 5-7 Jan 2007, we have been investigating the penumbra around a sunspot in AR 10933. In addition to the expected phenomena, we also see occasional small dark crescent-shaped features with high horizontal velocities (6.5 km/s) in G band movies. These appear to be emitted from penumbral tips. They travel about 1.5 Mm developing a bright wake that evolves into a slower moving (1-2 km/s) bright feature. In some cases, there may be an earlier outward propagating disturbance within the penumbra. We have also analyzed available Fe 6302 Stokes V images to obtain information on the magnetic field. Although only lower resolution 6302 images made with a slower cadence are available for these particular data sets, we can establish that the features have the opposite magnetic polarity of the sunspot. This observation may be in agreement with simulations showing that a horizontal flux tube develops crests that move outward with a velocity as large as 10 km/s. This work was supported by NASA contract NNM07AA01C.

  7. Velocity-Resolved LES (VR-LES) technique for simulating turbulent transport of high Schmidt number passive scalars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, Guillaume; P. K. Yeung Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Accurate simulation of high Schmidt number scalar transport in turbulent flows is essential to studying pollutant dispersion, weather, and several oceanic phenomena. Batchelor's theory governs scalar transport in such flows, but requires further validation at high Schmidt and high Reynolds numbers. To this end, we use a new approach with the velocity field fully resolved, but the scalar field only partially resolved. The grid used is fine enough to resolve scales up to the viscous-convective subrange where the decaying slope of the scalar spectrum becomes constant. This places the cutoff wavenumber between the Kolmogorov scale and the Batchelor scale. The subgrid scale terms, which affect transport at the supergrid scales, are modeled under the assumption that velocity fluctuations are negligible beyond this cutoff wavenumber. To ascertain the validity of this technique, we performed a-priori testing on existing DNS data. This Velocity-Resolved LES (VR-LES) technique significantly reduces the computational cost of turbulent simulations of high Schmidt number scalars, and yet provides valuable information of the scalar spectrum in the viscous-convective subrange.

  8. AD Leonis: Radial Velocity Signal of Stellar Rotation or Spin–Orbit Resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomi, Mikko; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Barnes, John R.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Butler, R. Paul; Kiraga, Marcin; Vogt, Steven S.

    2018-05-01

    AD Leonis is a nearby magnetically active M dwarf. We find Doppler variability with a period of 2.23 days, as well as photometric signals: (1) a short-period signal, which is similar to the radial velocity signal, albeit with considerable variability; and (2) a long-term activity cycle of 4070 ± 120 days. We examine the short-term photometric signal in the available All-Sky Automated Survey and Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) photometry and find that the signal is not consistently present and varies considerably as a function of time. This signal undergoes a phase change of roughly 0.8 rad when considering the first and second halves of the MOST data set, which are separated in median time by 3.38 days. In contrast, the Doppler signal is stable in the combined High-Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher and High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer radial velocities for over 4700 days and does not appear to vary in time in amplitude, phase, period, or as a function of extracted wavelength. We consider a variety of starspot scenarios and find it challenging to simultaneously explain the rapidly varying photometric signal and the stable radial velocity signal as being caused by starspots corotating on the stellar surface. This suggests that the origin of the Doppler periodicity might be the gravitational tug of a planet orbiting the star in spin–orbit resonance. For such a scenario and no spin–orbit misalignment, the measured v\\sin i indicates an inclination angle of 15.°5 ± 2.°5 and a planetary companion mass of 0.237 ± 0.047 M Jup.

  9. One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    1993-01-01

    The limiting bubble wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is demonstrated that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas limit

  10. One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.

    1993-01-01

    The limiting bubble-wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. I demonstrate that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas (''thin-wall'') limit

  11. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-velocity penetrating thoracic trauma with suspected cardiac involvement in a combat support hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, F.; Gentlesk, P.J.; Eckart, R.E.; Beekley, A.C.; Huffer, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    The most common cardiac injuries in the United States are blunt trauma from motor vehicle accidents or low-velocity trauma from stabbings. During military conflict, high-velocity injuries, including gunshot wounds (GSW) and fragment injury from improvised explosive devices (IED), are relatively more common. This is a retrospective review of cases with high-velocity penetrating injury and suspected myocardial involvement during a 6-month period in Baghdad, Iraq, at a United States Army hospital during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eleven cases survived to admission (GSW in 5, IED in 6). The mean age of the all-male cohort was 27 years (range, 3-54 years). Eight of the 11 patients (73%) were victims of polytrauma. The entrance involved the right ventricle (n=3), right atrium (n=2), left ventricle (n=1), or mediastinum and pericardial reflections (n=5). Echocardiography was performed in all 11 patients. In 7 patients, no foreign body was identifiable, and in 2 patients the foreign body was identified within the pericardial fat pad. Three patients were identified as having a suspected ventricular septal defect, ranging in size from 2 to 8 mm. The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block. In 4 patients, the management of the chest injury was nonsurgical, and in 1 patient the treatment was a chest tube only. Four of the patients underwent median sternotomy, 1 underwent emergent lateral thoracotomy, and 1 underwent an infradiaphragmatic approach. This case series is too small to draw definitive conclusions; however, a multidisciplinary approach to high-velocity injuries with potential for cardiac involvement augments preoperative assessment for myocardial injury and may allow selective nonoperative management. (author)

  13. Shear velocity model for the westernmost Mediterranean from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.

  14. Instantaneous axial velocity of a radioactive tracer determined with radioactive particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraguio, Maria Sol; Cassanello, Miryan C., E-mail: miryan@di.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Programa de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energia (PINMATE); Cardona, Maria Angelica; Hojman, Daniel, E-mail: cardona@tandar.cnea.gov.a [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Somacal, Hector [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Dept. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) is a technique that has been successfully used to get features of the liquid and/or the solid motion in multiphase contactors. It is one of the rare techniques able to provide experimental data in dense and strongly turbulent multiphase media. Validation of the technique has always been based on comparing the estimated mean velocity to an imposed mean velocity although the extracted features are frequently related to the instantaneous velocities. The present work pursues the analysis, through calibration experiments, of the ability of RPT to get the actual tracer instantaneous velocities. With this purpose, the motion of a radioactive tracer attached to a moving rod driven by a pneumatic system is reconstructed from the combined response of an array of 10 NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Simultaneously, the tracer motion is registered through an encoder able to establish the axial tracer coordinate with high precision and high time resolution. The tracer is a gold particle, activated by neutron bombardment. The rod is moved at different velocities and it travels upwards and downwards close to the column centre. A mini-pilot scale bubble column is used as the test facility. The model liquid is tap water in batch mode and the gas is air, flowing at different gas velocities, spanning the homogeneous and the heterogeneous flow regimes. Time series of the entirety response of all the detectors, while the rod is moving at different imposed velocities within the two phase emulsion, are measured with a sampling period of 0.03 s during about 2 minutes. The instantaneous tracer positions and velocities reconstructed from RPT and the one obtained from the encoder response are compared under different operating conditions and for different tracer velocities. (author)

  15. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect. A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measured value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.

  16. An improved electrical sensor for simultaneous measurement of the void fraction and two phase flow velocity in the inclined pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Woo Yeon; Lee, Yeon Gun; Lee, Bo An; Koc, Min Seok; Kim, Sin

    2016-01-01

    The information for the flow pattern is also required to measure the void fraction. In order to solve this problems, Ko et al. proposed the void fraction measurement sensor according to the flow pattern using a three-electrode. The sensor system applied for a horizontal flow loop, and its measured performance for the void fraction was evaluated. In this study, a dual sensor was suggested to improve the measurement accuracy of the void fraction and the velocity. We applied the sensor to the inclined pipe simulating the PAFS heat exchanger. In order to verify the void fraction and velocity measurements, we used the wire-mesh sensor and the high-speed camera. In this study, an improved electrical conductance sensor for void fraction and velocity in inclined pipes has been designed. For minimizing between the sensor electrode interference, the numerical analysis has been performed. The loop experiments were conducted for several flow conditions and the experimental results for the void fractions and velocity measured by the proposed sensor were compared with those of a wiremesh sensor and high-speed camera.

  17. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  18. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  19. High pH mobile phase effects on silica-based reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkland, J.J.; Straten, van M.A.; Claessens, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Aqueous mobile phases above pH 8 often cause premature column failure, limiting the utility of silica-based columns for applications requiring high pH. Previous studies suggest that covalently bound silane ligands are hydrolyzed and removed by high-pH mobile phases. However, we found that the

  20. Calculation of the mean-square velocities of atom oscillations in the Moessbauer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Ya.S.; Lebedev, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    To study mechanical and physical properties of solid bodies, it is important to know the behavior of rms velocities of atomic oscillations. Binary iron alloys in the vicinity of phase transition temperatures were investigated using the Moessbauer spectroscopy. The rms velocities of atomic oscillations demonstrate that 3d-3p direct chemical bonds for Si and 3d-4p direct chemical bonds for Ge are broken (formed) at the phase transition temperature; as a consequence, the velocities of atomic oscillations increase abruptly [ru

  1. Role of the leader in the rail gun channel at high launching velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorskii, A. V.; Katsnel'Son, S. S.; Pravdin, S. S.; Fomichev, V. P.

    1992-08-01

    An analysis of the performance of a number of rail guns indicates that one of the factors limiting the launching velocity is the formation of a leader. In experiments, the leader is usually formed as a result of a plasma breakdown between the dielectric projectile and the channel walls. This can be prevented by various technical means. However, at high launching velocities (5 km/s and greater) a leader may form as a result of a breakdown in the ionized gas in the wake of a strong shock wave ahead of the projectile. Further research is needed to find ways of preventing the formation of a leader in the latter case.

