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Sample records for high performance powder

  1. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 3: general topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgy High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (boteke)

  2. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  3. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 4: late papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    This is the fourth volume (late papers) of the 15th International Plansee seminar 2001 which general theme was 'Powder metallurgical high performance materials'. The seminar looked beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain as its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. This volume 4 contains papers dealing with high performance P/M metals (ITER and fusion reactors, solid targets, materials microstructure, novel alloys, etc.), P/M hard materials ( production and characterization, tungsten carbides, titanium carbides, microstructural design, coatings composition and performance, etc.) and general topics. From 37 papers 24 correspond to INIS subject scope and they were indexed separately. (nevyjel)

  4. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  5. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 1: high performance P/M metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of this sequence of seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  6. Kinetic Hydration Heat Modeling for High-Performance Concrete Containing Limestone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone powder is increasingly used in producing high-performance concrete in the modern concrete industry. Limestone powder blended concrete has many advantages, such as increasing the early-age strength, reducing the setting time, improving the workability, and reducing the heat of hydration. This study presents a kinetic model for modeling the hydration heat of limestone blended concrete. First, an improved hydration model is proposed which considers the dilution effect and nucleation effect due to limestone powder addition. A degree of hydration is calculated using this improved hydration model. Second, hydration heat is calculated using the degree of hydration. The effects of water to binder ratio and limestone replacement ratio on hydration heat are clarified. Third, the temperature history and temperature distribution of hardening limestone blended concrete are calculated by combining hydration model with finite element method. The analysis results generally agree with experimental results of high-performance concrete with various mixing proportions.

  7. Application of dynamic compaction technology for high performance and precision powder products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Jung Gu; Lee, Min Ku; Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Jin Ju; Lee, Gyeong Ja; Hong, Soon Jik

    2011-06-01

    The automation technology of magnetic pulsed compaction (MPC) has been developed for mass production of high performance powder products by dynamic compaction method. The pulse power equipment in MPC system has been modified for improved lifetime and productivity, so the modified one can produce high-density compacts at a rate of 10 times/min with semipermanent lifetime. Using this modified pulse power equipment, two types of automated MPC apparatus were constructed, which are operated by mechanical and hydraulic driving systems, respectively. By repeated compaction operations at a rate of 5 times/min, durability and productivity of these automated apparatus have been proven to be suitable for mass production. In addition, the lifetime of mold and punch for MPC has been improved by optimizing design and material as well as employing new lubrication system. By applying such automated MPC apparatus, detailed mass production technologies have been developed for several powder products such as diamond drilling segments, ceramic targets for optical coating, silver coins for water disinfection and small powder products for automobile. The developed powder products showed improved performance as compared to commercial ones, so they will be mass-produced industrially before long

  8. Development of high performance liquid chromatography method for miconazole analysis in powder sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, D.; Suwandri; Sulaeman, U.; Istiqomah, A.; Aboul-Enein, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed in this study for the analysis of miconazole, an antifungal drug, in powder sample. The optimized HPLC system using C8 column was achieved using mobile phase composition containing methanol:water (85:15, v/v), a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and UV detection at 220 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range from 10 to 50 mg/L with r 2 of 0.9983. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) obtained were 2.24 mg/L and 7.47 mg/L, respectively. The present HPLC method is applicable for the determination of miconazole in the powder sample with a recovery of 101.28 % (RSD = 0.96%, n = 3). The developed HPLC method provides short analysis time, high reproducibility and high sensitivity.

  9. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneringer, G; Roedhammer, P; Wildner, H [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15{sup th} Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  10. Powder metallurgical high performance materials. Proceedings. Volume 2: P/M hard materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Roedhammer, P.; Wildner, H.

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings of these seminars form an impressive chronicle of the continued progress in the understanding of refractory metals and cemented carbides and in their manufacture and application. There the ingenuity and assiduous work of thousands of scientists and engineers striving for progress in the field of powder metallurgy is documented in more than 2000 contributions covering some 30000 pages. The 15 th Plansee Seminar was convened under the general theme 'Powder Metallurgical High Performance Materials'. Under this broadened perspective the seminar will strive to look beyond the refractory metals and cemented carbides, which remain at its focus, to novel classes of materials, such as intermetallic compounds, with potential for high temperature applications. (author)

  11. Development of fully dense and high performance powder metallurgy HSLA steel using HIP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Pang, Xinkuan; Ma, Yunzhu; Cai, Qingshan; Zhu, Wentan; Liang, Chaoping

    2018-05-01

    In order to solve the problem that the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (P/M) steels are much lower than those of traditional cast steels with the same composition due to their porosity, a high–strength–low–alloy (HSLA) steel with fully dense and excellent mechanical properties was fabricated through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) using gas–atomized powders. The granular structure in the P/M HIPed steel composed of bainitic ferrite and martensite–austenite (M–A) islands is obtained without the need of any rapid cooling. The P/M HIPed steel exhibit a combination of tensile strength and ductility that surpasses that of conventional cast steel and P/M sintered steel, confirming the feasibility of fabricating high performance P/M steel through appropriate microstructural control and manufacture process.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted performance evaluation of the Twincer (TM) disposable high-dose dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne H.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Woolhouse, Robert; Wynn, Ed

    Objectives To use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for evaluating and understanding the performance of the high-dose disposable Twincer (TM) dry powder inhaler, as well as to learn the effect of design modifications on dose entrainment, powder dispersion and retention behaviour. Methods Comparison

  13. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  14. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time.

  15. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-03

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240-260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180-210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time.

  16. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240–260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180–210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time. PMID:26837848

  17. High-performance biodegradable polylactide composites fabricated using a novel plasticizer and functionalized eggshell powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junjun; Li, Yi; Bai, Yungang; Li, Zonglin; Cao, Zengwen; Yu, Yancun; Han, Changyu; Dong, Lisong

    2018-06-01

    A novel polyester poly(diethylene glycol succinate) (PDEGS) was synthesized and evaluated as a plasticizer for polylactide (PLA) in this study. Meanwhile, an effective sustainable filler, functionalized eggshell powder (FES) with a surface layer of calcium phenyphosphonate was also prepared. Then, PLA biocomposites were prepared from FES and PDEGS using a facile melt blending process. The addition of 15 wt% PDEGS as plasticizer showed good miscibility with PLA macromolecules and increased the chain mobility of PLA. The crystallization kinetics of PLA composites revealed that the highly effective nucleating FES significantly improved the crystallization ability of PLA at both of non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. In addition, the effective plasticizer and well-dispersed FES increased the elongation at break from 6% of pure PLA to over 200% for all of the plasticized PLA composites. These biodegradable PLA biocomposites, coupled with excellent crystallization ability and tunable mechanical properties, demonstrate their potential as alternatives to traditional commodity plastics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted performance evaluation of the Twincer™ disposable high-dose dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anne H; Hagedoorn, Paul; Woolhouse, Robert; Wynn, Ed

    2012-09-01

    To use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for evaluating and understanding the performance of the high-dose disposable Twincer™ dry powder inhaler, as well as to learn the effect of design modifications on dose entrainment, powder dispersion and retention behaviour. Comparison of predicted flow and particle behaviour from CFD computations with experimental data obtained with cascade impactor and laser diffraction analysis. Inhaler resistance, flow split, particle trajectories and particle residence times can well be predicted with CFD for a multiple classifier based inhaler like the Twincer™. CFD computations showed that the flow split of the Twincer™ is independent of the pressure drop across the inhaler and that the total flow rate can be decreased without affecting the dispersion efficacy or retention behaviour. They also showed that classifier symmetry can be improved by reducing the resistance of one of the classifier bypass channels, which for the current concept does not contribute to the swirl in the classifier chamber. CFD is a highly valuable tool for development and optimisation of dry powder inhalers. CFD can assist adapting the inhaler design to specific physico-chemical properties of the drug formulation with respect to dispersion and retention behaviour. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. High performance Ti-6Al-4V + TiC alloy by blended elemental powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Horiya, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The blended elemental powder metallurgy (BE) of titanium alloys is one of the most cost saving technologies, in which the blending of titanium powder and alloying element powders (or master alloy powders), precise compaction at room temperature, and consolidation are conducted in turn. In addition to some economical and material saving advantages, the BE has a noteworthy feature, that is, the synthesis of special alloy systems which are difficult to be produced by the ingot metallurgy. A particle or fiber reinforced metal matrix composite (MMC) is one of the examples, and the addition of TiC particles to the extensively used Ti-6Al 4V has succeeded in obtaining higher tensile strength, Young's modulus, and elevated temperature properties. However, the raising up of some properties sometimes deteriorates other ones in MMC, and it often prevents the practical use. In this research work, the improvement of tensile ductility and fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V+TiC alloys without lowering other mechanical properties is aimed through the microstructural control

  20. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  1. High-performance characteristics of the bonded magnets produced from the Sm2 Fe17 Nx powder stabilized by photo-induced zinc metal coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, K.; Izumi, H.; Shiomi, A.; Iguchi, M.; Adachi, G.

    1996-01-01

    Finely and uniformly ground powders of Sm 2 Fe 17 N x were stabilized by surface-coating with the zinc metal produced from Zn (C 2 H 5 ) 2 . The epoxy resin-bonded magnets produced from the Zn/Sm 2 Fe 17 N x composite powder provided high-performance permanent magnetic characteristics: (BH)max=∼ 176 kJm -3 . (author)

  2. Separation and quantitation of colour pigments of chili powder (Capsicum frutescens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserháti, T; Forgács, E; Morais, M H; Mota, T; Ramos, A

    2000-10-27

    The performance of reversed-phase thin-layer (RP-TLC) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was compared for the separation and determination of the colour pigments of chili (Capsicum frutescens) powder using a wide variety of eluent systems. No separation of pigments was achieved in RP-TLC, however, it was established that tetrahydrofuran shows an unusually high solvent strength. RP-HPLC using water-methanol-acetonitrile gradient elution separated the chili pigments in many fractions. Diode array detection (DAD) indicated that yellow pigments are eluted earlier than the red ones and chili powder contains more yellow pigments than common paprika powders. It was established that the very different absorption spectra of pigments make the use of DAD necessary.

  3. Method development for Lawsone estimation in Trichup herbal hair powder by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunang M Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, specific, accurate, precise and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Lawsone in Trichup herbal hair powder (coded as a THHP, polyherbal formulation. The chromatographic development was carried out on aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F 254 and good resolution was achieved with Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (8:1:1 v/v/v as mobile phase. Lawsone detection was carried out densitometrically at 277 nm and obtained retardation factor value was 0.46 ± 0.02. The method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The calibration curve was achieved to be linear over a range of 5-60 μg/ml and regression coefficient was obtained 0.998. Accuracy of chromatographic method was evaluated by standard addition method; recovery was obtained 99.25 ± 0.61% . The peak purity of Lawsone was achieved 0.999 r. Relative standard deviation for intraday and inter-day precision was 0.37-0.56% and 0.42-0.55%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the Lawsone were found to be 1.08 μg/m land 3.28 μg/ml, respectively. This result shows that the method was well validated. In the present study, the Lawsone content was found 0.322 ± 0.014% in THHP. This study reveals that the proposed high performance thin layer chromatography method is accurate, fast and cost- effective for routine estimation of Lawsone in polyherbal formulation.

  4. Synthesis of high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder by spray-freezing/freeze-drying a solution with two carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Shida, Kenji; Liao, Jinsun; Fukui, Takehisa; Matsuda, Motohide

    2017-09-01

    Li2FeSiO4 is a promising cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. Spray-freezing/freeze-drying, a practical process reported for the synthesis of various ceramic powders, is applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders and high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders are successfully synthesized by using starting solutions containing both Indian ink and glucose as carbon sources followed by heating. The synthesized composite powders have a unique structure, composed of Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticles coated with a thin carbon layer formed by the carbonization of glucose and carbon nanoparticles from Indian ink. The carbon layer enhances the electrochemical reactivity of the Li2FeSiO4, and the carbon nanoparticles play a role in the formation of electron-conducting paths in the cathode. The composite powders deliver an initial discharge capacity of 195 and 137 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1 C, respectively, without further addition of conductive additive. The discharge capacity at 1 C is 72 mAh g-1 after the 100th cycle, corresponding to approximately 75% of the capacity at the 2nd cycle.

  5. High pressure neutron powder diffraction at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Dreele, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    By making use of the recently developed ''Paris-Edinburgh'' high pressure cell, the author has successfully performed neutron powder experiments to 10GPa at ambient temperature. Results for the structural compression of the high Tc 1223-Hg superconductor to 9.2 GPa, the compression and possible hydrogen bond formation in brucite, Mg(OD) 2 , to 9.3 GPa, and the molecular reorientation in nitromethane to 5.5 GPa will be presented

  6. One-pot synthesis of powder-form {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets with high electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minmin; Ren, Wanzhong; Zhao, Yunan; Liu, Yan; Cui, Hongtao, E-mail: htcui@ytu.edu.cn [Yantai University, Shandong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Light Hydrocarbon Comprehensive Utilization, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets, which had been thought to be unachievable, were successfully prepared for the first time by a one-pot strategy using epoxide as precipitation agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The characterization results indicate that the formation of monolayer morphology depends on the mediation of SDS molecules. The XRD patterns demonstrate the loose and defective packing of Ni(OH){sub 2} layers in the SDS intercalated samples. The disappearing of vibration band of free hydroxyl groups in the FTIR spectra suggests the interlayer separation resulted by SDS. The TEM and AFM images further confirm the formation of monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that the in situ modification of the secondary growth unit of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} by SDS allows its two-dimensional anisotropic growth through steric hindrance of SDS molecules. In addition, this effect allows isolation of {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} from solvent with keeping of monolayer nanosheet state in dry powder. The electrochemical measurement results indicate that {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} monolayer nanosheets own much higher urea electrolysis performance than their corresponding multilayer structure.

  7. One-pot synthesis of powder-form β-Ni(OH)2 monolayer nanosheets with high electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Minmin; Ren, Wanzhong; Zhao, Yunan; Liu, Yan; Cui, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    In this work, β-Ni(OH) 2 monolayer nanosheets, which had been thought to be unachievable, were successfully prepared for the first time by a one-pot strategy using epoxide as precipitation agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The characterization results indicate that the formation of monolayer morphology depends on the mediation of SDS molecules. The XRD patterns demonstrate the loose and defective packing of Ni(OH) 2 layers in the SDS intercalated samples. The disappearing of vibration band of free hydroxyl groups in the FTIR spectra suggests the interlayer separation resulted by SDS. The TEM and AFM images further confirm the formation of monolayer nanosheets. It is proposed that the in situ modification of the secondary growth unit of β-Ni(OH) 2 by SDS allows its two-dimensional anisotropic growth through steric hindrance of SDS molecules. In addition, this effect allows isolation of β-Ni(OH) 2 from solvent with keeping of monolayer nanosheet state in dry powder. The electrochemical measurement results indicate that β-Ni(OH) 2 monolayer nanosheets own much higher urea electrolysis performance than their corresponding multilayer structure

  8. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, José M.; Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure

  9. From the TRIP effect and Quenching and Partitioning steels concepts to the development of new high-performance, lean powder metallurgy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, José M., E-mail: josemanuel.torralba@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 - Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain); Navarro, Alfonso; Campos, Mónica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Universidad Carlos III Av. Universidad, 30, Leganés (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    A new method of developing lean powder metallurgy steel is proposed. The microstructure of the steel is tailored by combining two different prealloyed steel grades. These materials open a new niche in steel grades for high-performance applications by using a low-cost method of production. Moreover, an alternative route to developing microstructures suitable for manufacturing TRIP and/or Q and P steels is proposed avoiding some of the complex steps that must otherwise be taken to obtain the proper starting microstructure.

  10. Identification of plant proteins in adulterated skimmed milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, D.M.A.M.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Ferranti, P.; Frankhuizen, R.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Hooijerink, H.; America, A.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    The EU subsidises the use of skimmed-milk powder (SMP) in compound feeding stuffs. There are indications of falsified SMP content due to the addition of plant proteins. These proteins are not allowed in SMP and cannot be identified by the official reference method. Since soy and pea proteins are

  11. Artemether-Lumefantrine Concentrations in Tablets and Powders from Ghana Measured by a New High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrah, Philip; Nettey, Henry; Miltersen, Katja Kjeldgaard

    2016-01-01

    We developed and validated a new analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of artemether and lumefantrine in fixed-dose tablets and powders for reconstitution into pediatric suspensions (PSs). The method showed linearity (r2 > 0.9947), precision (coefficient of variation < 2%), accura...

  12. C18-coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2012-02-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and less sample consuming method of C(18)-stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was proposed for the determination of six sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples. C(18) silica particles coated stir bar was prepared by adhesion method, and two kinds of adhesive glue, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sol and epoxy glue were tried. It was found that the C(18)-coated stir bar prepared by PDMS sol as adhesive glue is more robust than that prepared by epoxy glue when liquid desorption was employed, in terms of both lifetime and organic solvent tolerance. The preparation of C(18) stir bar was simple with good mechanic strength and the stir bar could be reused for more than 20 times. Granular coating has relatively high specific surface area and is propitious to sorptive extraction based process. Compared to conventional PDMS SBSE coating, C(18) coating shows good affinity to the target polar/weak polar sulfonamides. To achieve optimum SBSE extraction performance, several parameters including extraction and desorption time, ionic strength, sample pH and stirring speed were investigated. The detection limits of the proposed method for six sulfonamides were in the range of 0.9-10.5 μg/L for milk and 2.7-31.5 μg/kg for milk powder. Good linearities were obtained for sulfonamides with the correlation coefficients (R) above 0.9922. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfonamides in milk and milk powder samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructural Evolution of AlCoCrFeNiSi High-Entropy Alloy Powder during Mechanical Alloying and Its Coating Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lihui; Fu, Ming; Xiong, Wei

    2018-02-23

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are promising structural materials due to their excellent comprehensive performances. The use of mechanically alloyed powders to deposit HEA coatings through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is an effective approach that can broaden the application areas of the HEAs. In this paper, a ductility-brittleness AlCoCrFeNiSi system was chosen as an object of study, and the detailed evolution of the surface morphology, particle size distribution, and microstructure of the powder during mechanical alloying was investigated. An AlCoCrFeNiSi HEA coating was deposited using powder milled for 10 h, which can be used as an ideal feedstock for APS. The surface morphology, microstructure, microhardness, and wear behavior of the coating at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that as the milling time increased, the particle size first increased, and then decreased. At the milling time of 10 h, simple body-centered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) solid solution phases were formed. After spraying, the lamellar structure inside a single particle disappeared. An ordered BCC phase was detected, and the diffraction peaks of the Si element also disappeared, which indicates that phase transformation occurred during plasma spraying. A transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that nanometer crystalline grains with a grain size of about 30 nm existed in the APS coating. For the coating, an average microhardness of 612 ± 41 HV was obtained. Adhesive wear, tribo-oxidation wear, and slight abrasion wear took place during the wear test. The coating showed good wear resistance, with a volume wear rate of 0.38 ± 0.08 × 10 -4 mm³·N -1 ·m -1 , which makes it a promising coating for use in abrasive environments.

  14. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL -1 with a determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL -1 levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, I., E-mail: imtiaz-kamal26@yahoo.com; Yunus, S. M., E-mail: yunussm11@yahoo.com; Datta, T. K., E-mail: tk-datta4@yahoo.com; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Ganakbari, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Berliner, R., E-mail: RB@instrumentationAssociates.com [Instrumentation Associates, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yelon, W. B., E-mail: yelonwb@hotmail.com [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2016-07-12

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6 mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3 mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30° (2θ) at each step and covers 120° in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20° at each step and covers 120° in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  16. The high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD) at ISIS - a user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibberson, R.M.; David, W.I.F.; Knight, K.S.

    1992-05-01

    This guide is intended to give a short description of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD, at ISIS and to provide the basic information required in order to perform a routine powder diffraction experiment. (Author)

  17. Protection of hydrophobic amino acids against moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaqi; Chan, Hak-Kim; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A

    2017-10-01

    Inhalable particles containing amorphous form of drugs or excipients may absorb atmospheric moisture, causing powder aggregation and recrystallization, adversely affecting powder dispersion and lung deposition. The present study aims to explore hydrophobic amino acids for protection against moisture in spray-dried amorphous powders, using disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as a model drug. DSCG powders were produced by co-spray drying with isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and methionine (Met) in various concentrations (10, 20 and 40%w/w). Particle size distribution and morphology were measured by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiochemical properties of the powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Particle surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performance was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH) for one month and three months. Ile, Val and Met significantly reduced the deleterious effect of moisture on aerosol performance, depending on the amount of amino acids in the formulation. Formulations containing 10% or 20% of Ile, Val and Met showed notable deterioration in aerosol performance, with fine particle fraction (FPF) reduced by 6-15% after one-month storage at both 60% and 75% RH. However, 40% Ile was able to maintain the aerosol performance of DSCG stored at 75% RH for one month, while the FPF dropped by 7.5% after three months of storage. In contrast, 40% Val or Met were able to maintain the aerosol performance at 60% RH storage but not at 75% RH. At 40%w/w ratio, these formulations had particle surface coverage of 94.5% (molar percent) of Ile, 87.1% of Val and 84.6% of Met, respectively, which may explain their

  18. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi‧an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng; Rong, Zhen zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Guang qiang

    2016-01-01

    Bi2Te3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi2Te3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi0.44Sb1.56Te3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi0.36Sb1.64Te3 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi2Te3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers.

  19. Modification of TiO{sub 2} powder via atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge treatment for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Shang-I; Yang, Hao; Chen, Hsien-Wei; Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to improve the electrochemical performances of TiO{sub 2} Li-ion anode material by introducing plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2} powder. A specially designed atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma generator feasible to modify powders is proposed. The rate capacity of 20 min plasma-treated TiO{sub 2} anode revealed nearly 20% increment as compared to that of pristine TiO{sub 2} at the rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 C. As-treated TiO{sub 2} was first analyzed by the X-ray diffractometer and high resolution transmission electron microscope confirmed that there was no noticeable surface morphology and microstructure change from plasma treatment. In addition, plasma-treated TiO{sub 2} was reduced with increasing treatment duration. Significant amount of excited argon (Ar{sup ∗}) and excitation of a nitrogen second positive system (N{sub 2}{sup ∗}) were discovered using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It was believed that Ar{sup ∗} and N{sub 2}{sup ∗} contributed to TiO{sub 2} surface reduction as companied by formation of oxygen vacancy. A higher amount of oxygen vacancy increases the chance of allowing excited nitrogen to dope onto surface of TiO{sub 2} particle. Electrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} were raised due to the production of oxygen vacancy and nitrogen doping. These findings enhance the understanding of the atmospheric plasma treatment on the potential application of TiO{sub 2} anode material in Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • A plasma generator was developed and proposed for modifying TiO{sub 2} powder in enhancing its electrochemical property. • The plasma treated TiO{sub 2} revealed 20% increment in capacity under different C-rates. • Plasma diagnosis was performed providing an insight of how plasma treatment is effective in TiO{sub 2} surface modification.

  20. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xi' an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Cai, Xin zhi, E-mail: xzcwust@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Han, Xue wu, E-mail: hanxuewu1990@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zhang, Cheng cheng, E-mail: zcc516990418@live.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 947 Heping Road, Qingshan District, Wuhan 430081 (China); and others

    2016-01-15

    Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi{sub 0.44}Sb{sub 1.56}Te{sub 3} was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi{sub 0.36}Sb{sub 1.64}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} based wastes were directly selected as raw materials

  1. Evolution of thermoelectric performance for (Bi,Sb)2Te3 alloys from cutting waste powders to bulks with high figure of merit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xi'an; Cai, Xin zhi; Han, Xue wu; Zhang, Cheng cheng

    2016-01-01

    Bi 2 Te 3 based cutting waste powders from cutting wafers were firstly selected as raw materials to prepare p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based thermoelectric (TE) materials. Through washing, reducing, composition correction, smelting and resistance pressing sintering (RPS) process, p-type (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloy bulks with different nominal stoichiometries were successfully obtained. The evolution of microstructure and TE performance for (Bi,Sb) 2 Te 3 alloys were investigated in detail. All evidences confirmed that most of contaminants from line cutting process such as cutting fluid and oxides of Bi, Sb or Te could be removed by washing, reducing and smelting process used in this work. The carrier content and corresponding TE properties could be adjusted effectively by appropriate composition correction treatment. At lastly, a bulk with a nominal stoichiometry of Bi 0.44 Sb 1.56 Te 3 was obtained and its' dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was about 1.16 at 90 °C. The ZT values of Bi 0.36 Sb 1.64 Te 3 and Bi 0.4 Sb 1.6 Te 3 alloy bulks could also reach 0.98 and 1.08, respectively. Different from the conventional recycling technology such as hydrometallurgy extraction methods, the separation and extraction of beneficial elements such as Bi, Sb and Te did not need to be performed and the Bi 2 Te 3 based bulks with high TE properties could be directly obtained from the cutting waste powders. In addition, the recycling technology introduced here was green and more suitable for practical industrial application. It can improve material utilization and lower raw material costs of manufacturers. - Graphical abstract: Three kinds of typical morphologies for the fractographs: typical lamellar structure, agglomerated submicron-sized granules and dispersed cubic particles from the initial cutting waste powders. - Highlights: • Bi 2 Te 3 based wastes were directly selected as raw materials for TE alloys. • Contaminants from cutting fluid and oxides could be effectively removed.

  2. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency.

  3. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  4. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  5. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  6. High density UO2 powder preparation for HWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. T.; Chang, I. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Cho, B. R.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.; Moon, B. H.; Kim, S. D.; Phyu, K. M.; Lee, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the preparation of method high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Accordingly, it is necessary to character ize the AUC processed UO 2 powder and to search method for the preparation of high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can effect the producing of AUC processed UO 2 powder having sinterability. (Author)

  7. Production of nanocrystalline cermet thermal spray powders for wear resistant coatings by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigen, N.; Klassen, T.; Aust, E.; Bormann, R.; Gaertner, F.

    2003-01-01

    TiC-Ni based nanocrystalline cermet powders for thermal spraying were produced by high-energy milling. Milling experiments were performed in an attrition mill and a vibration mill in kilogram scale, and powder morphologies and microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and laser scattering for particle size analysis. Milling time and powder input were optimized with respect to the desired microstructure and particle sizes, and the results using both types of mill were compared. Powders with homogeneously dispersed hard phase particles below 300 nm could be produced in both mills. Additional processes for the refinement of powder morphology and particle size distribution are discussed

  8. Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts.

  9. Determination of vitamin D in fortified and nonfortified milk powder and infant formula using a specific radioassay after purification by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Berg, H.; Boshuis, P.G.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive radioassay is described for the determination of vitamin D in milk powder and infant formula. After saponification of the sample interfering compounds like sterols are removed by digitonin precipitation and chromatography on small columns packed with alumina. [ 3 H] Vitamin D is added to the sample as an internal standard, to correct for losses due to previtamin D formation, as well as other procedural losses. Vitamin D is quantitated by a competitive protein binding (CPB) assay after final cleanup of the extract on a straight-phase HPLC column. Diluted sheep serum is used as the source of the binding protein, having equal affinity for both vitamins D 2 and D 3 . With this HPLC CPB method vitamin D can be determined with high specificity in concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/tube (ca. 0.01 IE/g). Recovery was between 90 and 110%. The coefficients of variation were 2.4 (within run) and 7.5 (between run), respectively

  10. High-Performance Epoxy-Resin-Bonded Magnets Produced from the Sm2Fe17Nx Powders Coated by Copper and Zinc Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Kenji; Machida, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Gin-ya

    2001-04-01

    Fine powders of Sm2Fe17Nx coated with copper metal reduced from CuCl2 and/or zinc metal subsequently derived by photo-decomposition of diethylzinc [Zn(C2H5)2] were prepared, and their magnetic properties were characterized in addition to those of epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the coated powders (Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx, Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx and Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx). The remanence (Br) and maximum energy product [(\\mathit{BH})max] of double metal-coated Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders were maintained at higher levels than those of single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx ones (Zn/Sm2Fe17Nx) even after heat treatment at 673 K since the oxidation resistance and thermal stability were effectively improved by formation of the thick and uniform protection layer on the surface of Sm2Fe17Nx particles. Moreover, the epoxy-resin-bonded magnets produced from the Zn/Cu/Sm2Fe17Nx powders possessed good corrosion resistance in air at 393 K which it resulted in the smaller thermal irreversible flux loss than that of uncoated and single Zn metal-coated Sm2Fe17Nx powders in the temperature range of above 393 K.

  11. Influences of the Air in Metal Powder High Velocity Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the process of metal powder high velocity impact compaction, the air is compressed sharply and portion remains in the compacts. In order to study the Influences, a discrete density volleyball accumulation model for aluminium powder was established with the use of ABAQUS. Study found that the powder porosity air obstruct the pressing process because remaining air reduced strength and density of the compacts in the current high-speed pressing (V≤100m/s. When speed further increased (V≥100m/s, the temperature of the air increased sharply, and was even much higher than the melting point of the material. When aluminium powder was compressed at a speed of 200m/s, temperatures of air could reach 2033 K, far higher than the melting point of 877 K. Increased density of powders was a result of local softening and even melt adhesive while air between particles with high temperature and pressure flowed past.

  12. Determinação de corantes artificiais por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE em pó para gelatina Determination of synthetic dyes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPCL in jelly powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Prado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in 76 samples of regular jelly and diet jelly powders, of several flavors produced by seven different manufacturers. Three sample of each product, from different batches, were analyzed. The same qualitative composition was observed for products of the same flavor from different manufacturers, but the quantitative composition varied markedly from one manufacturer to the other. There were no or few significant differences between batches from a given manufacturer, demonstrating good quality control in the use of these additives by the food industry. None of the samples exceeded the limit stipulated by Brazilian legislation.

  13. Determination of vitamin D in fortified and nonfortified milk powder and infant formula using a specific radioassay after purification by high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Boshuis, P.G.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1986-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive radioassay is described for the determination of vitamin D in milk powder and infant formula. After saponification of the sample interfering compounds like sterols are removed by digitonin precipitation and chromatography on small columns packed with alumina. [3H] Vitamin D

  14. Design and in vitro performance testing of multiple air classifier technology in a new disposable inhaler concept (Twincer (R)) for high powder doses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne H; Hagedoorn, Paul; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Le Brun, Paul P H; Heijerman, Harry G M; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2006-01-01

    Dry powder inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis (CF) therapy may be a valuable alternative for wet nebulisation, because it saves time and it improves lung deposition. In this study, it is shown that the use of multiple air classifier technology enables effective dispersion of large amounts

  15. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions <5 μm of 65-85% and mass median aerodynamic diameters of 1.5 μm, which were target conditions for controlled condensational growth aerosol delivery. Decreasing the size of the flow control orifice from 3.6 to 2.3mm reduced the flow rate through the system with manual bag actuations from an average of 35 to 15LPM, while improving ED and aerosolization performance. The new devices can be applied to improve aerosol delivery during mechanical ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Aluminum Powder on Ignition Performance of RDX, HMX, and CL-20 Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of high explosives, aluminized explosive cannot release the energy maximumly, which is a key problem. Using DTA-TG equipment, the ignition performance of three kinds of aluminized explosives (RDX, HMX, and CL-20 with different mass percentages of aluminum powder (0%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 30 wt.% was investigated. The results showed that the energy release of the HMX/Al composite explosive with 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, and 30 wt.% aluminum powder was only equivalent to 80%, 65%, and 36% of pure HMX, respectively. It was similar to RDX/Al and CL-20/Al composite explosives, except the CL-20/Al mixture with 10% aluminum powder. Rather than participating in the ignition and combustion, the aluminum powder does effect the complete reaction of RDX, HMX, and CL-20 in the initial stage of ignition or in the lower temperature area of the boundary.

  17. Characterization of prealloyed copper powders treated in high energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, Viseslava; Bozic, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milan T.

    2006-01-01

    The inert gas atomised prealloyed copper powders containing 3.5 wt.% Al were milled up to 20 h in the planetary ball mill in order to oxidize aluminium in situ with oxygen from the air. In the next procedure compacts from milled powder were synthesized by hot-pressing in argon atmosphere. Compacts from as-received Cu-3.5 wt.% Al powder and electrolytic copper powder were also prepared under the same conditions. Microstructural and morphological changes of high energy milled powder as well as changes of thermal stability and electrical conductivity of compacts were studied as a function of milling time and high temperature exposure at 800 deg. C. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed for microstructural characterization, whereas thermal stability and electrical conductivity were evaluated by microhardness measurements and conductometer Sigmatest, respectively. The prealloyed 5 h-milled and compacted powder showed a significant increase in microhardness reaching the value of 2600 MPa, about 4 times greater than that of compacts synthesized from as-received electrolytic copper powder (670 MPa). The electrical conductivity of compacts from 5 h-milled powder was 52% IACS. The results were discussed in terms of the effect of small grain size and finely distributed alumina dispersoids on hardening and thermal stability of compacts

  18. Development of a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatography method for assay of erythromycin ethylsuccinate in powder for oral suspension dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kamarei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an effective method was developed to assay erythromycin ethylsuccinate for an oral suspension dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an X-Terra™ C18 analytical column. A mixture of acetonitrile–ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (0.025 mol L-1 (60:40, V/V (pH 7.0 was used as the mobile phase, effluent flow rate monitored at 1.0 mL min−1, and UV detection at 205 nm. In forced degradation studies, the effects of acid, base, oxidation, UV light and temperature were investigated showing no interference in the peak of drug. The proposed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, robustness, precision and accuracy. The method was linear at concentrations ranging from 400 to 600 μg mL−1, precise (intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations <0.65, accurate (mean recovery; 99.5%. The impurities and degradation products of erythromycin ethylsuccinate were selectively determined with good resolution in both the raw material and the final suspension forms. The method could be useful for both routine analytical and quality control assays of erythromycin ethylsuccinate in commercial powder for an oral suspension dosage form and it could be a very powerful tool to investigate the chemical stability of erythromycin ethylsuccinate.

  19. Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Productive Performance and Certain Biochemical Aspects of Laying Hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty six, 37-wk-old laying hens, of Lohmann strain, were used in the current study to evaluate the effects of dietary garlic powder (GP) on productive performance and certain biochemical aspects of laying hens. Hens were randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatment groups, a control (no garlic addition) and 3 and 6 % GP additions to the basal diet on weight: weight ratio basis and fed for six week. Body weights (BW), egg weight (EW) and feed consumption were determined weekly. Daily egg production was recorded. Serum concentrations of lipids profile ( triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (Chol), high density lipids (HDL) and low density lipids (LDL) cholesterol levels) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentration were measured. Results indicated that feed efficiency and BW gain were significantly increased as garlic powder percentage increased in the diet. Garlic powder supplementation at 3 and 6 % lower serum Chol concentrations on an average by 15.3 and 22.3%, respectively, as compared to the control group. Serum Trig concentration was significantly lower by 18 and 33% respectively as compared to the control group. TLs were highly significantly decreased as the garlic powder increase by 13.9 and 27.8% respectively, and as compared to the control group. Moreover, HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased and LDL- cholesterol was significantly decreased with garlic powder increased in the diet. Serum T3 concentration was significantly higher on average by 23.2 and 28.4%, in laying hens given the 3 and 6 % garlic powder supplementation as compared to the control group. It could be concluded from the results of the current study that supplementing the diet with 3 and to a greater extent with 6 % of garlic powder decreases the major risk factors for the development and progression of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease by lowing concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides concentrations, and HDL cholesterol, and increasing levels of HDL

  20. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  1. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  2. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  3. Effective High-Frequency Permeability of Compacted Metal Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovskaya, I. I.; Semenov, V. E.; Rybakov, K. I.

    2018-03-01

    We propose a model for determination of the effective complex permeability of compacted metal-powder media. It is based on the equality of the magnetic moment in a given volume of the media with the desired effective permeability to the total magnetic moment of metal particles in the external high-frequency magnetic field, which arises due to excitation of electric eddy currents in the particles. Calculations within the framework of the proposed model allow us to refine the values of the real and imaginary components of the permeability of metal powder compacts in the microwave band. The conditions of applicability of the proposed model are formulated, and their fulfillment is verified for metal powder compacts in the microwave and millimeter wavelength bands.