  2. Railgun armature velocity improvement, SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Leo E.; Bauer, David P.

    1992-08-01

    Railgun hypervelocity performance has not been repeatably demonstrated at velocities over 6 km/s. A significant performance limiting phenomena is the formation of secondary current paths in parallel with the main projectile accelerating plasma. A confined plasma armature technique was developed to prevent secondary armature formation. Confinement prevents loss of ionized material from the plasma armature and thereby prevents formation of a low rail-to-rail conductance. We controlled pressure in the confined armature via controlled venting through ports in the rails. Railgun tests with the confined armature show that sealing at the rail-confinement vessel interface is critical and difficult to achieve. Our tests show that during low seal leakage operation secondaries are prevented. However, maintaining good seal for the entire launch is very difficult.

  3. Plane-wave and common-translation-factor treatments of He2++H collisions at high velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Harel, C.; Jouin, H.; Maidagan, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.

    1992-01-01

    We complement previous work that showed that the molecular approach, modified with plane-wave translation factors, is able to reproduce the fall of charge-exchange cross sections in He 2+ +H collisions, by presenting the molecular data, and studying the corresponding mechanism. We test the accuracy of simplifications of the method that have been employed in the literature, and that lead to very simple calculations. We show that the common-translation-factor method is also successful at high nuclear velocities, provided that sufficiently excited states are included in the basis; moreover, it yields a simple picture of the mechanism and a description of ionization processes at high velocities

  4. Seismic velocity anisotropy of phyllosilicate-rich rocks: characteristics inferred from experimental and crack-model studies of biotite-rich schist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, O.; Kanagawa, K.

    2010-07-01

    Seismic velocity anisotropy of biotite schist (30 per cent-mode biotite) was measured under confining pressures up to 150 MPa. The rock shows weak orthotropy which was altered from transverse isotropy (TI) generated by biotite-preferred orientation. The orthotropy was caused by microfolding in the rock. The velocity increase under confining pressure indicates that most crack planes are aligned parallel to the cleavage planes (silicate sheet) of the oriented biotite minerals. The anisotropy of the rock is basically TI due to both the aligned biotite minerals and cracks, which have a common symmetry axis. We found that other sheet silicate-rich rocks have a similar anisotropy with the biotite schist, in which the TI-type anisotropy is characterized by the slow P- and S-wave velocities along the symmetry axis. This is caused by the preferred orientation of sheet silicate minerals and the extremely slow P- and S-wave velocities along the axis perpendicular to the silicate sheet compared to the directions along the silicate sheet. When rock contains a large percentage of highly oriented sheet silicates, the fast and slow shear waves exchange their polarities at some off-symmetry axis directions, indicating that the qS-wave (quasi-S wave) velocity exceeds the SH-wave velocity. The phase velocity distribution of qS wave shows an asymmetry with respect to the angle from the symmetry axis, which is characterized by a bulge in this distribution located near the symmetric axis. This is inherent to most sheet silicate minerals. When crack density of aligned cracks increases, the P-wave velocity along the symmetry axis decreases considerably. The qS-wave phase velocity in the off-axis directions also decreases, in accordance with the decrease of the P velocity along the symmetry axis. The asymmetry of the qS-wave phase velocity distribution increases as the P-wave velocity decreases along the symmetry axis. This relationship can be well understood by means of Berryman

  5. Two types of SDR recognised in pre-stack velocity analysis of ultra-long-offset seismic reflection data in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J.; McDermott, C.; Lonergan, L.; McDermott, K.; Bellingham, P.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of continental breakup at volcanic margins has lagged behind that of non-volcanic margins in recent years. This is largely due to seismic imaging problems caused by the presence of thick packages of Seaward-Dipping Reflectors (SDRs) in the continent-ocean transition zone. These packages consist of interbedded tholeiitic lava flows, volcanic tuffs and terrestrial sediment that results in scattering, peg-leg multiples and defocusing of seismic energy. Here we analyse three ultra-long-offset (10.2 km), wide-bandwidth (5-100 Hz) seismic reflection profiles acquired by ION-GXT offshore South America during 2009-12 to gain new insights into the velocity structure of the SDRs and hence pattern of magmatism during continental breakup. We observe two seismic velocity patterns within the SDRs. The most landward packages show high velocity anomaly "bulls-eyes" of up to 1 km s-1. These highs occur where the stacked section shows them to thicken at the down-dip end of individual packages that are bounded by faults. All lines show 5-6 velocity highs spaced approximately 10 km apart. We interpret the velocity bulls-eyes as depleted mafic or ultramafic bodies that fed the sub-aerial tholeiitic lava flows during continental stretching. Similar relationships have been observed in outcrop onshore but have not been previously demonstrated in seismic data. The bulls-eye packages pass laterally into SDR packages that show no velocity highs. These packages are not associated with faulting and become more extensive going north towards the impact point of the Tristan da Cunha hotspot. This second type of SDR coincides with linear magnetic anomalies. We interpret these SDRs as the products of sub-aerial oceanic spreading similar to those seen on Iceland and described in the classic "Hinz model" and marine geophysical literature. Our work demonstrates that these SDRs are preceded by ones generated during an earlier phase of mechanical thinning of the continental crust. The

  6. Pulmonary branch arterial flow can be measured with cine MR velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, G.R.; Kondo, C.; Masui, T.; Foster, E.; Geraci, S.J.; O'Sullivan, M.; Higgins, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper assesses the capability of cine MR phase velocity mapping (CVM) to measure main, right-sided, and left-sided pulmonary arterial (PA) blood flow. The authors examined a constant-flow phantom and nine healthy volunteers with use of 1.5-T MR imaging system (GE Signa) with phase velocity cine sequences. CVM correctly measured constant-flow phantom velocities (range, 20-190 cm/sec; r = .998, SEE = 4.2 cm/sec), and velocity with use of angulated planes to section the phantom tube perpendicularly. CVM peak systolic main PA velocity (79 cm/sec ± 10) correlated well with Doppler US measurements (80 cm/sec ± 7). CVM main PA flow correlated well with conventional cine MR LV stroke volume measurements (r = .98, SEE = 4.8 mL). Left and right PA flow on the angulated planes were 29 mL ± 7 and 34 mL ± 10, respectively

  7. On the theory of high-velocity particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeyev, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    The equations of mechanics and electrodynamics are presented in a form which is covariant for Galileo transformations in Euclidean space. The author shows that Galileo transformations in the Euclidean space are valid for particles with velocities approaching that of light. (author)

  8. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  9. A detonation model of high/low velocity detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shaoming; Li, Chenfang; Ma, Yunhua; Cui, Junmin [Xian Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Xian, 710065 (China)

    2007-02-15

    A new detonation model that can simulate both high and low velocity detonations is established using the least action principle. The least action principle is valid for mechanics and thermodynamics associated with a detonation process. Therefore, the least action principle is valid in detonation science. In this model, thermodynamic equilibrium state is taken as the known final point of the detonation process. Thermodynamic potentials are analogous to mechanical ones, and the Lagrangian function in the detonation process is L=T-V. Under certain assumptions, the variation calculus of the Lagrangian function gives two solutions: the first one is a constant temperature solution, and the second one is the solution of an ordinary differential equation. A special solution of the ordinary differential equation is given. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Solutions of the Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation with position dependent Fermi-velocity and gap profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presilla, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Panella, O., E-mail: orlando.panella@pg.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Roy, P. [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata-700108 (India)

    2017-02-19

    It is shown that bound state solutions of the one dimensional Bogoliubov–de Gennes (BdG) equation may exist when the Fermi velocity becomes dependent on the space coordinate. The existence of bound states in continuum (BIC) like solutions has also been confirmed both in the normal phase as well as in the super-conducting phase. We also show that a combination of Fermi velocity and gap parameter step-like profiles provides scattering solutions with normal reflection and transmission. - Highlights: • Bound states of BdG equation via Fermi velocity modulation. • Existence of bound states in continuum in both the normal and the superconducting phase. • Scattering solutions and bound states within a combination of step-like Fermi velocity and gap profiles.

  11. Does the application of gadolinium-DTPA have an impact on magnetic resonance phase contrast velocity measurements? Results from an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heverhagen, J.T. E-mail: heverhag@post.med.uni-marburg.de; Hoppe, M.; Klose, K.-J.; Wagner, H.-J

    2002-10-01

    Introduction/objective: To evaluate the potential influence of various concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA on magnetic resonance phase contrast (MR PC) velocimetry. Material and methods: Imaging was done with a 1.0 T scanner using a standard Flash 2D sequence and a circular polarized extremity coil. In a validated flow phantom with a defined 75% area stenosis different concentrations of Gd-DTPA, diluted in a 10:1 water-yogurt mixture, MR PC measurements were correlated with a Doppler guide wire as gold standard. Results: MR PC measurements correlated well with the Doppler derived data (r=0.99; P<0.01; maximum pre-stenotic velocity: 21.6{+-}0.5 cm/s; maximum intra-stenotic velocity: 81.7{+-}0.6 cm/s). Following Gd-DTPA administration no significant (P>0.05; Student's t-test) flow measurement changes were noted (maximum pre-stenotic velocity: 21.3{+-}1.3 cm/s; maximum intra-stenotic velocity: 84.0{+-}3.6 cm/s). However, delineation of the perfused lumen was enhanced after the application of Gd-DTPA. Discussions and conclusion: The application of Gd-DTPA does not affect MR PC velocimetry. However, the application of contrast media allowed a more accurate vessel segmentation. MR PC measurements can be reliably carried out after application of Gd-DTPA.

  12. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...

  13. Electrostatic Comb-Drive Actuator with High In-Plane Translational Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomna M. Eltagoury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the design and opto-mechanical characterization of high velocity comb-drive actuators producing in-plane motion and fabricated using the technology of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE of silicon-on-insulator (SOI substrate. The actuators drive vertical mirrors acting on optical beams propagating in-plane with respect to the substrate. The actuator-mirror device is a fabrication on an SOI wafer with 80 μm etching depth, surface roughness of about 15 nm peak to valley and etching verticality that is better than 0.1 degree. The travel range of the actuators is extracted using an optical method based on optical cavity response and accounting for the diffraction effect. One design achieves a travel range of approximately 9.1 µm at a resonance frequency of approximately 26.1 kHz, while the second design achieves about 2 µm at 93.5 kHz. The two specific designs reported achieve peak velocities of about 1.48 and 1.18 m/s, respectively, which is the highest product of the travel range and frequency for an in-plane microelectromechanical system (MEMS motion under atmospheric pressure, to the best of the authors’ knowledge. The first design possesses high spring linearity over its travel range with about 350 ppm change in the resonance frequency, while the second design achieves higher resonance frequency on the expense of linearity. The theoretical predications and the experimental results show good agreement.

  14. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.

    2017-08-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  15. Nearly simultaneous measurements of radar auroral heights and Doppler velocities at 398 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorcroft, D.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous measurements of radar auroral heights and Doppler velocities were obtained using the Homer, Alaska, 398-MHz phased-array radar over a total of 16 hours on four different days. The heights show a consistent variation with time, being highest near the time of electrojet current reversal, and lowest late in the morning. A variety of east-west height asymmetries were observed, different from those previously reported, which can be explained in terms of favorable flow angles preferentially favoring high-altitude primary two-stream waves to one side of the field of view. Low-velocity echoes, presumably due to secondary irregularities, are found to be more restricted in height range than echoes with ion acoustic velocities, which presumably come from primary two-stream instabilities. Echo power was examined as a function of velocity and height. For the westward electrojet it was found that echoes with ion acoustic velocities are relatively constant in strength over most of their height range, but for low-velocity echoes the power is a maximum between 100 and 105 km and falls off steadily at greater heights. Doppler speeds show a noticeable decrease at heights below 105 km, in agreement with the expected variation in ion acoustic velocity

  16. Building America Case Study: Standard- Versus High-Velocity Air Distribution in High-Performance Townhomes, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke, R. Beach, T. Begg

    2017-06-01

    IBACOS investigated the performance of a small-diameter high-velocity heat pump system compared to a conventional system in a new construction triplex townhouse. A ductless heat pump system also was installed for comparison, but the homebuyer backed out because of aesthetic concerns about that system. In total, two buildings, having identical solar orientation and comprised of six townhomes, were monitored for comfort and energy performance.

  17. Velocities of Subducted Sediments and Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, B. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Abers, G. A.; Seward, G.

    2009-12-01

    The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to unusual observations. For example, although most minerals have VP/ VS ratios around 1.77, ratios 1.8 have been observed. Here we explore the velocities of subducted sediments and continental crust from trench to sub-arc depths using two methods. (1) Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of subducted sediment compositions using Perple_X, and rock velocities were calculated using the methodology of Hacker & Abers [2004]. Calculated slab-top temperatures have 3 distinct depth intervals with different dP/dT gradients that are determined by how coupling between the slab and mantle wedge is modeled. These three depth intervals show concomitant changes in VP and VS: velocities initially increase with depth, then decrease beyond the modeled decoupling depth where induced flow in the wedge causes rapid heating, and increase again at depth. Subducted limestones, composed chiefly of aragonite, show monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.63 to 1.72. Cherts show large jumps in VP/ VS from 1.55-1.65 to 1.75 associated with the quartz-coesite transition. Terrigenous sediments dominated by quartz and mica show similar, but more-subdued, transitions from ~1.67 to 1.78. Pelagic sediments dominated by mica and clinopyroxene show near-monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.74 to 1.80. Subducted continental crust that is too dry to transform to high-pressure minerals has a VP/ VS ratio of 1.68-1.70. (2) Velocity anisotropy calculations were made for the same P-T dependent mineralogies using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations measured via electron-backscatter diffraction for typical constituent phases. The calculated velocity anisotropies range from 5-30%. For quartz-rich rocks, the calculated velocities show a distinct depth dependence because crystal slip systems and CPOs change with temperature. In such rocks, the fast VP direction varies from slab-normal at

  18. Lithospheric structure of the westernmost Mediterranean inferred from finite frequency Rayleigh wave tomography S-velocity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; Villasenor, Antonio; Thurner, Sally; Levander, Alan; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin, constitute the westernmost Mediterranean. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, the result of interaction between the Iberian and Eurasian plates; the Iberian Massif, a region that has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes) and the Atlas Mountains, resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back and Eurasian-Nubian plate convergence. In this study we analyze data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations on the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco (Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the US PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km, comparable to USArray. We have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. The model shows differences in the crust for the different areas, where the highest shear velocities are mapped in the Iberian Massif crust. The crustal thickness is highly variable ranging from ~25 km beneath the eastern Betics to ~55km beneath the Gibraltar Strait, Internal Betics and Internal Rif. Beneath this region a unique arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas

  19. A two-phase model of aquifer heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltyaner, G.L.

    1994-11-01

    A two-phase model of a fluid-saturated geologic medium is developed with groundwater velocity (rather than the hydraulic conductivity) as the primary model parameter. The model describes the groundwater flow, contaminant transport processes, and geologic medium structure at the local-scale of a continuum representation and relates structure to processes quantitatively. In this model, the heterogeneity of a geologic medium is characterized either in terms of the spatial variability in the bulk (local-scale) fluid density and sediment density, or in terms of variability in the local-scale porosity and effective grain diameter. The local-scale continuity equations resulting from these properties are derived for both phases. The effective grain diameter is employed to quantify the geologic structure. Velocity is employed to quantify the transport process. Since structure controls process, a high correlation is observed between the effective grain diameter and velocity. The observed correlation leads to a new formulation of Darcy's law without invoking the concept of a fictitious (Darcy's) velocity. The local-scale groundwater flow equation is developed on the basis of the new formulation. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  20. Simple heuristic derivation of some charge-transfer probabilities at asymptotically high incident velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruch, L.; Shakeshaft, R.

    1984-01-01

    For asymptotically high incident velocities we provide simple, heuristic, almost classical, derivations of the cross section for forward charge transfer, and of the ratio of the cross section for capture to the elastic-scattering cross section for the projectile scattered through an angle close to π/3

  1. Three-Dimensional Shear Wave Velocity Structure of the Peru Flat Slab Subduction Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies focused on flat slab subduction segments in central Chile (L. S. Wagner, 2006) and Alaska (B. R. Hacker and G. A. Aber, 2012) suggest significant differences in seismic velocity structures, and hence, composition in the mantle wedge between flat and normal "steep" subducting slabs. Instead of finding the low velocities and high Vp/Vs ratios common in normal subduction zones, these studies find low Vp, high Vs, and very low Vp/Vs above flat slabs. This may indicate the presence of dry, cold material in the mantle wedge. In order to investigate the seismic velocities of the upper mantle above the Peruvian flat segment, we have inverted for 2D Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps using data from the currently deployed 40 station PULSE seismic network and some adjacent stations from the CAUGHT seismic network. We then used the sensitivity of surface waves to shear wave velocity structure with depth to develop a 3D shear wave velocity model. This model will allow us to determine the nature of the mantle lithosphere above the flat slab, and how this may have influenced the development of local topography. For example, dry conditions (high Vs velocities) above the flat slab would imply greater strength of this material, possibly making it capable of causing further inland overthrusting, while wet conditions (low Vs) would imply weaker material. This could provide some insight into the ongoing debate over whether the Fitzcarrald arch (along the northern most flank of the Altiplano) could be a topographical response to the subducted Nazca ridge hundred kilometers away from the trench (N. Espurt, 2012, P. Baby, 2005, V. A. Ramos, 2012) or not (J. Martinod, 2005, M. Wipf, 2008, T. Gerya, 2008).