  4. Neutron powder diffraction under high pressure at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Wataru; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Arima, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takaya; Okuchi, Takuo; Kamiyama, Takashi; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that high-pressure material science and the investigation of the Earth's interior will progress greatly using the high-flux pulse neutrons of J-PARC. In this article, we introduce our plans for in situ neutron powder diffraction experiments under high pressure at J-PARC. The use of three different types of high-pressure devices is planned; a Paris-Edinburgh cell, a new opposed-anvil cell with a nano-polycrystalline diamond, and a cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus. These devices will be brought to the neutron powder diffraction beamlines to conduct a 'day-one' high-pressure experiment. For the next stage of research, we propose construction of a dedicated beamline for high-pressure material science. Its conceptual designs are also introduced here.

  5. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Prakash, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujwalfmt@iitr.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Dabhade, Vikram V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility. - Highlights: •ODS steels with yttria contents beyond the conventional limit of 0.5 wt% were fabricated by powder forging in a hydrogen atmosphere. •All the alloys exhibited significant ductility. •This may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. •Strength in excess of 300 MPa was obtained at 973 K for 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% yttria ODS alloys. •Powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels and permits development of compositions with up to 1.5% yttria.

  6. APPLICATION OF POWDER HIGH-SPEED STEEL AS ANTIFRICTION MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beznak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of disulphide molybdenum additives on antifriction characteristics of powder high-speed steel produced by means of hot hydrostatic pressing is investigated. It is shown that disulphide molybdenum additives promote the decrease of coefficient of friction and temperature in hearth of friction as a result the increase of wear resistance of steel.

  7. Properties and Applications of High Emissivity Composite Films Based on Far-Infrared Ceramic Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yabo; Huang, Shaoyun; Wang, Wenqi; Liu, Xinghai; Li, Houbin

    2017-11-29

    Polymer matrix composite materials that can emit radiation in the far-infrared region of the spectrum are receiving increasing attention due to their ability to significantly influence biological processes. This study reports on the far-infrared emissivity property of composite films based on far-infrared ceramic powder. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to evaluate the physical properties of the ceramic powder. The ceramic powder was found to be rich in aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, and silicon oxide, which demonstrate high far-infrared emissivity. In addition, the micromorphology, mechanical performance, dynamic mechanical properties, and far-infrared emissivity of the composite were analyzed to evaluate their suitability for strawberry storage. The mechanical properties of the far-infrared radiation ceramic (cFIR) composite films were not significantly influenced ( p ≥ 0.05) by the addition of the ceramic powder. However, the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) properties of the cFIR composite films, including a reduction in damping and shock absorption performance, were significant influenced by the addition of the ceramic powder. Moreover, the cFIR composite films showed high far-infrared emissivity, which has the capability of prolonging the storage life of strawberries. This research demonstrates that cFIR composite films are promising for future applications.

  8. Powder processing of high Tc oxide superconductors and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajpei, A.C.; Upadhyaya, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    Powder processing of ceramics is an established technology and in the area of high T c superconductors, its importance is felt even more significantly. The present monograph is an attempt in this direction to explore the perspectives and practice of powder processing routes towards control and optimization of the microstructure and pertinent properties of high T c oxide superconductors. The monograph consists of 6 chapters. After a very brief introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 describes various classes of high T c oxide superconductors and their phase equilibria. Chapter 3 highlights the preparation of oxide superconductor powders through various routes and details their subtle distinctions. Chapter 4 briefly covers characterisation of the oxide superconductors, laying emphasis on the process-analysis and microstructure. Chapter 5 describes in detail various fabrication techniques for bulk superconductors through the powder routes. The last Chapter (Chapter 6) describing properties of bulk oxide superconductors, discusses the role of subtituents, compositional variations and processing methods on such properties. References are given at the end of each chapter. (orig.)

  9. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y2O3 (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility.

  10. Doped titanium dioxide nanocrystalline powders with high photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.L.; Nunes, M.R.; Carvalho, M.D.; Ferreira, L.P.; Jumas, J.-C.; Costa, F.M.; Florencio, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO 2 ; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route preceded by a precipitation doping step. Structural and morphological characterizations were performed by powder XRD and TEM. Thermodynamic stability studies allowed to conclude that the anatase structure is highly stable for all doped TiO 2 prepared compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized nanopowders was tested and the results showed an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO 2 and Nb:TiO 2 , whereas no photocatalytic activity was detected for the Fe:TiO 2 and Co:TiO 2 nanopowders. These results were correlated to the doping ions oxidation states, determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization data. - Graphical abstract: Doped titanium dioxide nanopowders (M:TiO 2 ; M=Fe, Co, Nb, Sb) with highly stable anatase structure were successfully synthesized through an hydrothermal route. The photocatalytic efficiencies of the synthesized nanopowders were tested and the results show an appreciable enhancement in the photoactivity of the Sb:TiO 2 and Nb:TiO 2 .

  11. Pulsed high energy synthesis of fine metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas (Inventor); Massey, Dennis W. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Repetitively pulsed plasma jets generated by a capillary arc discharge at high stagnation pressure (>15,000 psi) and high temperature (>10,000 K) are utilized to produce 0.1-10 .mu.m sized metal powders and decrease cost of production. The plasma jets impact and atomize melt materials to form the fine powders. The melt can originate from a conventional melt stream or from a pulsed arc between two electrodes. Gas streams used in conventional gas atomization are replaced with much higher momentum flux plasma jets. Delivering strong incident shocks aids in primary disintegration of the molten material. A series of short duration, high pressure plasma pulses fragment the molten material. The pulses introduce sharp velocity gradients in the molten material which disintegrates into fine particles. The plasma pulses have peak pressures of approximately one kilobar. The high pressures improve the efficiency of disintegration. High gas flow velocities and pressures are achieved without reduction in gas density. Repetitively pulsed plasma jets will produce powders with lower mean size and narrower size distribution than conventional atomization techniques.

  12. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  13. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavdar, U.; Gulsahin, I.

    2014-10-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW) were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined. (Author)

  14. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, U.; Gulsahin, I.

    2014-01-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW) were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined. (Author)

  15. Wear mechanisms in powder metallurgy high speed steels matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordo, E.; Martinez, M. A.; Torralba, J. M.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The development of metal matrix composites has a major interest for automotive and cutting tools industries since they possess better mechanical properties and wear resistance than corresponding base materials. One of the manufacturing methods for these materials includes processing by powder metallurgy techniques. in this case, blending of both, base material and reinforcement powders constitute the most important process in order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of second phase particles. in the present work, composite materials of M3/2 tool steel reinforced with 2.5,5 and 8 vol% of niobium carbide have been prepared. In order to ensure a homogeneous mix, powders of both materials were mixed by dry high-energy mechanical milling at 200 r.p.m. for 40 h. After a recovering annealing, two routes for consolidate were followed die pressing and vacuum sintering, and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate wear behaviour in all the materials. Results show that ceramic particles additions improve wear resistance of base material. (Author) 9 refs

  16. Mechanochemical effects on high-Tc superconductor powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Taichi; Nagai, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Manabu; Minehara, Eisuke.

    1991-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanochemical effects on high-Tc superconductor (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -δ) powders. The powder was mechanically ground in air using an agate mortar with a pestle. The grinding time was varied from 2 to 100 min. The mean particle sizes of the powders were measured by a sedimentation method. The degradation of superconductivity was evaluated by the measurements of the crystallinity and volume fraction of the superconducting phase. The crystallinity was estimated from X-ray diffraction patterns. The volume fraction of the superconducting phase was estimated from the diamagnetization. The results of these changes of 2 min. and 100 min. grinding are respectively as follows; 1) mean particle size: 10.8 μm and 7.2 μm, 2) crystallinity: 40.0 % and 24.8 %, 3) volume fraction of superconducting phase: 91.5 % and 30.0 %. Recovery of the crystallinity and superconductivity of the ground specimens by re-sintering and re-annealing was also studied. It was found that the recovery of both of the characteristics was not complete. (author)

  17. The Role of interfacial layers on the performance of an epoxy / polyester powder coated Aluminium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabedini, M.; Moradian, S.; Scanteburg, D.; Thonpson, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of polyacrylic acid and a blend of polyacrylic acid with hexa fluorozirconic acid treatments on the performance of an epoxy/polyester powder coating on a 1050 Al substrate has been studied and compared to the performance of the same system using a so-called chromate/phosphate conversion coating. The chemical interactions between pretreatments and Al substrates were examined using FTIR spectroscopy and various accelerated test methods were also employed. Two mechanical adhesion measurement methods were used under wet and dry conditions, namely a vertical pull-off test in the dry state and the tape test under dry conditions. The water permeation of the differently pretreated powder coated samples was studied using a capacitance measurement method. FTIR results showed two modes of interaction; namely ionic and complex formation between COO - and Al 3+ Various experiments revealed that polyacrylic acid improved only the dry adhesion but as a standing alone treatment it did not provide an overall improvement in anti-corrosive performance. The water uptake measurements proved that pretreatment does not considerably affect the properties of the coatings during water permeation stage. The use of various techniques revealed that relatively good performance of powder coating is due to a high ohmic resistance of the coating prior to and after saturation with water, reasonably low water solubility and good adhesion to the substrate

  18. Fabrication, characteristics, and in-pile performance of UO2 pellets prepared from dry route powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotard, A.; Ledac, A.; Bernardin, M.

    1991-01-01

    The dry route conversion process of UF 6 to sinterable UO 2 powder has been used in France on a large scale for more than 10 years for the fabrication of PWR fuels. Thus, our fabrication and irradiation experience relates to more than 10,000 tons of fuel. As everyone knows, the dry route conversion process only involves gas-gas and gas-solid reactions which present the advantage of producing very little contaminated wastes and no liquid effluents. Powders obtained by this process are characterized by: - a very high purity, - a low specific surface area (around 2 m 2 /g), therefore a high resistance to spontaneous oxidation, - a good compressibility, - a very high sinterability (.98% T.D.), - a very high reproducibility. This powder also shows a high fineness which leads to very homogeneous blends with additives like pore former, U 3 O 8 or Gd 2 O 3 . On the other hand this fineness requires a granulation step which is actually not a disadvantage since it allows to adjust the granulate size to optimize the filling of press dies and so as to guarantee a good stability of the pellet dimensions and density. This pelletizing process leads to pellets characterized by: - a good thermal stability (0.5% T.D. after 34 hours at 1700degC), - no open porosity, - low H 2 content (0,3 ppm), - an homogeneous microstructure (grain size and porosity). Such characteristics mean that the UO 2 pellets from dry route conversion present an excellent in pile behaviour for high burnup up to 58,000 MWd/MtU in commercial plant, with: - low fission gas release, - good dimensional stability (densification, swelling), of which examples and results of PIE are described in the paper. The qualities of the dry route conversion powder and its flexibility of use make it possible to consider adjustment of the pellet characteristics, mainly: density, grain size and pore size distribution for specific uses or performance upgrade. (orig.)

  19. Compactibility of atomized high-speed steel and steel 3 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, L.D.; Gavrilenko, A.P.; Pikozh, A.P.; Kuz'menko, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    Spherical powders and powders of lammellar-scaly shape of high-speed R6M5K5 steel and steel 3 produced by the method of centrifugal atomization of a rotating billet under conditions of cold pressing in steel moulds are studied for thier compactability. Compacting pressure dependnences are establsihed for density of cold-pressed compacts of spherical and scaly powders. The powders of lammellar-scaly shape both of high-speed steel and steel 3 are found to possess better compactibility within a wide range of pressures as compared to powders of spherical shape. Compacts of the lammellar-scaly powders possess also higher mechanical strength

  20. Compact Process for the Preparation of Microfine Spherical High-Niobium-Containing TiAl Alloy Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, J. B.; Lu, X.; Liu, C. C.; Wang, L. N.; Qu, X. H.

    2015-03-01

    High-Nb-containing TiAl alloys are a new generation of materials for high-temperature structural applications because of their superior high-temperature mechanical properties. The alloy powders can be widely used for additive manufacturing, thermal spraying, and powder metallurgy. Because of the difficulty of making microfine spherical alloy powders in quantity by conventional techniques, a compact method was proposed, which consisted of two-step ball milling of elemental powders and subsequent radio frequency (RF) argon plasma spheroidization. In comparison with conventional mechanical alloying techniques, the two-step milling process can be used to prepare alloy powders with uniform scale in a short milling time with no addition of process control agent. This makes the process effective and less contaminating. After RF argon plasma spheroidization, the powders produced exhibit good sphericity, and the number-average diameter is about 8.2 μm with a symmetric unimodal particle size distribution. The powders perform high composition homogeneity and contain predominately supersaturated α 2-Ti3Al phase. The oxygen and carbon contents of the spheroidized powder are 0.47% and 0.050%, respectively.

  1. The Influence of the Powder Stream on High-Deposition-Rate Laser Metal Deposition with Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongliang Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the productivity of laser metal deposition (LMD, the focus of current research is set on increasing the deposition rate, in order to develop high-deposition-rate LMD (HDR-LMD. The presented work studies the effects of the powder stream on HDR-LMD with Inconel 718. Experiments have been designed and conducted by using different powder feeding nozzles—a three-jet and a coaxial powder feeding nozzle—since the powder stream is mainly determined by the geometry of the powder feeding nozzle. After the deposition trials, metallographic analysis of the samples has been performed. The laser intensity distribution (LID and the powder stream intensity distribution (PID have been characterized, based on which the processes have been simulated. Finally, for verifying and correcting the used models for the simulation, the simulated results have been compared with the experimental results. Through the conducted work, suitable boundary conditions for simulating the process with different powder streams has been determined, and the effects of the powder stream on the process have also been determined. For a LMD process with a three-jet nozzle a substantial part of the powder particles that hit the melt pool surface are rebounded; for a LMD process with a coaxial nozzle almost all the particles are caught in the melt pool. This is due to the different particle velocities achieved with the two different nozzles. Moreover, the powder stream affects the heat exchange between the heated particles and the melt pool: a surface boundary condition applies for a powder stream with lower particle velocities, in the experiment provided by a three-jet nozzle, and a volumetric boundary condition applies for a powder stream with higher particle velocities, provided by a coaxial nozzle.

  2. High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments on Zn at low temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Takemura, K; Fujihisa, H; Kikegawa, T

    2002-01-01

    High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on Zn with a He-pressure medium at low temperature. When the sample was compressed in the He medium at low temperature, large nonhydrostaticity developed, yielding erroneous lattice parameters. On the other hand, when the pressure was changed at high temperatures, good hydrostaticity was maintained. No anomaly in the volume dependence of the c/a axial ratio has been found.

  3. Massing in high shear wet granulation can simultaneously improve powder flow and deteriorate powder compaction: a double-edged sword.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Limin; Feng, Yushi; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2011-05-18

    The influence of massing during high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process on granule properties and performance was investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Massing time varied from 0 to 40 min while other factors were fixed. Granule physical properties, including morphology, size, porosity, and specific surface area (SSA), were characterized. Changes in powder properties were profound in the first 10 min of massing but negligible beyond 10 min. With 10 min of massing, granule tabletability decreased by 75% while flowability increased by 75%. The significantly deteriorated tabletability and improved flowability resulted from dramatic changes in granule morphology, porosity, and SSA. The results confirm that massing time is a key process parameter in HSWG, and it must be carefully evaluated and controlled during process development, scale up, and manufacturing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. How to Perform a Powder in Flexible Die Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mike; Nielsen, Morten Storgaard

    The “Powder in Flexible Die”-test, or PFD-test for short, proposes a new way of testing plastic properties of granular materials. The principal idea for the test originates from Dr. J.I Bech. The test has since been developed further and refined at IPL-DTU. The present work describes the equipment...

  5. Powder metallurgy processing of high strength turbine disk alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Using vacuum-atomized AF2-1DA and Mar-M432 powders, full-scale gas turbine engine disks were fabricated by hot isostatically pressing (HIP) billets which were then isothermally forged using the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft GATORIZING forging process. While a sound forging was produced in the AF2-1DA, a container leak had occurred in the Mar-M432 billet during HIP. This resulted in billet cracking during forging. In-process control procedures were developed to identify such leaks. The AF2-1DA forging was heat treated and metallographic and mechanical property evaluation was performed. Mechanical properties exceeded those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability turbine disk alloys presently used.

  6. Optimisation Of Process Parameters In High Energy Mixing As A Method Of Cohesive Powder Flowability Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leś Karolina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.

  7. High-performance ceramics. Fabrication, structure, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzow, G.; Tobolski, J.; Telle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' pursued the objective to understand the chaining of cause and effect in the development of high-performance ceramics. This chain of problems begins with the chemical reactions for the production of powders, comprises the characterization, processing, shaping and compacting of powders, structural optimization, heat treatment, production and finishing, and leads to issues of materials testing and of a design appropriate to the material. The program ''Ceramic High-performance Materials'' has resulted in contributions to the understanding of fundamental interrelationships in terms of materials science, which are summarized in the present volume - broken down into eight special aspects. (orig./RHM)

  8. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Powder technological vitrification of simulated high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahlert, S.

    1988-03-01

    High-level waste simulate from the reprocessing of light water reactor and fast breeder fuel was vitrified by powder technology. After denitration with formaldehyde, the simulated HLW is mixed with glass frit and simultaneously dried in an oil-heated mixer. After 'in-can calcination' for at least 24 hours at 850 or 950 K (depending on the type of waste and glass), the mixture is hot-pressed in-can for several hours at 920 or 1020 K respectively, at pressures between 0.4 and 1.0 MPa. The technology has been demonstrated inactively up to diameters of 30 cm. Leach resistance is significantly enhanced when compared to common borosilicate glasses by the utilization of glasses with higher silicon and aluminium content and lower sodium content. (orig.) [de

  10. Change of lattice parameters in highly disperse nickel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarnik, M.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    A monotonous increase of the lattice parameters with the decrease of particle size is established by an X-ray study for highly disperse nickel powders in the interval of sizes from 4.9 to 35 nm. The relative changes of lattice parameters are from 4.9x10 -3 ±5x10 -4 up to 3x10 -4 ±1x10 -4 . The effect is explained by the decrease of the intracrystalline pressure in small particles stipulated by electrostatic interaction of the elements of crystal charge lattice. A calculated dependence of the lattice parameters which agrees with experimental curve is obtained in the framework of the model suggested by the charge lattice represented by an ion-electron lattice of positive ions and collectivized electrons with regard of the lattice of atomic neutral cores (the contribution of the latter is proved very small as found from the calculations). (orig.)

  11. High-resolution neutron powder-diffraction in CMR manganates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suard, E; Radaelli, P G [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Manganese-oxide materials have recently been the subject of renewed attention, due to the `colossal` magnetoresistance (CMR) displayed near the spin-ordering temperature T{sub c} by some of these compounds. CMR has been evidenced in at least three families of manganese oxides. In most cases, the CMR compounds behave as paramagnetic semiconductors at high temperatures, and as ferromagnetic metals below T{sub c}. The study of this metallization process has lead some theorists to challenge its traditional interpretation in terms of the so-called double-exchange mechanism, and to propose alternative scenarios in which the coupling of the charge carriers with the lattice plays a paramount role. Powder diffraction method, being at the forefront of CMR research is presented. (author). 4 refs.

  12. Solvent evaporation induced graphene powder with high volumetric capacitance and outstanding rate capability for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhe; Raj, Devaraj Vasanth; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    2018-04-01

    Graphene-based electrode materials for supercapacitors usually suffer from poor volumetric performance due to the low density. The enhancement of volumetric capacitance by densification of graphene materials, however, is usually accompanied by deterioration of rate capability, as the huge contraction of pore size hinders rapid diffusion of electrolytes. Thus, it is important to develop suitable pore size in graphene materials, which can sustain fast ion diffusion and avoid excessive voids to acquire high density simultaneously for supercapacitor applications. Accordingly, we propose a simple solvent evaporation method to control the pore size of graphene powders by adjusting the surface tension of solvents. Ethanol is used instead of water to reduce the shrinkage degree of graphene powder during solvent evaporation process, due to its lower surface tension comparing with water. Followed by the assistance of mechanical compression, graphene powder having high compaction density of 1.30 g cm-3 and a large proportion of mesopores in the pore size range of 2-30 nm is obtained, which delivers high volumetric capacitance of 162 F cm-3 and exhibits outstanding rate performance of 76% capacity retention at a high current density of 100 A g-1 simultaneously.

  13. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  14. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

  15. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  16. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  17. Study of geometry angles forming a coaxial nozzle to performance of laser fusion powder composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павло Васильович Кондрашев

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of scientific and experimental research, as reflected in this work is the search for solutions and approaches aimed at improving process performance laser alloying powder composition focused laser radiation. Priori information analysis showed the complexity of the process of laser powder fusion tracks from the physical point of view with a lot of technological impacts. Therefore, in this paper we used the method of experimental design, which will allow a more accurate experimental results compared with other methods of research. Based on the experimental screening were identified most significant technological factors influence. These are: powder mass flow, the geometric configuration of the delivery means of powder composition in the area of laser processing, the speed of movement of the substrate. To study the process performance laser alloying powder compositions were applied methods of mathematical statistics, namely, was elected symmetric quasi-D-optimal plan Pisochynskoho for 3 technological factors influence that has good statistical properties and sold regression equation of second order. As a result of the measures was received mathematical model of laser powder fusion focused laser radiation in a second order polynomial. The technique demonstrated the productivity of the process of laser powder fusion focused laser radiation, obtained by using a mathematical model of the process.

  18. Effects of long-term administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder) on cognitive performances in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Jean-François; Nejdi, Amine; Rozan, Pascale; Hidalgo, Sophie; Lalonde, Robert; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2008-07-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the main factor involved in functional declines during normal and pathological ageing, and that antioxidant agents, such as polyphenols, may improve or prevent these deficits. We examined whether 1-year administration of a cocoa polyphenolic extract (Acticoa powder), orally delivered at the dose of 24 mg/kg per d between 15 and 27 months of age, affects the onset of age-related cognitive deficits, urinary free dopamine levels and lifespan in old Wistar-Unilever rats. Acticoa powder improved cognitive performances in light extinction and water maze paradigms, increased lifespan and preserved high urinary free dopamine levels. These results suggest that Acticoa powder may be beneficial in retarding age-related brain impairments, including cognitive deficits in normal ageing and perhaps neurodegenerative diseases. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of cocoa polyphenols in neuroprotection and to explore their effects in man.

  19. Ultra high frequency induction welding of powder metal compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çavdar, Uǧur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM compacts in Ultra High Frequency Induction Welding (UHFIW were reviewed. These PM compacts are used to produce cogs. This study investigates the methods of joining PM materials enforceability with UHFIW in the industry application. Maximum stress and maximum strain of welded PM compacts were determined by three point bending and strength tests. Microhardness and microstructure of induction welded compacts were determined.Soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia de polvos de metal compactados. Se ha realizado un estudio de la aplicación de polvos de metal (PM de base hierro compactados por soldadura por inducción de ultra alta frecuencia (UHFIW. Estos polvos de metal compactados se utilizan para producir engranajes. Este estudio investiga los métodos de uni.n de los materiales de PM con UHFIW en su aplicación en la industria. La máxima tensión y la máxima deformación de los polvos de metal compactados soldados fueron determinadas por flexión en tres puntos y prueba de resistencia. Se determinó la microdureza y la microestructura de los polvos compactados por soldadura por inducción.

  20. Melt-drop technique for the production of high-purity metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldinger, F.; Linck, E.; Claussen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The production of high-purity powders of metals and alloys such as beryllium, titanium alloys, or superalloys is a problem. Oxidation of these materials cannot be avoided. Oxidation occurs in inert gases and even in reducing atmospheres when any gas impurities are present. Therefore, the powder production of these materials has to be performed either in high vacuum or at least in a static atmosphere of inert gas purified immediately before coming into contact with the disintegrating material. These requirements are very well met by the melt-drop technique presented in this paper, especially for coarse powders which must not necessarily be cold-workable. This is true, for example, for superalloys where high-temperature applications require large grain sizes; or in titanium alloys because the final microstructure will be achieved by a thermomechanical treatment. In the case of beryllium and beryllium alloys, where grain sizes <5 μm are desired, further milling is necessary. But the melt-drop technique offers a simple and clean method directly from the purifying process of vacuum melting. In melt-drop processes a liquid metal flows through a nozzle at the bottom of a crucible or the melt is just poured through a sieve. The theory of disintegration of a liquid jet into droplets, dates back to the 19th century. More recent investigations attempted to produce uniformly sized droplets by applying a capillary wave of given wave length to the jet. But this has been done only with non-metallic materials. Evidence is presented to prove the theory and show that this concept is applicable to the production of metal powders with controlled particle size

  1. High pressure sintering (HP-HT) of diamond powders with titanium and titanium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts for cutting tools are mostly manufactured using high pressure sintering (HP-HT). The standard diamond compacts are prepared by diamond powders sintering with metallic binding phase. The first group of metallic binder are metals able to solve carbon - Co, Ni. The second group of metal binders are carbide forming elements - Ti, Cr, W and others. The paper describes high pressure sintering of diamond powder with titanium and nonstoichiometry titanium carbide for cutting tool application. A type of binding phase has the significant influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond compacts. Very homogeneous structure was achieved in case of compacts obtained from metalized diamond where diamond-TiC-diamond connection were predominant. In the case of compacts prepared by mechanical mixing of diamond with titanium powders the obtained structure was nonhomogeneous with titanium carbide clusters. They had more diamond to diamond connections. These compacts compared to the compact made of metallized diamond have greater wear resistance. In the case of the diamond and TiC 0.92 sintering the strong bonding of TiC diamond grains was obtained. The microstructure observations for diamond with 5% wt. Ti and diamond with 5% wt. TiC 0.92 (the initial composition) compacts were performed in transmission microscope. For two type of compacts the strong bonding phase TiC without defects is creating. (author)

  2. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  3. Effects of physical properties of powder particles on binder liquid requirement and agglomerate growth mechanisms in a high shear mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, A; Schaefer, T

    2001-09-01

    A study was performed in order to elucidate the effects of the physical properties of small powder particles on binder liquid requirement and agglomerate growth mechanisms. Three grades of calcium carbonate having different particle size distribution, surface area, and particle shape but approximately the same median particle size (4-5 microm), were melt agglomerated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 or 20,000 in an 8-l high shear mixer at three impeller speeds. The binder liquid requirement was found to be very dependent on the packing properties of the powder, a denser packing resulting in a lower binder liquid requirement. The densification of the agglomerates in the high shear mixer could be approximately predicted by compressing a powder sample in a compaction simulator. With the PEG having the highest viscosity (PEG 20,000), the agglomerate formation and growth occurred primarily by the immersion mechanism, whereas PEG 3000 gave rise to agglomerate growth by coalescence. Powder particles with a rounded shape and a narrow size distribution resulted in breakage of agglomerates with PEG 3000, whereas no breakage was seen with PEG 20,000. Powder particles having an irregular shape and surface structure could be agglomerated with PEG 20,000, whereas agglomerate growth became uncontrollable with PEG 3000. When PEG 20,000 was added as a powder instead of flakes, the resultant agglomerates became rounder and the size distribution narrower.

  4. Effects of interactions between powder particle size and binder viscosity on agglomerate growth mechanisms in a high shear mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, A; Schaefer, T

    2001-01-01

    A study was performed in order to elucidate the effects of the interactions between powder particle size and binder viscosity on the mechanisms involved in agglomerate formation and growth. Calcium carbonates having mean particle sizes in the range of 5-214 microm and polyethylene glycols having viscosities in the range of approximately 50-100000 mPas were melt agglomerated in a high shear mixer. Agglomerate growth by nucleation and coalescence was found to dominate when agglomerating small powder particles and binders with a low viscosity. Increasing the binder viscosity increased the formation of agglomerates by immersion of powder particles in the surface of the binder droplets. With a larger powder particle size, an increasing binder viscosity was necessary in order to obtain an agglomerate strength being sufficient to avoid breakage. Due to a low agglomerate strength, a satisfying agglomeration of very large particles (214 microm) could not be obtained, even with very viscous binders. The study demonstrated that the optimum agglomerate growth occurred when the agglomerates were of an intermediate strength causing an intermediate deformability of the agglomerates. In order to produce spherical agglomerates (pellets), a low viscosity binder has to be chosen when agglomerating a powder with a small particle size, and a high viscosity binder must be applied in agglomeration of powders with large particles.

  5. Characterization of Tool Wear in High-Speed Milling of Hardened Powder Metallurgical Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Klocke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, the cutting performance of ball-end mills in high-speed dry-hard milling of powder metallurgical steels was investigated. The cutting performance of the milling tools was mainly evaluated in terms of cutting length, tool wear, and cutting forces. Two different types of hardened steels were machined, the cold working steel HS 4-2-4 PM (K490 Microclean/66 HRC and the high speed steel HS 6-5-3 PM (S790 Microclean/64 HRC. The milling tests were performed at effective cutting speeds of 225, 300, and 400 m/min with a four fluted solid carbide ball-end mill (0 = 6, TiAlN coating. It was observed that by means of analytically optimised chipping parameters and increased cutting speed, the tool life can be drastically enhanced. Further, in machining the harder material HS 4-2-4 PM, the tool life is up to three times in regard to the less harder material HS 6-5-3 PM. Thus, it can be assumed that not only the hardness of the material to be machined plays a vital role for the high-speed dry-hard cutting performance, but also the microstructure and thermal characteristics of the investigated powder metallurgical steels in their hardened state.

  6. Continuous Process for Low-Cost, High-Quality YSZ Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott L. Swartz; Michael Beachy; Matthew M. Seabaugh

    2006-03-31

    This report describes results obtained by NexTech Materials, Ltd. in a project funded by DOE under the auspices of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The project focused on development of YSZ electrolyte powder synthesis technology that could be ''tailored'' to the process-specific needs of different solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs being developed by SECA's industry teams. The work in the project involved bench-scale processing work aimed at establishing a homogeneous precipitation process for producing YSZ electrolyte powder, scaleup of the process to 20-kilogram batch sizes, and evaluation of the YSZ powder products produced by the process. The developed process involved the steps of: (a) preparation of an aqueous hydrous oxide slurry via coprecipitation; (b) washing of residual salts from the precipitated hydroxide slurry followed by drying; (c) calcination of the dried powder to crystallize the YSZ powder and achieve desired surface area; and (d) milling of the calcined powder to targeted particle size. YSZ powders thus prepared were subjected to a comprehensive set of characterization and performance tests, including particle size distribution and surface area analyses, sintering performance studies, and ionic conductivity measurements. A number of different YSZ powder formulations were established, all of which had desirable performance attributes relative to commercially available YSZ powders. Powder characterization and performance metrics that were established at the onset of the project were met or exceeded. A manufacturing cost analysis was performed, and a manufactured cost of $27/kg was estimated based on this analysis. The analysis also allowed an identification of process refinements that would lead to even lower cost.

  7. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, L.; Mitrasinovic, A.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2013-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO2-CH4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO2-CH4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders.

  8. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, L; Mitrasinovic, A; Mostaghimi, J

    2013-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO 2 –CH 4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO 2 –CH 4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders. (paper)

  9. Characterization of rapidly solidified powder of high-speed steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miglierini, M.; Lančok, Adriana; Kusý, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, 1-3 (2009), s. 51-57 ISSN 0304-3843 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/07/P011 Grant - others:GA(SK) VEGA1/3190/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Rapidly solidified powder * Tool steel * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2007

  10. D2B, a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at ILL Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of high resolution neutron powder diffraction to materials science have grown rapidly in the past 10 years, with the development of Rietveld methods of profile refinement, and new high resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. Materials studied range from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrodes to prestressed superconducting wires. Although the techniques have now been adapted for X-ray and synchrotron radiation, neutron powder diffraction retains unique advantages. In this paper we describe the design and first test measurements on the latest high resolution powder diffractometer D2B at ILL Grenoble. A review of the applications is published in Chemica Scripta (1986). (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  12. Evaluation of high packing density powder X-ray screens by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Kalivas, N.; Delis, H.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphor materials are employed in intensifying screens of both digital and conventional X-ray imaging detectors. High packing density powder screens have been developed (e.g. screens in ceramic form) exhibiting high-resolution and light emission properties, and thus contributing to improved image transfer characteristics and higher radiation to light conversion efficiency. For the present study, a custom Monte Carlo simulation program was used in order to examine the performance of ceramic powder screens, under various radiographic conditions. The model was developed using Mie scattering theory for the description of light interactions, based on the physical characteristics (e.g. complex refractive index, light wavelength) of the phosphor material. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out assuming: (a) X-ray photon energy ranging from 18 up to 49 keV, (b) Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor material with packing density of 70% and grain size of 7 μm and (c) phosphor thickness ranging between 30 and 70 mg/cm 2 . The variation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Luminescence Efficiency (LE) with respect to the X-ray energy and the phosphor thickness was evaluated. Both aforementioned imaging characteristics were shown to take high values at 49 keV X-ray energy and 70 mg/cm 2 phosphor thickness. It was found that high packing density screens may be appropriate for use in medical radiographic systems

  13. Damping behavior of polymer composites with high volume fraction of NiMnGa powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaogang; Song, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Xie, Chaoying

    2011-03-01

    Polymer composites inserted with high volume fraction (up to 70 Vol%) of NiMnGa powders were fabricated and their damping behavior was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis. It is found that the polymer matrix has little influence on the transformation temperatures of NiMnGa powders. A damping peak appears for NiMnGa/epoxy resin (EP) composites accompanying with the martensitic transformation or reverse martensitic transformation of NiMnGa powders during cooling or heating. The damping capacity for NiMnGa/EP composites increases linearly with the increase of volume fraction of NiMnGa powders and, decreases dramatically as the test frequency increases. The fracture strain of NiMnGa/EP composites decrease with the increase of NiMnGa powders.

  14. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  15. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

  16. Characterization of a New High-Dose Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) Based on a Fluidized Bed Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new high-efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) that can effectively aerosolize large masses (25-100 mg) of spray dried powder formulations. The DPI was designed to implement a concept similar to a fluidized bed for aerosolization using small mixing balls made of polytetrafluoroethylene along with a larger, hollow dosing sphere filled with the powder. The performance of the fluidized bed DPI was compared, based on emitted dose (ED) and aerosolization efficiency, to other recently developed capsule-based DPIs that were designed to accommodate smaller powder masses (~2-20 mg). The inhalers were tested with spray dried excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulations that contained an antibiotic (ciprofloxacin) and hygroscopic excipient (mannitol). The new fluidized bed design produced an ED of 71% along with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.53 μm and fine particle fractions <5 and 1 μm of 93 and 36%, respectively, when used to deliver a 100 mg loaded mass of EEG powder with the advantage of not requiring multiple capsules. Surprisingly, performance of the device was further improved by removing the mixing balls from the inhaler and only retaining the dose containment sphere.

  17. Thermal Plasma Spheroidization of High-Nitrogen Stainless Steel Powder Alloys Synthesized by Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Wang, QingSheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a thermal plasma. Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys were prepared by MA in the attritor under an argon atmosphere. For spheroidization of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, the TekSphero 15 plant manufactured by Tekna Plasma Systems Inc was used. The studies have shown the possibility of obtaining Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen spherical powders steel alloys from the powder obtained by MA. According to the results of a series of experiments, it was found that the results of plasma spheroidization of powders essentially depend on the size of the fraction due to some difference in the particle shape and flowability, and on the gas regime of the plasma torch. It is established that during the plasma spheroidization process, some of the nitrogen leaves the alloy. The loss rate of nitrogen depends on the size of the initial particles.

  18. PROCESSING OF SOFT MAGNETIC MATERIALS BY POWDER METALLURGY AND ANALYSIS OF THEIR PERFORMANCE IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. D. Luna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of finite elements to analyze the yield of electric machines based on the use of different soft magnetic materials for the rotor and the stator, in order to verify the performance in electric machine using powder metallurgy. Traditionally, the cores of electric machines are built from rolled steel plates, thus the cores developed in this work are obtained from an alternative process known as powder metallurgy, where powders of soft magnetic materials are compacted and sintered. The properties of interest were analyzed (magnetic, electric and mechanical properties and they were introduced into the software database. The topology of the rotor used was 400 W three-phase synchronous motor manufactured by WEG Motors. The results show the feasibility to replace the metal sheets of the electric machines by solid blocks obtained by powder metallurgy process with only 0.37% yield losses. In addition, the powder metallurgical process reduces the use of raw materials and energy consumption per kg of raw material processed.