  2. Velocity profile measurement of lead-lithium flows by high-temperature ultrasonic doppler velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Y.; Kunugi, T.; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Nagai, Keiichi; Saito, Junichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Morley, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (HT-UDV) technique that has been successfully applied to measure velocity profiles of the lead-lithium eutectic alloy (PbLi) flows. The impact of tracer particles is investigated to determine requirements for HT-UDV measurement of PbLi flows. The HT-UDV system is tested on a PbLi flow driven by a rotating-disk in an inert atmosphere. We find that a sufficient amount of particles contained in the molten PbLi are required to successfully measure PbLi velocity profiles by HT-UDV. An X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to identify those particles in PbLi, and indicates that those particles were made of the lead mono-oxide (PbO). Since the specific densities of PbLi and PbO are close to each other, the PbO particles are expected to be well-dispersed in the bulk of molten PbLi. We conclude that the excellent dispersion of PbO particles enables in HT-UDV to obtain reliable velocity profiles for operation times of around 12 hours. (author)

  3. An approach to improving transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei

    2014-01-01

    In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles

  4. SABRE observations of structured ionospheric flows during substorm expansion phase onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Bradshaw

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The irregularity velocity patterns observed by the SABRE coherent radar at substorm expansion phase onset, which is identified by magnetometer observations of Pi2 pulsations, are occasionally highly structured. In all the examples of structured velocity patterns examined, the SABRE viewing area is located at longitudes within the inferred substorm current wedge. Three types of structured velocity regime are apparent depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the radar viewing area relative to the substorm enhanced currents and the Pi2 pulsation generation region. Firstly, vortex-like velocity patterns are observed and these may be caused by the field-aligned currents associated with the substorm current wedge. Secondly, regions of equatorward velocity are also observed at times of substorm expansion phase onset moving longitudinally across the SABRE viewing area. The longitudinal movement is usually westward although an example of eastward motion has been observed. The phase velocity of these regions of equatorward flow is typically 1-3 km s-1. The observed equatorward velocities occur at the poleward edge or poleward of the background convection velocities observed by SABRE. These equatorward velocities may be related to the westward travelling surge and to the expansion (eastwards as well as westwards of the brightening arc region at substorm onset. Thirdly, the flow rotates equatorward within the field of view but does not then appear to move longitudinally. These equatorward velocities may relate to the earthward surge of plasma from the magnetotail at substorm onset.

  5. A Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high-speed velocity measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Prinse, W.C.; Smorenburg, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) is designed and built for measuring the Doppler shift of light by recording positional changes in the interferometric pattern behind the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity of a surface can be deduced from the Doppler shift which is caused

  6. Fault gouge rheology under confined, high-velocity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Z.; Madden, A. S.; Chen, X.

    2012-12-01

    We recently developed the experimental capability to investigate the shear properties of fine-grain gouge under confined conditions and high-velocity. The experimental system includes a rotary apparatus that can apply large displacements of tens of meters, slip velocity of 0.001- 2.0 m/s, and normal stress of 35 MPa (Reches and Lockner, 2010). The key new component is a Confined ROtary Cell (CROC) that can shear a gouge layer either dry or under pore-pressure. The pore pressure is controlled by two syringe pumps. CROC includes a ring-shape gouge chamber of 62.5 mm inner diameter, 81.25 mm outer diameter, and up to 3 mm thick gouge sample. The lower, rotating part of CROC contains the sample chamber, and the upper, stationary part includes the loading, hollow cylinder and setting for temperature, and dilation measurements, and pore-pressure control. Each side of the gouge chamber has two pairs of industrial, spring-energized, self-lubricating, teflon-graphite seals, built for particle media and can work at temperature up to 250 ded C. The space between each of the two sets of seals is pressurized by nitrogen. This design generates 'zero-differential pressure' on the inner seal (which is in contact with the gouge powder), and prevents gouge leaks. For the preliminary dry experiments, we used ~2.0 mm thick layers of room-dry kaolinite powder. Total displacements were on the order of meters and normal stress up to 4 MPa. The initial shear was accommodated by multiple internal slip surfaces within the kaolinite layer accommodated as oriented Riedel shear structures. Later, the shear was localized within a thin, plate-parallel Y-surface. The kaolinite layer was compacted at a quasi-asymptotic rate, and displayed a steady-state friction coefficient of ~ 0.5 with no clear dependence on slip velocity up to 0.15 m/s. Further experiments with loose quartz sand (grain size ~ 125 micron) included both dry runs and pore-pressure (distilled water) controlled runs. The sand was

  7. Two-phase flow instrumentation research at RPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Krycuk, G.

    1979-01-01

    Novel instrumentation for the measurement of void fraction and phase velocity was developed. An optical digital interferometer and a dual beam x-ray equipment were designed for detection of voids. Pitot tube measurements were made to understand two-phase flow phenomena in liquid phase velocity

  8. Cellular automaton simulation of pedestrian counter flow with different walk velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. G.; Chen, T.; Yuan, H. Y.; Fan, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cellular automaton model without step back for pedestrian dynamics considering the human behaviors which can make judgments in some complex situations. This model can simulate pedestrian movement with different walk velocities through update at different time-step intervals. Two kinds of boundary conditions including periodic and open boundary for pedestrian counter flow are considered, and their dynamical characteristics are discussed. Simulation results show that for periodic boundary condition there are three phases of pedestrian patterns, i.e., freely moving phase, lane formation phase, and perfectly stopped phase at some certain total density ranges. In the stage of lane formation, the phenomenon that pedestrians exceed those with lower walk velocity through a narrow walkway can be found. For open boundary condition, at some certain entrance densities, there are two steady states of pedestrian patterns; but the first is metastable. Spontaneous fluctuations can break the first steady state, i.e., freely moving phase, and run into the second steady state, i.e., perfectly stopped phase

  9. Structure and performance of anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets fabricated by high-velocity compaction followed by deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Deng, X. X.; Yu, H. Y.; Guan, H. J.; Li, X. Q.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    High-velocity compaction (HVC) has been proposed as an effective approach for the fabrication of nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets. In this work, the effect of powder size on the density of HVCed magnets has been studied and the anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were prepared by HVC followed by hot deformation (HD). It is found that a proper particle size range is beneficial to high density. The investigations on the microstructure, magnetic domain structure, and hyperfine structure, indicate that the deformed grain structure and the magnetic domain structure with uniform paramagnetic grain boundary phase give good magnetic properties of HVC + HDed magnets. These magnets also have good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties. The results indicate that HVC is not only a near-net-shape, room temperature and binder-free process but is also able to maintain uniform nanostructure and to achieve good magnetic properties in both isotropic and anisotropic magnets. As a result, HVC can be employed as an ideal alternative process for bonding or hot pressing for the conventional MQI, MQII and MQIII magnets.

  10. Proposed method for reconstructing velocity profiles using a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollár, László E; Lucas, Gary P; Zhang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for the reconstruction of velocity profiles using measured potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). The method is based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and is implemented in Matlab. The method assumes the velocity profile in a section of a pipe as a superposition of polynomials up to sixth order. Each polynomial component is defined along a specific direction in the plane of the pipe section. For a potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field, this direction is not unique for quadratic and higher-order components; thus, multiple possible solutions exist for the reconstructed velocity profile. A procedure for choosing the optimum velocity profile is proposed. It is applicable for single-phase or two-phase flows, and requires measurement of the potential distribution in a non-uniform magnetic field. The potential distribution in this non-uniform magnetic field is also calculated for the possible solutions using weight values. Then, the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The reliability of the method is first demonstrated by reconstructing an artificial velocity profile defined by polynomial functions. Next, velocity profiles in different two-phase flows, based on results from the literature, are used to define the input velocity fields. In all cases, COMSOL Multiphysics is used to model the physical specifications of the EMFM and to simulate the measurements; thus, COMSOL simulations produce the potential distributions on the internal circumference of the flow pipe. These potential distributions serve as inputs for the analytical method. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The method described in this paper is most suitable for stratified flows and is not applicable to axisymmetric flows in

  11. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  12. High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids VIII The Science and Technology of High-Velocity Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chhabildas, Lalit C; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Research in the field of shock physics and ballistic impact has always been intimately tied to progress in development of facilities for accelerating projectiles to high velocity and instrumentation for recording impact phenomena. The chapters of this book, written by leading US and European experts, cover a broad range of topics and address researchers concerned with questions of material behaviour under impulsive loading and the equations of state of matter, as well as the design of suitable instrumentation such as gas guns and high-speed diagnostics. Applications include high-speed impact dynamics, the inner composition of planets, syntheses of new materials and materials processing. Among the more technologically-oriented applications treated is the testing of the flight characteristics of aeroballistic models and the assessment of impacts in the aerospace industry.

  13. Thermal Cracking in Westerly Granite Monitored Using Direct Wave Velocity, Coda Wave Interferometry, and Acoustic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L.; Lengliné, O.; Heap, M. J.; Baud, P.; Schmittbuhl, J.

    2018-03-01

    To monitor both the permanent (thermal microcracking) and the nonpermanent (thermo-elastic) effects of temperature on Westerly Granite, we combine acoustic emission monitoring and ultrasonic velocity measurements at ambient pressure during three heating and cooling cycles to a maximum temperature of 450°C. For the velocity measurements we use both P wave direct traveltime and coda wave interferometry techniques, the latter being more sensitive to changes in S wave velocity. During the first cycle, we observe a high acoustic emission rate and large—and mostly permanent—apparent reductions in velocity with temperature (P wave velocity is reduced by 50% of the initial value at 450°C, and 40% upon cooling). Our measurements are indicative of extensive thermal microcracking during the first cycle, predominantly during the heating phase. During the second cycle we observe further—but reduced—microcracking, and less still during the third cycle, where the apparent decrease in velocity with temperature is near reversible (at 450°C, the P wave velocity is decreased by roughly 10% of the initial velocity). Our results, relevant for thermally dynamic environments such as geothermal reservoirs, highlight the value of performing measurements of rock properties under in situ temperature conditions.

  14. CFD-DEM Simulation of Minimum Fluidisation Velocity in Two Phase Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Khawaja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics - discrete element method has been used to model the 2 phase flow composed of solid particle and gas in the fluidised bed. This technique uses the Eulerian and the Langrangian methods to solve fluid and particles respectively. Each particle is treated as a discrete entity whose motion is governed by Newton's laws of motion. The particle-particle and particle-wall interaction is modelled using the classical contact mechanics. The particles motion is coupled with the volume averaged equations of the fluid dynamics using drag law. In fluidised bed, particles start experiencing drag once the fluid is passing through. The solid particles response to it once drag experienced is just equal to the weight of the particles. At this moment pressure drop across the bed is just equal to the weight of particles divide by the cross-section area. This is the first regime of fluidization, also referred as ‘the regime of minimum fluidization’. In this study, phenomenon of minimum fluidization is studied using CFD-DEM simulation with 4 different sizes of particles 0.15 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1.2 mm diameters. The results are presented in the form of pressure drop across the bed with the fluid superficial velocity. The achieved results are found in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data available in literature.

  15. Consideration of some difficulties in migration velocity analysis; Migration velocity analysis no shomondai ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akama, K [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Concerning migration velocity analysis in the seismic exploration method, two typical techniques, out of velocity analysis techniques using residual moveout in the CIP gather, are verified. Deregowski`s method uses pre-stacking deep-level migration records for velocity analysis to obtain velocities free of spatial inconsistency and not dependent on the velocity structure. This method is very like the conventional DMO velocity analysis method and is easy to understand intuitively. In this method, however, error is apt to be aggravated in the process of obtaining the depth-sector velocity from the time-RMS velocity. Al-Yahya`s method formulates the moveout residual in the CIP gather. This assumes horizontal stratification and a small residual velocity, however, and fails to guarantee convergence in the case of a steep structure or a grave model error. In the updating of the velocity model, in addition, it has to maintain required accuracy and, at the same time, incorporate smoothing to ensure not to deteriorate high convergence. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  17. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  18. Non-Darcy interfacial dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in rough fractures under drainage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun; Ju, Yang; Xie, Heping; Zhou, Quanlin; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-04

    Two-phase flow interfacial dynamics in rough fractures is fundamental to understanding fluid transport in fractured media. The Haines jump of non-Darcy flow in porous media has been investigated at pore scales, but its fundamental processes in rough fractures remain unclear. In this study, the micron-scale Haines jump of the air-water interface in rough fractures was investigated under drainage conditions, with the air-water interface tracked using dyed water and an imaging system. The results indicate that the interfacial velocities represent significant Haines jumps when the meniscus passes from a narrow "throat" to a wide "body", with jump velocities as high as five times the bulk drainage velocity. Locally, each velocity jump corresponds to a fracture aperture variation; statistically, the velocity variations follow an exponential function of the aperture variations at a length scale of ~100 µm to ~100 mm. This spatial-scale-invariant correlation may indicate that the high-speed local velocities during the Haines jump would not average out spatially for a bulk system. The results may help in understanding the origin of interface instabilities and the resulting non-uniform phase distribution, as well as the micron-scale essence of the spatial and temporal instability of two-phase flow in fractured media at the macroscopic scale.

  19. Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sanny

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.

  20. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, from ambient noise recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, C.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Tkalčić, H.; Gessner, K.; Spaggiari, C. V.

    2017-09-01

    Group and phase velocity maps in the period range 2-20 s for the Proterozoic east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, are extracted from ambient seismic noise recorded with the 70-station ALFREX array. This 2 yr temporary installation provided detailed coverage across the orogen and the edge of the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton, a region where no passive seismic studies of this scale have occurred to date. The surface wave velocities are rather high overall (>3 km s-1 nearly everywhere), as expected for exposed Proterozoic basement rocks. No clear signature of the transition between Yilgarn Craton and Albany-Fraser Orogen is observed, but several strong anomalies corresponding to more local geological features were obtained. A prominent, NE-elongated high-velocity anomaly in the northern part of the array is coincident with a Bouguer gravity high caused by the upper crustal metamorphic rocks of the Fraser Zone. This feature disappears towards longer periods, which hints at an exclusively upper crustal origin for this anomaly. Further east, the limestones of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin are clearly imaged as a pronounced low-velocity zone at short periods, but the prevalence of low velocities to periods of ≥5 s implies that the uppermost basement in this area is likewise slow. At longer periods, slightly above-average surface wave velocities are imaged below the Eucla Basin.

  1. Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...

  2. Path Dependency of High Pressure Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerreta, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    At high pressures titanium and zirconium are known to undergo a phase transformation from the hexagonal close packed (HCP), alpha-phase to the simple-hexagonal, omega-phase. Under conditions of shock loading, the high-pressure omega-phase can be retained upon release. It has been shown that temperature, peak shock stress, and texture can influence the transformation. Moreover, under these same loading conditions, plastic processes of slip and twinning are also affected by similar differences in the loading path. To understand this path dependency, in-situ velocimetry measurements along with post-mortem metallographic and neutron diffraction characterization of soft recovered specimens have been utilized to qualitatively understand the kinetics of transformation, quantify volume fraction of retained omega-phase and characterize the shocked alpha and omega-phases. Together the work described here can be utilized to map the non-equilibrium phase diagram for these metals and lend insight into the partitioning of plastic processes between phases during high pressure transformation. In collaboration with: Frank Addesssio, Curt Bronkhorst, Donald Brown, David Jones, Turab Lookman, Benjamin Morrow, Carl Trujillo, Los Alamos National Lab.; Juan Pablo Escobedo-Diaz, University of New South Wales; Paulo Rigg, Washington State University.

  3. Modelling the average velocity of propagation of the flame front in a gasoline engine with hydrogen additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenskaya, N. M.; Smolenskii, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents models for calculating the average velocity of propagation of the flame front, obtained from the results of experimental studies. Experimental studies were carried out on a single-cylinder gasoline engine UIT-85 with hydrogen additives up to 6% of the mass of fuel. The article shows the influence of hydrogen addition on the average velocity propagation of the flame front in the main combustion phase. The dependences of the turbulent propagation velocity of the flame front in the second combustion phase on the composition of the mixture and operating modes. The article shows the influence of the normal combustion rate on the average flame propagation velocity in the third combustion phase.

  4. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of FeCoCrNiMo0.2 High Entropy Coatings Prepared by Air Plasma Spray and the High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianchen Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the spherical FeCoCrNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy (HEA powders with a single FCC solid solution structure were prepared by gas atomization. Subsequently, the FeCoCrNiMo0.2 coatings with a different content of oxide inclusions were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS and high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF, respectively. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties, and tribological behaviors of these HEA coatings were investigated. The results showed that both HEA coatings showed a typical lamellar structure with low porosity. Besides the primary FCC phase, a mixture of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and AB2O4 (A = Fe, Co, Ni, and B = Fe, Cr was identified as the oxide inclusions. The oxide content of the APS coating and HVOF coating was calculated to be 47.0% and 12.7%, respectively. The wear resistance of the APS coating was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of the HVOF coating. It was mainly attributed to the self-lubricated effect caused by the oxide films. The mass loss of the APS coating was mainly ascribed to the breakaway of the oxide film, while the main wear mechanism of the HVOF coating was the abrasive wear.

  5. Application of velocity imaging and gradient-recalled echo in neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, O.B.; Pelc, N.J.; Shimakawa, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the initial clinical experience with imaging blood flow at 1.5 T by means of a phase-sensitive gradient refocused pulse sequence. A spin-echo flow-encoding technique was modified to a gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state sequence, producing a velocity imaging and gradient recalled echo (VIGRE) sequence (TR = 24 msec, TE = 13 msec, flip angle = 45 degrees, 24-cm field of view, 7 mm contiguous sections). Two views per phase-encoding step are acquired; one using the first-moment flow-compensation gradient waveform and the second having a (selectable) nonzero first moment. A phase subtraction image is obtained where the signal is dependent on the direction and velocity of flow. The sequence was done following routine spin-echo imaging in 35 patients

  6. Cleansing technique using high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Koichi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Murakami, Kaoru; Nakamura, Shingo; Sato, Yoko; Kuwabara, Masahiro; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu; Yokoe, Hidetaka

    2017-10-01

    Application of a high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray (HVS-AMJS; micromist average diameter: 2.4 μm) for cleansing the skin is proposed. Low-pressure steam is mixed with compressed air (pH 6.5) in a nozzle, and then sprayed at a pressure of ≦0.25 MPa and a velocity of ≧0.34 m/s on the skin or surface of material located approximately 5-10 cm from the nozzle. The temperature on the sprayed surface and water flow rate could be controlled between 42 °C and 46 °C and at approximately 50 mL/min, respectively. Compared with ultrasonic cleansing with tap water and rubbing with only tap water, the HVS-AMJS successfully removed fluorescent lotion covering pieces of wood and significantly reduced both the number of coliforms and the total viable counts on pieces of wood and gauze. Furthermore, the HVS-AMJS effectively removed oily ink from the skin of hairless rats, and temporarily elevated the skin temperature and blood flow, indicating massage effects. The striking characteristics of this cleansing technique using HVS-AMJS are not only its ability to remove microbes and residue without using any chemicals or detergents but also its massage effects.