  19. Accurate masking technology for high-resolution powder blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Sayah, Abdeljalil; Gijs, Martin A. M.

    2005-07-01

    We have combined eroding 10 µm diameter Al2O3 particles with a new masking technology to realize the smallest and most accurate possible structures by powder blasting. Our masking technology is based on the sequential combination of two polymers:(i) the brittle epoxy resin SU8 for its photosensitivity and (ii) the elastic and thermocurable poly-dimethylsiloxane for its large erosion resistance. We have micropatterned various types of structures with a minimum width of 20 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 1, and 50 µm for test structures with an aspect ratio of 2.

  20. Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsen, P.; Haeggblad, H.-A.

    2007-01-01

    In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments

  1. The high-resolution powder diffraction station PO DI STA is ''running'' at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of February 1991, a ''triple-axis'' high-resolution diffractometer for on powder sample measurements with synchrotron radiation was put in operation on the Adone wiggler line BX1 at Frascati. The diffractometer is based on a Seifert goniometer, designed according to our specifications. During the project, particular attention was paid in assuring the highest reliability together with great flexibility in the use. In fact, the diffractometer can also be used in a ''medium resolution'' configuration. For preliminary alignment and data collection, it is possible to operate with a traditional x-ray tube, too. The alignment procedure of the diffractometer to the x-ray beam is very easy. Powder samples can be measured both on the flat holder and on the capillary. An IBM PC computer is used for the instrument actuation and preliminary on-line data collection, while a large software package has been developed for the data analysis performed by a Macintosh IIcx. The instrument performance has been tested with a standard Si sample and quartz and Ni oxide samples. For the two possible resolution configurations, a test on a NiO sample gave FWHM values of 0.16 degree and 0.04 degree, respectively, for the [012] peak

  2. Fabrication of high-alloy powders consisting of spherical particles from ultradispersed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, A. V.; Fadeev, A. A.; Sinayskiy, M. A.; Alekseev, N. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.; Arzhatkina, O. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that powders of a model high alloy consisting of spherical particles 25-50 μm in size can be synthesized from a starting ultradispersed powder, which is made of a mixture of the alloy components and is fabricated by the magnesiothermal reduction of metal chlorides in the potassium chloride melt. The synthesis includes the stages of microgranulation of an ultradispersed powder, heat treatment of microgranules, classification of the microgranules with the separation of microgranule fraction of 25-50 μm, spheroidization of the separated fraction in a thermal plasma flow, and classification with the separation of a fraction of micro- and submicrometer-sized particles.

  3. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-07

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (∼110,700 S m -1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  5. Growing three-dimensional biomorphic graphene powders using naturally abundant diatomite templates towards high solution processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Gao, Teng; Song, Xiuju; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zou, Zhiyu; Deng, Bing; Ji, Qingqing; Ma, Donglin; Peng, Hailin; Du, Zuliang; Rümmeli, Mark Hermann; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-11-01

    Mass production of high-quality graphene with low cost is the footstone for its widespread practical applications. We present herein a self-limited growth approach for producing graphene powders by a small-methane-flow chemical vapour deposition process on naturally abundant and industrially widely used diatomite (biosilica) substrates. Distinct from the chemically exfoliated graphene, thus-produced biomorphic graphene is highly crystallized with atomic layer-thickness controllability, structural designability and less noncarbon impurities. In particular, the individual graphene microarchitectures preserve a three-dimensional naturally curved surface morphology of original diatom frustules, effectively overcoming the interlayer stacking and hence giving excellent dispersion performance in fabricating solution-processible electrodes. The graphene films derived from as-made graphene powders, compatible with either rod-coating, or inkjet and roll-to-roll printing techniques, exhibit much higher electrical conductivity (~110,700 S m-1 at 80% transmittance) than previously reported solution-based counterparts. This work thus puts forward a practical route for low-cost mass production of various powdery two-dimensional materials.

  6. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  7. Experimental study on the thrust modulation performance of powdered magnesium and CO2 bipropellant engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Hu, Chunbo; Zhu, Xiaofei; Hu, Jiaming; Li, Yue; Hu, Xu

    2018-06-01

    Powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine providing a practical demonstration of in situ resource utilization (ISRU) for Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission seems to be feasible by current investigations. However, essential functions of the engine to satisfy the complicated ballistics requirements such as thrust modulation and multiple pulse have not been established yet. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate the engine's thrust modulation feasibility and to investigate its thrust modulation characteristics. A powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine construction aiming to achieve thrust modulation ability was proposed. A mass flow rate calibration experiment to evaluate the gas-solid mass flow rate regulating performance was conducted before fire tests. Fire test result shows that the engine achieved successful ignition as well as self-sustaining combustion; Thrust modulation of the engine is feasible, detail thrust estimating result of the test shows that maximum thrust is 135.91 N and the minimum is 5.65 N with a 22.11 thrust modulation ratio, moreover, the transportation period is quick and the thrust modulation ratio is adjustable. At the same time, the powder feed system reaches a two-step flow rate regulating with a modulation ratio of 4.5-5. What' more, caused by the uneven engine working conditions, there is an obvious difference in combustion efficiency value, maximum combustion efficiency of the powdered Mg and CO2 bipropellant engine is 80.20%.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of high volume fraction Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, B.; Suryanarayana, C.; An, L.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Al-Al 2 O 3 metal matrix composite (MMC) powders with volume fractions of 20, 30, and 50% Al 2 O 3 were synthesized by high-energy milling of the blended component powders. The particle sizes of Al 2 O 3 studied were 50 nm, 150 nm, and 5 μm. A uniform distribution of the Al 2 O 3 reinforcement in the Al matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders for a period of 20 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 10:1 in a SPEX mill. The uniform distribution of Al 2 O 3 in the Al matrix was confirmed by characterizing these nanocomposite powders by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques

  9. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  10. Chromium Extraction via Chemical Processing of Fe-Cr Alloys Fine Powder with High Carbon Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D. M.; Navarro, R. C. S.; Souza, R. F. M.; Brocchi, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    Ferrous alloys are important raw materials for special steel production. In this context, alloys from the Fe-Cr system, with typical Cr weight fraction ranging from 0.45 to 0.95, are prominent, particularly for the stainless steel industry. During the process in which these alloys are obtained, there is considerable production of fine powder, which could be reused after suitable chemical treatment, for example, through coupling pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes. In the present study, the extraction of chromium from fine powder generated during the production of a Fe-Cr alloy with high C content was investigated. Roasting reactions were performed at 1073 K, 1173 K, and 1273 K (800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C) with 300 pct (w/w) excess NaOH in an oxidizing atmosphere (air), followed by solubilization in deionized water, selective precipitation, and subsequent calcination at 1173 K (900 °C) in order to convert the obtained chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3. The maximum achieved Cr recovery was around 86 pct, suggesting that the proposed chemical route was satisfactory regarding the extraction of the chromium initially present. Moreover, after X-ray diffraction analysis, the final produced oxide has proven to be pure Cr2O3 with a mean crystallite size of 200 nm.

  11. Highly hydrophilic ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder and film prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Lu; Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pang, Lijuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Mouhua [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong, E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were obtained by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of AA. • A low concentration of AA solution was used for surface modification of UHMWPE. • A small grafting yield of AA sufficiently improved hydrophilicity of UHMWPE powder and film. - Abstract: The surface properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are very important for its use in engineering or composites. In this work, hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were prepared by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and further neutralization with sodium hydroxide solution. Variations in the chemical structure, grafting yield and hydrophilicity were investigated and compared. FT-IR and XPS analysis results showed that AA was successfully grafted onto UHMWPE powder and film; the powder was more suitable for the grafting reaction in 1 wt% AA solution than the film. Given a dose of 300 kGy, the grafting yield of AA was ∼5.7% for the powder but ∼0.8% for the film under identical conditions. Radiation grafting of a small amount of AA significantly improved the hydrophilicity of UHMWPE. The water contact angle of the UHMWPE-g-PAA powder with a grafting yield of AA at ∼5.7% decreased from 110.2° to 68.2°. Moreover, the grafting powder (UHMWPE-g-PAA) exhibited good dispersion ability in water.

  12. Effect of electrolysis parameters on the morphologies of copper powder obtained at high current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of copper ion concentrations and electrolyte temperature on the morphologies and on the apparent densities of electrolytic copper powders at high current densities under galvanostatic regime were examined. These parameters were evaluated by the current efficiency of hydrogen evolution. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used for analyzing the morphology of the copper powders. It was found that the morphology was dependent over the copper ion concentration and electrolyte temperature under same current density (CD conditions. At 150 mA cm-2 and the potential of 1000±20 mV (vs. SCE, porous and disperse copper powders were obtained at low concentrations of Cu ions (0.120 M Cu2+ in 0.50 M H2SO4. Under this condition, high rate of hydrogen evolution reaction took place parallel to copper electrodeposition. The morphology was changed from porous, disperse and cauliflower-like to coral-like, shrub-like and stalk-stock like morphology with the increasing of Cu ion concentrations towards 0.120 M, 0.155 M, 0.315 M, 0.475 M and 0.630 M Cu2+ in 0.5 M H2SO4 respectively at the same CD. Similarly, as the temperature was increased, powder morphology and apparent density were observed to be changed. The apparent density values of copper powders were found to be suitable for many of the powder metallurgy applications.

  13. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  14. Mechanical design of a high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Lee, P.; Preissner, C.; Ramanathan, M.; Beno, M.; VonDreele, R.; Ranay, R.; Ribaud, L.; Kurtz, C.; Jiao, X.; Kline, D.; Jemian, P.; Toby, B.

    2007-01-01

    A novel high-resolution x-ray powder diffractometer has been designed and commissioned at the bending magnet beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This state-of-the-art instrument is designed to meet challenging mechanical and optical specifications for producing high-quality powder diffraction data with high throughput. The 2600 mm (H) X 2100 mm (L) X 1700 mm (W) diffractometer consists of five subassemblies: a customized two-circle goniometer with a 3-D adjustable supporting base; a twelve-channel high-resolution crystal analyzer system with an array of precision x-ray slits; a manipulator system for a twelve scintillator x-ray detectors; a 4-D sample manipulator with cryo-cooling capability; and a robot-based sample exchange automation system. The mechanical design of the diffractometer as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Surface Modified Lactose Particles for Improved Performance of Fluticasone Propionate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak J; Jain, Rajesh R; Soni, P S; Abdul, Samad; Darshana, Hegde; Gaikwad, Rajiv V; Menon, Mala D

    2015-08-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are generally formulated by mixing micronized drug particles with coarse lactose carrier particles to assist powder handling during the manufacturing and powder aerosol delivery during patient use. In the present study, surface modified lactose (SML) particles were produced using force control agents, and their in vitro performance on dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of Fluticasone propionate was studied. With a view to reduce surface passivation of high surface free energy sites on the most commonly used DPI carrier, α- lactose monohydrate, effects of various force control agents such as Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate, polyethylene glycol 6000, magnesium stearate, and soya lecithin were studied. DPI formulations prepared with SML showed improved flow properties, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed decrease in surface roughness. The DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns of SML showed no change in the crystal structure and thermal behavior under the experimental conditions. The fine particle fraction (FPF) values of lactose modified with Pluronic F-68, Cremophor RH 40, glyceryl monostearate were improved, with increase in concentration up to 0.5%. Soya lecithin and PEG 6000 modified lactose showed decrease in FPF value with increase in concentration. Increase in FPF value was observed with increasing concentration of magnesium stearate. Two different DPI devices, Rotahaler(®) and Diskhaler(®), were compared to evaluate the performance of SML formulations. FPF value of all SML formulations were higher using both devices as compared to the same formulations prepared using untreated lactose. One month stability of SML formulations at 40°C/75% RH, in permeable polystyrene tubes did not reveal any significant changes in FPF values. SML particles can help in reducing product development hindrances and improve inhalational properties of DPI.

  16. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-01-01

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8 L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 μm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m 2 filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m -3 d -1 . PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  17. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  18. Fabrication of spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys by mechanical alloying and thermal plasma spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumov, Nikolay G.; Wang, Qing Sheng; Popovich, Anatoly A.; Shamshurin, Aleksey I.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the results of experimental studies on the treatment of Fe-23Cr-11Mn-1N high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloys, synthesized by the mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental powders in the flow of a radio frequency thermal plasma. The as-milled powder with irregular particles were successfully converted into spherical high-nitrogen stainless steel powder alloy. Measurement of the residual nitrogen content in the obtained powder, shown that during the plasma spheroidization process, part of the nitrogen escapes from the alloy.

  19. Synthesis of niobium carbide by a high energy milling technique of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonello, Rodrigo Tecchio; Gonzalez, Cezar Henrique; Urtiga Filho, Severino Leopoldino; Araujo Filho, Oscar Olimpio de; Ambrozio Filho, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain and characterize the Niobium Carbide (NbC) by a suitable high energy milling technique using a SPEX Mill vibratory type and niobium and carbon (graphite) powders. Since this carbide is scarced in the national market and it's necessary to apply this NbC as a reinforcement in two molybdenum high speed steels (AISI M2 and AISI M3:2) object of another work motivated this research. The powders were submitted to a high energy milling procedure for suitable times and conditions and then were characterized by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (DRX) techniques. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was 10:1. The analysed samples showed that the high-energy milling is an alternative route of the NbC synthesis. (author)

  20. Synthesis of niobium carbide (NbC) by powder metallurgy high energy milling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonello, Rodrigo Tecchio; Urtiga Filho, Severino Leopoldino; Araujo Filho, Oscar Olimpio de; Ambrozio Filho, Francisco; Gonzalez, Cezar Henrique

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain and characterize the Niobium Carbide (NbC) by a suitable high energy milling technique using a SPEX Mill vibratory type and niobium and carbon (graphite) powders. Since this carbide is scarce in the national market and it's necessary to apply this NbC as a reinforcement in two molybdenum high speed steels (AISI M2 and AISI M3:2) object of another work motivated this research. The powders were submitted to a high energy milling procedure for suitable times and conditions and then were characterized by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (DRX) techniques. The ball-to-powder weight ratio was 10:1. The analysed samples showed that the high-energy milling is an alternative route of the NbC synthesis. (author)

  1. Studying the compactibility of the VT22 high-strength alloy powder obtained by the PREP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, D. I.; Berezin, I. M.; Nesterenko, A. V.; Zalazinsky, A. G.; Vichuzhanin, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    Compression curves are plotted for VT22 high-strength alloy powder under conditions of uniaxial compression at room temperature. The density of the compacted briquette at the loading and unloading stages is determined. It is demonstrated that strong interparticle bonds are formed in the area of the action of shear deformation. The results are supposed to be used to identify the flow model of the material studied and to perform the subsequent numerical modeling of the compaction process.

  2. Case study of rutting performance of HMA modified with waste rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Shafabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low resistance against dynamic loads and short service life of pavement are the most significant problems in the conservation and maintenance of roads, to the extent that, annually enormous costs are spent in order to improve capabilities of road services in the country. Research shows that the use of some wastes such as waste rubber powder in asphalt mixtures not only increase its serves life but also cause to reduce production costs; furthermore, recycling the crumb rubber has also considerably environmental benefits environmental benefits such as reduced need for landfill, less atmospheric pollution from burning. In this paper, the effect of adding waste rubber powder on the rutting performance of asphalt mixtures has been studied. In order to compare the performance of rubberized asphalt mixtures and conventional asphalt, wheel track test has been used. The results of this study show that the use of rubber powder caused a significant decrease in the rate of rutting depth of rubber asphalt mixtures compared to control samples.

  3. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  4. Development and comparison of new high-efficiency dry powder inhalers for carrier-free formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-02-01

    High-efficiency dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were developed and tested for use with carrier-free formulations across a range of different inhalation flow rates. Performance of a previously reported DPI was compared with two new designs in terms of emitted dose (ED) and aerosolization characteristics using in vitro experiments. The two new designs oriented the capsule chamber (CC) at different angles to the main flow passage, which contained a three-dimensional (3D) rod array for aerosol deaggregation. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a previously developed deaggregation parameter, the nondimensional specific dissipation (NDSD), were used to explain device performance. Orienting the CC at 90° to the mouthpiece, the CC90 -3D inhaler provided the best performance with an ED = 73.4%, fine particle fractions (FPFs) less than 5 and 1 μm of 95.1% and 31.4%, respectively, and a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) = 1.5 μm. For the carrier-free formulation, deaggregation was primarily influenced by capsule aperture position and the NDSD parameter. The new CC-3D inhalers reduced the percent difference in FPF and MMAD between low and high flows by 1-2 orders of magnitude compared with current commercial devices. In conclusion, the new CC-3D inhalers produced extremely high-quality aerosols with little sensitivity to flow rate and are expected to deliver approximately 95% of the ED to the lungs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical performance of core/shell structured carbon coated silicon powders for lithium ion battery negative electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul Çetinkaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface of nano silicon powders were coated with amorphous carbon by pyrolysis of polyacronitrile (PAN polymer. Microstructural characterization of amorphous carbon coated silicon powders (Si-C were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thickness of carbon coating is defined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Elemental analyses of Si-C powders were performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Structural and phase characterization of Si-C composite powders were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Produced Si-C powders were prepared as an electrode on the copper current collector and electrochemical tests were carried out using CR2016 button cells at 200 mA/g constant current density. According to electrochemical test results, carbon coating process enhanced the electrochemical performance by reducing the problems stem from volume change and showed 770 mAh/g discharge capacity after 30 cycles.

  6. Development of Dynamic Compaction Technology for Ultra High Strength Powder Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, M. K.; Uhm, Y. R.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Ivanov, V. V.; Hong, S. J.

    2007-04-01

    A synthesis of ultra fine powder and its compaction have been considered as a new generation and high value added technology in various industrial fields such as automobile, machine tool, electronic chip, sensor and catalyst because of its special characteristics of high toughness, strength and wear resistance which are not shown in conventional process. In this study, ultra hard and fine powders, such as Fe-Si, CuNi and Al 2 O 3 , have been fabricated by the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method and mechanical alloying (MA) method. In addition, with ultra hard and fine powders, the magnetic core, diamond tool and water jet nozzle with high density were made by a uniaxial dynamic compaction for the purpose of the real industrial application

  7. High performance nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordarski, W.J.; Zegler, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel-pellet composition is disclosed for use in fast breeder reactors. Uranium carbide particles are mixed with a powder of uraniumplutonium carbides having a stable microstructure. The resulting mixture is formed into fuel pellets. The pellets thus produced exhibit a relatively low propensity to swell while maintaining a high density

  8. Mechanochemical preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders and their behavior at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajovic, A.; Furic, K.; Tomasic, N.; Popovic, S.; Skoko, Z.; Music, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 powders were prepared by high-energy ball-milling using zirconia vial and balls. The changes of microstructure caused by material processing were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The milling of the starting TiO 2 powder (anatase + rutile in traces) induced phase transitions to high-pressure polymorph, TiO 2 II, and rutile. We found that the phase transition to TiO 2 II was initiated at the surface of the small particles, while transition to rutile started in their center. Changes in crystallite size during milling process were obtained by the Scherrer method, while the particle size changes were monitored by TEM. The kinetics of phase changes, a decrease in crystallite/particle size, as well as zirconia contamination depended on the powder-to-ball weight ratio. The starting powder and some selected ball-milled samples were investigated in situ by Raman spectroscopy and XRD at high temperatures (up to 1300 deg. C) to examine their behavior during the sintering process. A difference in the results obtained by these two techniques was explained in frame of basic physical properties characterizing both methods. The morphology of the final sinters was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  9. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.

    2013-06-03

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). AC powders were characterized in terms of surface chemistry and porosity, and their kinetic activities were compared to carbon black and platinum catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests. Cathodes using the coal-derived AC had the highest power densities in MFCs (1620 ± 10 mW m-2). Peat-based AC performed similarly in MFC tests (1610 ± 100 mW m-2) and had the best catalyst performance, with an onset potential of Eonset = 0.17 V, and n = 3.6 electrons used for oxygen reduction. Hardwood based AC had the highest number of acidic surface functional groups and the poorest performance in MFC and catalysis tests (630 ± 10 mW m-2, Eonset = -0.01 V, n = 2.1). There was an inverse relationship between onset potential and quantity of strong acid (pKa < 8) functional groups, and a larger fraction of microporosity was negatively correlated with power production in MFCs. Surface area alone was a poor predictor of catalyst performance, and a high quantity of acidic surface functional groups was determined to be detrimental to oxygen reduction and cathode performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  11. High Performance Macromolecular Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forest, M

    2002-01-01

    .... In essence, most commercial high-performance polymers are processed through fiber spinning, following Nature and spider silk, which is still pound-for-pound the toughest liquid crystalline polymer...

  12. Evaluate Performance of Moringa Peregrina Powder Grains in Domestic Wastes Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein banejad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the semi-arid and dry, access to good water quality is associated with restriction, so exploitation of sewage effluent for irrigation is very important. Nowadays, use of natural materials in water purification and sewage is increasing. One of these materials are seeds of Moringa Peregrina plant. In this research the performance of Alum and Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC were compared with Moringa Peregrina seeds powder  in wastewater treatment. The samples of sewage were collected from fluvial that received domestic sewage and used without any pre-treatments. Sewage samples in separate stages were contacted with different concentrations of Moringa Peregrina seeds powder, Alum and Poly Aluminum Chlorides. In these experiments the concentration changes of nitrate, phosphate,turbidity, TDS, electrical conductivity and pH is studied.  Results  showed that the use of showed that the highest removal efficiency of  phosphate and nitrate are  related to Moringa Peregrina, so that 120 mg/lit Moringa Peregrina able to reduce 80 percent of phosphate and 110 mg/lit of Peregrina, reduce 50 percent of nitrate. The results indicated that the use of Moringa Peregrina seeds powder reduced the sedimentation time from 30  to 10 minutes and dewatering of sludge produced was better than the others.

  13. Influence of Powder Injection Parameters in High-Pressure Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.

    2017-10-01

    High-pressure cold spray systems are becoming widely accepted for use in the structural repair of surface defects of expensive machinery parts used in industrial and military equipment. The deposition quality of cold spray repairs is typically validated using coupon testing and through destructive analysis of mock-ups or first articles for a defined set of parameters. In order to provide a reliable repair, it is important to not only maintain the same processing parameters, but also to have optimum fixed parameters, such as the particle injection location. This study is intended to provide insight into the sensitivity of the way that the powder is injected upstream of supersonic nozzles in high-pressure cold spray systems and the effects of variations in injection parameters on the nature of the powder particle kinetics. Experimentally validated three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) models are implemented to study the particle impact conditions for varying powder feeder tube size, powder feeder tube axial misalignment, and radial powder feeder injection location on the particle velocity and the deposition shape of aluminum alloy 6061. Outputs of the models are statistically analyzed to explore the shape of the spray plume distribution and resulting coating buildup.

  14. Obtaining beta phase in Ti through processing in high energy mill powders of Ti and Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Mateus; Ferretto, Aline; Rocha, Marcio Roberto da; Arnt, Angela Coelho; Milanez, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Lirio

    2014-01-01

    An orthopedic implant, ideal, must meet the requirements of biocompatibility, have good mechanical properties among others. Titanium and Niobium exhibit biocompatibility and the β-Ti phase relationships have the highest strength / weight among all titanium alloys, presenting lower values of elastic modulus. The alloy has mechanically produced specific microstructural characteristics and improved mechanical properties compared with conventional powder metallurgy. In this study, a titanium alloy with different additions of niobium was used. The metal powders were mixed via mechanical alloy in high energy mill (attritor). The powder samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD) and property held by adhesive wear testing with a Pin-on-Disk. The present study revealed that through the high-energy milling is possible the atomic interaction between Ti and Nb particles and the mechanical properties are affected by the concentration of Nb. (author)

  15. Study on synthesis of ultrafine Cu–Ag core–shell powders with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yuhsien; Yang Chihhao; Chen Kuanting; Popuri, Srinivasa R.; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Tang, Bo-Shin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This synthesis method is relatively facile, novel and eco-friendly. ► Toxic agents were not used for chelating agent, reductant or dispersant in our method. ► The reaction can under room temperature for energy saving purpose. ► Cu–Ag core–shell powders with homogeneous cover-silver layer. ► The resistivity of Cu–Ag core–shell powders has the same value as the pure silver. - Abstract: Cu–Ag composite powders with high electrical conductivity were synthesized by electroless plating of silver sulfate, copper powders with eco-friendly sodium citrate as reducing agent, dispersant and chelating agent in an aqueous system. The influences of sodium citrate/Ag ratio on Ag coatings of Cu powders were investigated. Ag was formed a dense coating on the surface of Cu powders at a molar ratio of sodium citrate/Ag = 0.07/1. SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu powders. SEM-EDX also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag shells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that without Cu or Ag atoms in the surface were oxidized. The resistivity measurements of Cu–Ag paste shows that they have closer resistivity as the pure silver paste's after 250 °C for 30 min heat-treatment (2.55 × 10 −4 Ω cm) and 350 °C for 30 min heat-treatment (1.425 × 10 −4 Ω cm).

  16. Powder metallurgy approaches to high temperature components for gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    Research is reported for the tensile strength, ductility, and heat performance characterisitics of powder metallurgy (p/m) superalloys. Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys were also evaluated for their strength during thermal processing. The mechanical attributes evident in both p/m supperalloys and dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in terms of research into their possible combination.

  17. Influence of manganite powder grain size and Ag-particle coating on the magnetocaloric effect and the active magnetic regenerator performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcaud, J.A.; Neves Bez, Henrique; Ruiz-Trejo, E.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetocaloric performance of La0.67Ca0.27Sr0.06Mn1.05O3 is investigated as a function of the powder grain size and also as a function of decoration of grains with highly conductive silver particulates as a coating layer. We demonstrate that the thermal and electrical conductivities can be si...

  18. High-energy ball milling of powder B-C mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Alfeu S.; Taguchi, Simone P.; Ramos, Erika C.T.; Arantes, Vera L.; Ribeiro, Sebastiao

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports on the preparation of B-10 at.% C and B-18 at.% C powders by high-energy ball milling and further heat treatment. The milling process was carried out in a planetary ball mill. Following the milling process, powder samples were heat-treated at 1200 deg. C for 4 h using inert atmosphere. The milled and heat-treated B-10C and B-18C powders were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. A reduction on the intensity of B and C peaks was noticed after milling for 2 h, probably due the fine powder particle sizes because the pronounced fracture mechanism during ball milling of brittle starting components. The XRD patterns of B-10C and B-18C powders milled for 6 h indicated the presence of other peaks, suggesting that a metastable structure could have been formed. After milling for 90 h, these unknown peaks were still present. A large amount of B 4 C was formed after heat treatment at 1200 deg. C for 4 h beside these unknown peaks

  19. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  20. MacDUST - a powder diffraction package developed for the ''ADONE'' high resolution diffraction station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Cappuccio, G.; Maistrelli, P.; Simeoni, S.

    1993-01-01

    A High Resolution Powder Diffraction Station (PO.DI.STA.) was installed at the beginning of 1991 on the ADONE-Wiggler magnet beam line. The station and the first powder diffraction spectra, collected with synchrotron radiation, were presented at the EPDIC-1 Conference. More details can also be found in. For this station, a very sophisticated software package ''MacDUST'' has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer, using the Microsoft QuickBASIC compiler. It allows very easy and comfortable operations by means of a graphical user interface environment, typical of the Macintosh system. The package consists of five major programs. The main program, MacDIFF, performs all the graphic operations on the experimental data, including zooming, overlapping, cursor scanning and editing of patterns, control of output operations to printers and HPGL plotters. It also includes several analysis routines for data smoothing, a first derivative peak search algorithm, two background subtraction routines and two profile fitting programs: one based on the simplex method and the other on the Marquardt modification of a least-square algorithm. MacPDF and MacRIC are both dedicated to phase identification. The first program is an archive manager for searching, displaying and printing phase records; MacRIC is a graphic aided search-match program based on the Hanawalt algorithm. Mac3-DIM is a plot program, useful, e.g., for representing kinetics three dimensionally. MacRIET is a Macintosh version of the well known Rietveld refinement program. This version, besides conventional structure refinements, also allows the determination of micro structural parameters, i.e. micro strain and crystallite size. The program can also be used to simulate a pattern, once the structure of the compound is known. Taking advantage of the very intuitive Macintosh graphic user interface, through dialog and alert boxes, the program allows straightforward introduction and modification of the structure

  1. Use of a high temperature hydrostatic extrusion technique for powders strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, J.; Gavinet, J.; Weisz, M.

    1975-01-01

    A conventional 575 tonnes extrusion press has been modified by a device permitting the extrusion process by hydrostatic pression through a leakless mechanical set (13,000 bars maximum), from room temperature to 1,200 deg C. This new device allows: the high temperature hydrostatic extrusion for strengthening of powders, the isostatic compression of powders. Examples of realisations obtained by this process are described, including the influence of different parameters: pressure, temperature, extrusion ratio and for different materials: pure metals (iron, nickel, niobium, etc...) and alloys (stainless steel, molybdenum, niobium nickel alloys, etc...). Then, the advantages of the process are emphasized [fr

  2. Preparation of high-quality ultrathin transmission electron microscopy specimens of a nanocrystalline metallic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Thomas; Gemming, Thomas; Mickel, Christine; Eymann, Konrad; Kirchner, Alexander; Kieback, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the achievable transmission electron microscopy specimen thickness and quality by using three different preparation methods in the case of a high-strength nanocrystalline Cu-Nb powder alloy. Low specimen thickness is essential for spatially resolved analyses of the grains in nanocrystalline materials. We have found that single-sided as well as double-sided low-angle Ar ion milling of the Cu-Nb powders embedded into epoxy resin produced wedge-shaped particles of very low thickness (coating on the sections consisting of epoxy deployed as the embedding material and considerable nanoscale thickness variations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  5. Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb3Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, J.H.; Hornsveld, E.M.; den Ouden, A.; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    2000-01-01

    New Nb3Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment

  6. Controlling rheology and structure of sweet potato starch noodles with high broccoli powder content by hydrocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, E.; Birkenhake, M.; Scholten, E.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating high volume fractions of broccoli powder in starch noodle dough has a major effect on its shear modulus, as a result of significant swelling of the broccoli particles. Several hydrocolloids with distinct water binding capacity (locust bean gum (LBG), guar gum, konjac glucomannan (KG),

  7. Control over Coating Structure during Electromagnetic Welding and Application of HighSpeed Steel Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kozhuro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features concerning coating formation in the process of electromagnetic welding of high-speed steel powder. The paper reveals how to control coating structure that ensures the required operational properties of working surfaces of machine parts. 

  8. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Ulla, Anayt; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Subhan, Nusrat; Khan, Trisha; Sikder, Bishwajit; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2017-08-14

    Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver. The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by

  9. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  10. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  11. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  12. Consolidation of powders of the superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-. delta. / by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.Y.; Persad, C.; Swinnea, J.S.; Marcus, H.L.; Steinfink, H. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Center for Materials Science and Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-{delta}/ by itself and admixed with metal powders is reported. The processing approach relies on short duration (high current density (10/sup 4/A/cm/sup 2/), pulse resistive heating of powders under applied pressures of 200 MPa to 400 MPa. Powders and fabricated disk concepts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. High performance conductometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.

    2000-01-01

    Inexpensive but high performance systems have emerged progressively for basic and applied measurements in physical and analytical chemistry on one hand, and for on-line monitoring and leak detection in plants and facilities on the other. Salient features of the developments will be presented with specific examples

  14. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...... concretes, workability, ductility, and confinement problems....

  15. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  16. High Temperature Degradation of Powder-processed Ni-based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Luptáková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work is to study the high temperature degradation of the powder-processed polycrystalline superalloy Ni-15Cr-18Co-4Al-3.5Ti-5Mo. This superalloy has been applied as material for grips of a creep machine. The material was exposed at 1100 °C for about 10 days at 10 MPa stress. During the creep test occurred unacceptable creep deformation of grips as well as severe surface oxidation with scales peeling off. Three types of the microstructure were observed in the studied alloy: (i unexposed state; (ii heat treated (annealing - 10 min/1200 °C and (iii after using as a part of the equipment of the creep machine during the creep test. It is shown that the microstructure degradation resulting from the revealed γ´ phase fcc Ni3(Al,Ti particles preferentially created at the grain boundaries of the samples after performing creep tests affects mechanical properties of the alloy and represents a significant contribution to all degradation processes affecting performance and service life of the creep machine grips. Based on investigation and obtained results, the given material is not recommended to be used for grips of creep machine at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  17. Radiation effects in high-disperse metal media and their application in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Y.A.; Aliyev, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results showing up effects of metal powder radiation processing, such as powder grinding, chemical refinement, and changes in powder particle surface state, are discussed. It is shown that preliminary irradiation of metal powders leads to profound structural alterations at all further stages of their processing by conventional methods of powder metallurgy and eventually effects the properties of the resulting product

  18. Introducing a novel gravitation-based high-velocity compaction analysis method for pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-06-30

    With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die. The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: uu_gg_oo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica s/n, C.U. Del. Coyoacan (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN, Cerrada de CECATI s/n, Col. Santa Catarina, Del. Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. {yields} During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. {yields} Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  20. Solid-state reactions to synthesize nanostructured lead selenide semiconductor powders by high-energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Chavez, H.; Reyes-Carmona, F.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PbSe synthesized from PbO instead of Pb powder do not require an inert atmosphere. → During high-energy milling oxygen has to be chemically reduced from the lead oxide. → Solid-state and solid-gas chemical reactions promote both solid and gaseous products. -- Abstract: Both solid-solid and gas-solid reactions have been traced during high-energy milling of Se and PbO powders under vial (P, T) conditions in order to synthesize the PbSe phase. Chemical and thermodynamic arguments are postulated to discern the high-energy milling mechanism to transform PbO-Se micropowders onto PbSe-nanocrystals. A set of reactions were evaluated at around room temperature. Therefore an experimental campaign was designed to test the nature of reactions in the PbO-Se system during high-energy milling.

  1. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  2. A new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer at the Brookhaven high flux beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, L.; Bar-Ziv, S.; Gardner, D.W.; Cox, D.E.; Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution neutron powder diffractometer under construction at the Brookhaven HFBR is expected to be completed by mid-1991. The new machine will have a Ge (511) monochromator with a take-off angle of 120 o (λ=1.89A) and 64 3 He counters in the detector bank. There will be interchangeable collimators before the monochromator allowing a choice of 5 or 11' horizontal divergence, and 10 cm-high, 5' collimators in front of the detectors. In the higher resolution mode, Δd/d is expected to be about 6x10 -4 at the resolution minimum. The diffractometer is generally similar to D2B at the Institut Laue-Langevin except for the monochromator. This will consist of a vertically focussing array of segments 3x1.27 cm in dimensions cut from stacks of 20 0.43 mm wafers that have been pressed and brazed together. Preliminary measurements indicate that a mosaic width of 0.1-0.15 o and a peak reflectivity of 25% can be achieved in this way. (author) 2 figs., 22 refs

  3. A diet containing grape powder ameliorates the cognitive decline in aged rats with a long-term high-fructose-high-fat dietary pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Mao; Lin, Ching-I; Chen, Yue-Hwa; Liao, Hsiang; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Research has suggested that the consumption of foods rich in polyphenols is beneficial to the cognitive functions of the elderly. We investigated the effects of grape consumption on spatial learning, memory performance and neurodegeneration-related protein expression in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Six-week-old Wistar rats were fed an HFHF diet to 66 weeks of age to establish a model of an HFHF dietary pattern, before receiving intervention diets containing different amounts of grape powder for another 12 weeks in the second part of the experiment. Spatial learning, memory performance and cortical and hippocampal protein expression levels were assessed. After consuming the HFHF diet for a year, results showed that the rats fed a high grape powder-containing diet had significantly better spatial learning and memory performance, lower expression of β-amyloid and β-secretase and higher expression of α-secretase than the rats fed a low grape powder-containing diet. Therefore, long-term consumption of an HFHF diet caused a decline in cognitive functions and increased the risk factors for neurodegeneration, which could subsequently be ameliorated by the consumption of a polyphenol-rich diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct compression of chitosan: process and formulation factors to improve powder flow and tablet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Gerhard M; du Plessis, Lissinda H; Marais, Andries F; Kotze, Awie F; Hamman, Josias H

    2013-06-01

    Chitosan is a polymer derived from chitin that is widely available at relatively low cost, but due to compression challenges it has limited application for the production of direct compression tablets. The aim of this study was to use certain process and formulation variables to improve manufacturing of tablets containing chitosan as bulking agent. Chitosan particle size and flow properties were determined, which included bulk density, tapped density, compressibility and moisture uptake. The effect of process variables (i.e. compression force, punch depth, percentage compaction in a novel double fill compression process) and formulation variables (i.e. type of glidant, citric acid, pectin, coating with Eudragit S®) on chitosan tablet performance (i.e. mass variation, tensile strength, dissolution) was investigated. Moisture content of the chitosan powder, particle size and the inclusion of glidants had a pronounced effect on its flow ability. Varying the percentage compaction during the first cycle of a double fill compression process produced chitosan tablets with more acceptable tensile strength and dissolution rate properties. The inclusion of citric acid and pectin into the formulation significantly decreased the dissolution rate of isoniazid from the tablets due to gel formation. Direct compression of chitosan powder into tablets can be significantly improved by the investigated process and formulation variables as well as applying a double fill compression process.

  5. Preparation, Characterization and Performances of Powdered Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer with Bulk Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE was synthesized in a non-solvent system with bulk polymerization and then was pulverized into powdered form to achieve a rapid transportation and convenient preparation. PCE synthesized by using isopentenyl polyethylene glycol (TPEG or isobutenyl polyethylene glycol (IPEG as a macromonomer exhibited the best fluidities and retaining properties at 80 °C and 75 °C, respectively. Besides, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN was suitable as an initiator, and the fumaric acid was suitable as the third monomer. The test results of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR confirmed the occurrences of polymerization, and the measurement results of molecular weight and distribution showed that PCE molecular weight characteristics were in accordance with their fluidity properties in cement paste. The application performances in cement showed that PCEs with the best paste fluidity retentions had the longest final setting time and the shortest setting time interval, and the PCEs with good fluidity properties can obviously delay the hydration process and lower the hydration heat. Accordingly, this is a novel, energy-saving and economical method to prepare powdered PCE in the field of concrete admixtures.

  6. Effect of garlic and neem leaf powder supplementation on growth performance and carcass traits in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Rajendra Kharde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present experiment was designed to study the effect of supplementation of garlic and neem leaf powder (NLP on growth performance and carcass yields in broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 210-day-old commercial male broiler chicks (Ven Cobb were procured and randomly distributed in to seven treatments, each treatment had six replicates with five chicks per each replicate. Growth trial was conducted in a randomized block design comprising seven dietary treatments. T1 was served as control. T2 and T3 were fed with garlic powder (GP 0.5, 1 g/kg feed respectively. T4 and T5 were given with NLP 1, 2 g/kg feed respectively. T6 was fed with 0.5 g/kg GP and 1.0 g/kg NLP. T7 was treated with 1.0 g/kg GP and 2.0 g/kg NLP. The body weight, feed consumption of individual bird was recorded at weekly interval and the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR were calculated. At the end of 42 day, six birds from each dietary group were sacrificed to estimate the dressing yield and relative weights of giblet (liver, heart and gizzard. Results: Supplementation of garlic and NLP alone and their combination significantly (p0.05 influence was observed in carcass parameters like dressing yield and giblet yield (heart, gizzard and liver in all treatment groups. Conclusions: Supplementation of GP alone showed poor performance, but when it was supplemented in combination with NLP there was improvement in performance parameters. These results indicated that the combination of GP and NLP can be used as alternates to coccidiostats for improving the performance. Such meat can be used as a designer meat as fetch higher price if marketed as branded item.

  7. A study of mechanical sealing methods using graphite powder for high pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a facility that can conduct fuel irradiation tests at the HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The FTL simulates commercial NPP operating conditions such as pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct irradiation and thermo hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In Pile test Section (IPS) and an Out Pile System (OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system, which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that can safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has a loaded IP 1 hole in HANARO, and a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of an outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants at the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors are installed on the inside of the IPS to send signal transmission MI Cables to the outside for instrumentation through the pressure boundary. Therefore, the pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Currently, the sealing of the IPS of the the FTL is maintained through a brazing method. However, A brazing method has disadvantages that can occur owing to thermal deformation or breakage in the instrumentation Mi cable. IPS inner assembly is a very long design length (approximately 5.29m), so it is difficult to perform in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, an easy and reliable way to assemble the instrumentation Mi cable mechanical sealing method has been studied. In this study, criteria tests at the pressure boundary were performed using universally applicable graphite powder for the instrumentation MI cable of various sizes.

  8. A study of mechanical sealing methods using graphite powder for high pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a facility that can conduct fuel irradiation tests at the HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The FTL simulates commercial NPP operating conditions such as pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct irradiation and thermo hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In Pile test Section (IPS) and an Out Pile System (OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system, which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that can safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has a loaded IP 1 hole in HANARO, and a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of an outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants at the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors are installed on the inside of the IPS to send signal transmission MI Cables to the outside for instrumentation through the pressure boundary. Therefore, the pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Currently, the sealing of the IPS of the the FTL is maintained through a brazing method. However, A brazing method has disadvantages that can occur owing to thermal deformation or breakage in the instrumentation Mi cable. IPS inner assembly is a very long design length (approximately 5.29m), so it is difficult to perform in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, an easy and reliable way to assemble the instrumentation Mi cable mechanical sealing method has been studied. In this study, criteria tests at the pressure boundary were performed using universally applicable graphite powder for the instrumentation MI cable of various sizes

  9. Mechanical behavior and microstructure properties of titanium powder consolidated by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhilyaev, Alexander P. [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems, Khalturina 39, Ufa 450001 (Russian Federation); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, Plaça de la Ciencia 2, Manresa, Barcelona 08242 (Spain); Research Laboratory for Mechanics of New Nanomaterials, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya 29, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Ringot, Geoffrey [École Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques (ENSIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (INPT), 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Huang, Yi [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Maria Cabrera, Jose [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB – Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Bacelona 08028 (Spain); Langdon, Terence G., E-mail: langdon@usc.edu [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2017-03-14

    Research was conducted to investigate the potential for consolidating titanium powder using high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature. The nanostructured samples processed by HPT were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show there is a significant refinement of the Ti powder and it consolidates into bulk nanostructured titanium with a mean grain size estimated by TEM as ~200–300 nm and a mean crystallite size measured by XRD as ~20–30 nm. Microhardness measurements and tensile testing show high strength and low ductility after consolidation under a pressure of 6.0 GPa for 5 revolutions. Additional short annealing at a temperature of 300 °C for 10 min leads to a significant enhancement in ductility while maintaining the high strength.

  10. D1A, a high resolution neutron powder diffractometer with a bank of mylar collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.; Bailey, I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a first attempt at following the design criteria set out earlier for a high resolution conventional powder diffractometer. An existing machine, D1A, has been modified using a bank of ten high pressure 3 He counters and almost perfect 10minutes of arc mylar foil collimators. The system is more successful than earlier multicollimator arrangements because each of the collimator/counters is virtually identical; this permits automatic addition of the intensities so that a single high resolution profile, up to X40 times as intense as on the original diffractometer, is obtained just as easily as on a single counter machine. A comparison is made with the other powder diffractometers, D1B and D2 at the ILL. (Auth.)

  11. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  12. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  13. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  14. In Situ High Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction Studies of Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amri, Mahrez; Fitch, Andy; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active material during battery operation [2]. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction technique has been undertaken to obtain detailed structural and compositional information during lithiation/delithiation of commercial LiFePO4...... materials [3]. We report results from the first in situ time resolved high resolution powder diffraction experiments at beamline ID22/31 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF. We follow the structural changes during charge of commercial LiFePO4 based battery materials using the Rietveld...... method. Conscientious Rietveld analysis shows slight but continuous deviation of lattice parameters from those of the fully stoichiometric end members LiFePO4 and FePO4 indicating a subsequent variation of stoichiometry during cathode delithiation. The application of an intermittent current pulses during...

  15. Effect of Different Levels of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. Leaf Powder on the Performance and Meat Quality of Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Japanese quail chicks (1 d old were used in a 42-d trial to study the effects of Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E on growth performance and meat quality. This experiment was performed as a completely randomized design with 4 replicates of 15 quails in each, using a 4×2 factorial arrangement with diet and gender as the main effects. Four dietary treatments were formulated by addition of 2 levels (1.5 and 3 percent of Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E to the basal diet. Results showed that supplementing the basal diet with Artichoke leaf powder and vitamin E significantly affected growth performance at 21 d of age (P. Dietary treatments significantly affected 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS and water holding capacity (WHC values of breast meat (P. The value of TBARS in breast meat was not affected by dietary levels of Artichoke leaf powder, whereas the value decreased significantly by vitamin E treatment (P. Quails receiving 1.5 percent Artichoke leaf powder and 300 mg/Kg vitamin E had significantly lower breast meat WHC than those  receiving the basal diet (P. Breast meat crude fat and WHC were affected by gender (P. Dietary 3 percent Artichoke leaf powder increased the b* values of thigh meat compared with the control. The lightness of thigh and breast meat and also redness of thigh meat were affected by gender (P. In general, the results indicated that supplementation of diet by Artichoke leaf powder did not improve growth performance of quails, but may have a potential to improve the oxidative stability and meat quality.

  16. Nanocrystalline TiAl powders synthesized by high-energy ball milling: effects of milling parameters on yield and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Prajina; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy ball milling was employed to produce nanocrystalline Ti-Al powders. As sticking of the powders can be sufficiently severe to result in a near zero yield, emphasis was placed on varying milling conditions so as to increase the yield, while avoiding contamination of the powders. The effects of milling parameters such as milling tools, initial state of the powders and addition of process control agents (PCA's) were investigated. Cyclohexane, stearic acid and titanium hydride were used as PCA's. Milling was conducted either in a Cr-steel vial with C-steel balls, or in a tungsten carbide (WC) vial with WC balls, using either elemental or pre-alloyed powders. Powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of PCA's mechanical alloying in a WC vial and attrition milling in a Cr-steel vial were shown to lead to satisfactory yields, about 65-80%, without inducing any significant contamination of the powders. The results suggest that sticking of the powders on to the milling tools is correlated with the phase evolution occurring in these powders during milling

  17. A high-resolution neutron powder diffraction study of neodymium doping in barium cerate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, K.S.; Bonanos, N.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution neutron powder diffraction data have been collected on 6 perovskites of composition BaCe1-xNdxO3-x/(2), with 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.2, in which structural phase transitions Pmcn-->P4/mbm at x=0.05, and P4/mbm-->Pm3m at x=0.1, were inferred from a recent ...

  18. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  19. High performance sapphire windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-02-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  20. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  1. Microstructural analysis of sinterized aluminum powder obtained by the high energy milling of beverage cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Raelson Pereira de; Peres, Mauricio Mhirdaui

    2016-01-01

    The objective is the study of the effect of high energy milling on the sintering of aluminum from beverage cans. The selected aluminum cans were cut and subjected to high energy milling under a common atmosphere (in the air). In milling, three grams of aluminum was used to maintain the ratio of 10/1 between the mass of the beads and the material. The milling time was varied in 1h, 1.5h and 2h, keeping the other variables constant. The particle size distribution was measured by laser granulometry, for further compaction and sintering at a temperature of 600 ° C for 2 h. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The granulometric analysis of the powders found that higher milling times produced finer particles. Powders with granulometry of less than 45 μm were obtained at 1 h, 1.5 h and 2 h times. The times of 1.5h and 2h promoted finer particles with better distribution of size. The SEM analyzes showed little variation in the shape of the particles as a function of the variation of the grinding times, presenting irregularities in the platelet geometry. The sintering time and temperature were effective in the densification of the powder particles, which were influenced by the average particle size

  2. Determinação de taninos e metilxantinas no guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Determination of tannins and methylxanthines in powdered guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae são utilizadas como estimulante e os principais constituintes químicos são as metilxantinas e os taninos, tais como catequina e epicatequina. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para quantificar, simultaneamente, cafeína, teofilina, teobromina, catequina e epicatequina em pó de guaraná. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os resultados encontrados no método espectrofotométrico da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Pelo método cromatográfico, os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais foram de 4,04% e 1,48%, respectivamente. Os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais, obtidos pelo método espectrofotométrico, foram de 4,88% e 4,05%, respectivamente. Acredita-se que, nas condições experimentais empregadas, o método espectrofotométrico não foi específico, quantificando outras substâncias fenólicas presentes no guaraná. Portanto, sugere-se o emprego desse método cromatográfico no controle de qualidade do guaraná em pó, por ser preciso, sensível, específico e rápido.The seeds of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae, are used as a stimulant and the main chemical constituents are the methylxanthines and tannins, as catechin and epicatechin. This study aimed to investigate a method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify both caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin in powdered of P. cupana. The values obtained were compared with the results of the spectrophotometric method of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed. For the chromatographic method, the levels of methylxanthines and total tannins were 4.04% and 1.48%, respectively. The levels of methylxanthines and total tannins obtained by the spectrophotometric method, were 4.88% and 4.05%, respectively. It is believed that, under our experimental conditions, the spectrophotometric method was not specific and

  3. Effects of surfactant addition and high-speed ball milling on magnetic powders based on Pr-Fe-B obtained by HDDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Patricia Brissi

    2011-01-01

    This work verified the effect caused by adding the surfactant in the high speed/energy milling in order to obtain Pr 12 Fe 65.9 Co 16 B 6 Nb 0.1 magnetic nano powders. The first part of this work involved the magnetic powder obtainment through the process of hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR). The pressure of H2 during the hydrogenation and disproportion steps was 930 mbar and the temperature of desorption and recombination was 840 deg C. Initially, the HDDR powders were subjected a high speed milling process at 900 rpm, with quantity variations of the milling medium (cyclohexane) and without the addition of oleic acid. Then, the HDDR powders were subjected to the milling process with the addition of oleic acid and with milling time variations. After the milling process, heat treatments of the powder were carried out at 700 deg C or 800 deg C for 30 minutes in order to obtain the crystallization of the powder. By performing the procedures, it was verified that the milling efficiency improved with the addition of 6.6 ml of cyclohexane as the milling medium and with the addition of oleic acid. It was determined that for the surfactant additions of 0.02 ml to 0.05 ml, with a milling time of up to 360 minutes, powder agglomeration does not occur in the milling pot and the milling efficiency is higher than 90%. The second stage of this work involved the magnetic powder's characterization obtained by using vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through the characterizations it was found that the powder's magnetic properties improved when the addition of oleic acid in a high-speed /energy milling occurred. It was also verified that the α-Fe phase, present in the powder, shows a crystallite size decrease (from 35 nm to ∼ 10 nm) when the time milling variation occurred; meanwhile, the crystallinity degree was lower in the Pr 2 Fe 14 B phase when the time

  4. Compaction of Ti–6Al–4V powder using high velocity compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Dil Faraz; Yin, Haiqing; Li, He; Qu, Xuanhui; Khan, Matiullah; Ali, Shujaat; Iqbal, M. Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We compacted Ti–6Al–4V powder by HVC technique. • As impact force rises up, the green density of the compacts increases gradually. • At impact force 1.857 kN relative sintered density of the compacts reaches 99.88%. • Spring back of the green compact’s decreases gradually with increasing impact force. • Mechanical properties of the samples increases with increasing impact force. - Abstract: High velocity compaction technique was applied to the compaction of pre-alloyed, hydride–dehydride Ti–6Al–4V powder. The powder was pressed in single stroke with a compaction speed of 7.10–8.70 ms −1 . When the speed was 8.70 ms −1 , the relative density of the compacts reaches up to 85.89% with a green density of 3.831 g cm −3 . The green samples were sintered at 1300 °C in Ar-gas atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface of the sintered samples. Density and mechanical properties such as Vickers micro hardness and bending strength of the powder samples were investigated. Experimental results indicated that with the increase in impact force, the density and mechanical properties of the compacts increased. The sintered compacts exhibited a maximum relative density of 99.88% with a sintered density of 4.415 g cm −3 , hardness of 364–483 HV and the bending strength in the range of 103–126.78 MPa. The springback of the compacts decreased with increasing impact force

  5. Microstructure/processing relationships in high-energy high-rate consolidated powder composites of Nb-stabilized Ti3Al+TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, B.; Hou, C.; Eliezer, Z.; Marcus, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to powder processing is employed in forming titanium aluminide composites. The processing consists of internal heating of a customized powder blend by a fast electrical discharge of a homopolar generator. The high-energy high-rate '1MJ in 1s' pulse permits rapid heating of an electrically conducting powder mixture in a cold wall die. This short time at temperature approach offers the opportunity to control phase transformations and the degree of microstructural coarsening not readily possible with standard powder-processing approaches. This paper describes the consolidation results of titanium aluminide-based powder-composite materials. The focus of this study was the definition of microstructure/processing relationships for each of the composite constituents, first as monoliths and then in composite forms. Non-equilibrium phases present in rapidly solidified TiAl powders are transformed to metastable intermediates en route to the equilibrium gamma phase.

  6. High-purity tungsten powder: spheroidizing, properties and use in electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustin, V.I.; Burov, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    A study was made on the method of spheroidizing of tungsten powder in plasma of super high-frequency (SHF) discharge for formation of matrices, cathodes with regular porous structure. Kinetics of interphase interaction in the basic W-Y 2 O 3 cathode system was investigated. Possibility of using small additions of Re 2 Yintermetallic compound as an activator of emission-active component of cathodes was analyzed, High efficiency of plasma SHF-treatment with the use of laminar plasma flow is shown [ru

  7. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  8. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.

  9. Improving Dry Powder Inhaler Performance by Surface Roughening of Lactose Carrier Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of macro-scale carrier surface roughness on the performance of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Fluid-bed processing and roller compaction were explored as processing methods to increase the surface roughness (Ra) of lactose carrier particles. DPI formulations containing either (a) different concentrations of fine lactose at a fixed concentration of micronized drug (isoniazid) or (b) various concentrations of drug in the absence of fine lactose were prepared. The fine particle fraction (FPF) and aerodynamic particle size of micronized drug of all formulations were determined using the Next Generation Impactor. Fluid-bed processing resulted in a modest increase in the Ra from 562 to 907 nm while roller compaction led to significant increases in Ra > 1300 nm. The roller compacted carriers exhibited FPF > 35%, which were twice that of the smoothest carriers. The addition of up to 5%, w/w of fine lactose improved the FPF of smoother carriers by 60-200% whereas only lactose carrier particles by roller compaction was immensely beneficial to improving DPI performance, primarily due to increased surface roughness at the macro-scale.

  10. High-pressure powder X-ray diffraction at the turn of the century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszkowicz, W.

    2002-01-01

    Studies at extreme pressures and temperatures are helpful for understanding the physical properties of the solid state, including such classes of materials as semiconductors, superconductors or minerals. This is connected with the opportunity of tuning the pressure by many orders of magnitude. Diamond-anvil and large-anvil pressure cells installed at dedicated synchrotron beamlines are efficient tools for examination of crystal structure, equation of state, compressibility and phase transitions. One of basic methods in such studies is powder diffraction. This review is devoted to methods of powder X-ray diffraction at high-pressures generated by devices installed at synchrotron radiation sources, in particular to the principles of operation of high-pressure-high-temperature cells. General information on high-pressure diffraction facilities installed at 11 synchrotron storage rings in the world is provided. Measurement aspects are considered, including (i) pressure generation and calibration, (ii) strain in the sample, the pressure marker and the pressure-transmitting medium and (iii) pressure and temperature distributions within the cells. Sources of interest in high-pressure diffraction studies (design of new materials, observation of new phenomena, confrontation of theory with experiment) are briefly discussed. Recent developments of high-pressure methods make that pressure becomes a variable playing a key role in investigation of condensed matter. The paper ends with some remarks on the possible future developments of the technique

  11. Grape powder consumption affects the expression of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in rats chronically fed a high-fructose-high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang; Chou, Liang-Mao; Chien, Yi-Wen; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chang, Jung-Su; Lin, Ching-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism in the brain is recognized to be associated with cognitive decline. Because grapes are rich in polyphenols that produce antioxidative and blood sugar-lowering effects, we investigated how grape consumption affects the expression and/or phosphorylation of neurodegeneration-related brain proteins in aged rats fed a high-fructose-high-fat (HFHF) diet. Wistar rats were maintained on the HFHF diet from the age of 8 weeks to 66 weeks, and then on an HFHF diet containing either 3% or 6% grape powder as an intervention for 12 weeks. Western blotting was performed to measure the expression/phosphorylation levels of several cortical and hippocampal proteins, including amyloid precursor protein (APP), tau, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs), erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inclusion of up to 6% grape powder in the diet markedly reduced RAGE expression and tau hyperphosphorylation, but upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and BDNF, as well as the phosphorylation of PI3K and ERK, in the brain tissues of aged rats fed the HFHF diet. Thus, grape powder consumption produced beneficial effects in HFHF-diet-fed rats, exhibiting the potential to ameliorate changes in neurodegeneration-related proteins in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widjaja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology is one of the alternative solutions to overcome industrial wastewater treatment developed nowadays. The addition of PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon in the activated sludge using Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid Bioreactor (SMAHBR is expected to increase the organic material removal. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor and activated carbon adsorption capacity of organic materials in wastewater. This study used SIER (Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut – Surabaya, Indonesia waste as activated sludge operated at Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS concentrations of 8000 and 15000 mg/l, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of 1500, 2500 mg/l, Sludge Retention Time (SRT of 10;20; and 30 days and activated carbon variables of 0%; 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; 10%. The results showed that the fouling potential occurred at high MLSS where the COD removal occurred at PAC addition of 10% reaching 91.86%. High Soluble Microbial Product (SMP accumulation (± 10 mg/l occurred in short SRT and high MLSS concentration. PAC addition resulted in decreased microorganisms in the reactor and better effluent of SMAHBR, as a result, the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor would be restored.

  13. Comparison on Heat of Hydration between Current Concrete for NPP and High Fluidity Concrete including Pozzolan Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jea Myoung; Cho, Myung Sug

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are exposed to many construction factors that lower the quality of concrete due to densely packed reinforcements and heat of hydration since they are mostly constructed with mass concrete. The concrete currently being used in Korean NPPs is mixed with Type I cement and fly ash. However, there is a demand to improve the performance of concrete with reduced heat of hydration and superior constructability. Many advantages such as improving workability and durability of concrete and decreasing heat of hydration are introduced by replacing cement with pozzolan binders. Therefore, the manufacturing possibility of high fluidity concrete should be investigated through applying multi-component powders blended with pozzolan binders to the concrete structure of NPPs, while the researches on properties, characteristic of hydration, durability and long-term behavior of high fluidity concrete using multi-component cement should be carried out. High fluidity concrete which is made using portland cement and pozzlonan powders such as fly ash and blast furnace slag has better properties on heat of hydration than the concrete currently in use for NPPs

  14. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vignali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  15. Performance evaluation and characterisation of EIGA produced titanium alloy powder for additive manufacturing processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Arthur, Nana KK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available affect powder quality, and hinder processing. In an investigation by Goso and Kale [3], Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder was produced by the hydride-dehydride (HDH) process in order to make titanium components by blended elemental approach. Chemical analysis.... 2016. Additive manufacturing of metals, Acta Materialia, 117, pp 371-392. 3 [3] Goso, X. and Kale, A. 2010. Production of titanium metal powder by the HDH process, (Paper presented at the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Light...

  16. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  17. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  18. The synthesis of a high quality, low cost silicon nitride powder by the carbothermal reduction of silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, G.A.; Conner, C.L.; Eisman, G.A.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Dunmead, S.D.; Hwang, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The development and emergence of silicon nitride in the marketplace depends on the availability of a high quality, low cost powder which meets or exceeds the requirements for the customer's part application. The Dow Chemical Company, funded by the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is engaged in developing a process which will economically synthesize commercial quantities of such a high quality powder. The Dow Chemical Company's approach is based on the carbothermal reduction of silica and has been shown to produce a sub-micron, equi-axed powder with high alpha content (> 95%), low oxygen (< 2%), and minimal carbon and impurities. This paper will review The Dow Chemical Company program and present preliminary results of the synthesis and powder processing efforts. (orig.)

  19. Valorizing waste iron powder in biogas production: Hydrogen sulfide control and process performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J; Shirai, Tomoya; Yamashiro, Takaki; Yasui, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Ihara, Ikko; Nishida, Takehiro; Tangtaweewipat, Suchon; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2018-02-15

    Biogas is composed of different gases including hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is a hazardous gas that damages pipes and generators in anaerobic digestion system. The objective of this study was to control H 2 S by waste iron powder produced by laser cutting machine in a steel and iron industry. Waste iron powder was mixed with dairy manure at a concentration between 2.0 and 20.0 g/L in batch experiments, while the concentration was varied between 1.0 and 4.0 g/L in bench experiment. In batch experiment, a reduction of up to 93% of H 2 S was observed at waste iron powder of 2.0 g/L (T1), while the reduction was of more than 99% at waste iron powder beyond 8.0 g/L (T4 ∼ T6). The total sulfide concentration (S T ) increased together with waste iron powder concentration and was fitted with a quadratic equation with a maximum S T of 208.0 mg/L at waste iron powder of 20.2 g/L. Waste iron powder did not have significant effect on methane yield in batch and bench experiments. However, hydrolysis rate constant was increased by almost 100%, while the lag-phase period was reduced to half in test digesters compared to that in control digester. In bench experiment, H 2 S concentration was reduced by 89% at 2.0 g/L, while 50% at 1.0 g/L. Therefore, waste iron powder was effectively removed H 2 S and did not affect negatively anaerobic digestion process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of capillary die geometry on wall slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanétrník, D.; Hausnerová, B.; Filip, Petr; Hnátková, E.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 325, February (2018), s. 615-619 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy (MŠMT)(CZ) LO1504 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : powder injection molding * highly filled polymer * wall slip * capillary entrance angle Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2016

  1. The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavdar, P. S.; Cavdar, U.

    2015-01-01

    The application of the iron based Powder Metal (PM) compacts in Ultra-High Frequency Induction Sintering (UHFIS) was reviewed for different environments. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at 1120 degree centigrade for a total of 550 seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2.8 kW power and 900 kHz frequency. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other. (Author)

  2. Location of adsorbed species in NO-reduction catalysts by high resolution neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, A.J.; Rosseinsky, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Catalysts containing copper ion exchanged into zeolites are attracting considerable attention due to their efficiency for both NO decomposition and the selective catalytic reduction of NO x in so-called lean-burn conditions in automotive exhausts. This presentation will describe the application of in-situ high resolution neutron powder diffraction to study active sites in a Cu-zeolite Y catalyst active for NO decomposition. The study under NO pressure reveals the location of two distinct copper sites for sorption. The influence of copper oxidation state on the structure of both the pristine and NO-loaded zeolites will be discussed. (author)

  3. Improving the performance of membrane bioreactors by powdered activated carbon dosing with cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W; Paetkau, M; Cicek, N

    2010-01-01

    Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosing on the overall performance of membrane bioreactors (MBR) were investigated in two bench-scale submerged MBRs. Positive impacts of PAC dosing on membrane fouling and the removal of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 17alpha-ethyinylestradiol (EE2) were demonstrated over a six-month stable operational period. PAC dosing in the MBR increased the removal rates of E2 and EE2 by 3.4% and 15.8%, respectively. The average soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and colloidal total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the PAC-MBR sludge was 60.1% and 61.8% lower than the control MBR sludge, respectively. Lower soluble EPS and colloidal TOC concentrations in the PAC-MBR sludge resulted in a slower rate of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) increase during MBRs operation, which could prolong the lifespan of membranes. Cost assessment showed that PAC dosing could reduce the operating cost for membrane cleaning and/or membrane replacement by about 25%. The operating cost for PAC dosing could be offset by the benefit from its reducing the cost for membrane maintenance.

  4. Python high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lanaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    An exciting, easy-to-follow guide illustrating the techniques to boost the performance of Python code, and their applications with plenty of hands-on examples.If you are a programmer who likes the power and simplicity of Python and would like to use this language for performance-critical applications, this book is ideal for you. All that is required is a basic knowledge of the Python programming language. The book will cover basic and advanced topics so will be great for you whether you are a new or a seasoned Python developer.

  5. Preparation of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinzeck de Alcantara Abdala, Julia, E-mail: juabdala@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Bacci Fernandes, Bruno, E-mail: brunobacci@yahoo.com.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Santos, Dalcy Roberto dos, E-mail: dalcy@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Rodrigues Henriques, Vinicius Andre, E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.b [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco, Centro Tecnologico Aeroespacial, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Moura Neto, Carlos de, E-mail: mneto@ita.b [Divisao de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, 50, 12228-904 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Saraiva Ramos, Alfeu, E-mail: alfeu@univap.b [Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2010-04-16

    This study reports on the preparation of the 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr (at.%) alloy by high-energy ball milling and hot pressing. The elemental powder mixture was processed in silicon nitride and hardened steel vials, and samples were collected after different milling times. To recover the previous powders in addition wet milling isopropyl alcohol (for 20 min) was adopted. The mechanically alloyed powders were hot-pressed under vacuum at 900 {sup o}C for 1 h using pressure levels close to 200 MPa. The milled powders were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry techniques. It was noted that the ductile starting powders were continuously cold-welded during ball milling. This fact was more pronounced during the processing of 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders in hardened steel vial. After milling for 5 h, the results suggested that amorphous and nanocrystalline structures were achieved. The complete consolidation was found after hot pressing of mechanically alloyed 50Ni-45Ti-5Zr powders, and a large amount of the B2-NiTi phase was formed mainly after processing in stainless steel balls and vial.

  6. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, Krishna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: saraswat@stanford.edu; Chui, Chi On [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Krishnamohan, Tejas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kim, Donghyun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nayfeh, Ammar [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pethe, Abhijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO {sub x}N {sub y} ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin ({approx}2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices.

  7. High performance germanium MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, Krishna; Chui, Chi On; Krishnamohan, Tejas; Kim, Donghyun; Nayfeh, Ammar; Pethe, Abhijit

    2006-01-01

    Ge is a very promising material as future channel materials for nanoscale MOSFETs due to its high mobility and thus a higher source injection velocity, which translates into higher drive current and smaller gate delay. However, for Ge to become main-stream, surface passivation and heterogeneous integration of crystalline Ge layers on Si must be achieved. We have demonstrated growth of fully relaxed smooth single crystal Ge layers on Si using a novel multi-step growth and hydrogen anneal process without any graded buffer SiGe layer. Surface passivation of Ge has been achieved with its native oxynitride (GeO x N y ) and high-permittivity (high-k) metal oxides of Al, Zr and Hf. High mobility MOSFETs have been demonstrated in bulk Ge with high-k gate dielectrics and metal gates. However, due to their smaller bandgap and higher dielectric constant, most high mobility materials suffer from large band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) leakage currents and worse short channel effects. We present novel, Si and Ge based heterostructure MOSFETs, which can significantly reduce the BTBT leakage currents while retaining high channel mobility, making them suitable for scaling into the sub-15 nm regime. Through full band Monte-Carlo, Poisson-Schrodinger and detailed BTBT simulations we show a dramatic reduction in BTBT and excellent electrostatic control of the channel, while maintaining very high drive currents in these highly scaled heterostructure DGFETs. Heterostructure MOSFETs with varying strained-Ge or SiGe thickness, Si cap thickness and Ge percentage were fabricated on bulk Si and SOI substrates. The ultra-thin (∼2 nm) strained-Ge channel heterostructure MOSFETs exhibited >4x mobility enhancements over bulk Si devices and >10x BTBT reduction over surface channel strained SiGe devices

  8. High Performance Computing Multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    A History of the Virtual Synchrony Replication Model,” in Replication: Theory and Practice, Charron-Bost, B., Pedone, F., and Schiper, A. (Eds...Performance Computing IP / IPv4 Internet Protocol (version 4.0) IPMC Internet Protocol MultiCast LAN Local Area Network MCMD Dr. Multicast MPI

  9. NGINX high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    System administrators, developers, and engineers looking for ways to achieve maximum performance from NGINX will find this book beneficial. If you are looking for solutions such as how to handle more users from the same system or load your website pages faster, then this is the book for you.

  10. Controlling fundamentals in high-energy high-rate pulsed power materials processing of powdered tungsten, titanium aluminides, and copper-graphite composites. Final technical report, 1 Jun 87-31 Aug 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Marcus, H.L.; Bourell, D.L.; Eliezer, Z.; Weldon, W.F.

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the controlling fundamentals in the high-energy high-rate (1 MJ in 1s) processing of metal powders. This processing utilizes a large electrical current pulse to heat a pressurized powder mass. The current pulse was provided by a homopolar generator. Simple short cylindrical shapes were consolidated so as to minimize tooling costs. Powders were subjected to current densities of 5 kA/cm2 to 25 kA/cm2 under applied pressures ranging from 70 MPa to 500 MPa. Disks with diameters of 25 mm to 70 mm, and thicknesses of 1 mm to 10 mm were consolidated. Densities of 75% to 99% of theoretical values were obtained in powder consolidates of tungsten, titanium aluminides, copper-graphite, and other metal-ceramic composites. Extensive microstructural characterization was performed to follow the changes occuring in the shape and microstructure of the various powders. The processing science has at its foundation the control of the duration of elevated temperature exposure during powder consolidation.

  11. MC Carbide Characterization in High Refractory Content Powder-Processed Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Stoichko; Chen, Wei; Huo, Jiajie; Feng, Qiang; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Sun, Eugene; Tin, Sammy

    2018-04-01

    Carbide precipitates in Ni-based superalloys are considered to be desirable phases that can contribute to improving high-temperature properties as well as aid in microstructural refinement of the material; however, they can also serve as crack initiation sites during fatigue. To date, most of the knowledge pertaining to carbide formation has originated from assessments of cast and wrought Ni-based superalloys. As powder-processed Ni-based superalloys are becoming increasingly widespread, understanding the different mechanisms by which they form becomes increasingly important. Detailed characterization of MC carbides present in two experimental high Nb-content powder-processed Ni-based superalloys revealed that Hf additions affect the resultant carbide morphologies. This morphology difference was attributed to a higher magnitude of elastic strain energy along the interface associated with Hf being soluble in the MC carbide lattice. The composition of the MC carbides was studied through atom probe tomography and consisted of a complex carbonitride core, which was rich in Nb and with slight Hf segregation, surrounded by an Nb carbide shell. The characterization results of the segregation behavior of Hf in the MC carbides and the subsequent influence on their morphology were compared to density functional theory calculations and found to be in good agreement, suggesting that computational modeling can successfully be used to tailor carbide features.