  7. Modeling a Propagating Sawtooth Flare Ribbon Structure as a Tearing Mode in the Presence of Velocity Shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Jacob; Longcope, Dana [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    On 2014 April 18 (SOL2014-04-18T13:03), an M-class flare was observed by IRIS. The associated flare ribbon contained a quasi-periodic sawtooth pattern that was observed to propagate along the ribbon, perpendicular to the IRIS spectral slit, with a phase velocity of ∼15 km s{sup −1}. This motion resulted in periodicities in both intensity and Doppler velocity along the slit. These periodicities were reported by Brannon et al. to be approximately ±0.″5 in position and ±20 km s{sup −1} in velocity and were measured to be ∼180° out of phase with one another. This quasi-periodic behavior has been attributed by others to bursty or patchy reconnection and slipping occurring during three-dimensional magnetic reconnection. Though able to account for periodicities in both intensity and Doppler velocity, these suggestions do not explicitly account for the phase velocity of the entire sawtooth structure or the relative phasing of the oscillations. Here we propose that the observations can be explained by a tearing mode (TM) instability occurring at a current sheet across which there is also a velocity shear. Using a linear model of this instability, we reproduce the relative phase of the oscillations, as well as the phase velocity of the sawtooth structure. We suggest a geometry and local plasma parameters for the April 18 flare that would support our hypothesis. Under this proposal, the combined spectral and spatial IRIS observations of this flare may provide the most compelling evidence to date of a TM occurring in the solar magnetic field.

  8. Validation of a Video Analysis Software Package for Quantifying Movement Velocity in Resistance Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, Borja; Rueda, David; Pozo-Cruz, Borja Del; de Hoyo, Moisés; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Sañudo, B, Rueda, D, del Pozo-Cruz, B, de Hoyo, M, and Carrasco, L. Validation of a video analysis software package for quantifying movement velocity in resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2934-2941, 2016-The aim of this study was to establish the validity of a video analysis software package in measuring mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and the maximal velocity during bench press. Twenty-one healthy males (21 ± 1 year) with weight training experience were recruited, and the MPV and the maximal velocity of the concentric phase (Vmax) were compared with a linear position transducer system during a standard bench press exercise. Participants performed a 1 repetition maximum test using the supine bench press exercise. The testing procedures involved the simultaneous assessment of bench press propulsive velocity using 2 kinematic (linear position transducer and semi-automated tracking software) systems. High Pearson's correlation coefficients for MPV and Vmax between both devices (r = 0.473 to 0.993) were observed. The intraclass correlation coefficients for barbell velocity data and the kinematic data obtained from video analysis were high (>0.79). In addition, the low coefficients of variation indicate that measurements had low variability. Finally, Bland-Altman plots with the limits of agreement of the MPV and Vmax with different loads showed a negative trend, which indicated that the video analysis had higher values than the linear transducer. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that the software used for the video analysis was an easy to use and cost-effective tool with a very high degree of concurrent validity. This software can be used to evaluate changes in velocity of training load in resistance training, which may be important for the prescription and monitoring of training programmes.

  9. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.

  10. Fast X-ray imaging of two-phase flows: Application to cavitating flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlifa, Ilyass

    2014-01-01

    A promising method based on fast X-ray imaging has been developed to investigate the dynamics and the structure of complex two-phase flows. It has been applied in this work on cavitating flows created inside a Venturi-type test section and helped therefore to better understand flows inside cavitation pockets. Seeding particles were injected into the flow to trace the liquid phase. Thanks to the characteristics of the beam provided by the APS synchrotron (Advance Photon Source, USA), high definition X-ray images of the flow containing simultaneously information for both liquid and vapour were obtained. Velocity fields of both phases were thus calculated using image cross-correlation algorithms. Local volume fractions of vapour have also been obtained using local intensities of the images. Beforehand however, image processing is required to separate phases for velocity measurements. Validation methods of all applied treatments were developed, they allowed to characterise the measurement accuracy. This experimental technique helped us to have more insight into the dynamic of cavitating flows and especially demonstrates the presence of significant slip velocities between phases. (author)

  11. First- and zero-sound velocity and Fermi liquid parameter F2s in liquid 3He determined by a path length modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamot, P.J.; Lee, Y.; Sprague, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the velocity of first- and zero-sound in liquid 3 He at 12.6 MHz over the pressure range of 0.6 to 14.5 bar using a path length modulation technique that we have recently developed. From these measurements, the pressure dependent value of the Fermi liquid parameter F 2 s was calculated and found to be larger at low pressure than previously reported. These new values of F 2 s indicate that transverse zero-sound is a propagating mode at all pressures. The new values are important for the interpretation of the frequencies of order parameter collective modes in the superfluid phases. The new acoustic technique permits measurements in regimes of very high attenuation with a sensitivity in phase velocity of about 10 ppm achieved by a feedback arrangement. The sound velocity is thus measured continuously throughout the highly attenuating crossover (ωt ∼ 1) regime, even at the lowest pressures

  12. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-01-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about –180 km s –1 ) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s –1 . Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s –1 , clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfvén waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 μG while for the clouds they are about 4 μG. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  14. AXAOTHER XL -- A spreadsheet for determining doses for incidents caused by tornadoes or high-velocity straight winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1996-09-01

    AXAOTHER XL is an Excel Spreadsheet used to determine dose to the maximally exposed offsite individual during high-velocity straight winds or tornado conditions. Both individual and population doses may be considered. Potential exposure pathways are inhalation and plume shine. For high-velocity straight winds the spreadsheet has the capability to determine the downwind relative air concentration, however for the tornado conditions, the user must enter the relative air concentration. Theoretical models are discussed and hand calculations are performed to ensure proper application of methodologies. A section has also been included that contains user instructions for the spreadsheet

  15. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  16. A new rf structure for intermediate-velocity particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen, J.H.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Wood, R.L.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an rf structure with high shunt impedance and good field stability for particle velocities o.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. Traditionally, the drift-tube linac (DTL) has been the structure of choice for this velocity range. The new structure, called a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL), combines features of the Alvarez DTL and the π-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between gaps is γλ. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a π/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. We will discuss 2-D and 3-D electromagnetic code calculations, and some initial measurements on a low-power model of a CCDTL. We will compare shunt impedance calculations for DTL, CCL, and CCDTL structures. The CCDTL has potential application for a wide range of ion linacs. For example, high-intensity proton linacs could use the CCDTL instead of a DTL up to an energy of about 200 MeV. Another example is a stand-alone, low-duty, low-current, very high gradient, proton, cancer therapy machine. The advantage for this application would be a saving in the cost of the machine because the linac would be short

  17. Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru

    1981-01-01

    A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)

  18. Spray droplet velocity characterization for convergent nozzles with three different diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Payri; B. Tormos; F.J. Salvador; L. Araneo [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). CMT-Motores Termicos

    2008-11-15

    The core of the present work consists of the phase-Doppler anemometry non-intrusive measurements performed at various points of diesel direct injection sprays in order to obtain the local speed of fuel droplets. The main objective was to perform extensive sets of measurements on convergent nozzles with various orifices diameters, observe and justify the differences and compare the experimental data with a theoretical approach derived by the authors in a previous work which takes into account the spray momentum flux. Experimental axial velocity profiles in different sections of the spray showed a radial distribution that was fitted with a high level of agreement to a Gaussian profile and so proving that this type of profile is a reasonable approach for the type of sprays within the scope of the present work. The experimental results showed that the velocity in the spray's axis inversely depends on axial position and that for a given axial position; higher axial velocity has been measured for the nozzles with higher spray momentum. 16 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. High-resolution vertical velocities and their power spectrum observed with the MAARSY radar - Part 1: frequency spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Rapp, Markus; Stober, Gunter; Latteck, Ralph

    2018-04-01

    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) installed at the island of Andøya has been run for continuous probing of atmospheric winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In the current study, we present high-resolution wind measurements during the period between 2010 and 2013 with MAARSY. The spectral analysis applying the Lomb-Scargle periodogram method has been carried out to determine the frequency spectra of vertical wind velocity. From a total of 522 days of observations, the statistics of the spectral slope have been derived and show a dependence on the background wind conditions. It is a general feature that the observed spectra of vertical velocity during active periods (with wind velocity > 10 m s-1) are much steeper than during quiet periods (with wind velocity wind conditions considered together the general spectra are obtained and their slopes are compared with the background horizontal winds. The comparisons show that the observed spectra become steeper with increasing wind velocities under quiet conditions, approach a spectral slope of -5/3 at a wind velocity of 10 m s-1 and then roughly maintain this slope (-5/3) for even stronger winds. Our findings show an overall agreement with previous studies; furthermore, they provide a more complete climatology of frequency spectra of vertical wind velocities under different wind conditions.

  20. How burial diagenesis of chalk sediments controls sonic velocity and porosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2003-01-01

    Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related to the pro......Based on P-wave velocity and density data, a new elastic model for chalk sediments is established. The model allows the construction of a series of isoframe (IF) curves, each representing a constant part of the mineral phase contributing to the solid frame. The IF curves can be related.......1 or higher. Upon burial, the sediments lose porosity by mechanical compaction, and concurrently, the calcite particles recrystallize into progressively more equant shapes. High compaction rates may keep the particles in relative motion, whereas low compaction rates allow the formation of contact cement...... this process testifies to the absence of chemical compaction by calcite-calcite pressure dissolution, as well as to the porosity-preserving effect of contact cementation. At sufficient burial stress, the presence of stylolites indicates that pressure dissolution takes place between calcite., and silicates...