  12. Concept and nuclear performance of direct-enrichment fusion breeder blanket using UO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Kasahara, Takayasu; An, Shigehiro

    1985-01-01

    A new concept is presented for direct enrichment of fissile fuel in the blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The enriched fuel produced by this means can be used in fission reactors without reprocessing. The outstanding feature of the concept is the powdered form in which UO 2 fuel is placed in the reactor blanket, where it is irradiated to the requisite enrichment for use as fuel in burner reactor, e.g. 3%. After removal from blanket, the powder is mixed to homogenize the enrichment. Fuel pellets and assemblies are then fabricated from the powder without reprocessing. The concept of irradiating UO 2 in powder eliminates the problems of spatial nonuniformity in fissile enrichment, and of radiation damage to fuel clad, encountered in attempting to enrich prefabricated fuel. Powder mixing for homogenization brings the additional benefit of removing volatile fission products. Also burnable poison can be added, as necessary, after irradiation. An extensive neutronic parameter survey showed that the optimum blanket arrangement for this enrichment concept is one presenting a fission suppressing configuration and with beryllium adopted as moderator. By this arrangement, the average 239 Pu enrichment obtained on the natural UO 2 fuel in the blanket reaches 3% after only 0.56 MW.yr/m"2 exposure. A conceptual design is presented of the blanket, together with associated fusion breeder, from which, practical application of the concept is shown to be promising. (author)

  13. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  14. In vitro and in vivo biological performance of porous Ti alloys prepared by powder metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Renata Falchete; Esteves, Gabriela Campos; Santos, Evelyn Luzia De Souza; Bueno, Daiane Acácia Griti; Cairo, Carlos Alberto Alves; Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira De; Sagnori, Renata Silveira; Tessarin, Fernanda Bastos Pereira; Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Oliveira, Luciane Dias De; Villaça-Carvalho, Maria Fernanda Lima; Henriques, Vinicius André Rodrigues; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; De Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis

    2018-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ti-6 Aluminium-4 Vanadium alloys are the most common materials in implants composition but β type alloys are promising biomaterials because they present better mechanical properties. Besides the composition of biomaterial, many factors influence the performance of the biomaterial. For example, porous surface may modify the functional cellular response and accelerate osseointegration. This paper presents in vitro and in vivo evaluations of powder metallurgy-processed porous samples composed by different titanium alloys and pure Ti, aiming to show their potential for biomedical applications. The porous surfaces samples were produced with different designs to in vitro and in vivo tests. Samples were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and elastic modulus analyses. Osteogenic cells from newborn rat calvaria were plated on discs of different materials: G1-commercially pure Ti group (CpTi); G2-Ti-6Al-4V alloy; G3-Ti-13 Niobium-13 Zirconium alloy; G4-Ti-35 Niobium alloy; G5-Ti-35 Niobium-7 Zirconium-5 Tantalum alloy. Cell adhesion and viability, total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodules and gene expression (alkaline phosphatase, Runx-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin) were assessed. After 2 and 4 weeks of implantation in rabbit tibia, bone ingrowth was analyzed using micro-computed tomography (μCT). EDS analysis confirmed the material production of each group. Metallographic and SEM analysis revealed interconnected pores, with mean pore size of 99,5μm and mean porosity of 42%, without significant difference among the groups (p>0.05). The elastic modulus values did not exhibit difference among the groups (p>0.05). Experimental alloys demonstrated better results than CpTi and Ti-6Al-4V, in gene expression and cytokines analysis, especially in early experimental periods. In conclusion, our data suggests that the experimental alloys can be used for biomedical

  15. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  16. Production of nano-crystalline zirconia powders and fabrication of high strength ultra-fine-grained ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrous zirconia containing 2 and 2.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 was prepared by a hydroxide co-precipitation method and portions were dispersed in ethanol before drying(P2), milled in ethanol after drying (P3) or after calcination at 550 deg C (P4) or milled in iso-propanal after calcination at 1000 deg C (P5). The crystallisation behaviour and sintering characteristics of the materials were investigated. The calcined as dried powder (P1) has strongly bonded hard aggregates and the material reached a density of only about 80% of theoretical after sintering at 1500 deg C. Powder characteristics and the sinterability of the alcohol treated materials depended on the conditions of processing and heat treatment. The sinter-activity of the powders decreased from P2 to P5. Powder P3 was composed of relatively weakly bonded crystallites and could be sintered at 1400 deg C, while the powders P4 and P5 contained hard agglomerates and required a sintering temperature of 1450 and 1550 deg C respectively to achieve similar density. Powder (P2) had zirconium alkoxide species on the particle surface which decomposed at about 300 deg C. The calcined powder had very weak agglomerates composed of fine, uniform zirconia crystals and/or aggregates and sintered to high density at 1150 deg C. The final ceramic had a very uniform microstructure with an average grain size of about 150nm and exhibited fracture strength as high as 1700 MPa. A detailed account of the formation of aggregates of strongly bonded crystallites during calcination of hydrous zirconia, influence of alcohol in producing soft agglomerates and the sintering characteristics of the powders is reported. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  17. High performance proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In concert with this theme this paper briefly outlines how Grumman, over the past 4 years, has evolved from a company that designed and fabricated a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) physics and specifications to a company who, as prime contractor, is designing, fabricating, assembling and commissioning the US Army Strategic Defense Commands (USA SDC) Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) accelerator as a turn-key operation. In the case of the RFQ, LANL scientists performed the physics analysis, established the specifications supported Grumman on the mechanical design, conducted the RFQ tuning and tested the RFQ at their laboratory. For the CWDD Program Grumman has the responsibility for the physics and engineering designs, assembly, testing and commissioning albeit with the support of consultants from LANL, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Brookhaven National laboratory. In addition, Culham Laboratory and LANL are team members on CWDD. LANL scientists have reviewed the physics design as well as a USA SDC review board. 9 figs

  18. The influence of high shear mixing on ternary dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Mats; Schwarz, Eugen; Kobler, Mirjam; Hauptstein, Sabine; Steckel, Hartwig; Scherließ, Regina

    2017-12-20

    The blending process is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler formulations, but only little is known about the influence of process parameters. This is especially true for high shear blending of ternary formulations. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the influence of high shear mixing process parameters (mixing time and rotation speed) on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of ternary mixtures when using budesonide as model drug, two different carrier materials and two different mixing orders. Prolonged mixing time and higher rotation speeds led to lower FPFs, possibly due to higher press-on forces acting on the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). In addition, a clear correlation between the energy consumption of the blender (the energy input into the blend) and the reduction of the FPF could be shown. Furthermore blending the carrier and the fines before adding the API was also found to be favorable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilin [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu, Yunle [School of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Zili [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Weimin, E-mail: wangwm@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Zhengyi [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  1. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B 2 O 3 and KBH 4 as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed

  2. Improved critical current densities in bulk FeSe superconductor using ball milled powders and high temperature sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M.; Furutani, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The present study is investigating the effect of high temperature sintering combined with ball milled powders for the preparation of FeSe material via solid state sintering technique. The commercial powders of Fe (99.9% purity) and Se (99.9% purity) were mixed in a nominal ratio Fe:Se = 1:1 and thoroughly ground and ball-milled in a glove box during 6 h. Then, the powder mixture was pressed into pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thickness using an uniaxial pressure of 100 MPa. The samples were sealed in quartz tubes and sintered at 600 C for 24 h. Then, the pellets were again thoroughly ground and ball-milled in the glove box and pressed into pellets, and the final sintering was performed at two different temperatures, namely at 900 C for 24 h and at 950 C for 24 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that both samples showed mainly of the β-FeSe with tetragonal structure. The temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curves revealed a sharp superconducting transition T{sub c,} {sub onset} = 8.16 K for the sample sintered at 900 C. Further, scanning electron microscopy observations proved that samples sintered at 900 C show a platelike grain structure with high density. As a result, improved irreversibility fields around 5 T and the critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 6252 A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and self-field are obtained. Furthermore, the normalized volume pinning force versus the reduced field plots indicated a peak position at 0.4 for the sample sintered at 900 C. Improved flux pinning and the high J{sub c} values are attributed to the textured microstructure of the material, produced by a combination of high temperature sintering and ball milling. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi A published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Zirconium dioxide ultrafine powders formation in ultra-high frequency discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triotskij, V.N.; Kurkin, E.N.; Torbov, V.I.; Berestenko, V.I.; Torbova, O.D.; Gurov, S.V.; Alekseev, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    ZrO 2 fine powders of 30...60 nm particle size were synthesized by ZrCl 4 oxidation in a flow of oxygen microwave plasma. Oxygen flow rate and ZrCl 4 feeding rate were the defining parameters effecting on powder particles size at constant discharge power.At predominant contribution of the coalescence process into ZrO 2 powder particles formation their heterogeneous growth was shown necessary to take into account. 16 refs.; 5 figs

  4. Ultrafine TaC powders prepared in a high frequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteloup, J.; Mocellin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrafine tantalum carbide powders were prepared under conditions allowing higher purities to be achieved than when plasma or chemical vapour deposition techniques are used. The process consists of dissociation-vaporisation of powders in a radio frequency argon plasma followed by quenching of the vapours and collection in an electrostatic precipitator. Physical and chemical properties are given. The presence of excess carbon appears to protect against oxidation and as a dispersing medium for the carbide powders. (U.K.)

  5. Powder diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M.

    1995-12-31

    the importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940`s, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments.

  6. Powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.

    1995-01-01

    The importance of x-ray powder diffraction as an analytical tool for phase identification of materials was first pointed out by Debye and Scherrer in Germany and, quite independently, by Hull in the US. Three distinct periods of evolution lead to ubiquitous application in many fields of science and technology. In the first period, until the mid-1940's, applications were and developed covering broad categories of materials including inorganic materials, minerals, ceramics, metals, alloys, organic materials and polymers. During this formative period, the concept of quantitative phase analysis was demonstrated. In the second period there followed the blossoming of technology and commercial instruments became widely used. The history is well summarized by Parrish and by Langford and Loueer. By 1980 there were probably 10,000 powder diffractometers in routine use, making it the most widely used of all x-ray crystallographic instruments. In the third, present, period data bases became firmly established and sophisticated pattern fitting and recognition software made many aspects of powder diffraction analysis routine. High resolution, tunable powder diffractometers were developed at sources of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of the spectrum made it possible to exploit all the subtleties of x-ray spectroscopy in diffraction experiments

  7. Development of a High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhaler: Effects of Capsule Chamber Design and Inhaler Surface Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. Methods DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. Results The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. Conclusions High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD 90%, and ED > 80%. PMID:23949304

  8. Development of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler: effects of capsule chamber design and inhaler surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD  90%, and ED > 80%.

  9. Microstructure and properties of powder metallurgy (PM) high alloy tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszynski, A.L.; Eisen, W.B.; Dixon, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Particle metallurgy (PM) processing is currently the primary manufacturing method used to produce advanced high alloy tool steel compositions for use in industrial tooling applications. This process involves gas atomization of the pre-alloyed melt to form spherical powders and consolidation by HIP to full density. The HIP product may be used directly in select applications, but is usually subjected to additional forging to improve properties and produce a wide range of bar and plate sizes. Compared to ingot-cast tool steels, PM tool steels have very homogeneous microstructures with very fine carbide and sulfide size distributions, free from carbide banding, which results in improved machinability, grindability, and mechanical properties. In addition, this technology enables the development of advanced tool steel compositions which could not be economically produced by conventional steelmaking. (author)

  10. Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzari, Massimo; Fedrizzi, Anna; Zadra, Mario

    2016-06-16

    Hot work tool steel (AISI H13) and high speed steel (AISI M3:2) powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM). Near full density samples (>99.5%) showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS). The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13) was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of powder metallurgy tantalum components prepared by high compaction pressure technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngmoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Agency for Defense Development, Yuseong, P.O. Box 35, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34186, Republic of Korea. (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jaewon [Samsung Electronics, 129 Samsung-ro, Youngtong-gu, Suwon 16677 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ho Jin, E-mail: hojinryu@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon Hyung, E-mail: shhong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The present study has investigated the consolidation behaviors of tantalum powders during compaction and sintering, and the characteristics of sintered components. For die compaction, the densification behaviors of the powders are simulated by finite element analyses based on the yield function proposed by Shima and Oyane. Accordingly, the green density distribution for coarser particles is predicted to be more uniform because they exhibits higher initial relative tap density owing to lower interparticle friction. It is also found that cold isostatic pressing is capable of producing higher dense compacts compared to the die pressing. However, unlike the compaction behavior, the sintered density of smaller particles is found to be higher than those of coarser ones owing to their higher specific surface area. The maximum sintered density was found to be 0.96 of theoretical density where smaller particles were pressed isostatically at 400 MPa followed by sintering at 2000 °C. Moreover, the effects of processing conditions on grain size and texture were also investigated. The average grain size of the sintered specimen is 30.29 μm and its texture is less than 2 times random intensity. Consequently, it is concluded that the higher pressure compaction technique is beneficial to produce high dense and texture-free tantalum components compared to hot pressing and spark plasma sintering. - Highlights: • Higher Ta density is obtained from higher pressure and sintering temperature. • High compaction method enables P/M Ta to achieve the density of 16.00 g·cm{sup −3}. • A P/M Ta component with fine microstructure and random orientation is developed.

  12. Effects of Supplementation Time of L-Carnitine and Garlic Powder on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatibjoo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006. It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996. AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998. Materials and Methods Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks and long time (total production period. Dietary treatments were 1 Basal diet (BD: no supplementation, 2 ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control, 3 ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5 ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management

  13. Application of rapid solidification powder metallurgy processing to prepare Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy strips with high strength and high ductility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajpai, S.K., E-mail: vajpaisk@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dube, R.K., E-mail: rkd@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sangal, S., E-mail: sangals@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2013-05-15

    Cu–Al–Ni high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) strips were successfully prepared from rapid solidified water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powders via hot densification rolling of unsheathed sintered powder preforms. Finished heat-treated Cu–Al–Ni alloy strips had fine-grained structure, average grain size approximately 16 μm, and exhibited a combination of high strength and high ductility. It has been demonstrated that the redistribution of nano-sized alumina particles, present on the surface as well as inside the starting water atomized Cu–Al–Ni pre-alloyed powder particles, due to plastic deformation of starting powder particles during hot densification rolling resulted in the fine grained microstructure in the finished SMA strips. The finished SMA strips were almost fully martensitic in nature, consisting of a mixture of β{sub 1}{sup ′} and γ{sub 1}{sup ′} martensite. The average fracture strength and fracture strain of the finished SMA strips were 810 MPa and 12%, respectively, and the fractured specimens exhibited primarily micro-void coalescence type ductile nature of fracture. Finished Cu–Al–Ni SMA strips exhibited high characteristic transformation temperatures and an almost 100% one-way shape recovery was obtained in the specimens up to 4% applied deformation pre-strain. The retained two-way shape memory recovery increased with increasing applied training pre-strain, achieving a maximum value of 16.25% at 5% applied training pre-strain.

  14. High power density cell using nanostructured Sr-doped SmCoO3 and Sm-doped CeO2 composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Toshio; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    High power density solid oxide electrochemical cells were developed using nanostructure-controlled composite powder consisting of Sr-doped SmCoO3 (SSC) and Sm-doped CeO2 (SDC) for electrode material. The SSC-SDC nano-composite powder, which was synthesized by spray pyrolysis, had a narrow particle size distribution (D10, D50, and D90 of 0.59, 0.71, and 0.94 μm, respectively), and individual particles were spherical, composing of nano-size SSC and SDC fragments (approximately 10-15 nm). The application of the powder to a cathode for an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) realized extremely fine cathode microstructure and excellent cell performance. The anode-supported SOFC with the SSC-SDC cathode achieved maximum power density of 3.65, 2.44, 1.43, and 0.76 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, and 650 °C, respectively, using humidified H2 as fuel and air as oxidant. This result could be explained by the extended electrochemically active region in the cathode induced by controlling the structure of the starting powder at the nano-order level.

  15. Edible mushroom powder (Agaricus bisporus) and flavophospholipol improve performance and blood parameters of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Sepideh; Seidavi, Alireza; Rahati, Maliheh; G Nieto, José Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Background: flavophospholipol is an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP). The current ban of AGP in some countries is controversial because their benefits on the environment and economy by saving feed and reducing nitrogen excretion have been overlooked. White button mushrooms have important nutritional properties and the industry discards large quantities of waste that could be fed to animals. Objective: to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of five levels of edible mushroom powder (EMP) a...

  16. High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer HRPT for Thermal Neutrons at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Koch, M.; Koennecke, M.; Pomjakushin, V.; Schefer, J.; Schlumpf, N.

    1999-01-01

    The new neutron powder diffractometer at the Swiss continuous spallation neutron source SINQ is designed as a flexible instrument for high resolution [best values δd/d: ( -3 with d = lattice spacing in the high resolution or high intensity modes, respectively]. It uses large scattering angles 2Θ M = 120 deg or 90 deg of the monochromator, a 28 cm high, vertically focusing wafer type Ge(hkk) monochromator and a position-sensitive 3 He detector(3.6 bar) produced by Cerca at Romans, France. It has 1600 (25x64) detectors with an angular separation of 0.1 deg and includes modern electronics developed by E. Berruyer, Cerca and PSI. The SICS software of PSI controls the instrument with a server running on an unix workstation and clients written in Java through the TCP/IP network. The design principles and first experiences are presented. The interdisciplinary applications of HRPT will permit high-resolution refinement of chemical and magnetic structures as well as phase analysis including the detection of defects and internal microstrain. In particular real-time investigations of chemical or structural changes and of magnetic phase transitions in crystalline, quasicrystalline, amorphous and liquid samples including technically interesting new materials are possible. (author)

  17. Electrochemical and anticorrosion performances of zinc-rich and polyaniline powder coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meroufel, A.; Deslouis, C.; Touzain, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, hydrochloride polyaniline (PANI-Cl) powder was incorporated as a conductive pigment into powder zinc-rich primer (ZRP) formulations in order to enhance the electronic conduction paths between zinc particles inside the coating and the steel substrate (i.e. percolation). Coatings were applied onto steel substrates and immersed in a 3% NaCl solution at ambient temperature. The protective properties and electrochemical behaviour of coatings were investigated by monitoring the free corrosion potential versus time and by using EIS. It was found that corrosion potential remains cathodic and constant for a long time up to 100 days of immersion. From EIS results, it was shown that the coatings exhibit larger impedance values than those observed with liquid or other zinc-rich powder formulations containing carbon black. From Raman spectroscopy results, it may be proposed that zinc particles in contact with PANI-Cl pigments were passivated. Other zinc particles remain still active which ensures the cathodic protection of the substrate. Moreover, coatings exhibit good barrier properties

  18. Powder metallurgical processing of equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Maity, T.N.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Sarkar, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Gurao, N.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bhowmick, S. [Hysitron Inc., Eden Prairie, MN 55344 (United States); Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2017-01-02

    Phase formation, microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of novel multi-component equiatomic AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy synthesized by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering have been reported here. The microstructure of the mechanically alloyed (MA) powder and sintered samples were studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, whereas the detailed investigation of the mechanical properties of the sintered samples were measured using micro and nano hardness techniques. The fracture toughness measurements were performed by applying single edge V notch beam (SEVNB) technique. The MA powder shows the presence of FCC (τ) and BCC (κ) solid solution phases. Extended ball milling (up to 60 h) does not change the phases present in MA powder. The sintered pellets show phase-separated microstructure consisting of Al-Ni rich L1{sub 2} phase, α′ and tetragonal Cr-Fe-Co based σ phase along with Al-Ni-Co-Fe FCC solid solution phase (ε) for sample sintered from 973 to 1273 K. The experimental evidences indicate that BCC (κ) solid solution undergoes eutectoid transformation during sintering leading to the formation of L1{sub 2} ordered α′ and σ phases, whereas FCC (τ) phase remains unaltered with a slight change in the lattice parameter. The hardness of the sample increases with sintering temperature and a sudden rise in hardness is observed 1173 K. The sample sintered at 1273 K shows the highest hardness of ~8 GPa. The elastic modulus mapping clearly indicates the presence of three phases having elastic moduli of about 300, 220 and 160 GPa. The fracture toughness obtained using SEVNB test shows a maximum value of 3.9 MPa m{sup 1/2}, which is attributed to the presence of brittle nanosized σ phase precipitates. It is proposed that significant increase in the fraction of σ phase precipitates and eutectoid transformation of the τ phase contribute to increase in hardness along with

  19. A superplastic Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr powder alloy with high hardness and modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Structure/property studies were made on an experimental Al-3.18% Li-4.29% Cu-1.17% Mg-0.18% Zr powder alloy, which is of the low density/high modulus type. Alloy powder was made by the P and W/GPD rapid solidification rate (RSR) process, canned, and extruded to bar. The density was 2.458 x 10/sup 6/ g/m/sup 3/. The material was solution-treated, and aged at 149 0 C(300 0 F), 171 0 C(340 0 F), and 193 0 C(380 0 F), using hardness tests to determine the aging curves. Testpieces solution-treated at 516 0 C(961 0 F) showed an average yield strength (0.2% offset) of 43.3 ksi (299 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength of 50.0 ksi (345 MPa), with 1% elongation, which increased to 73.0 ksi (503 MPa) and 73.1 ksi (504 MPa), respectively, with only 0.2% elongation, on peak aging at 193 0 C(380 0 F), with a modulus of elasticity of 11.4 x 10/sup 6/ psi (78.3 GPa). Hardness values reached 90-92 R/sub B/ on aging at 149-193 0 C(300-380 0 F). The as-extruded alloy showed superplastic behavior at 400-500 0 C(752-932 0 F) with elongations of 80-185% on 25.6 mm, peaking at 450 0 C(842 0 F). An RSR Al-2.53% Li-2.82% Mn-0.02% Zr extruded allow showed only 18-23% elongation at 400-500 0 C(752-932 0 F)

  20. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  1. Incidence of ZrO2 on the physical chemical properties at high temperatures of cast powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandaleze, E; Martin, A; Santini, L; Benavidez, E; Gonzalez Oliver, C

    2006-01-01

    The cast powders normally used in the continuous casting process in many steel mills contain a great number of oxides. The chemical composition of these materials determines the behavior of the powders in operating conditions and their corrosive effect on the submerged dips. Specifically, these powders require certain levels of fluidity in order to guarantee lubrication in the cast. No less important is the tendency to crystallization due to the formation of crystalline phases in the layer of cast powder during cooling, since the proportion of crystalline phases influences the cast's heat extraction conditions. Another aspect to be aware of is that industrial production requirements demand greater availability of the equipment and, therefore, prolonging the duration of the dipping is of considerable interest. An understanding of the phenomena in the processing conditions should start with a knowledge of the effects of the variations in the chemical composition of these powders. This work presents the influence of the added zircon oxide (ZrO 2 ) on the fluidity and crystallization of commercial cast powders. Fluidity tests were performed with the sloped plane method and with micro-structural observations of these samples in order to observe their degree of crystallization. Corrosion tests were carried out to know what attack mechanisms are used on the dips. According to the results, the addition of zircon oxide causes an increase in both the viscosity and the proportion of crystals. So the potential addition of this oxide in the commercial powders, as an innovation in the steel company's operating practices, would cause less heat extraction from the cast steel and a lower level of lubrication. Maintaining the current processing conditions (casting speed, flow of refrigeration water, etc.) could produce serious disorder in the process and in the quality of the final product. Considering just the aspect of durability of the aluminum-graphite dips, the corrosion trials

  2. Compressive behaviour of hybrid fiber-reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wenzhong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We complete the high temperature test and compression test of RPC after 20–900 °C. ► The presence of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber can prevent RPC from spalling. ► Compressive strength increases first and then decreases with elevated temperatures. ► Microstructure deterioration is the root cause of macro-properties recession. ► Equations to express the compressive strength change with temperature are proposed. -- Abstract: This study focuses on the compressive properties and microstructures of reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixed with steel fiber and polypropylene fiber after exposure to 20–900 °C. The volume dosage of steel fiber and polypropylene fiber is (2%, 0.1%), (2%, 0.2%) and (1%, 0.2%). The effects of heating temperature, fiber content and specimen size on the compressive properties are analyzed. The microstructures of RPC exposed to different high temperatures are studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the compressive strength of hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC increases at first, then decreases with the increasing temperature, and the basic reason for the degradation of macro-mechanical properties is the deterioration of RPC microstructure. Based on the experimental results, equations to express the relationships of the compressive strength with the heating temperatures are established. Compared with normal-strength and high-strength concrete, the hybrid fiber-reinforced RPC has excellent capacity in resistance to high temperature.

  3. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  4. Spherical rhenium metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, T.; Moore, N.; Hamister, M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a high-density, spherical rhenium powder (SReP) possessing excellent flow characteristics has enabled the use of advanced processing techniques for the manufacture of rhenium components. The techniques that were investigated were vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), direct-hot isostatic pressing (D-HIP), and various other traditional powder metallurgy processing methods of forming rhenium powder into near-net shaped components. The principal disadvantages of standard rhenium metal powder (RMP) for advanced consolidation applications include: poor flow characteristics; high oxygen content; and low and varying packing densities. SReP will lower costs, reduce processing times, and improve yields when manufacturing powder metallurgy rhenium components. The results of the powder characterization of spherical rhenium powder and the consolidation of the SReP are further discussed. (author)

  5. CH3 NH3 PbI3 and HC(NH2 )2 PbI3 Powders Synthesized from Low-Grade PbI2 : Single Precursor for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lee, Do-Kyoung; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2018-05-09

    High-efficiency perovskite solar cells are generally fabricated by using highly pure (>99.99 %) PbI 2 mixed with an organic iodide in polar aprotic solvents. However, the use of such an expensive chemical may impede progress toward large-scale industrial applications. Here, we report on the synthesis of perovskite powders by using inexpensive low-grade (99 %) PbI 2 and on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells prepared from a powder-based single precursor. Pure APbI 3 [A=methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA)] perovskite powders were synthesized by treating low-grade PbI 2 with MAI or FAI in acetonitrile at ambient temperature. The structural phase purity was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The solar cell with a MAPbI 3 film prepared from the synthesized perovskite powder demonstrated a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.14 %, which is higher than the PCE of MAPbI 3 films prepared by using both MAI and PbI 2 as precursors (PCE=13.09 % for 99 % pure PbI 2 and PCE=16.39 % for 99.9985 % pure PbI 2 ). The synthesized powder showed better absorption and photoluminescence, which were responsible for the better photovoltaic performance. For the FAPbI 3 powder, a solution with a yellow non-perovskite δ-FAPbI 3 powder synthesized at room temperature was found to lead to a black perovskite film, whereas a solution with the black perovskite α-FAPbI 3 powder synthesized at 150 °C was not transformed into a black perovskite film. The α↔δ transition between the powder and film was assumed to correlate with the difference in the iodoplumbates in the powder-dissolved solution. An average PCE of 17.21 % along with a smaller hysteresis [ΔPCE=PCE reverse -PCE forward )=1.53 %] was demonstrated from the perovskite solar cell prepared by using δ-FAPbI 3 powder; this PCE is higher than the average PCE of 17.05 % with a larger hysteresis (ΔPCE=2.71 %) for a device based on a conventional precursor solution dissolving MAI with high

  6. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  7. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Turmeric (Curcuma longa and Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum Powders on Performance, Organs Relative Weight and Some Immune System Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 240 Ross 308 day-old male broiler chicks within a completely randomized design were used in this experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of turmeric powder and cinnamon powder on performance and some immune responses of broiler chickens. Dietary treatments were as follow: a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; basal diet + 10 ppm avilamycin; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg turmeric powder; basal diet + 2.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder; and basal diet + 7.5 g/Kg cinnamon powder. During the experiment, feed intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio were measured in the beginning and the end of starter (0-21 d. and grower (22-42 d. periods. On 21 d. of age, two chicks from each replicate were randomly selected and blood samples were taken. Differential enumeration of heterophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were done. Also, antibody titers against IBV, IBD, and NDV vaccines were measured. Addition of 2.5 g/Kg turmeric powder increased body weight gain in the starter period and improved feed conversion ratio in the starter and entire periods of the experiment, when compared to the control (P. Also, inclusion of 10 ppm avilamycin into diet improved feed conversion ratio in the grower and entire periods of the experiment, comparing to the control (P. Inclusion of turmeric powder at 2.5 g/Kg or 7.5 g/Kg and cinnamon powder at 7.5 g/Kg declined the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P. The results of this study showed that turmeric powder at the level of 2.5 g/Kg would be a potential alternative for antibiotic growth promoters. Also, reducing heterophil to lymphocyte ratio by turmeric and cinnamon powders, introduce them as potential stress alleviators in broiler chickens.

  8. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  9. A simple magnetic balance technique for determining transition temperatures of high T/sub c/ superconducting powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, T.; Dove, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    A simple arrangement is described that provides a convenient method for determining transition behavior of high Tc superconductors that are in powder form. A single-pan balance was modified so that its deviation from balance could be measured by an inductive displacement transducer. A small magnet was attached to the balance and placed in close proximity above the sample to be measured. As the sample is cooled through the transition, magnetic flux lines are locally excluded resulting in a repulsive force on the magnet attached to the balance. The resulting deflection of the balance has sufficient sensitivity to allow measurements on several mg of powder. This technique provides a convenient method for routine surveying of powder samples during materials development. Example measurements are described

  10. Retraction Note to: Ultra-High Strength and Ductile Lamellar-Structured Powder Metallurgy Binary Ti-Ta Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Shenghang; Wang, Xin; Li, Kaiyang; Liu, Bin; Wu, Hong; Tang, Huiping

    2018-05-01

    The editors and authors have retracted the article, "Ultra-High Strength and Ductile Lamellar-Structured Powder Metallurgy Binary Ti-Ta Alloys" by Yong Liu, Shenghang Xu, Xin Wang, Kaiyang Li, Bin Liu, Hong Wu, and Huiping Tang (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-015-1801-1).

  11. Powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb$_{3}$Sn conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  12. Microstructural characterisation of vacuum sintered T42 powder metallurgy high-speed steel after heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabadelo, V.; Gimenez, S.; Iturriza, I.

    2009-01-01

    High-speed steel powders (T42 grade) have been uniaxially cold-pressed and vacuum sintered to full density. Subsequently, the material was heat treated following an austenitising + quenching + multitempering route or alternatively austenitising + isothermal annealing. The isothermal annealing route was designed in order to attain a hardness value of ∼50 Rockwell C (HRC) (adequate for structural applications) while the multitempering parameters were selected to obtain this value and also the maximum hardening of the material (∼66 HRC). Microstructural characterisation has been carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure consists of a ferrous (martensitic or ferritic) matrix with a distribution of second phase particles corresponding to nanometric and submicrometric secondary carbides precipitated during heat treatment together with primary carbides. The identification of those secondary precipitates (mainly M 3 C, M 6 C and M 23 C 6 carbides) has allowed understanding the microstructural evolution of T42 high-speed steel under different processing conditions

  13. Tribological properties of PM212: A high-temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  14. Tribological properties of PM212 - A high temperature, self-lubricating, powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a research program to develop and evaluate a new high temperature, self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite, PM212. PM212 has the same composition as the plasma-sprayed coating, PS212, which contains 70 wt percent metal-bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent silver and 15 wt percent barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic. The carbide acts as a wear resistant matrix and the silver and fluorides act as low and high temperature lubricants, respectively. The material is prepared by sequential cold press, cold isostatic pressing and sintering techniques. In this study, hemispherically tipped wear pins of PM212 were prepared and slid against superalloy disks at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in air in a pin-on-disk tribometer. Friction coefficients range from 0.29 to 0.38 and the wear of both the composite pins and superalloy disks was moderate to low in the 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) cubic mm/N-m range. Preliminary tests indicate that the material has a compressive strength of at least 130 MPa over the entire temperature range of 25 to 900 C. This material has promise for use as seal inserts, bushings, small inside diameter parts and other applications where plasma-sprayed coatings are impractical or too costly.

  15. A new beauty for 'ADONE': a high resolution powder diffractometer for synchrotron radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.; Simeoni, S.

    1991-01-01

    A high resolution powder diffractometer, connected to the wiggler magnet line BX1, is now operative at the Adone storage ring in Frascati. A Si channel-cut monochromator on the line allows operation in the range 1-3 A. To achieve the desired high resolution in the diffraction spectra, a 'triple-axis configuration' has been chosen: a vertical standing goniometer supports a flat Ge(111) crystal analyzer on the 2O arm. With this configuration, a value of less than 0.02 o for the FWHM of the diffraction peaks has been reached. The special design solutions adopted for a Seifer MZ VI goniometer and the microstep technology used in the stepper motor actuation assure a mechanical resolution better than 0.001 o . A special supporting table, with six degrees of freedom, has been made for the diffractometer orientation in front of the X-ray beam. An IBM-PC is dedicated to the diffractometer positioning control and preliminary data collection. As a Macintosh IICX provides for the data processing, a special software package, named 'Mac Dust', has been developed and is continuously updated. The first experimental results collected on-line during the instrument check-up are presented. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  16. Sorption activity investigation of ultrafine powders of high temperature melting point compounds in atmospheric pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudneva, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    A study is made in saturation with gas in the air for ultradispersed chromium carbonitride and boride powders synthesized in a nitrogen plasma jet according to three variants: from elements, from oxides, from chromium trichloride. It is established that in the air on temperature increasing the powders adsorb considerable amounts of oxygen and water vapor. This results in surface oxidation of powder particles and a loss in specific combination of properties. Preliminary vacuum heat treatment is shown to decrease sharply the rate of atmospheric gas adsorption. The quantity of adsorbed gases is dependent on a carbon monoxide concentration in a particle surface layer and the availability of adsorption centers. The number of such centers in the layer can be controlled by vacuum heat treatment conditions. The interaction of the powders with atmospheric gases is concluded to be of adsorption-diffusion nature [ru

  17. High Temperature Degradation of Powder-processed Ni-based Superalloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pizúrová, Naděžda; Roupcová, Pavla; Dymáček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 85-94 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : powder materials * polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy * creep machine grips * oxidation Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  18. Industrial powder metallurgy processing for production of high field Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, A.; Gregory, E.; Wong, J.; Thieme, C.L.H.; Foner, S.

    1988-01-01

    Technology transfer is discussed for fabricating Nb 3 Sn(Ti) via powder metallurgy methods from laboratory scale production at MIT to industrial production at Supercon Inc. Industrial production techniques such as hydrostatic extrusion and drawing have produced superconducting wires with promising critical current densities in preliminary field measurements. Initial steps toward process modification and optimization to improve the commercial feasibility of the powder metallurgy process are evaluated. These modifications are aimed at reducing production time and increasing process flexibility

  19. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  20. Thermal expansion and phase transformation studies on some materials by high temperature x-ray powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Kutty, K.V.G.; Jajoo, H.K.; Ananthakrishnan, S.K.; Asurvatharaman, R.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature chamber based on electrical resistance heating has been integrated to an existing x-ray powder diffractometer. The system is capable of going upto 2500degC at programmed rates of heating. Temperature measurement is carried out by means by Pt/Rh or W/Re thermocouples or by optical pyrometry depending upon the temperature range. Provision exists for performing high temperature x-ray diffractometry in vacuum or in a gaseous atmosphere of low x-ray absorption. The x-ray optical alignment has been ensured by accurately measuring the unit cell lengths of x-ray diffraction standards like silicon and tungsten. The thermocouples have been calibrated within the system by monitoring the melting points of gold and silver. The well characterized transformation of zirconia from the monoclinic to tetragonal structure occuring around 1100degC has been satisfactorily reproduced . The high temperature phase transitions in some rare earth oxides have been studi ed. lattice parameter measurements on a variety of materials as a function of temperature upto 1500degC have been carried out and the data found to be in agreement with the literature values. From the measured lattice parameter values, percentage thermal expansion and coefficients of thermal expansion have been calculated for many substances from room temperature to 15000degC. (author). 20 refs., 9 figs

  1. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  2. A new powder morphology for making high-porosity nickel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Elena; Yang, Quan Min; Charles, Doug; Wasmund, Eric Bain; Renny, Les V.

    2007-01-01

    Nickel powders with a special branched chain microstructure such as CVRD Inco Limited's Type 255 trademark have been used for more than 50 years as the basis for making porous metal monoliths for applications such as the electrical backbone of nickel electrode batteries by the sinter/slurry process. The classic trade-off when making these structures is that the strength and porosity are inversely correlated. A number of adaptations to the sinter/slurry making process have been proposed to address this problem. The current approach proposes another solution, optimization of the particle microstructure. The strength and porosity relationship of battery plaques made from Type 255 trademark is compared with plaques made with the new powder and it is statistically verified that plaques made from the new powder have an improved combination of structural properties. A comparison of the rheological characteristics of metal powder slurries suggests ways that the new powder can be incorporated into existing processes. Finally, it is shown that properties such as the slurry apparent viscosity can be used as the basis for measuring and predicting the characteristics of particle microstructure that impute these benefits to the sinter/slurry process. An analysis of battery plaques made with the new powder on an industrial battery sinter/slurry production line confirms that the laboratory results are valid. (author)

  3. Supplemental effects of biofloc powder on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a biofloc powder on growth performance and non-specific immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven experimental diets were prepared with supplementation of graded levels of dried biofloc powder by 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0% (designated as Con, BF0.5, BF1, BF2, BF4, BF6, and BF8, respectively. Triplicate groups of shrimp (1.01 ± 0.01 g were hand-fed with one of the diets four times a day. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P ˂ 0.05 higher growth performance and feed utilization were obtained in BF4 groups compared to those fed the Con diet. The innate immunity of shrimp was improved by the dietary supplementation of biofloc. Dietary inclusion of biofloc at the level of 4.0% significantly increased disease resistance of shrimp against Vibrio harveyi. The results indicate that biofloc might be used as a dietary supplement for growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp.

  4. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  5. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, John D.; Spitzig, William A.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  6. Initial results from the high resolution powder diffractometer HRPD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Johnson, M.W.

    1986-07-01

    The paper reviews the initial commissioning of the high resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffractometer, HRPD, on the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Preliminary results have confirmed both intensity and resolution predictions indicating that (Δd/d) lies between 0.04% and 0.08% for all d-spacings between 0.2 and 5A. The scientific potential of this increased resolution over existing time-of-flight diffractometers has been demonstrated in the successful ab initio structure determination of an unknown inorganic material, FeAsO 4 , and the detailed study of subtle symmetry changes in NiO. The true instrumental resolution, however, has been observed in only a small number of experiments: sample broadening is often seen to play a dominant role in the determination of the peak shape, particularly at longer d-spacings. This leads to additional useful information about macroscopic properties, such as anisotropic crystallite size, strain distribution and sample homogeneity, but also results in a significant increase in complexity of peak-shape description and data-analysis strategy. (author)

  7. Spark Plasma Co-Sintering of Mechanically Milled Tool Steel and High Speed Steel Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pellizzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot work tool steel (AISI H13 and high speed steel (AISI M3:2 powders were successfully co-sintered to produce hybrid tool steels that have properties and microstructures that can be modulated for specific applications. To promote co-sintering, which is made difficult by the various densification kinetics of the two steels, the particle sizes and structures were refined by mechanical milling (MM. Near full density samples (>99.5% showing very fine and homogeneous microstructure were obtained using spark plasma sintering (SPS. The density of the blends (20, 40, 60, 80 wt % H13 was in agreement with the linear rule of mixtures. Their hardness showed a positive deviation, which could be ascribed to the strengthening effect of the secondary particles altering the stress distribution during indentation. A toughening of the M3:2-rich blends could be explained in view of the crack deviation and crack arrest exerted by the H13 particles.

  8. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  9. Development and characterization of high payload combination dry powders of anti-tubercular drugs for treating pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eedara, Basanth Babu; Rangnekar, Bhamini; Sinha, Shubhra; Doyle, Colin; Cavallaro, Alex; Das, Shyamal C

    2018-06-15

    This study aimed to develop a high payload dry powder inhalation formulation containing a combination of the first line anti-tubercular drug, pyrazinamide, and the second line drug, moxifloxacin HCl. Individual powders of pyrazinamide (P SD ) and moxifloxacin (M SD ) and combination powders of the two drugs without (PM) and with 10% l-leucine (PML) and 10% DPPC (PMLD) were produced by spray drying. P SD contained >10 μm crystalline particles and showed poor aerosolization behaviour with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 18.7 ± 3.4%. PM produced spherical hollow particles with aerodynamic diameter  0.05) compared to PML . Solid state studies and surface elemental analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry confirmed the surface coating of particles contained amorphous moxifloxacin and both l-leucine and DPPC over crystalline pyrazinamide. Furthermore, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin, PML and PMLD were found to display low toxicity to both A549 and Calu-3 cell lines even at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, a combination powder formulation of PML has the potential to deliver a high drug dose to the site of infection resulting in efficient treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hollow crystalline straws of diclofenac for high-dose and carrier-free dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Ashkan K; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2016-04-11

    To crystallize diclofenac (DF) from diclofenac sodium (DFNa), to micronize DF and DFNa, and to evaluate in vitro aerodynamic performance of the jet-milled formulations From the acidic titration of aqueous DFNa, DF crystals were formed and were identified using thermal analysis, spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Following the micronization of the DF and DFNa powders, the recovered samples were imaged, and their particle size distributions were evaluated. Samples before and after jet millings were characterized, and in vitro aerodynamic performance testing was performed on the DF sample before jet milling and the DF and DFNa samples following jet milling. Hollow needles of DF were precipitated. With similar particle size distributions, the jet-milled DFNa sample from the collection bag, and the DF sample from the cyclone were used for further characterization. Despite different deposition patterns in the Next Generation Impactor, the DF hollow needles had a comparable respirable fraction percentage to the jet-milled DF and DFNa particles. However, the jet-milled DF formulation had the best in vitro aerodynamic performance. Hollow, crystalline needles of DF were formed and possessed promising aerosol performance in comparison with the jet-milled powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasing flexibility from laterite soil is the main goal of this study. For this purpose, tropical laterite soil was mixed using TDA and micro silica (MS. As a research method, unconfined tests were carried for thirteen samples based on different percentage of the additives. As a result, the significant reduction for elasticity modulus and strength was observed when soil mixed just using TDA. In addition, the rate of strain at the peak of the curve was dramatically increased. The best performance was found using 6% additives when the ratio was 3% MS and 3% TDA. In fact, the effect of MS was more to increase strength. To recommend, the seepage controlling will investigate at next.

  12. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  13. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  14. High quality aluminium doped zinc oxide target synthesis from nanoparticulate powder and characterisation of sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, P.J.M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Neves, N. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Bowers, J.W. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Newbatt, P. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticulate aluminium-doped zinc oxide powder was synthesised through detonation and subsequent rapid quenching of metallic precursors. This technique allows for precise compositional control and rapid nanoparticle production. The resulting powder was used to form sputter targets, which were used to deposit thin films by radio frequency sputtering. These films show excellent sheet resistance and transmission values for a wide range of deposition temperatures. Crystal structure analysis shows that crystals in the target have a random orientation, whereas the crystals in the films grow perpendicular to the substrate surface and propagate preferentially along the (002) axis. Higher temperature deposition reduces crystal quality with a corresponding decrease in refractive index and an increase in sheet resistance. Films deposited between room temperature and 300 °C were found to have sheet resistances equivalent to or better than indium tin oxide films for a given average transmission value. - Highlights: • Nanoparticulate AZO powder was used to produce sputter targets. • The powder synthesis technique allows for precise compositional control. • Sputtered films show excellent optical, electronic and structural properties. • High temperature films show reduced electrical and structural quality. • For a given transmission, films show equivalent sheet resistances to ITO.

  15. A study on improvement of UO2 powder production process for high sintered density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Hoh; Hwang, Sung Tae; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lee, Kyoo Il; Kim, Tae Joon; Jung, Kyung Chae; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kwon, Sang Woon; Kim, Byung Hoh; Hong, Soon Bok

    1995-01-01

    Various conversion processes were reviewed from the viewpoint of manufacturing cost, product quality and liquid waste. The MDD process was selected a suitable target process for the good quality of UO 2 powder and the recycling availability of nitric acid. The MDD process consists of two steps, double salt preparation [(NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 4 ] from uranyl nitrate solution and thermal decomposition/reduction to UO 2 powder. The reaction mechanism and properties for the intermediates were analyzed to define the proposed operational conditions of the process. The conceptual process was proposed and experimental facility was designed and installed. 12 figs, 7 tabs, 7 refs. (Author)

  16. Improvement of deposition efficiency and control of hardness for cold-sprayed coatings using high carbon steel/mild steel mixture powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ootaki, Kousuke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in order to make high carbon steel coating by cold spray technique, spray conditions such as carrier gas temperature and pressure etc. were investigated. And also, in order to improve deposition efficiency and control coating hardness of cold-sprayed high carbon steel, high carbon and mild steel mixed powder and its mechanical milled powder were developed and were optimized. By using the cold-spray technique, particle deposition of a high carbon steel was successful. Moreover, by applying mixed and mechanical milled powders, the porosity ratio was decreased and deposition efficiency was improved. Furthermore, using these powders, it is possible to control the hardness value. Especially, when using mechanical milled powder, it is very difficult to identify the interface between the coating and the substrate. The bonding between the coating and the substrate is thus considered to be excellent. (author)

  17. Two layer powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, H.

    1979-01-01

    First, significance and advantages of sintered materials consisting of two layers are pointed out. By means of the two layer powder pressing technique metal powders are formed resulting in compacts with high accuracy of shape and mass. Attributes of basic powders, different filling methods and pressing techniques are discussed. The described technique is supposed to find further applications in the field of two layer compacts in the near future

  18. High performance fuel technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koon, Yang Hyun; Kim, Keon Sik; Park, Jeong Yong; Yang, Yong Sik; In, Wang Kee; Kim, Hyung Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    {omicron} Development of High Plasticity and Annular Pellet - Development of strong candidates of ultra high burn-up fuel pellets for a PCI remedy - Development of fabrication technology of annular fuel pellet {omicron} Development of High Performance Cladding Materials - Irradiation test of HANA claddings in Halden research reactor and the evaluation of the in-pile performance - Development of the final candidates for the next generation cladding materials. - Development of the manufacturing technology for the dual-cooled fuel cladding tubes. {omicron} Irradiated Fuel Performance Evaluation Technology Development - Development of performance analysis code system for the dual-cooled fuel - Development of fuel performance-proving technology {omicron} Feasibility Studies on Dual-Cooled Annular Fuel Core - Analysis on the property of a reactor core with dual-cooled fuel - Feasibility evaluation on the dual-cooled fuel core {omicron} Development of Design Technology for Dual-Cooled Fuel Structure - Definition of technical issues and invention of concept for dual-cooled fuel structure - Basic design and development of main structure components for dual- cooled fuel - Basic design of a dual-cooled fuel rod.

  19. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption.

  20. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  1. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  2. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  3. Characterization of solidified radioactive waste and container due to the incorporation of high density polyethylene granules and powder in mortar matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    Powder and granules of the high density polyethylene (PEHD) were used to prepare mortar based matrices for immobilization of radioactive waste materials containing 137 Cs, as well as containers for solidified radioactive waste form. Seven types of matrices, differ due to the percentage of granules and filler material added, were investigated. PEHD powder and granules were added to mortar matrix preparations with the objective of improving physico-chemical characteristics of the radwaste-mortar matrix mixtures, in particular the leach-rate of the immobilized radionuclide, as well as mechanical characteristics either of mortar matrix and container. In this paper, only mechanical strength aspect of the investigated mortar and concrete container formulations, is presented. The equivalent diameter of the PEHD granules used was 2.0 mm. PEHD granules were used to replace 100 volume percent of stone granules, sifted size of 2.0 mm, normally used in the matrix preparation, in order to decrease the porosity and density of the mortar matrix and to avoid segregation of the stone particles at the bottom of the immobilized radioactive waste cylindrical form. PEHD powder, particle size of 250 micrometer, was added as filler to the mortar formulation, replacing 5, 8 and 10 wt% of the total cement weight in matrix formulation and 15 and 18 wt% of the total cement weight in container formulation. Cured samples were investigated on mechanical strength, using 150 MPa hydraulic press, in order to determine influence of added polyethylene granules and powder on samples resistance to mechanical forces that solidified waste materials and concrete containers may experience at the disposal site. Results of performed investigations have shown that samples prepared with polyethylene granules, replacing 100 wt% of the stone granules, have almost twice as much mechanical strength than samples prepared with stone aggregate. Samples prepared with PEHD granules and powder have mechanical strength

  4. Powder technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    Powder technology is experiencing nowadays a great development and has broad application in different fields: nuclear energy, medicine, new energy sources, industrial and home artifacts, etc. Ceramic materials are of daily use as tableware and also in the building industry (bricks, tiles, etc.). However, in machine construction its utilization is not so common. The same happens with metals: powder metallurgy is employed less than traditional metal forming techniques. Both cases deal with powder technology and the forming techniques as far as the final consolidation through sintering processes are very similar. There are many different methods and techniques in the forming stage: cold-pressing, slip casting, injection molding, extrusion molding, isostatic pressing, hot-pressing (which involves also the final consolidation step), etc. This variety allows to obtain almost any desired form no matter how complex it could be. Some applications are very specific as in the case of UO 2 pellets (used as nuclear fuels) but with the same technique and other materials, it is possible to manufacture a great number of different products. This work shows the characteristics and behaviour of two magnetic ceramic materials (ferrites) fabricated in the laboratory of the Applied Research Division of the Bariloche Atomic Center for different purposes. Other materials and products made with the same method are also mentioned. Likewise, densities and shrinkage obtained by different methods of forming (cold-pressing, injection molding, slip casting and extrusion molding) using high-purity alumina (99.5% Al 2 O 3 ). Finally, different applications of such methods are given. (Author) [es

  5. Crystal and molecular simulation of high-performance polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, H M; Williams, D J

    2000-03-01

    Single-crystal X-ray analyses of oligomeric models for high-performance aromatic polymers, interfaced to computer-based molecular modeling and diffraction simulation, have enabled the determination of a range of previously unknown polymer crystal structures from X-ray powder data. Materials which have been successfully analyzed using this approach include aromatic polyesters, polyetherketones, polythioetherketones, polyphenylenes, and polycarboranes. Pure macrocyclic homologues of noncrystalline polyethersulfones afford high-quality single crystals-even at very large ring sizes-and have provided the first examples of a "protein crystallographic" approach to the structures of conventionally amorphous synthetic polymers.

  6. Simultaneous removal of ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursors from high ammonia water by zeolite and powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Donovan, Ariel; Zhang, Haiting; Ma, Yinfa; Adams, Craig; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2018-02-01

    When adding sufficient chlorine to achieve breakpoint chlorination to source water containing high concentration of ammonia during drinking water treatment, high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) may form. If N-nitrosamine precursors are present, highly toxic N-nitrosamines, primarily N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), may also form. Removing their precursors before disinfection should be a more effective way to minimize these DBPs formation. In this study, zeolites and activated carbon were examined for ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal when incorporated into drinking water treatment processes. The test results indicate that Mordenite zeolite can remove ammonia and five of seven N-nitrosamine precursors efficiently by single step adsorption test. The practical applicability was evaluated by simulation of typical drinking water treatment processes using six-gang stirring system. The Mordenite zeolite was applied at the steps of lime softening, alum coagulation, and alum coagulation with powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorption. While the lime softening process resulted in poor zeolite performance, alum coagulation did not impact ammonia and N-nitrosamine precursor removal. During alum coagulation, more than 67% ammonia and 70%-100% N-nitrosamine precursors were removed by Mordenite zeolite (except 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole (DMAI) and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine (DMAP)). PAC effectively removed DMAI and DMAP when added during alum coagulation. A combination of the zeolite and PAC selected efficiently removed ammonia and all tested seven N-nitrosamine precursors (dimethylamine (DMA), ethylmethylamine (EMA), diethylamine (DEA), dipropylamine (DPA), trimethylamine (TMA), DMAP, and DMAI) during the alum coagulation process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antioxidant and anti hyperglycemic role of wine grape powder in rats fed with a high fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a growing worldwide health problem. We evaluated the effects of wine grape powder (WGP, rich in antioxidants and fiber, in a rat model of metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose diet. We tested whether WGP supplementation may prevent glucose intolerance and decrease oxidative stress in rats fed with a high fructose diet. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180 g were divided into four groups according to their feeding protocols. Rats were fed with control diet (C, control plus 20 % WGP (C + WGP, 50 % high fructose (HF or 50 % fructose plus 20 % WGP (HF + WGP for 16 weeks. Blood glucose, insulin and triglycerides, weight, and arterial blood pressure were measured. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index was calculated using insulin and glucose values. A glucose tolerance test was performed 2 days before the end of the experiment. As an index of oxidative stress, thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level was measured in plasma and kidney, and superoxide dismutase was measured in the kidney. RESULTS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma and renal tissue were significantly higher when compared to the control group. In addition, the area under the curve of the glucose tolerance test was higher in HF fed animals. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin levels, and the HOMA index, were also increased. WGP supplementation prevented these alterations in rats fed with the HF diet. We did not find any significant difference in body weight or systolic blood pressure in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that WGP supplementation prevented hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and reduced oxidative stress in rats fed with HF diet. We propose that WGP may be used as a supplement in human food as well.

  8. Effect of borides on hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of powder metallurgy high borated stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Mingjia, E-mail: mingjiawangysu@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, Yifeng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Zixi; Li, Yanmei [Yanming Alloy Roll Co. Ltd, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Shunkai; Zhao, Hongchang; Li, Hangbo [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-02-15

    To investigate borides effect on the hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of powder metallurgy high borated stainless steel, hot compression tests at the temperatures of 950– 1150 °C and the strain rates of 0.01– 10 s{sup −1} were performed. Flow stress curves indicated that borides increased the material's stress level at low temperature but the strength was sacrificed at temperatures above 1100 °C. A hyperbolic-sine equation was used to characterize the dependence of the flow stress on the deformation temperature and strain rate. The hot deformation activation energy and stress exponent were determined to be 355 kJ/mol and 3.2, respectively. The main factors leading to activation energy and stress exponent of studied steel lower than those of commercial 304 stainless steel were discussed. Processing maps at the strains of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 showed that flow instability mainly concentrated at 950– 1150 °C and strain rate higher than 0.6 s{sup −1}. Results of microstructure illustrated that dynamic recrystallization was fully completed at both high temperature-low strain rate and low temperature-high strain rate. In the instability region cracks were generated in addition to cavities. Interestingly, borides maintained a preferential orientation resulting from particle rotation during compression. - Highlights: •The decrement of activation energy was affected by boride and boron solution. •The decrease of stress exponent was influenced by composition and Cottrell atmosphere. •Boride represented a preferential orientation caused by particle rotation.

  9. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  10. Flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo0.2 high entropy alloy during high temperature deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiawen [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: binliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, Yan [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Cao, Yuankui; Li, Tianchen; Zhou, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-24

    Dynamic recrystallization (DRX) refine grains of high entropy alloys (HEAs) and significant improve the mechanical property of HEAs, but the effect of high melting point element molybdenum (Mo) on high temperature deformation behavior has not been fully understood. In the present study, flow behavior and microstructures of powder metallurgical CrFeCoNiMo{sub 0.2} HEA were investigated by hot compression tests performed at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1100 °C with strain rates from 10{sup −3} to 1 s{sup −1}. The Arrhenius constitutive equation with strain-dependent material constants was used for modeling and prediction of flow stress. It was found that at 700 °C, the dynamic recovery is the dominant softening mechanism, whilst with the increase in compression testing temperature, the DRX becomes the dominant mechanism of softening. In the present HEA, the addition of Mo results in the high activation energy (463 kJ mol{sup −1}) and the phase separation during hot deformation. The formation of Mo-rich σ phase particles pins grain boundary migration during DRX, and therefore refines the size of recrystallized grains.

  11. Powder metallurgy techniques in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear application of conventional powder metallurgy routes is centred on the fabrication of ceramic fuels. The stringent demands in terms of product performance required by the nuclear industry militate against the use of conventional powder metallurgy to produce metallic components such as the fuel cladding. However, the techniques developed in powder metallurgy find widespread application throughout nuclear technology. Illustrations of the use of these techniques are given in the fields of absorber materials, ceramic cladding materials, oxide fuels, cermet fuels, and the disposal of highly active waste. (author)

  12. An investigation on fuel meats extruded with atomized U-10wt% Mo powder for uranium high-density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Don-Bae; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    1997-01-01

    The RERTR program has been making an effort to develop dispersion fuels with uranium densities of 8 to 9 g U/cm3 for research and test reactors. Using atomized U-10wt%Mo powder, fuel meats have been fabricated successfully up to 55 volume % of fuel powder. The uranium density of an extruded meat with a 55 volume % of fuel powder was obtained to be 7.7 g/cm3. A relatively high porosity of 7.3% was formed due to cracking of particles, presumably induced by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Tensile test results indicated that the strength of fuel meats with 55% volume fraction decreased some and a little of ductility was maintained. Examination on the fracture surface revealed that some U-10%Mo particles appeared to be broken by the tensile force in brittle rupture mode. The increase of broken particles in high fuel fraction is considered to be induced mainly by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Uranium loading density is assumed to be improved through the development of the better homogeneous dispersion technology. (author)

  13. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  14. High homogeneity powder of Ti-Ba-Ca-Cu-O (2223) prepared by Freeze-Drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shakarchi, Emad Kh.; Toma, Ziad A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Homogeneous high temerature superconductor ceramic powder of TI-Ba-Ca-Cu-O with transition temperature [Tc=123K] have been successfully prepared from the mixture of nitrate salts [TlNO 3 , Ba(NO 3 ) 2 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .3H 2 O] by using freeze-drying method. Freeze-dryer that was used in this work designed locally in our laboratory. This technique consider a better to get a fine powder of ceramic materials by depending on the procedure of frozen droplets with present of liquid nitrogen. SEM pictures showed the size of grains of about [0.8 μm]. We conclude that the high sintering temperature, for the prepared powders in this technique, for long time [120 hrs] will increase the inter diffusion between the grains ahich caused the decreasing in the density of the sample which may be given a better results than the obtained in a previous works

  15. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation wavelength, closely mirrors the PLE spectra for both emission bands. Sulfur-doped ZnO exhibits additional PLE and X-ray features indicative of a ZnS-rich surface

  16. A study on improvement of UO{sub 2} powder production process for high sintered density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hoh; Hwang, Sung Tae; Jun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lee, Kyoo Il; Kim, Tae Joon; Jung, Kyung Chae; Kim, Kwang Lak; Kwon, Sang Woon; Kim, Byung Hoh; Hong, Soon Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    Various conversion processes were reviewed from the viewpoint of manufacturing cost, product quality and liquid waste. The MDD process was selected a suitable target process for the good quality of UO{sub 2} powder and the recycling availability of nitric acid. The MDD process consists of two steps, double salt preparation [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}] from uranyl nitrate solution and thermal decomposition/reduction to UO{sub 2} powder. The reaction mechanism and properties for the intermediates were analyzed to define the proposed operational conditions of the process. The conceptual process was proposed and experimental facility was designed and installed. 12 figs, 7 tabs, 7 refs. (Author).

  17. Influence of hydroxyapatite coating thickness and powder particle size on corrosion performance of MA8M magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonmez, S. [Hakkari University, Dept. of Biomedical Eng., 30000 Hakkari (Turkey); Aksakal, B., E-mail: baksakal@yildiz.edu.tr [Yildiz Technical University, Chemical Metallurgy Faculty, Dept. of Metall and Mater Eng., Istanbul (Turkey); Dikici, B. [Yuzuncu Yil University, Dept. of Mechanical Eng., 65080 Van (Turkey)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is the primary concern in biomedical applications. Micron and nano-scale hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated successfully on MA8M magnesium alloy substrates by using a sol–gel deposition. In this study, the effects of coating thicknesses and HA powder particle sizes on the adhesion strength and corrosion behavior were investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in a Ringer solution. The coatings before and after corrosion tests were characterized by adhesion tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The micro-scale-HA coated Mg substrates were more corrosion resistant than the nano-scale-HA coatings. The anodic activity of the micro-scale-HA coatings increased with increased coating thickness and the corrosion resistance of Mg substrates decreased. Corrosion susceptibilities of the nano-scale-HA coated samples were affected inversely. The coated film provided good barrier characteristics and achieved good corrosion protection for Mg substrates when compared to substrates without coatings. For micro-scale-HA coatings, anodic and cathodic activities were more intense for thicker films. When HA coatings are compared to nano-scale HA coatings, the micro-scale-HA coatings produced better current density values. Overall, as shown in Fig. 1, the best corrosion behavior of the Mg alloys was achieved using micro-scale HA powders at 30 μm coating thickness. - Highlights: • Nano and micro-scale-HA coatings provided good anti-corrosion performance compared to the uncoated ones. • The micro-scale-HA coated Mg substrates were more corrosion resistant than the nano-scale-HA coatings. • The best corrosion behavior was achieved for the micro-scale HA powders at 30 μm coating thickness. • Anodic activity decrease and cathodic activity increase with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: To improve the corrosion resistance of MA8M magnesium alloy, sol

  18. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  19. Fabrication of Al2O3–20 vol.% Al nanocomposite powders using high energy milling and their sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawrah, M.F.; Abdel-kader, H.; Elbaly, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Al 2 O 3 /Al nanocomposite powders were prepared via high energy ball milling. After 20 h milling, the size of Al 2 O 3 –20 vol.% Al nanocomposite particles was in the range of 23–29 nm. A uniform distribution of nanosized Al reinforcement throughout the Al 2 O 3 matrix, coating the particles was successfully obtained. ► There was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. ► The highest value of relative density was obtained for the sintered bodies at 1500 °C. ► The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina. -- Abstract: In this study, alumina-based matrix nanocomposite powders reinforced with Al particles were fabricated and investigated. The sinterability of the prepared nanocomposite powder at different firing temperature was also conducted. Their mechanical properties in terms of hardness and toughness were tested. Alumina and aluminum powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill for various times up to 30 h in order to produce Al 2 O 3 –20% Al nanocomposite. The phase composition, morphological and microstructural changes during mechanical milling of the nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crystallite size and internal strain were evaluated by XRD patterns using Scherrer methods. A uniform distribution of the Al reinforcement in the Al 2 O 3 matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders. The results revealed that there was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. The crystal size decreased with the prolongation of milling times, while the internal strain increased. A simple model is presented to illustrate the mechanical

  20. Influence of Al-W-B Recycled Composite Material on the Properties of High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baronins Janis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain high performance boron containing material with sufficient carrying capacity with increased porosity and lower density at the same time. The influence of the different concentrations of Al-W-B powder on the properties of the fresh and hardened HPC was investigated. In the concrete mix design, the allite containing White Portland cement CEM I 52,5 R, granite stone, sand, microsilica, on polycarboxylates based super plasticizer and Al-W-B powder were used. As a source of boron composite material (CM, previously grinded powder containing boron-tungsten fiber and aluminium matrix (CM Al-W-B was used. Grinding was used for processing of CM Al-W-B powder.

  1. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  2. Experimental Determination of Ballistic Performance of Composite Material Kevlar 29 and Alumina Powder/ Epoxy by Spherical Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Hashem Abbud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a response of hybrid composite laminate woven fiber Kevlar29 – Al2O3 Powder/ Epoxy subjected to high velocity impact loading is presented. The energy absorbed due to impact of small rigid projectile on composite materials targets is determined experimentally. The energy absorbed due to impact of hemispherical projectiles on the developed composite laminates is investigated. The results revealed the maximum ballistic limit at impact velocity is found to be 390.87 ± 6 m/s for an the 18 mm target thickness. The ballistic limit velocity predictions are based on the theoretical method presented from another article. The initial velocity and residual velocity results showed good is agreement compared with the predicted results of Ipson and Recht equations. With 5.4 % of accuracy based on the experimental value for the theoretical model for ballistic limit velocity.

  3. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  4. Microstructure and High Temperature Oxidation Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Powder Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeun-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation property of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding process. Observations of initial microstructure showed a unique structure where α-Fe and (Cr, Fe)2B form a continuous three-dimensional network. High temperature oxidation tests were performed at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, for 24 h, and the oxidation weight gain according to each temperature condition was 0.13, 0.84 and 6.4 mg/cm2, respectively. The oxidation results according to time at 900 and 1000 °C conditions represented parabolic curves, and at 1100 °C condition formed a rectilinear curve. Observation and phase analysis results of the oxides identified Cr2O3 and SiO2 at 900 and 1000 °C. In addition to Cr2O3 and SiO2, CrBO3 and FeCr2O4 formed due to phase decomposition of boride were identified at 1100 °C. Based on the findings above, this study suggested the high temperature oxidation mechanism of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding, and the possibility of its application as a high temperature component material was also discussed.

  5. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  6. Pure-iron/iron-based-alloy hybrid soft magnetic powder cores compacted at ultra-high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuya; Tsuruta, Hijiri; Watanabe, Asako; Ishimine, Tomoyuki; Ueno, Tomoyuki

    2018-04-01

    We developed Fe/FeSiAl soft magnetic powder cores (SMCs) for realizing the miniaturization and high efficiency of an electromagnetic conversion coil in the high-frequency range (˜20 kHz). We found that Fe/FeSiAl SMCs can be formed with a higher density under higher compaction pressure than pure-iron SMCs. These SMCs delivered a saturation magnetic flux density of 1.7 T and iron loss (W1/20k) of 158 kW/m3. The proposed SMCs exhibited similar excellent characteristics even in block shapes, which are closer to the product shapes.

  7. Pure-iron/iron-based-alloy hybrid soft magnetic powder cores compacted at ultra-high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Saito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed Fe/FeSiAl soft magnetic powder cores (SMCs for realizing the miniaturization and high efficiency of an electromagnetic conversion coil in the high-frequency range (∼20 kHz. We found that Fe/FeSiAl SMCs can be formed with a higher density under higher compaction pressure than pure-iron SMCs. These SMCs delivered a saturation magnetic flux density of 1.7 T and iron loss (W1/20k of 158 kW/m3. The proposed SMCs exhibited similar excellent characteristics even in block shapes, which are closer to the product shapes.

  8. Performance of Dry Powder Inhalers with Single Dosed Capsules in Preschool Children and Adults Using Improved Upper Airway Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The pulmonary administration of pharmaceutical aerosols to patients is affected by age-dependent variations in the anatomy of the upper airways and the inhalation pattern. Considering this aspect, different upper airway models, representing the geometries of adults and preschool children, and a conventional induction port according to the European Pharmacopeia were used for in vitro testing of dry powder inhalers with single dosed capsules (Cyclohaler®, Handihaler® and Spinhaler®. Deposition measurements were performed using steady flow rates of 30 and 60 L/min for the Handihaler®/Spinhaler® and 30, 60 and 75 L/min for the Cyclohaler®. The inhalation volume was set at 1 L. For the Cyclohaler®, the in vitro testing was supplemented by a pediatric inhalation profile. Slight differences of pulmonary deposition between the idealized adult (11%–15% and pediatric (9%–11% upper airway model were observed for the Cyclohaler®. The applied pediatric inhalation profile resulted in a reduction of pulmonary deposition by 5% compared to steady conditions and indicated the influence of the inhalation pattern on the amount of pulmonary deposited particles. The comparison of two pediatric upper airway models showed no differences. The performance of the Handihaler® was similar to the Cyclohaler®. The Spinhaler® showed an insufficient performance and limited reproducibility in our investigations.

  9. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Maidelys; Martínez, Yordan; Ni, Hengjia; Jiang, Hongmei; Valdivié Navarro, Manuel; Wu, Xiaosong; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rosales, Manuel; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Fang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment), which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes . On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum), serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved ( P < 0.05) the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased ( P < 0.05) the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower ( P < 0.05) when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased ( P < 0.05) the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  10. The Effects of Agave fourcroydes Powder as a Dietary Supplement on Growth Performance, Gut Morphology, Concentration of IgG, and Hematology Parameters in Broiler Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelys Iser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of Agave fourcroydes powder as a dietary supplement on the growth performance, gut morphology, serum concentration of IgG, and the hematology parameters of broiler rabbits. A total of 32 rabbits [New Zealand × Californian] were weaned at 35 days. They were randomly selected for two dietary treatments (eight repetitions per treatment, which consisted of a basal diet and a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% dried-stem powder of A. fourcroydes. On day 60 from the initiation of treatment, gut histomorphology (duodenum and cecum, serum concentration of IgG, and hematology parameters were all measured. The results showed that A. fourcroydes powder supplementation improved (P<0.05 the ADFI, ADG, and final BW. Correspondingly, this treatment increased (P<0.05 the muscle and mucosa thickness and height and width of villi. However, duodenum crypts depth was lower (P<0.05 when rabbits were fed with this natural product, compared with the basal diet treatment. Results also indicated that the A. fourcroydes powder increased (P<0.05 the serum concentration of IgG but did not change the hematology parameters. This data indicates that A. fourcroydes powder, as a supplement, had beneficial effects on increasing the growth performance and serum concentration of IgG, as well as improving the gut morphology without affecting the hematology parameters in broiler rabbits.

  11. Oxidation and the Effects of High Temperature Exposures on Notched Fatigue Life of an Advanced Powder Metallurgy Disk Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Draper, Susan L.; Gorman, Timothy T.; Telesman, Jack; Gab, Timothy P.; Hull, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation and the effects of high temperature exposures on notched fatigue life were considered for a powder metallurgy processed supersolvus heat-treated ME3 disk superalloy. The isothermal static oxidation response at 704 C, 760 C, and 815 C was consistent with other chromia forming nickel-based superalloys: a TiO2-Cr2O3 external oxide formed with a branched Al2O3 internal subscale that extended into a recrystallized - dissolution layer. These surface changes can potentially impact disk durability, making layer growth rates important. Growth of the external scales and dissolution layers followed a cubic rate law, while Al2O3 subscales followed a parabolic rate law. Cr- rich M23C6 carbides at the grain boundaries dissolved to help sustain Cr2O3 growth to depths about 12 times thicker than the scale. The effect of prior exposures was examined through notched low cycle fatigue tests performed to failure in air at 704 C. Prior exposures led to pronounced debits of up to 99 % in fatigue life, where fatigue life decreased inversely with exposure time. Exposures that produced roughly equivalent 1 m thick external scales at the various isotherms showed statistically equivalent fatigue lives, establishing that surface damage drives fatigue debit, not exposure temperature. Fractographic evaluation indicated the failure mode for the pre-exposed specimens involved surface crack initiations that shifted with exposure from predominately single intergranular initiations with transgranular propagation to multi-initiations from the cracked external oxide with intergranular propagation. Weakened grain boundaries at the surface resulting from the M23C6 carbide dissolution are partially responsible for the intergranular cracking. Removing the scale and subscale while leaving a layer where M23C6 carbides were dissolved did not lead to a significant fatigue life improvement, however, also removing the M23C6 carbide dissolution layer led to nearly full recovery of life, with a

  12. High performance light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Schulenberg, T.; Struwe, D.; Oka, Y.; Bittermann, D.; Aksan, N.; Maraczy, C.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Souyri, A.; Dumaz, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) project is to assess the merit and economic feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at thermodynamically supercritical regime. An efficiency of approximately 44% is expected. To accomplish this objective, a highly qualified team of European research institutes and industrial partners together with the University of Tokyo is assessing the major issues pertaining to a new reactor concept, under the co-sponsorship of the European Commission. The assessment has emphasized the recent advancement achieved in this area by Japan. Additionally, it accounts for advanced European reactor design requirements, recent improvements, practical design aspects, availability of plant components and the availability of high temperature materials. The final objective of this project is to reach a conclusion on the potential of the HPLWR to help sustain the nuclear option, by supplying competitively priced electricity, as well as to continue the nuclear competence in LWR technology. The following is a brief summary of the main project achievements:-A state-of-the-art review of supercritical water-cooled reactors has been performed for the HPLWR project.-Extensive studies have been performed in the last 10 years by the University of Tokyo. Therefore, a 'reference design', developed by the University of Tokyo, was selected in order to assess the available technological tools (i.e. computer codes, analyses, advanced materials, water chemistry, etc.). Design data and results of the analysis were supplied by the University of Tokyo. A benchmark problem, based on the 'reference design' was defined for neutronics calculations and several partners of the HPLWR project carried out independent analyses. The results of these analyses, which in addition help to 'calibrate' the codes, have guided the assessment of the core and the design of an improved HPLWR fuel assembly. Preliminary selection was made for the HPLWR scale

  13. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Rodrigues Alves; Tognetti, Érica Rodrigues; Aguiar, Mônica Lopes; Gonçalves, José Antônio Silveira; Coury, José Renato

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency var...

  14. Performance of a Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine powder from a confined gas stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Martins Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the performance of a laboratory scale rectangular Venturi scrubber in the removal of fine mineral particles from a confined air stream are presented, and a new correlation is proposed and evaluated. The scrubber was operated with air velocities in the throat varying from 58 m/s to 75 m/s and liquid flow rates varying from 280 ml/min to 900 ml/min. Liquid was injected as a jet emerging from a 1.0 mm orifice at the throat. Results for dust collection grade efficiency varied from 87% to 98% for particles from 0.1 µm to 2.0 µm.