  1. Determination of strength exercise intensities based on the load-power-velocity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandačka, Daniel; Beremlijski, Petr

    2011-06-01

    The velocity of movement and applied load affect the production of mechanical power output and subsequently the extent of the adaptation stimulus in strength exercises. We do not know of any known function describing the relationship of power and velocity and load in the bench press exercise. The objective of the study is to find a function modeling of the relationship of relative velocity, relative load and mechanical power output for the bench press exercise and to determine the intensity zones of the exercise for specifically focused strength training of soccer players. Fifteen highly trained soccer players at the start of a competition period were studied. The subjects of study performed bench presses with the load of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of the predetermined one repetition maximum with maximum possible speed of movement. The mean measured power and velocity for each load (kg) were used to develop a multiple linear regression function which describes the quadratic relationship between the ratio of power (W) to maximum power (W) and the ratios of the load (kg) to one repetition maximum (kg) and the velocity (m•s(-1)) to maximal velocity (m•s(-1)). The quadratic function of two variables that modeled the searched relationship explained 74% of measured values in the acceleration phase and 75% of measured values from the entire extent of the positive power movement in the lift. The optimal load for reaching maximum power output suitable for the dynamics effort strength training was 40% of one repetition maximum, while the optimal mean velocity would be 75% of maximal velocity. Moreover, four zones: maximum power, maximum velocity, velocity-power and strength-power were determined on the basis of the regression function.

  2. High-pressure phase transitions of strontianite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, S.; Biedermann, N.; Reichmann, H. J.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Heide, G.

    2015-12-01

    Strontianite (SrCO3) is isostructural to aragonite, a major high-pressure polymorph of calcite. Thus it is a material of interest to investigate the high-pressure phase behavior of aragonite-group minerals. SrCO3 is a common component of natural carbonates and knowing its physical properties at high pressures is necessary to properly model the thermodynamic properties of complex carbonates, which are major crustal minerals but are also present in the deep Earth [Brenker et al., 2007] and control carbon cycling in the Earth's mantle. The few available high-pressure studies of SrCO3 disagree regarding both pressure stability and structure of the post-aragonite phase [Lin & Liu, 1997; Ono et al., 2005; Wang et al. 2015]. To clarify such controversies we investigated the high-pressure behavior of synthetic SrCO3 by Raman spectroscopy. Using a diamond anvil cell we compressed single-crystals or powder of strontianite (synthesized at 4 GPa and 1273 K for 24h in a multi anvil apparatus), and measured Raman scattering up to 78 GPa. SrCO3 presents a complex high-pressure behavior. We observe mode softening above 20 GPa and a phase transition at 25 - 26.9 GPa, which we interpret due to the CO3 groups rotation, in agreement with Lin & Liu [1997]. The lattice modes in the high-pressure phase show dramatic changes which may indicate a change from 9-fold coordinated Sr to a 12-fold-coordination [Ono, 2007]. Our results confirm that the high-pressure phase of strontianite is compatible with Pmmn symmetry. References Brenker, F.E. et al. (2007) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 260, 1; Lin, C.-C. & Liu, L.-G. (1997) J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 58, 977; Ono, S. et al. (2005) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 32, 8; Ono, S. (2007) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 34, 215; Wang, M. et al. (2015) Phys Chem Minerals 42, 517.

  3. Refraction traveltime tomography with irregular topography using the unwrapped phase inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2013-01-01

    Traveltime tomography has long served as a stable and efficient tool for velocity estimation, especially for the near surface. It, however, suffers from some of limitations associated with ray tracing and high-frequency traveltime in velocity inversion zones and ray shadow regions. We develop a tomographic approach based on traveltime solutions obtained by tracking the phase (instantaneous traveltime) of the wavefield solution of the Helmholtz wave equation. Since the instantaneous-traveltime does not suffer from phase wrapping, the inversion algorithm using the instantaneous-traveltime has the potential to generate robust inversion results. With a high damping factor, the instantaneous-traveltime inversion provides refraction tomography similar results, but from a single frequency. Despite the Helmholtz-based solver implementation, the tomographic inversion handles irrgular topography. The numerical examples show that our inversion algorithm generates a convergent smooth velocity model, which looks very much like a tomographic result. Next, we plan to apply the instantaneous-traveltime inversion algorithm to real seismic data acquired from the near surface with irregular topography.

  4. High-velocity Penetration of Concrete Targets with Three Types of Projectiles: Experiments and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Abstract This study conducted high-velocity penetration experiments using conventional ogive-nose, double-ogive-nose, and grooved-tapered projectiles of approximately 2.5 kg and initial velocities between 1000 and 1360 m/s to penetrate or perforate concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths of nominally 40MPa. The penetration performance data of these three types of projectiles with two different types of materials (i.e., AerMet100 and DT300 were obtained. The crater depth model considering both the projectile mass and the initial velocity was proposed based on the test results and a theoretical analysis. The penetration ability and the trajectory stability of these three projectile types were compared and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that, under these experimental conditions, the effects of these two different kinds of projectile materials on the penetration depth and mass erosion rate of projectile were not obvious. The existing models could not reflect the crater depths for projectiles of greater weights or higher velocities, whereas the new model established in this study was reliable. The double-ogive-nose has a certain effect of drag reduction. Thus, the double-ogive-nose projectile has a higher penetration ability than the conventional ogive-nose projectile. Meanwhile, the grooved-tapered projectile has a better trajectory stability, because the convex parts of tapered shank generated the restoring moment to stabilize the trajectory.

  5. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities. PMID:27167064

  6. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Jeska; Desmet, Frank; Moens, Bart; Van Dyck, Edith; Leman, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended) synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous) synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities.

  7. Spontaneous Velocity Effect of Musical Expression on Self-Paced Walking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeska Buhmann

    Full Text Available The expressive features of music can influence the velocity of walking. So far, studies used instructed (and intended synchronization. But is this velocity effect still present with non-instructed (spontaneous synchronization? To figure that out, participants were instructed to walk in their own comfort tempo on an indoor track, first in silence and then with tempo-matched music. We compared velocities of silence and music conditions. The results show that some music has an activating influence, increasing velocity and motivation, while other music has a relaxing influence, decreasing velocity and motivation. The influence of musical expression on the velocity of self-paced walking can be predicted with a regression model using only three sonic features explaining 56% of the variance. Phase-coherence between footfall and beat did not contribute to the velocity effect, due to its implied fixed pacing. The findings suggest that the velocity effect depends on vigor entrainment that influences both stride length and pacing. Our findings are relevant for preventing injuries, for gait improvement in walking rehabilitation, and for improving performance in sports activities.

  8. Analysis of two-phase flow instability in vertical boiling channels I: development of a linear model for the inlet velocity perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.H.; Yoo, Y.J.; Kim, K.K.

    1998-08-01

    A linear model, named ALFS, is developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities caused by density wave oscillation and flow excursion in a vertical boiling channel with constant pressure drop conditions. The ALFS code can take into account the effect of the phase velocity difference and the thermally non-equilibrium phenomena, and the neutral boundary of the two-phase flow instability was analyzed by D-partition method. Three representative two-phase flow models ( i.e. HEM, DEM, and DNEM) were examined to investigate the effects on the stability analysis. As the results, it reveals that HEM shows the most conservative prediction of heat flux at the onset of flow instability. three linear models, Ishiis DEM, Sahas DNEM, and ALFS model, were applied to Sahas experimental data of density wave oscillation, and as the result, the mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-measured heat flux at the onset of instability were calculated as 0.93/0.162, 0.79/0.112, and 0.95/0.143, respectively. For the long test section, however, ALFS model tends to predict the heat fluxes about 30 % lower than the measured values. (author). 14 refs

  9. High pressure phases of terbium: Possibility of a thcp phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.; Gerward, L.

    1985-01-01

    High pressure phases of trivalent Tb studied by energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation exhibits the closed packed sequence (hcp -> Sm -> dhcp -> fcc) typical of the trivalent rare earth metals. Furthermore, a phase consistent with a triple hexagonal closed packed (thcp) structure was observed in a narrow pressure range around 30 GPa. (orig.)

  10. High velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO reveal the presence of high velocity molecular gas associated with a low luminosity infrared source in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11. The blueshifted and redshifted wings show peak intensities spatially separated by 1X5 (0.2 pc), suggesting an energetic bipolar outflow of gas from a young low mass star. The mass loss rate implied by these observations is 8 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1

  11. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  12. High-intensity sprint fatigue does not alter constant-submaximal velocity running mechanics and spring-mass behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Benoit; Tomazin, Katja; Samozino, Pierre; Edouard, Pascal; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the changes in constant velocity spring-mass behavior after high intensity sprint fatigue in order to better interpret the results recently reported after ultra-long distance (ULD) exercises. Our hypothesis was that after repeated sprints (RS), subjects may likely experience losses of force such as after ULD, but the necessity to modify their running pattern to attenuate the overall impact at each step (such as after ULD) may not be present. Eleven male subjects performed four sets of five 6-s sprints with 24-s recovery between sprints and 3 min between sets, on a sprint treadmill and on a bicycle ergometer. For each session, their running mechanics and spring-mass characteristics were measured at 10 and 20 km h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill before and after RS. Two-way (period and velocity) ANOVAs showed that high-intensity fatigue did not induce any change in the constant velocity running pattern at low or high velocity, after both running and cycling RS, despite significant decreases (P < 0.001) in maximal power (-27.1 ± 8.2% after running RS and -15.4 ± 11.5 % after cycling RS) and knee extensors maximal voluntary force (-18.8 ± 6.7 % after running RS and -15.0 ± 7.6 % after cycling RS). These results bring indirect support to the hypothesis put forward in recent ULD studies that the changes in running mechanics observed after ULD are likely not related to the decrease in strength capabilities, but rather to the necessity for subjects to adopt a protective running pattern.