  15. Comparison of the electrochemical performance of mesoscopic Cu2Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ge; Huang Kelong; Liu Suqin; Zhang Wei; Gong Benli

    2006-01-01

    Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb mesoscopic alloy powders were prepared by chemical reduction, respectively. The crystal structures and particle morphology of Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical performances of the Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb electrodes were investigated by galvanostatic charge and discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed the first charge and discharge capacities of SnSb and Sn/SnSb were higher than Cu 2 Sb, but after 15 cycles, the charge capacity fading rates of Cu 2 Sb, Sn/SnSb and Sn/SnSb were 26.16%, 55.33% and 47.39%, respectively. Cu 2 Sb had a better cycle performance, and Sn/SnSb multiphase alloy was prior to pure SnSb due to the existence of excessive Sn in Sn/SnSb system

  16. Consolidation of powders of the oxide superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/Ox by high energy-high rate processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, S.J.; Peterson, D.R.; Swinnea, J.S.; Schmerling, M.

    1988-01-01

    The consolidation response of powders of the superconducting compound YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/Ox is reported. Copper, silver, tin, and Cu-based metallic glass infiltrates have also been employed in preliminary fabricability studies. The processing approach relies on short-duration (< 1s), high-current-density 10000 A/sq.cm, pulse-resistive heating of powders under applied pressures of 200 MPa to 400 MPa. Powders and fabricated disk compacts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and resistivity measurements. X-ray diffraction comparisons of starting powder and consolidated material show retention of the single phase 1-2-3 structure and the development of a preferred orientation. In the consolidated pure YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/0x, Tc onsets of 87K were accompanied by broad transitions. Iodometric analyses indicated oxygen depletion in the as-consolidated disks. Observed oxygen-content profiles across the sample thickness had values 0.11< x <0.35. The variation in the peak processing temperature within the disk was found to correlate with the oxygen content profile.

  17. Development of high performance cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The developments of superior next-generation light water reactor are requested on the basis of general view points, such as improvement of safety, economics, reduction of radiation waste and effective utilization of plutonium, until 2030 year in which conventional reactor plants should be renovate. Improvements of stainless steel cladding for conventional high burn-up reactor to more than 100 GWd/t, developments of manufacturing technology for reduced moderation-light water reactor (RMWR) of breeding ratio beyond 1.0 and researches of water-materials interaction on super critical pressure-water cooled reactor are carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Stable austenite stainless steel has been selected for fuel element cladding of advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). The austenite stain less has the superiority for anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. A hard spectrum of neutron energy up above 0.1 MeV takes place in core of the reduced moderation-light water reactor, as liquid metal-fast breeding reactor (LMFBR). High performance cladding for the RMWR fuel elements is required to get anti-irradiation properties, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength also. Slow strain rate test (SSRT) of SUS 304 and SUS 316 are carried out for studying stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Irradiation tests in LMFBR are intended to obtain irradiation data for damaged quantity of the cladding materials. (M. Suetake)

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of ODS Ferritic Steels Using Commercial Alloy Powders for High Temperature Service Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) is one of the promising ways to improve the mechanical property at high temperatures. This is mainly attributed to uniformly distributed nano-oxide particle with a high density, which is extremely stable at the high temperature and acts as effective obstacles when the dislocations are moving. In this study, as a preliminary examination to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial alloy powders and their microstructural and mechanical properties were investigated. In this study, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial stainless steel 430L powder and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Morphology of micro-grains and oxide particles were significantly changed by the addition of minor alloying elements such as Ti, Zr, and Hf. The ODS ferritic steel with Zr and Hf additions showed ultra-fine grains with fine complex oxide particles. The oxide particles were uniformly located in grains and on the grain boundaries. This led to higher hardness than ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition.

  19. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  20. Preparation of zinc ferrite nano powders by high energy wet-milling method and investigation of Crystallites size variation during this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudi, H.; Aftabi, A.; Mozafari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this research work ZnFe 2 O 4 nano powders were prepared by high-energy wet-milling process, using metallic Fe and Zn powders. The process was investigated by XRD technique. 10% of the zinc ferrite was formed after 10 h milling. The as-milled sample was annealed at 500, 550 and 600 d egree C . Ultimately a single sample was obtained at 600 d egree C . Using sherrer's formula, the mean crystallite size of the as-milled and annealed powders were calculated. These were in the range of 17.9 to 20.4 nm.

  1. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  2. Effect of high energy milling time of the aluminum bronze alloy obtained by powder metallurgy with niobium carbide addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Alexandre Nogueira Ottoboni; Silva, Aline da; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Mirian de Lourdes Noronha Motta; Rodrigues, Geovani; Silva, Gilbert, E-mail: aottoboni@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The aluminum bronze alloy is part of a class of highly reliable materials due to high mechanical strength and corrosion resistance being used in the aerospace and shipbuilding industry. It's machined to produce parts and after its use cycle, it's discarded, but third process is considered expensive and besides not being correct for environment reasons. Thus, reusing this material through the powder metallurgy (PM) route is considered advantageous. The aluminum bronze chips were submitted to high energy ball milling process with 3% of niobium carbide (NbC) addition. The NbC is a metal-ceramic composite with a ductile-brittle behaviour. It was analyzed the morphology of powders by scanning electron microscopy as well as particle size it was determined. X ray diffraction identified the phases and the influence of milling time in the diffractogram patterns. Results indicates that milling time and NbC addition improves the milling efficiency significantly and being possible to obtain nanoparticles. (author)

  3. [Determination of amitrole in agricultural products by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Fu, Jian; Gao, Hongliang; Ren, Haitao; Lou, Xishan; Guan, Lihui

    2010-03-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the analysis of amitrole residues in agricultural products. The samples were extracted by 25% acetone for wheat, fish, pork and liver samples, 1% acetic acid-25% acetone for maize and peanut samples, 1% acetic acid solution for honeysuckle, the powder of ginger, the powder of bunge prickly ash and tea leaves samples, 1% acetic acid solution-dichloromethane for apple, pineapple, spinach, carrot, perilla leaves samples, respectively, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. The samples were then cleaned up by PCX or Envi-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge. The amitrole was determined and confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed a linear relationship in the range of 0.005 -0.1 mg/kg for amitrole. The correlation coefficient was 0.999 7. The average recoveries of amitrole in wheat, maize, peanut, pineapple, apple, carrot, spinach, pork, the powder of ginger, the powder of bunge prickly ash, perilla, liver, fish, honeysuckle and tea were 67.5% - 98.1%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.0% - 9.8%. The limits of quantitation were 10 microg/kg for wheat, maize, peanut, pineapple, apple, carrot, spinach, pork, perilla, liver, fish, honeysuckle and 20 microg/kg for the powder of bunge prickly ash, the powder of ginger and tea, respectively. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate.

  4. Emerging Applications Using Magnesium Alloy Powders: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Madan, Deepak

    The use of powder metallurgy offers a potential processing route based on tailored compositions and unique microstructures to achieve high performance in magnesium alloys. This paper highlights recent advances in the production, qualification, and characterization of gas atomized AZ91E, WE43 and Elektron21 alloy powders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to understand the bulk and surface structure of the atomized powder. The potential for using these magnesium alloy powders for emerging applications involves establishing compatibility with viable consolidation processes such as cold spray, laser assisted deposition, forging and extrusion. This study summarizes the preliminary results for various ongoing investigations using WE43 powder as an example. Results show that powder metallurgy processed WE43 results in comparable properties to those obtained from cast and wrought and offers potential for improvement.

  5. Influence of Chemical and Physical Properties of Activated Carbon Powders on Oxygen Reduction and Microbial Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Nieto Delgado, Cesar; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon (AC) powders made from different precursor materials (coal, peat, coconut shell, hardwood, and phenolic resin) were electrochemically evaluated as oxygen reduction catalysts and tested as cathode catalysts

  6. Effect of powdered activated carbon dosage on sludge properties and membrane bioreactor performance in a hybrid MBR-PAC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi; Zuo, Xingtao; Xiong, Juan; Ma, Cong; Hu, Bo

    2017-12-22

    An improved insight into the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on membrane fouling is crucial to the MBR performance. Sludge key property, soluble microbial products (SMP) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) were monitored. The membrane fouling rate in the MBRs was also analyzed based on TMP profile and resistance-in-series model. PAC reduced the membrane filtration resistance and significantly decreased the fouling rate. The sludge filterability was improved by extending the filtration time by almost twofold. PAC affected the SMP release and protein/polysaccharide (carbohydrate) was in a lower ratio. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicated that PAC decreased the impact of organic carbon, and reduced the proteins' and polysaccharides' absorption and deposition on the membrane surface and in the pores. The degree of reversible and irreversible fouling was related to the PAC content added into the MBRs. At the optimum dosage of 2 g/L, the results signified the PAC potential as a mitigation strategy of membrane fouling.

  7. (YSZ) powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    109–114. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 109 ... Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India .... pensions of 900°C calcined YSZ powders. .... The sintered density data of the compacts (sintered at.

  8. Microstructure characteristic for high temperature deformation of powder metallurgy Ti–47Al–2Cr–0.2Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dan-yang; Li, Hui-zhong; Liang, Xiao-peng; Wei, Zhong-wei; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • With temperature increasing and strain rate decreasing, the β phase decreases. • With temperature increasing and strain rate decreasing, DRX grains increase. • The high temperature deformation mechanism of TiAl alloy was clearly. - Abstract: Hot compression tests of a powder metallurgy (P/M) Ti–47Al–2Cr–0.2Mo (at. pct) alloy were carried out on a Gleeble-3500 simulator at the temperatures ranging from 1000 °C to 1150 °C with low strain rates ranging from 1 × 10 −3 s −1 to 1 s −1 . Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the microstructure characteristic and nucleation mechanisms of dynamic recrystallization. The stress–strain curves show the typical characteristic of working hardening and flow softening. The working hardening is attributed to the dislocation movement. The flow softening is attributed to the dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The number of β phase decreases with increasing of deformation temperature and decreasing of strain rate. The ratio of dynamic recrystallization grain increases with the increasing of temperature and decreasing of strain rate. High temperature deformation mechanism of powder metallurgy Ti–47Al–2Cr–0.2Mo alloy mainly refers to twinning, dislocations motion, bending and reorientation of lamellae

  9. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N 15 gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work

  10. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Thermal Dissipation of Al Heat Sink When Inserting Ceramic Powders by Ultrasonic Mechanical Coating and Armoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Yu; Huang, Guan-Rong; Wang, Kuang-Kuo; Chen, Chin-Fu; Huang, J C

    2017-04-26

    Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al₂O₃, SiO₂, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations. A promising match has been reached between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements. With the adequate insertion of ceramic powders, the temperature of the Al heat sinks can be lowered by 5-11 °C, which is highly favorable for applications requiring cooling components.

  12. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  13. Achieving Mixtures of Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea POPA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC is a relatively new concrete. According to [11] UHPC is that concrete which features compressive strength over C100/115 class. Up to this point standards for this type of concrete were not adopted, although its characteristic strength exceeds those specified in [33]. Its main property is high compressive strength. This provides the possibility of reducing the section of elements (beams or columns made of this type of concrete, while the load capacity remains high. The study consists in blending mixtures of UHPC made of varying proportions of materials. The authors have obtained strengths of up to 160 MPa. The materials used are: Portland cement, silica fume, quartz powder, steel fibers, superplasticiser, sand and crushed aggregate for concrete - andesite.

  14. Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özbilen, Sedat [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Gazi University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Liebert, Daniela [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Beck, Tilmann [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany); University of Kaiserslautern, Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde (WKK), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Bram, Martin, E-mail: m.bram@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium cylinders were produced with a constant amount of temporary space holder (70 vol.%). Different interstitial contents were achieved by varying the starting powders (HDH vs. gas atomized) and manufacturing method (cold compaction without organic binders vs. warm compaction of MIM feedstocks). Interstitial contents (O, C, and N) as a function of manufacturing were measured by chemical analysis. Samples contained 0.34–0.58 wt.% oxygen, which was found to have the greatest effect on mechanical properties. Quasi-static mechanical tests under compression at low strain rate were used for reference and to define parameters for cyclic compression tests. Not unexpectedly, increased oxygen content increased the yield strength of the porous titanium. Cyclic compression fatigue tests were conducted using sinusoidal loading in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Increased oxygen content was concomitant with embrittlement of the titanium matrix, resulting in significant reduction of compression cycles before failure. For samples with 0.34 wt.% oxygen, R, σ{sub min} and σ{sub max} were varied systematically to estimate the fatigue limit (~ 4 million cycles). Microstructural changes induced by cyclic loading were then characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and EBSD. - Highlights: • Systematic variation of the oxygen content from 0.34 to 0.58 wt.%. • Systematic study of the relationship between fatigue limit and oxygen content. • Critical oxygen equivalent seems to be 0.35 wt.% to avoid embrittlement. • Identification of the failure modes by light microscopy, SEM and EBSD.

  15. The stress-corrosion cracking behavior of high-strength aluminum powder metallurgy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, J. R.; Christodoulou, L.

    1987-01-01

    The susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of rapidly solidified (RS) aluminum powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys 7090 and 7091, mechanically alloyed aluminum P/M alloy IN* 9052, and ingot metallurgy (I/M) alloys of similar compositions was compared using bolt-loaded double cantilever beam specimens. In addition, the effects of aging, grain size, grain boundary segregation, pre-exposure embrittlement, and loading mode on the SCC of 7091 were independently assessed. Finally, the data generated were used to elucidate the mechanisms of SCC in the three P/M alloys. The IN 9052 had the lowest SCC susceptibility of all alloys tested in the peak-strength condition, although no SCC was observed in the two RS alloys in the overaged condition. The susceptibility of the RS alloys was greater in the underaged than the peak-aged temper. We detected no significant differences in susceptibility of 7091 with grain sizes varying from 2 to 300 μm. Most of the crack advance during SCC of 7091 was by hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Furthermore, both RS alloys were found to be susceptible to preexposure embrittlement—also indicative of HE. The P/M alloys were less susceptible to SCC than the I/M alloys in all but one test.

  16. Fatigue behavior of highly porous titanium produced by powder metallurgy with temporary space holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbilen, Sedat; Liebert, Daniela; Beck, Tilmann; Bram, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Porous titanium cylinders were produced with a constant amount of temporary space holder (70 vol.%). Different interstitial contents were achieved by varying the starting powders (HDH vs. gas atomized) and manufacturing method (cold compaction without organic binders vs. warm compaction of MIM feedstocks). Interstitial contents (O, C, and N) as a function of manufacturing were measured by chemical analysis. Samples contained 0.34-0.58 wt.% oxygen, which was found to have the greatest effect on mechanical properties. Quasi-static mechanical tests under compression at low strain rate were used for reference and to define parameters for cyclic compression tests. Not unexpectedly, increased oxygen content increased the yield strength of the porous titanium. Cyclic compression fatigue tests were conducted using sinusoidal loading in a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Increased oxygen content was concomitant with embrittlement of the titanium matrix, resulting in significant reduction of compression cycles before failure. For samples with 0.34 wt.% oxygen, R, σ(min) and σ(max) were varied systematically to estimate the fatigue limit (~4 million cycles). Microstructural changes induced by cyclic loading were then characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and EBSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  18. Mechanical strength and thermophysical properties of PM212: A high temperature self-lubricating powder metallurgy composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phillip M.; Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Whittenberger, J. Daniel; Martineau, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    A powder metallurgy composite, PM212, composed of metal bonded chromium carbide and solid lubricants is shown to be self-lubricating to a maximum application temperature of 900 C. The high temperature compressive strength, tensile strength, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity data needed to design PM212 sliding contact bearings and seals are reported for sintered and isostatically pressed (HIPed) versions of PM212. Other properties presented are room temperature density, hardness, and elastic modulus. In general, both versions appear to have adequate strength to be considered as sliding contact bearing materials, but the HIPed version, which is fully dense, is much stronger than the sintered version which contains about 20 percent pore volume. The sintered material is less costly to make, but the HIPed version is better where high compressive strength is important.

  19. Quadrupole lamp furnace for high temperature (up to 2050 K) synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction studies in air in reflection geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, P.; Yoon, W.; Jurkschat, K.; Zschack, P.; Kriven, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    A four-lamp thermal image furnace has been developed to conduct high temperature x-ray diffraction in reflection geometry on oxide ceramic powder samples in air at temperatures ≤2050 K using synchrotron radiation. A refractory crucible made of Pt20%Rh alloy was used as a specimen holder. A material with well characterized lattice expansion properties was used as an internal crystallographic thermometer to determine the specimen temperature and displacement. The performance of the apparatus was verified by measurement of the thermal expansion properties of CeO 2 , MgO, and Pt which were found to be within ±3% of the acceptable values. The advantages, limitations, and important considerations of the instrument developed are discussed

  20. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ABSORPTION OF KENAF POWDER FILLED RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/NATURAL RUBBER BIOCOMPOSITES USING MAPE AS A COMPATIBILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura A. Rashid

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of kenaf powder (KP filled recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE /natural rubber (NR blends with and without a compatibilizer, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MAPE, were investigated. The composites with different filler loading (0 to 40 phr were prepared with a Haake internal mixer. Increasing the KP loading in rHDPE/NR/KP biocomposites reduced the tensile strength and the elongation at break but increased the stabilization torque and the tensile modulus. The addition of MAPE as a compatibilizer increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and modulus of the composites. This might be attributed to the enhanced adhesion between the filler and polymer matrix, as evidenced from the morphology, using scanning electron microscopy. The incorporation of compatibilizer also reduced the water absorption of the composites.

  1. Comparison of performance of partial prestressed beam-column subassemblages made of reactive powder concrete and normal concrete materials using finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjannah, S. A.; Budiono, B.; Imran, I.; Sugiri, S.

    2016-04-01

    Research on concrete material continues in several countries and had produced a concrete type of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) which has a better compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and durability than normal concrete (NC) namely Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC). Researches on structures using RPC material showed that the RPC structures had a better performance than the NC structures in resisting gravity and lateral cyclic loads. In this study, an experiment was conducted to apply combination of constant axial and lateral cyclic loads to a prototype of RPC interior partial prestressed beam-column subassemblage (prototype of BCS-RPC) with a value of Partial Prestressed Ratio (PPR) of 31.72% on the beam. The test results were compared with finite element model of beam-column subassemblage made of RPC by PPR of 31.72% (BCS-RPC-31.72). Furthermore, there was BCS-RPC modeling with PPR of 21.39% (BCS-RPC-21.39) and beam-column subassemblages made of NC materials modeling with a value of PPR at 21.09% (BCS-NC-21.09) and 32.02% (BCS-NC-32.02). The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of the BCS-RPC models compared to the performance of the BCS-NC models with PPR values below and above 25%, which is the maximum limit of permitted PPR. The results showed that all models of BCS-RPC had a better performance than all models of BCS-NC and the BCS-RPC model with PPR above 25% still behaved ductile and was able to dissipate energy well.

  2. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  3. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  4. Improvement of texture and sensory properties of cakes by addition of potato peel powder with high level of dietary fiber and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jeddou, Khawla; Bouaziz, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Chaari, Fatma; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma

    2017-02-15

    Demand for health oriented products such as low calories and high fiber product is increasing. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the addition of potato peel powders as protein and dietary fiber source on the quality of the dough and the cake. Powders obtained from the two types of peel flour showed interesting water binding capacity and fat absorption capacity. Potato peel flours were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentration. The results showed that peel powders additionally considerably improved the Alveograph profile of dough and the texture of the prepared cakes. In addition color measurements showed a significant difference between the control dough and the dough containing potato peels. The replacement of wheat flour with the potato powders reduced the cake hardness significantly and the L(*) and b(*) dough color values. The increased consumption of cake enriched with potato peel fiber is proposed for health reasons. The study demonstrated that protein/fiber-enriched cake with good sensory quality could be produced by the substitution of wheat flour by 5% of potato peel powder. In addition and technological point of view, the incorporation of potato peel powder at 5% increase the dough strength and elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The grinding behavior of ground copper powder for Cu/CNT nanocomposite fabrication by using the dry grinding process with a high-speed planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heekyu; Bor, Amgalan; Sakuragi, Shiori; Lee, Jehyun; Lim, Hyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of ground copper powder for copper-carbon nanotube (copper-CNT) nanocomposite fabrication during high-speed planetary ball milling was investigated because the study of the behavior characteristics of copper powder has recently gained scientific interest. Also, studies of Cu/CNT composites have widely been done due to their useful applications to enhanced, advanced nano materials and components, which would significantly improve the properties of new mechatronics-integrated materials and components. This study varied experimental conditions such as the rotation speed and the grinding time with and without CNTs, and the particle size distribution, median diameter, crystal structure and size, and particle morphology were monitored for a given grinding time. We observed that pure copper powders agglomerated and that the morphology changed with changing rotation speed. The particle agglomerations were observed with maximum experiment conditions (700 rpm, 60 min) in this study of the grinding process for mechanical alloys in the case of pure copper powders because the grinding behavior of Cu/CNT agglomerations was affected by the addition of CNTs. Indeed, the powder morphology and the crystal size of the composite powder could be changed by increasing the grinding time and the rotation speed.

  6. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  7. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  8. Kinetics of the high temperature oxygen exchange reaction on 238PuO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiting, Christofer E.; Du, Miting; Felker, L. Kevin; Wham, Robert M.; Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen exchange reactions performed on PuO 2 suggest the reaction is influenced by at least three mechanisms: an internal chemical reaction, surface mobility of active species/defects, and surface exchange of gaseous oxygen with lattice oxygen. Activation energies for the surface mobility and internal chemical reaction are presented. Determining which mechanism is dominant appears to be a complex function including at least specific surface area and temperature. Thermal exposure may also impact the oxygen exchange reaction by causing reductions in the specific surface area of PuO 2 . Previous CeO 2 surrogate studies exhibit similar behavior, confirming that CeO 2 is a good qualitative surrogate for PuO 2 , in regards to the oxygen exchange reaction. Comparison of results presented here with previous work on the PuO 2 oxygen exchange reaction allows complexities in the previous work to be explained. These explanations allowed new conclusions to be drawn, many of which confirm the conclusions presented here. - Highlights: • PuO 2 Oxygen exchange kinetics can be influenced by at least 3 different mechanisms. • An internal chemical reaction controls the rate at high temperature and large SSA. • Surface mobility and surface exchange influence rate at lower temperatures and SSA. • Exchange temperatures may alter SSA and make data difficult to interpret.

  9. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  10. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  11. Effects of Coating Materials and Processing Conditions on Flow Enhancement of Cohesive Acetaminophen Powders by High-Shear Processing With Pharmaceutical Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guoguang; Mangal, Sharad; Denman, John; Gengenbach, Thomas; Lee Bonar, Kevin; Khan, Rubayat I; Qu, Li; Li, Tonglei; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-10-01

    This study has investigated the surface coating efficiency and powder flow improvement of a model cohesive acetaminophen powder by high-shear processing with pharmaceutical lubricants through 2 common equipment, conical comil and high-shear mixer. Effects of coating materials and processing parameters on powder flow and surface coating coverage were evaluated. Both Carr's index and shear cell data indicated that processing with the lubricants using comil or high-shear mixer substantially improved the flow of the cohesive acetaminophen powder. Flow improvement was most pronounced for those processed with 1% wt/wt magnesium stearate, from "cohesive" for the V-blended sample to "easy flowing" for the optimally coated sample. Qualitative and quantitative characterizations demonstrated a greater degree of surface coverage for high-shear mixing compared with comilling; nevertheless, flow properties of the samples at the corresponding optimized conditions were comparable between 2 techniques. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated different coating mechanisms with magnesium stearate or l-leucine (magnesium stearate forms a coating layer and leucine coating increases surface roughness). Furthermore, surface coating with hydrophobic magnesium stearate did not retard the dissolution kinetics of acetaminophen. Future studies are warranted to evaluate tableting behavior of such dry-coated pharmaceutical powders. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT......The world of finance faces the computational performance challenge of massively expanding data volumes, extreme response time requirements, and compute-intensive complex (risk) analyses. Simultaneously, new international regulatory rules require considerably more transparency and external...... auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...

  13. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  14. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  15. Spiral chain structure of high pressure selenium-II' and sulfur-II from powder x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Yamada, Takahiro; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Le Bihan, Tristan

    2004-01-01

    The structure of high pressure phases, selenium-II ' (Se-II ' ) and sulfur-II (S-II), for α-Se 8 (monoclinic Se-I) and α-S 8 (orthorhombic S-I) was studied by powder x-ray diffraction experiments. Se-II ' and S-II were found to be isostructural and to belong to the tetragonal space group I4 1 /acd, which is made up of 16 atoms in the unit cell. The structure consisted of unique spiral chains with both 4 1 and 4 3 screws. The results confirmed that the structure sequence of the pressure-induced phase transitions for the group VIb elements depended on the initial molecular form. The chemical bonds of the phases are also discussed from the interatomic distances that were obtained

  16. Structure of La2Cu2O5 by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Placa, S.J.; Bringley, J.F.; Scott, B.A.; Cox, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Dicopper(II) dilanthanum pentaoxide, La 2 Cu 2 O 5 , M r =484.90, orthorhombic, Pbam. At T=300 K: a=5.5490(1), b=10.4774(2), c=3.8796(1) A, V=225.557(8) A 3 , Z=2, D x =7.139 g cm -3 , λ=1.2000 A. Final R I =6.20, R p =14.6 and R wp =20.61%, 124 independent reflections observed. The structure has been refined from high-resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data using the Rietveld method. It is of the oxygen-defect perovskite type and is composed entirely of corner-shared CuO 5 square pyramids, which share oxygen vacancies forming vacancy tunnels along the c axis. The La atoms reside at a perovskite-like A-site and are tenfold coordinated by oxygen. (orig.)

  17. High-temperature dehydration of talc: a kinetics study using in situ X-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duojun; Yi, Li; Huang, Bojin; Liu, Chuanjiang

    2015-06-01

    High-temperature in situ X-ray powder diffraction patterns were used to study the dehydration kinetics of natural talc with a size of 10-15 µm. The talc was annealed from 1073 to 1223 K, and the variations in the characteristic peaks corresponding to talc with the time were recorded to determine the reaction progress. The decomposition of talc occurred, and peaks corresponding to talc and peaks corresponding to enstatite and quartz were observed. The enstatite and talc exhibited a topotactic relationship. The dehydration kinetics of talc was studied as a function of temperature between 1073 and 1223 K. The kinetics data could be modeled using an Avrami equation that considers nucleation and growth processes ? where n varies from 0.4 to 0.8. The rate constant (k) equation for the natural talc is ? The reaction mechanism for the dehydration of talc is a heterogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism.

  18. Highly photocatalytic TiO_2 interconnected porous powder fabricated by sponge-templated atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Shengqiang; Zhao, Yuting; Huang, Gaoshan; Li, Menglin; Mei, Yongfeng; Wang, Jiao; Zheng, Lirong; Baunack, Stefan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Gemming, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A titanium dioxide (TiO_2) interconnected porous structure has been fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition of TiO_2 onto a reticular sponge template. The obtained freestanding TiO_2 with large surface area can be easily taken out of the water to solve a complex separation procedure. A compact and conformal nanocoating was evidenced by morphologic characterization. A phase transition, as well as production of oxygen vacancies with increasing annealing temperature, was detected by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrated that the powder with appropriate annealing treatment possessed excellent photocatalytic ability due to the co-action of high surface area, oxygen vacancies and the optimal crystal structure. (paper)

  19. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  20. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  1. Actual distribution of Cronobacter spp. in industrial batches of powdered infant formula and consequences for performance of sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenburger, I; Reij, M W; Boer, E P J; Gorris, L G M; Zwietering, M H

    2011-11-15

    The actual spatial distribution of microorganisms within a batch of food influences the results of sampling for microbiological testing when this distribution is non-homogeneous. In the case of pathogens being non-homogeneously distributed, it markedly influences public health risk. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Cronobacter spp. in powdered infant formula (PIF) on industrial batch-scale for both a recalled batch as well a reference batch. Additionally, local spatial occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter cells was assessed, as well as the performance of typical sampling strategies to determine the presence of the microorganisms. The concentration of Cronobacter spp. was assessed in the course of the filling time of each batch, by taking samples of 333 g using the most probable number (MPN) enrichment technique. The occurrence of clusters of Cronobacter spp. cells was investigated by plate counting. From the recalled batch, 415 MPN samples were drawn. The expected heterogeneous distribution of Cronobacter spp. could be quantified from these samples, which showed no detectable level (detection limit of -2.52 log CFU/g) in 58% of samples, whilst in the remainder concentrations were found to be between -2.52 and 2.75 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the recalled batch was -2.78 log CFU/g and a standard deviation of 1.10 log CFU/g. The estimated average concentration in the reference batch was -4.41 log CFU/g, with 99% of the 93 samples being below the detection limit. In the recalled batch, clusters of cells occurred sporadically in 8 out of 2290 samples of 1g taken. The two largest clusters contained 123 (2.09 log CFU/g) and 560 (2.75 log CFU/g) cells. Various sampling strategies were evaluated for the recalled batch. Taking more and smaller samples and keeping the total sampling weight constant, considerably improved the performance of the sampling plans to detect such a type of contaminated batch. Compared to random sampling

  2. Effects of Curcuma longa rhizome powder on egg quality, performance and some physiological indices of laying hens fed different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Samie, Abdol-Hossein; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-03-01

    High-energy diets of laying hens may improve roductive performance, although some negative effects may also appear with respect to egg quality and physiological parameters. Curcuma longa rhizome powder (CRP) has beneficial effects on health indices of the birds through antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, especially when the birds experience nutritional stress. Increasing dietary CRP enhanced egg quality by improving eggshell thickness and hardness but decreasing yolk cholesterol content (P < 0.05). The best feed conversion ratio was obtained in birds fed high-apparent metabolizable energy (AME) diets supplemented with 2.0 g kg -1 CRP (P < 0.05). Although increasing dietary AME elevated the serum concentration of triglycerides (P < 0.05) and enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.05), dietary inclusion of CRP alleviates the blood levels of these enzymes (P < 0.01). Low level of dietary CRP boosted the immune responses to Newcastle virus (P < 0.01) and sheep red blood cells (P < 0.05) antigens but decreased the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05). Inclusion of at least 2.0 g kg -1 CRP in the diet of laying decreased Escherichia coli enumerations in the ileal content (P < 0.01) and improved villus height, crypt depth and goblet cell numbers (P < 0.05). An improvement in the productive performance of laying hens fed high-energy diets might be associated with decreasing health indices and product quality, which could potentially be amended by nutritional modifications such as incorporating medicinal herbs in the feed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. High Performance JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Zakas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    If you're like most developers, you rely heavily on JavaScript to build interactive and quick-responding web applications. The problem is that all of those lines of JavaScript code can slow down your apps. This book reveals techniques and strategies to help you eliminate performance bottlenecks during development. You'll learn how to improve execution time, downloading, interaction with the DOM, page life cycle, and more. Yahoo! frontend engineer Nicholas C. Zakas and five other JavaScript experts -- Ross Harmes, Julien Lecomte, Steven Levithan, Stoyan Stefanov, and Matt Sweeney -- demonstra

  4. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  5. Comparison of The Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Electrodes with Different Carbon Powder Content and Methods of Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Rohendi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powder in the gas diffusion layer (GDL contained in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA has an important role in the flow of electrons and reactant gas. Meanwhile, the method of making the electrode is one of the many studies conducted to determine the most appropriate method to use. Comparative study of the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC electrodes with different carbon powder content (vulcan XC-72 in the GDL and methods of manufacture of the electrode between casting and spraying method has been carried out. The spraying method consists of one layer and three layer of catalyst layer (CL. The content of carbon powder in the GDL as much as 3 mg cm-2 has a better performance compared to 1.5 mg cm-2 with an increase of 177.78% current density at 0.6 V. Meanwhile, the manufacture of CL with three-layer spraying method has better performance compared with one-layer spraying and casting method.

  6. Powder diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.

    1983-01-01

    The new possibilities openned by the synchrotron radiation in the powder diffractometry techniques are presented. This technique is described in a general manner and some aspects which can be developed with the use of the synchrotron radiation are analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  8. Development of a pneumatic transport system for bulk transfer of metal grade uranium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, S.; Satpati, S.K.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium oxide powder is a commonly handled ceramic powder in nuclear industries. Design of the powder transfer system is an important aspect because of some of its typical characteristics. Pneumatic transport system has been widely used in transferring powder from one place to another. A pneumatic transport system using vacuum has been presented in the paper. This is used for bulk transfer of UO 3 powder. The system consists of a cyclone separator and filter cloth at the top of the cyclone separator. The pneumatic transfer system provides high efficiency with sustainable performance and it is a compact, robust, handy and moveable unit. No degradation of the powder quality has been observed during transfer. The system provides highly efficient, easy and safe transfer of radioactive powder, better working environment for the operator. (author)

  9. High performance electromagnetic simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Whites, Keith W.

    1994-10-01

    Army Research Office Grant #DAAH04-93-G-0453 has supported the purchase of 24 additional compute nodes that were installed in the Intel iPsC/860 hypercube at the Univesity Of Kentucky (UK), rendering a 32-node multiprocessor. This facility has allowed the investigators to explore and extend the boundaries of electromagnetic simulation for important areas of defense concerns including microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) design/analysis and electromagnetic materials research and development. The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform for MMIC circuit simulations. A number of parallel methods based on direct time-domain solutions of Maxwell's equations have been developed on the iPSC/860, including a parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, and a parallel planar generalized Yee-algorithm (PGY). The iPSC/860 has also provided an ideal platform on which to develop a 'virtual laboratory' to numerically analyze, scientifically study and develop new types of materials with beneficial electromagnetic properties. These materials simulations are capable of assembling hundreds of microscopic inclusions from which an electromagnetic full-wave solution will be obtained in toto. This powerful simulation tool has enabled research of the full-wave analysis of complex multicomponent MMIC devices and the electromagnetic properties of many types of materials to be performed numerically rather than strictly in the laboratory.

  10. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    -resolution internal D/A converters are required. Unit-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are analyzed, and the concept of mismatch-shaping is generalized to include scaled-element D/A converters. Several types of scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are proposed. Simulations show that, when implemented...... in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential......-order difference of the output signal from the loop filter's first integrator stage. This technique avoids the need for accurate matching of analog and digital filters that characterizes the MASH topology, and it preserves the signal-band suppression of quantization errors. Simulations show that quantizers...

  11. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  12. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  13. Plasma dynamic synthesis and obtaining ultrafine powders of iron oxides with high content of ε-Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, Alexander; Naiden, Evgenii; Ivashutenko, Alexander; Shanenkov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine iron oxide powders were successfully synthesized using the plasma dynamic synthesis method, based on the use of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with the iron electrode system. The synthesis was implemented in the high-speed iron-containing plasma jet, flowing into the space of the sealed chamber, filled with the gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon at different ratios. The XRD investigations showed that the synthesized products were heterophase and consisted of three main phases such as magnetite Fe3O4, hematite α-Fe2O3 and ε-Fe2O3. The SEM data confirmed the presence of three particle types: the hollow spheroids with sizes about hundreds of micrometers (magnetite), the particles with sizes up to 100 μm from the porous material of sintered submicron particles (hematite), and nanoscale particles (ε-phase). We found that at the higher oxygen concentration the content of ε-Fe2O3 is increased up to 50% at the same time with decreasing the Fe3O4 phase. The magnetic properties of the products are mainly determined by magnetite characteristics and are significantly reduced with decreasing its content in the powder. In order to investigate the synthesized ε-Fe2O3 on the ability to absorb the electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, we separated the product with the higher ε-phase concentration. The fraction mainly, consisting of ε-Fe2O3, showed the occurrence of the natural resonance at frequencies of 8.3 GHz and 130 GHz.