  13. Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation using a Phased Array Transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcher, Jønne; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Seerup, Gert

    2012-01-01

    greater than 100 mm. Tests at depths of 72 mm and 82 mm with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s, showed a relative mean bias ~Bvx that varied from 0 % and to 21 % and a relative mean standard deviation ~vx that varied from 18 % and to 51 %. The investigation showed an increasing bias with respect to depth, which...

  14. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in high-velocity gas-puff implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Hussey, T.W.; Spielman, R.B.; Douglas, M.R.; Deeney, C.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments using the Saturn pulsed power generator have produced high-velocity z-pinch plasma implosions with velocities over 100 cm/μs using both annular and uniform-fill gas injection initial conditions. Both types of implosion show evidence of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instability with the uniform-fill plasmas producing a more spatially uniform pinch. Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations including unsteady flow of gas from a nozzle into the diode region have been used to investigate these implosions. The instability develops from the nonuniform gas flow field that forms as the gas expands from the injection nozzle. Instability growth is limited to the narrow unstable region of the current sheath. For the annular puff the unstable region breaks through the inner edge of the annulus increasing nonlinear growth as mass ejected from the bubble regions is not replenished by accretion. This higher growth leads to bubble thinning and disruption producing greater nonuniformity at pinch for the annular puff. The uniform puff provides gas to replenish bubble mass loss until just before pinch resulting in less bubble thinning and a more uniform pinch. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. The effect of gradational velocities and anisotropy on fault-zone trapped waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, A. K.; Eccles, J. D.; Kaipio, J. P.; Malin, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic fault-zone trapped wave (FZTW) dispersion curves and amplitude responses for FL (Love) and FR (Rayleigh) type phases are analysed in transversely isotropic 1-D elastic models. We explore the effects of velocity gradients, anisotropy, source location and mechanism. These experiments suggest: (i) A smooth exponentially decaying velocity model produces a significantly different dispersion curve to that of a three-layer model, with the main difference being that Airy phases are not produced. (ii) The FZTW dispersion and amplitude information of a waveguide with transverse-isotropy depends mostly on the Shear wave velocities in the direction parallel with the fault, particularly if the fault zone to country-rock velocity contrast is small. In this low velocity contrast situation, fully isotropic approximations to a transversely isotropic velocity model can be made. (iii) Fault-aligned fractures and/or bedding in the fault zone that cause transverse-isotropy enhance the amplitude and wave-train length of the FR type FZTW. (iv) Moving the source and/or receiver away from the fault zone removes the higher frequencies first, similar to attenuation. (v) In most physically realistic cases, the radial component of the FR type FZTW is significantly smaller in amplitude than the transverse.

  16. Radial k-t SPIRiT: autocalibrated parallel imaging for generalized phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Claudio; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    To extend SPIRiT to additionally exploit temporal correlations for highly accelerated generalized phase-contrast MRI and to compare the performance of the proposed radial k-t SPIRiT method relative to frame-by-frame SPIRiT and radial k-t GRAPPA reconstruction for velocity and turbulence mapping in the aortic arch. Free-breathing navigator-gated two-dimensional radial cine imaging with three-directional multi-point velocity encoding was implemented and fully sampled data were obtained in the aortic arch of healthy volunteers. Velocities were encoded with three different first gradient moments per axis to permit quantification of mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. Velocity and turbulent kinetic energy maps from up to 14-fold undersampled data were compared for k-t SPIRiT, frame-by-frame SPIRiT, and k-t GRAPPA relative to the fully sampled reference. Using k-t SPIRiT, improvements in magnitude and velocity reconstruction accuracy were found. Temporally resolved magnitude profiles revealed a reduction in spatial blurring with k-t SPIRiT compared with frame-by-frame SPIRiT and k-t GRAPPA for all velocity encodings, leading to improved estimates of turbulent kinetic energy. k-t SPIRiT offers improved reconstruction accuracy at high radial undersampling factors and hence facilitates the use of generalized phase-contrast MRI for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Coefficient of Friction Measurements for Thermoplastics and Fibre Composites Under Low Sliding Velocity and High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Svendsen, Gustav Winther; Hiller, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    that friction materials which are untypical for brake applications, like thermoplastics and fibre composites, can offer superior performance in terms of braking torque, wear resistance and cost than typical brake linings. In this paper coefficient of friction measurements for various thermoplastic and fibre......Friction materials for typical brake applications are normally designed considering thermal stability as the major performance criterion. There are, however, brake applications with very limited sliding velocities, where the generated heat is insignificant. In such cases it is possible...... in order to interpret the changes of friction observed during the running-in phase....

  18. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  19. A glance at velocity structure of Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özer, Çağlar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study; we investigated velocity structure of Izmir and surroundings. We used local earthquake data which was recorded by different type of instruments and obtained high resolution 3D sections. We selected more than 400 earthquakes which were occurred between 2010 and 2013. Examined tomographic sections especially in Izmir along coastal areas (Mavisehir-Inciraltı); revealed the low speed zone. Along this low-speed zone; it is consistent with the results obtained from the stratigraphic section and surface geology. While; low velocity zones are associated with faults and water content; high velocity is related to magmatic rocks or compact rocks. Along Karsıyaka, Seferihisar, Orhanlı, Izmir fault zones; low P velocity was observed. When examined higher elevations of the topography; which are composed of soured magmatic material is dominated by high P velocity. In all horizontal sections; resolution decreasing with increasing depth. The reason for this; the reduction of earthquakes causes ray tracing problems.

  20. Upper mantle velocity structure beneath Italy from direct and secondary P-wave teleseismic tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Gori

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available High-quality teleseismic data digitally recorded by the National Seismic Network during 1988-1995 have been analysed to tomographically reconstruct the aspherical velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Italian region. To improve the quality and the reliability of the tomographic images, both direct (P, PKPdf and secondary (pP,sP,PcP,PP,PKPbc,PKPab travel-time data were used in the inversion. Over 7000 relative residuals were computed with respect to the IASP91 Earth velocity model and inverted using a modified version of the ACH technique. Incorporation of data of secondary phases resulted in a significant improvement of the sampling of the target volume and of the spatial resolution of the heterogeneous zones. The tomographic images show that most of the lateral variations in the velocity field are confined in the first ~250 km of depth. Strong low velocity anomalies are found beneath the Po plain, Tuscany and Eastern Sicily in the depth range between 35 and 85 km. High velocity anomalies dominate the upper mantle beneath the Central-Western Alps, Northern-Central Apennines and Southern Tyrrhenian sea at lithospheric depths between 85 and 150 km. At greater depth, positive anomalies are still observed below the northernmost part of the Apenninic chain and Southern Tyrrhenian sea. Deeper anomalies present in the 3D velocity model computed by inverting only the first arrivals dataset, generally appear less pronounced in the new tomographic reconstructions. We interpret this as the result of the ray sampling improvement on the reduction of the vertical smearing effects.

  1. Measurement of the drift velocities of electrons and holes in high-ohmic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as a function of the electric field and the temperature in high-ohmic silicon of crystal orientation are presented. Significant differences between our results and literature values are observed. A new parametrization of the mobility is introduced. Current transients of n-type pad diodes, generated by fast laser pulses, were investigated in order to determine the drift velocity of electrons and holes separately. Two diodes of high-ohmic silicon (1.5 kΩcm and 5.5 kΩcm) from different manufacturers were investigated as cross check. The drift velocities were determined at electric fields ranging from 5 kV/cm to 50 kV/cm at temperatures ranging from 233 K to 333 K. The mobility parameters were obtained by fitting a simulation of charge drift in silicon to the measurements. Using the convolution theorem the response function of the read-out circuit was determined with the Fourier transforms of the measurement and the simulation. The simulated transient current pulses with the new mobility parametrization are consistent with the measured ones for the temperature and electric field range investigated here. Additionally, the mobility results from the fit are consistent with the mobility determined using the simpler time-of-flight method in the field range where this method is applicable. However, our measurements show a difference of up to 14 % to the values by Canali et al. (1971). The difference to the mobility parametrization by Jacoboni et al. (1977) is up to 24 % while this parametrization is widely used for simulations of the direction due to the lack of data for silicon.

  2. Velocity and shear stress distribution downstream of mechanical heart valves in pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersiepen, M; Krause, U; Knott, E; Reul, H; Rau, G

    1989-04-01

    Ten mechanical valves (TAD 27 mm): Starr-Edwards Silastic Ball, Björk-Shiley Standard, Björk-Shiley Concave-Convex, Björk-Shiley Monostrut, Hall-Kaster (Medtronic-Hall), OmniCarbon, Bicer Val, Sorin, Saint-Jude Medical and Hemex (Duromedics) are investigated in a comparative in vitro study. The velocity and turbulent shear stress profiles of the valves were determined by Laser Doppler anemometry in two different downstream axes within a model aortic root. Depending on the individual valve design, velocity peaks up to 1.5 m/s and turbulent shear stress peaks up to 150 N/m2 were measured during the systolic phase. These shear stress peaks mainly occurred in areas of flow separation and intense momentum exchange. Directly downstream of the valves (measuring axis 0.55.dAorta) turbulent shear stress peaks occurred at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, while in the second measuring axis (1.5.dAorta) turbulence levels were lower. Shear stress levels were high at the borders of the fluid jets. The results are discussed from a fluid-dynamic point of view.

  3. Measurement of Rayleigh wave Z/H ratio and joint inversion for a high-resolution S wave velocity model beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, W.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge on the 3D sediment structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin is not only important to explore