  14. Cation-dependent anomalous compression of gallosilicate zeolites with CGS topology: A high-pressure synchrotron powder diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yongjae; Lee, Hyun-Hwi; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kim, Sun Jin; Kao, Chi-chang

    2008-01-01

    The high-pressure compression behaviour of 3 different cation forms of gallosilicate zeolite with CGS topology has been investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell technique. Under hydrostatic conditions mediated by a nominally penetrating pressure-transmitting medium, unit-cell lengths and volume compression is modulated by different degrees of pressure-induced hydration and accompanying channel distortion. In a Na-exchanged CGS (Na 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .16H 2 O), the unit-cell volume expands by ca. 0.6% upon applying hydrostatic pressure to 0.2 GPa, whereas, in an as-synthesized K-form (K 10 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .5H 2 O), this initial volume expansion is suppressed to ca. 0.1% at 0.16 GPa. In the early stage of hydrostatic compression below ∼1 GPa, relative decrease in the ellipticity of the non-planar 10-rings is observed, which is then reverted to a gradual increase in the ellipticity at higher pressures above ∼1 GPa, implying a change in the compression mechanism. In a Sr-exchanged sample (Sr 5 Ga 10 Si 22 O 64 .19H 2 O), on the other hand, no initial volume expansion is observed. Instead, a change in the slope of volume contraction is observed near 1.5 GPa, which leads to a 2-fold increase in the compressibility. This is interpreted as pressure-induced rearrangement of water molecules to facilitate further volume contraction at higher pressures. - Graphical abstract: Three different cation forms of gallosilicate CGS zeolites have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell. Under hydrostatic conditions, unit-cell lengths and volume show anomalous compression behaviours depending on the non-framework cation type and initial hydration level, which implies different modes of pressure-induced hydration and channel distortion

  15. Characterization of metal powder based rapid prototyping components under aluminium high pressure die casting process conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available periodic inspections, monitoring crack formation and evidence of surface washout. At the end of the thermal tests, mechanical strength and hardness tests were performed to assess toughness and core resistance variations in relation to the initial conditions...

  16. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  17. Investigation into the Manufacture and Properties of Inhalable High-Dose Dry Powders Produced by Comilling API and Lactose with Magnesium Stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the impact of different concentrations of the additive material, magnesium stearate (MGST), and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), respectively, on the physicochemical properties and aerosol performance of comilled formulations for high-dose delivery. Initially, blends of API/lactose with different concentrations of MGST (1-7.5% w/w) were prepared and comilled by the jet-mill apparatus. The optimal concentration of MGST in comilled formulations was investigated, specifically for agglomerate structure and strength, particle size, uniformity of content, surface coverage, and aerosol performance. Secondly, comilled formulations with different API (1-40% w/w) concentrations were prepared and similarly analyzed. Comilled 5% MGST (w/w) formulation resulted in a significant improvement in in vitro aerosol performance due to the reduction in agglomerate size and strength compared to the formulation comilled without MGST. Higher concentrations of MGST (7.5% w/w) led to reduction in aerosol performance likely due to excessive surface coverage of the micronized particles by MGST, which led to failure in uniformity of content and an increase in agglomerate strength and size. Generally, comilled formulations with higher concentrations of API increased the agglomerate strength and size, which subsequently caused a reduction in aerosol performance. High-dose delivery was achieved at API concentration of >20% (w/w). The study provided a platform for the investigation of aerosol performance and physicochemical properties of other API and additive materials in comilled formulations for the emerging field of high-dose delivery by dry powder inhalation.

  18. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  19. Direct observation of solid-phase adsorbate concentration profile in powdered activated carbon particle to elucidate mechanism of high adsorption capacity on super-powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Naoya; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon (PAC) by pulverization increases its adsorption capacities for natural organic matter (NOM) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, which is used as a model adsorbate). A shell adsorption mechanism in which NOM and PSS molecules do not completely penetrate the adsorbent particle and instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the particle has been proposed as an explanation for this adsorption capacity increase. In this report, we present direct evidence to support the shell adsorption mechanism. PAC particles containing adsorbed PSS were sectioned with a focused ion beam, and the solid-phase PSS concentration profiles of the particle cross-sections were directly observed by means of field emission-scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (FE-SEM/EDXS). X-ray emission from sulfur, an index of PSS concentration, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of the particles. The X-ray emission profile observed by EDXS did not agree completely with the solid-phase PSS concentration profile predicted by shell adsorption model analysis of the PSS isotherm data, but the observed and predicted profiles were not inconsistent when the analytical errors were considered. These EDXS results provide the first direct evidence that PSS is adsorbed mainly in the vicinity of the external surface of the PAC particles, and thus the results support the proposition that the increase in NOM and PSS adsorption capacity with decreasing particle size is due to the increase in external surface area on which the molecules can be adsorbed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  1. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  2. New monomers for high performance polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Roy F.

    1993-01-01

    This laboratory has been concerned with the development of new polymeric materials with high thermo-oxidative stability for use in the aerospace and electronics industries. Currently, there is special emphasis on developing matrix resins and composites for the high speed civil transport (HSCT) program. This application requires polymers that have service lifetimes of 60,000 hr at 350 F (177 C) and that are readily processible into void-free composites, preferably by melt-flow or powder techniques that avoid the use of high boiling solvents. Recent work has focused on copolymers which have thermally stable imide groups separated by flexible arylene ether linkages, some with trifluoromethyl groups attached to the aromatic rings. The presence of trifluoromethyl groups in monomers and polymers often improves their solubility and processibility. The goal of this research was to synthesize several new monomers containing pendant trifluoromethyl groups and to incorporate these monomers into new imide/arylene ether copolymers. Initially, work was begun on the synthesis of three target compounds. The first two, 3,5-dihydroxybenzo trifluoride and 3-amino 5-hydroxybenzo trifluoride, are intermediates in the synthesis of more complex monomers. The third, 3,5-bis (3-amino-phenoxy) benzotrifluoride, is an interesting diamine that could be incorporated into a polyimide directly.

  3. User guide for the POLARIS powder diffractometer at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, S.; Mayers, J.

    1989-11-01

    The POLARIS spectrometer at ISIS is currently being scheduled for use as a high intensity, medium resolution powder diffractometer. The particularly high neutron flux on POLARIS enables experiments to be performed with comparatively short counting times or on small sample volumes. This ability has been exploited during kinetic experiments of phase changes, where diffraction data is collected whilst the furnace is heating up. The provision of a large detector bank at 2 θ ∼ 90 0 is particularly important for studies of powder samples at high pressures. This scattering geometry has significant advantages for experiments of this kind, as suitable collimation of the incident and outgoing beams eliminates scattering from the surrounding pressure transmitting medium. This guide is intended to give a short description of the POLARIS powder diffractometer and to provide the basic information required to perform a powder diffraction experiment. (author)

  4. Powder neutron diffractometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2002-01-01

    Basic properties and applications of powder neutron Diffractometers are described for optimum use of the continuous neutron beams. These instruments are equipped with position sensitive detectors, neutron guide tubes, and both high intensity and high resolution modes of operation are possible .The principles of both direct and Fourier reverse time-of-flight neutron Diffractometers are also given

  5. Synthesis of high-purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder by solid state reaction under hydrogen atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin-mura, Kiyoto; Otani, Yu; Ogawa, Seiya [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Niwa, Eiki; Hashimoto, Takuya [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-8-1 Sakurajousui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuchi, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sasaki, Kazuya, E-mail: k_sasaki@tokai-u.ac.jp [Course of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Department of Prime Mover Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A fine pure Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder was synthesized by using Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction. • Influences on the purity of product powder, lattice defect, and crystal orientation were revealed. • The suitable synthesis conditions of the fine and high purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder were found. • The reaction process of the synthesis of Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} was estimated. - Abstract: Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} contains a large amount of Li and has a significant potential as a tritium breeder. However, few syntheses of fine-grain, high-purity Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} powder have been reported. In this study, a high-purity powder of Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6} was synthesized by solid state reaction under hydrogen atmosphere combined with an effective lithium source and a suitable initial Li:Zr molar ratio. Mixed powders of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were fired at around 630 °C in H{sub 2} for several hours and several firing cycles. The low firing temperature inhibited the vaporization of Li during the heating, so that excessive amounts of Li were not needed for the synthesis, and the Li:Zr ratio in the starting material was 10:1 (mol:mol). In this synthesis, Li{sub 2}O was generated via the decomposition of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} during firing in H{sub 2}, and reacted with ZrO{sub 2} to form Li{sub 6}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which reacted with itself to form Li{sub 8}ZrO{sub 6}.

  6. Preparation of high-performance ultrafine-grained AISI 304L stainless steel under high temperature and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk ultra-fine grained (UFG AISI 304L stainless steel with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by a high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP method using nanocrystalline AISI 304L stainless steel powders obtained from ball milling. Samples were sintered in high-pressure conditions using the highest martensite content of AISI 304L stainless steel powders milled for 25 h. Analyses of phase composition and grain size were accomplished by X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement. By comparing the reverse martensite transformation under vacuum and HTHP treat, we consider that pressure can effectively promote the change in the process of transformation. Compared with the solid-solution-treated 304L, the hardness and yield strength of the samples sintered under HTHP are considerably higher. This method of preparation of UFG bulk stainless steel may be widely popularised and used to obtain UFG metallic materials with good comprehensive performance.

  7. Fabrication of Metallic Glass Powder for Brazing Paste for High-Temperature Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Ho; Kim, Suk Jun; Lee, Soonil; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok

    2018-06-01

    Metallic glass (MG) offers the advantage of outstanding oxidation resistance, since it has disordered atomic-scale structure without grain boundaries. We fabricated Al-based MG ribbons (Al84.5Y10Ni5.5) by a melt spinning process. We evaluated the adhesion strength of interfaces between the Al-based MG and a Ni-coated Cu electrode formed under various conditions at high temperature. In addition, we attempted to optimize the process conditions for pulverizing MG ribbons to high-energy ball milling and planetary milling. We confirmed that the electrical resistivity of the Al-based MG ribbon was substantially reduced after annealing at high temperature (over 300°C) due to crystallization.

  8. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarathnam, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  9. Reverse martensitic transformation in alumina-15 vol% zirconia nanostructured powder synthesized by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneshian, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Avenue, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mh_maneshian@yahoo.com; Banerjee, M.K. [National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Hatia, Ranchi 834003 (India)

    2008-07-14

    In the present work, three alumina-15 vol% zirconia composites with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO as dopants and without oxide as dopant have been investigated. High energy ball milling (HEBM) provides the positive thermodynamic driving force for monoclinic to tetragonal transformation and it reduces starting temperature for the reverse martensitic transformation, meanwhile mobility of zirconium cations and oxygen anions are enhanced in zirconia by HEBM. The general, albeit heuristic, reasoning is corroborated by nanocrystallity, particle size and also the retained monoclinic seem to play an important role. After 10 h HEBM, approximately 28% zirconia tetragonal phase is achieved. Non-stoichiometric tetragonal zirconia phase; Zr{sub 0.95}O{sub 2} is seen to have been achieved by high energy ball milling (HEBM). The structural and compositional evolutions during HEBM have been investigated using X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is also used for further understanding about the phenomenological changes taking place during high energy ball milling.

  10. High-Yield Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets by Exfoliating Natural Molybdenite Powders Directly via a Coupled Ultrasonication-Milling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Cost-effective and scalable preparation of two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been the bottleneck that limits their applications. This paper reports a novel coupled ultrasonication-milling (CUM) process to exfoliate natural molybdenite powders to achieve few-layer MoS2 (FL-MoS2) nanosheets in the solvent of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules. The synergistic effect of ultrasonication and sand milling highly enhanced the exfoliation efficiency, and the precursor of natural molybdenite powders minimizes the synthetic cost of FL-MoS2 nanosheets. The exfoliation of natural molybdenite powders was conducted in a home-made CUM system, mainly consisting of an ultrasonic cell disruptor and a ceramic sand mill. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectra, Raman spectra, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, AFM, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The factors that influence the exfoliation in the CUM process, including the initial concentration of natural molybdenite powders ( C in, 15-55 g L-1), ultrasonic power ( P u, 200-350 W), rotation speed of sand mill ( ω s, 1500-2250 r.p.m), exfoliation time ( t ex, 0.5-6 h), and the molar ratio of PVP unit to MoS2 ( R pm, 0-1), were systematically investigated. Under the optimal CUM conditions (i.e., C in = 45 g L-1, P u = 280 W, ω s = 2250 r.p.m and R pm = 0.5), the yield at t ex = 6 h reaches 21.6 %, and the corresponding exfoliation rate is as high as 1.42 g L-1 h-1. The exfoliation efficiency of the CUM mode is much higher than that of either the ultrasonication (U) mode or the milling (M) mode. The synergistic mechanism and influencing rules of the CUM process in exfoliating natural molybdenite powders were elaborated. The as-obtained FL-MoS2 nanosheets have a high specific surface area of 924 m2 g-1 and show highly enhanced electrocatalytic performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and good electrochemical sensing property in detecting ascorbic acid. The CUM process

  11. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  12. Biomimetic fabrication of WO3 for water splitting under visible light with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Chao; Zhu, Shenmin; Yao, Fan; Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Zhixin; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the high light-harvesting properties of typical butterfly wings, ceramic WO 3 butterfly wings with hierarchical structures of bio-butterfly wings was fabricated using a template of PapilioParis butterfly wings through a sol–gel method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the structures of the ceramic butterfly wings was investigated and the results showed that the WO 3 butterfly wing replica calcined at 550 °C (WO 3 replica-550) is a single phase and has a high crystallinity and relatively fine hierarchical structure. The average grain size of WO 3 replica-550 and WO 3 powder are around 32.6 and 42.2 nm, respectively. Compared with pure WO 3 powder, WO 3 replica-550 demonstrated a higher light-harvesting capability in the region from 460 to 700 nm and more importantly the higher charge separation rate, as evidenced by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. Photocatalytic O 2 evolutions from water were investigated on the ceramic butterfly wings and pure WO 3 powder under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results showed that the amount of O 2 produced from WO 3 replica-550 is 50 % higher than that of the pure WO 3 powder. The improved photocatalytic performance of WO 3 replica-550 is attributed to the quasi-honeycomb structure inherited from the PapilioParis butterfly wings, providing both high light-harvesting efficiency and efficient charge transport through the WO 3

  13. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with high magnetization prepared by acetone-aided coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu, E-mail: hfyu@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2013-09-15

    BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles with high magnetization were produced using an acetone-aided coprecipitation process. An aqueous solution of iron and barium nitrates, in an Fe{sup 3+}/Ba{sup 2+} molar ratio of 12, was added in a stirred precipitation liquid medium composed of H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}(CO)CH{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}OH. After reacting metallic ions with ammonia, the precipitates were formed, centrifugally filtered, freeze dried and calcined. Effects of amount of the acetone in the precipitation liquid medium on the formation of crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were investigated. The presence of acetone in the precipitation liquid medium can greatly promote formation of the crystalline BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at temperature as low as 650 °C and can enhance magnetization of the derived particles. On the other hand, raising the calcination temperature can effectively accelerate development of crystallite morphology and magnetic characters of the barium hexaferrites. While the barium hexaferrite powder obtained without acetone additions and calcined at 1000 °C had magnetization (measured at 50 kOe; M(50 kOe)) of 63.5 emu/g, remanence magnetization (Mr) of 31.3 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 4.7 kOe, the single magnetic domain size BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was produced at 1000 °C, using a precipitation liquid medium of 64 vol% acetone. - Highlights: • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with high magnetic characters was produced by an acetone-aided coprecipitation. • The effects of acetone addition in the precipitation on the formation of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} were studied. • Acetone presence in the precipitation liquid medium promoted BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} formation at ≥650 °C. • BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} with M(50 kOe) of 70.6 emu/g, Mr of 34.4 emu/g and Hc of 3.7 kOe was obtained.

  14. Effect of Powder-Suspended Dielectric on the EDM Characteristics of Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Gangadharudu; Gangopadhyay, S.; Biswas, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    The current work attempts to establish the criteria for powder material selection by investigating the influence of various powder-suspended dielectrics and machining parameters on various EDM characteristics of Inconel 625 (a nickel-based super alloy) which is nowadays regularly used in aerospace, chemical, and marine industries. The powders include aluminum (Al), graphite, and silicon (Si) that have significant variation in their thermo-physical characteristics. Results showed that powder properties like electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, density, and hardness play a significant role in changing the machining performance and the quality of the machined surface. Among the three powders, highest material removal rate was observed for graphite powder due to its high electrical and thermal conductivities. Best surface finish and least radial overcut (ROC) were attained using Si powder. Maximum microhardness was found for Si due to its low thermal conductivity and high hardness. It is followed by graphite and aluminum powders. Addition of powder to the dielectric has increased the crater diameter due to expansion of plasma channel. Powder-mixed EDM (PMEDM) was also effective in lowering the density of surface cracks with least number of cracks obtained with graphite powder. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated possible formation of metal carbides along with grain growth phenomenon of Inconel 625 after PMEDM.

  15. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  16. Strategies and Experiences Using High Performance Fortran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shires, Dale

    2001-01-01

    .... High performance Fortran (HPF) is a relative new addition to the Fortran dialect It is an attempt to provide an efficient high-level Fortran parallel programming language for the latest generation of been debatable...

  17. X-ray powder diffraction camera for high-field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K; Mitsui, Y; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, K

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a high-field X-ray diffraction (HF-XRD) camera which will be inserted into an experimental room temperature bore (100 mm) of a conventional solenoid-type cryocooled superconducting magnet (10T-CSM). Using the prototype camera that is same size of the HF-XRD camera, a XRD pattern of Si is taken at room temperature in a zero magnetic field. From the obtained results, the expected ability of the designed HF-XRD camera is presented.

  18. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  19. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  20. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Liming Dai

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their high energy density and power density, supercapacitors exhibit great potential as high-performance energy sources for advanced technologies. Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties. This article summarizes the recent progresses on the development of high-performance supercapacitors bas...

  1. The analysis of powder diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron powder diffraction data analysis, with emphasis on the structural aspects of powder diffraction and the future possibilities afforded by the latest generation of very high resolution neutron and x-ray powder diffractometers. Traditional x-ray powder diffraction techniques are outlined. Structural studies by powder diffraction are discussed with respect to the Rietveld method, and a case study in the Rietveld refinement method and developments of the Rietveld method are described. Finally studies using high resolution powder diffraction at the Spallation Neutron Source, ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory are summarized. (U.K.)

  2. Effect of vanadium carbide on dry sliding wear behavior of powder metallurgy AISI M2 high speed steel processed by concentrated solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, C. [Materials Engineering. E.I.I., Universidad de Valladolid. C/Paseo del cauce 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Romero, A. [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales. Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales (INEI). Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Edificio Politécnico, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Herranz, G., E-mail: gemma.herranz@uclm.es [E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales. Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales (INEI). Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Edificio Politécnico, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Blanco, Y.; Martin, F. [Materials Engineering. E.I.I., Universidad de Valladolid. C/Paseo del cauce 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Mixtures of AISI M2 high speed steel and vanadium carbide (3, 6 or 10 wt.%) were prepared by powder metallurgy and sintered by concentrated solar energy (CSE). Two different powerful solar furnaces were employed to sinter the parts and the results were compared with those obtained by conventional powder metallurgy using a tubular electric furnace. CSE allowed significant reduction of processing times and high heating rates. The wear resistance of compacts was studied by using rotating pin-on-disk and linearly reciprocating ball-on-flat methods. Wear mechanisms were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and chemical inspections of the microstructures of the samples. Better wear properties than those obtained by conventional powder metallurgy were achieved. The refinement of the microstructure and the formation of carbonitrides were the reasons for this. - Highlights: •Powder metallurgy of mixtures of M2 high speed steel and VC are studied. •Some sintering is done by concentrated solar energy. •Rotating pin-on-disk and linearly reciprocating ball-on-flat methods are used. •The tribological properties and wear mechanisms, under dry sliding, are studied.

  3. High transport current superconductivity in powder-in-tube Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 tapes at 27 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yao, Chao; Dong, Chiheng; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Dongliang; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Jianqi; Awaji, Satoshi; Wen, Haihu; Ma, Yanwei

    2018-01-01

    The high upper critical field and low anisotropy of iron-based superconductors (IBS) make them particularly attractive for high-field applications, especially for the construction of next-generation nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers, particle accelerators and high-field magnets. However, for practical use it is essential to make IBS materials into wire and tape conductors with sufficient current carrying capability, which is limited by misaligned grains inside the conductors. Here, based on a simple and low-cost powder-in-tube (PIT) method, we demonstrate a high transport critical current density (J c) reaching 1.5 × 105 A cm-2 (I c = 437 A) at 4.2 K and 10 T in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba-122) tapes by texturing the grain orientation with optimized hot-press technique. The transport J c measured at 4.2 K under high magnetic fields of 27 T is still on the level of 5.5 × 104 A cm-2. Moreover, at 20 K and 5 T the transport J c is also as high as 5.4 × 104 A cm-2, showing a promising application potential in moderate temperature range which can be reached by liquid hydrogen or cryogenic cooling. All these J c values are the highest ever reported for IBS wires and tapes. The high-performance PIT Ba-122 tapes in this work suggest IBS to be a strong potential competitor of cuprate superconductors for the race of high-field applications in the future.

  4. Grape powder intake prevents ovariectomy-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment and high blood pressure in female Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Patki

    Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role

  5. Metallization of uranium oxide powders by lithium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. S.; Seo, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments on the reduction of uranium oxide powders into metal by lithium were performed in order to determine the equipment setup and optimum operation conditions. The method of filtration using the porous magnesia filter was introduced to recover uranium metal powders produced. Based on the laboratory scale experimental results, mock-up scale (20 kg U/batch) metallizer was designed and made. The applicability to the metallization process was estimated with respect to the thermal stability of the porous magnesia filter in the high temperature molten salt, the filtration of the fine uranium metal powders, and the operability of the equipment

  6. Team Development for High Performance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The author examines a team development approach to management that creates shared commitments to performance improvement by focusing the attention of managers on individual workers and their task accomplishments. It uses the "high-performance equation" to help managers confront shared beliefs and concerns about performance and develop realistic…

  7. Mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete following exposure to high temperature reaching 800 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Yuh-Shiou, E-mail: ystai@cc.cma.edu.tw [Department of Civil Engineering, ROC Military Academy, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Pan, Huang-Hsing; Kung, Ying-Nien [Department of Civil Engineering, Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > The stress-strain relation of reactive powder concrete after exposure to high temperatures are tested by using displacement control. > Develops regression formulae to estimate the mechanical properties of RPC. > Valuable experimental data have been obtained about RPC with various fiber contents. These data include compressive strength, peak strain and modulus of elasticity. - Abstract: This study investigates the stress-strain relation of RPC in quasi-static loading after an elevated temperature. The cylinder specimens of RPC with {phi} 50 mm x 100 mm are examined at the room temperature and after 200-800 deg. C. Experimental results indicate that the residual compressive strength of RPC after heating from 200-300 deg. C increases more than that at room temperature, but, significantly decreases when the temperature exceeds 300 deg. C. The residual peak strains of RPC also initially increase up to 400-500 deg. C, then decrease gradually beyond 500 deg. C. Meanwhile, Young's modulus diminishes with an increasing temperature. Based on the regression analysis results, this study also develops regression formulae to estimate the mechanical properties of RPC after an elevated temperature, thus providing a valuable reference for industrial applications and design.

  8. Sharp or broad pulse peak for high resolution instruments? Choice of moderator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, M.; Watanabe, N.; Teshigawara, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept how we should choose moderator performance to realize required performance for instruments. Neutron burst pulse can be characterized with peak intensity, peak width and tail. Those can be controllable by designing moderator, i.e. material, temperature, shape, decoupling, poisoning and having premoderator. Hence there are large number of variable parameters to be determined. Here we discuss the required moderator performance for some typical examples, i.e. high resolution powder instrument, chopper instrument, high resolution back scattering machine. (author)

  9. Delivering high performance BWR fuel reliably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schardt, J.F. [GE Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Utilities are under intense pressure to reduce their production costs in order to compete in the increasingly deregulated marketplace. They need fuel, which can deliver high performance to meet demanding operating strategies. GE's latest BWR fuel design, GE14, provides that high performance capability. GE's product introduction process assures that this performance will be delivered reliably, with little risk to the utility. (author)

  10. HPTA: High-Performance Text Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Vandierendonck, Hans; Murphy, Karen; Arif, Mahwish; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main targets of data analytics is unstructured data, which primarily involves textual data. High-performance processing of textual data is non-trivial. We present the HPTA library for high-performance text analytics. The library helps programmers to map textual data to a dense numeric representation, which can be handled more efficiently. HPTA encapsulates three performance optimizations: (i) efficient memory management for textual data, (ii) parallel computation on associative dat...

  11. The refractive-index correction in powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, M.; Parrish, W.; Bellotto, M.; Lim, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Throughout the history of powder diffraction practice there has been uncertainty about whether or not a refractive-index correction should be made to Bragg's law. High-precision Bragg-angle measurements have been performed with synchrotron radiation on SRM-640 silicon powders at glancing angles; it is found that little or no correction is necessary for the usual 2θ angle range. (orig.)

  12. Syntheses and characterizations of LiFePO4 powders

    OpenAIRE

    Jugović, Dragana; Kuzmanović, Maja; Mitrić, Miodrag; Cvjetićanin, Nikola; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The olivine type compositions LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co) are among the most attractive materials for the positive electrode of lithium-ion battery. The benefits of using LiFePO4 are excellent cycle life, high structural stability, low cost and environmental friendliness. Here will be presented our efforts to obtain LiFePO4 powders through several synthesis methods. The differences in phase purity, microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of synthesized powders were investigat...

  13. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  15. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Homma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD at a material throughput of 480 g h−1. The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ~20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  16. High throughput production of nanocomposite SiO x powders by plasma spray physical vapor deposition for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Keiichiro; Kambara, Makoto; Yoshida, Toyonobu

    2014-04-01

    Nanocomposite Si/SiO x powders were produced by plasma spray physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) at a material throughput of 480 g h -1 . The powders are fundamentally an aggregate of primary ∼20 nm particles, which are composed of a crystalline Si core and SiO x shell structure. This is made possible by complete evaporation of raw SiO powders and subsequent rapid condensation of high temperature SiO x vapors, followed by disproportionation reaction of nucleated SiO x nanoparticles. When CH 4 was additionally introduced to the PS-PVD, the volume of the core Si increases while reducing potentially the SiO x shell thickness as a result of the enhanced SiO reduction, although an unfavorable SiC phase emerges when the C/Si molar ratio is greater than 1. As a result of the increased amount of Si active material and reduced source for irreversible capacity, half-cell batteries made of PS-PVD powders with C/Si = 0.25 have exhibited improved initial efficiency and maintenance of capacity as high as 1000 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles at the same time.

  17. Fuel performance of rod-type research reactor fuel using a centrifugally atomized U-Mo powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A low enriched uranium nuclear fuel for research reactors has been developed in order to replace a highly enriched uranium fuel according to the non-proliferation policy under the reduced enrichment for research and test reactors (RERTR) program. In KAERI, a rod-type U 3 Si dispersion fuel has been developed for a localization of the HANARO fuel and a U 3 Si/Al dispersion fuel of 3.15 gU/cc has been used at HANARO as a driver fuel since 2005. Although uranium silicide dispersion fuels such as U 3 Si 2 /Al and U 3 Si/Al are being used widely, high uranium density dispersion fuels (8-9 g/cm 3 ) are required for some high performance research reactors. U-Mo alloys have been considered as one of the most promising uranium alloys for a dispersion fuel due to their good irradiation performance. An international qualification program on U-Mo fuel to replace a uranium silicide dispersion fuel with a U-Mo dispersion fuel has been carried out

  18. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  19. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  20. Developments with melt spun RE-Fe-B powder for bonded magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.N.; Chen, Z.; Guschl, P.; Campbell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Rapidly quenched isotropic rare earth iron boride (RE-Fe-B) powders have found many applications throughout the electronics, automotive and white goods industries. The magnetic performance, thermal stability, corrosion resistance and processability of a powder are important factors when selecting a RE-Fe-B powder for a particular application. For electronic devices that operate at ambient temperatures, high remanence (B r ) tends to be a priority and RE 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe nanocomposite powder magnets are favoured. Alternatively, automotive applications tend to require greater thermal stability and corrosion resistance, which are satisfied by single-phase RE 2 Fe 14 B powder magnets with higher intrinsic coercivity (H ci ). This article reviews the performance of commercially available rapidly solidified RE-Fe-B powders and recent developments made to address the demands of applications

  1. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  2. Microstructure and morphology of powder particles TiC-NiCr, synthesized in plasma jet, at high-energy actions on components of initial composition Ti-C-NiCr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Oleg P.; Smirnov, Andrey V.; Chesnokov, Anton E.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experiments on in-situ synthesis of the microspherical, in particular hollow, cermet powder TiC- 30vol.%NiCr at processing of the Ti-C-NiCr agglomerates in argon-helium plasma jet flowing out into controlled atmosphere are presented. Preparation of the agglomerates consisted of the following stages: (i) high-energy treatment of the initial powders Ti and NiCr in planetary mill with their subsequent uniform mixing with glass black powder, (ii) preparation of dough from mechanically mixed powders and binder, and their granulation using the extrusion method, (iii) drying and classification of granules by the sizes.

  3. Combining thermodynamic modeling and 3D printing of elemental powder blends for high-throughput investigation of high-entropy alloys – Towards rapid alloy screening and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Christian; Tang, Florian; Wilms, Markus B.; Weisheit, Andreas; Hallstedt, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    High-entropy alloys have gained high interest of both academia and industry in recent years due to their excellent properties and large variety of possible alloy systems. However, so far prediction of phase constitution and stability is based on empirical rules that can only be applied to selected alloy systems. In the current study, we introduce a methodology that enables high-throughput theoretical and experimental alloy screening and design. As a basis for thorough thermodynamic calculations, a new database was compiled for the Co–Cr–Fe–Mn–Ni system and used for Calphad and Scheil simulations. For bulk sample production, laser metal deposition (LMD) of an elemental powder blend was applied to build up the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy as a first demonstrator. This production approach allows high flexibility in varying the chemical composition and, thus, renders itself suitable for high-throughput alloy production. The microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the material processed were characterized using optical microscopy, EBSD, EDX, XRD, hardness and compression testing. The LMD-produced alloy revealed full density, strongly reduced segregation compared to conventionally cast material, pronounced texture, and excellent mechanical properties. Phase constitution and elemental distribution were correctly predicted by simulations. The applicability of the introduced methodology to high-entropy alloys and extension to compositionally complex alloys is discussed.

  4. Combining thermodynamic modeling and 3D printing of elemental powder blends for high-throughput investigation of high-entropy alloys – Towards rapid alloy screening and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Christian, E-mail: christian.haase@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Tang, Florian [Institute for Materials Applications in Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Wilms, Markus B.; Weisheit, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hallstedt, Bengt [Institute for Materials Applications in Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-14

    High-entropy alloys have gained high interest of both academia and industry in recent years due to their excellent properties and large variety of possible alloy systems. However, so far prediction of phase constitution and stability is based on empirical rules that can only be applied to selected alloy systems. In the current study, we introduce a methodology that enables high-throughput theoretical and experimental alloy screening and design. As a basis for thorough thermodynamic calculations, a new database was compiled for the Co–Cr–Fe–Mn–Ni system and used for Calphad and Scheil simulations. For bulk sample production, laser metal deposition (LMD) of an elemental powder blend was applied to build up the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy as a first demonstrator. This production approach allows high flexibility in varying the chemical composition and, thus, renders itself suitable for high-throughput alloy production. The microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the material processed were characterized using optical microscopy, EBSD, EDX, XRD, hardness and compression testing. The LMD-produced alloy revealed full density, strongly reduced segregation compared to conventionally cast material, pronounced texture, and excellent mechanical properties. Phase constitution and elemental distribution were correctly predicted by simulations. The applicability of the introduced methodology to high-entropy alloys and extension to compositionally complex alloys is discussed.

  5. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    ) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) grade .... applications. These are important requirements if the reagent is to be applicable to on-line pre or post column derivatisation in a possible automation of the analytical.

  6. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  7. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  8. Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngo, David

    2003-01-01

    The Embedded High Performance Scalable Computing Systems (EHPSCS) program is a cooperative agreement between Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company and DARPA that ran for three years, from Apr 1995 - Apr 1998...

  9. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  10. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  11. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  12. High-performance computing — an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Peter

    1996-08-01

    An overview of high-performance computing (HPC) is given. Different types of computer architectures used in HPC are discussed: vector supercomputers, high-performance RISC processors, various parallel computers like symmetric multiprocessors, workstation clusters, massively parallel processors. Software tools and programming techniques used in HPC are reviewed: vectorizing compilers, optimization and vector tuning, optimization for RISC processors; parallel programming techniques like shared-memory parallelism, message passing and data parallelism; and numerical libraries.

  13. Governance among Malaysian high performing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Marsidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Well performed companies have always been linked with effective governance which is generally reflected through effective board of directors. However many issues concerning the attributes for effective board of directors remained unresolved. Nowadays diversity has been perceived as able to influence the corporate performance due to the likelihood of meeting variety of needs and demands from diverse customers and clients. The study therefore aims to provide a fundamental understanding on governance among high performing companies in Malaysia.

  14. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J.

    2006-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  15. High-performance OPCPA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuegel, J.D.; Bagnoud, V.; Bromage, J.; Begishev, I.A.; Puth, J. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is ideally suited for amplifying ultra-fast laser pulses since it provides broadband gain across a wide range of wavelengths without many of the disadvantages of regenerative amplification. A high-performance OPCPA system has been demonstrated as a prototype for the front end of the OMEGA Extended Performance (EP) Laser System. (authors)

  16. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  17. Electroactive thermoset shape memory polymer nanocomposite filled with nanocarbon powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lan, Xin; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns an electroactive thermoset styrene-based shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposite filled with nanosized (30 nm) carbon powders. With an increase of the incorporated nanocarbon powders of the SMP composite, its glass transition temperature (T g ) decreases and storage modulus increases. Due to the high micro-porosity and homogeneous distributions of nanocarbon powders in the SMP matrix, the SMP composite shows good electrical conductivity with a percolation of about 3.8%. This percolation threshold is slightly lower than that of many other carbon-based conductive polymer composites. Consequently, due to the relatively high electrical conductivity, a sample filled with 10 vol% nanocarbon powders shows a good electroactive shape recovery performance heating by a voltage of 30 V above a transition temperature of 56–69 °C

  18. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  19. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  20. Powder metallurgy Al–6Cr–2Fe–1Ti alloy prepared by melt atomisation and hot ultra-high pressure compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dám, Karel; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Průša, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy was prepared by melt atomisation into rapidly solidified powder. The powder was compacted using uniaxial hot compression at an ultra-high pressure (6 GPa). The samples were pressed at 300, 400 and 500 °C. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability were examined and compared with those of the commercially available Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni casting alloy, which is considered thermally stable. It was shown that the hot compression at ultra-high pressure results in a compact and pore-free material with excellent mechanical properties. The elevated pressing temperatures were found to be effective at increasing the mechanical stability after applying the ultra-high pressure. The results of thermal stability testing revealed that the mechanical properties do not change significantly at high temperature, even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. In addition, the Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy exhibited very good creep resistance. A comparison between the commercial Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni alloy and the powder metallurgy alloy shows that this alloy has significantly better mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  1. Powder metallurgy Al-6Cr-2Fe-1Ti alloy prepared by melt atomisation and hot ultra-high pressure compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, Karel, E-mail: Karel.Dam@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vojtech, Dalibor; Prusa, Filip [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-01-10

    Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy was prepared by melt atomisation into rapidly solidified powder. The powder was compacted using uniaxial hot compression at an ultra-high pressure (6 GPa). The samples were pressed at 300, 400 and 500 Degree-Sign C. The structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability were examined and compared with those of the commercially available Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni casting alloy, which is considered thermally stable. It was shown that the hot compression at ultra-high pressure results in a compact and pore-free material with excellent mechanical properties. The elevated pressing temperatures were found to be effective at increasing the mechanical stability after applying the ultra-high pressure. The results of thermal stability testing revealed that the mechanical properties do not change significantly at high temperature, even after 100 h of annealing at 400 Degree-Sign C. In addition, the Al--6Cr--2Fe--1Ti alloy exhibited very good creep resistance. A comparison between the commercial Al--12Si--1Cu--1Mg--1Ni alloy and the powder metallurgy alloy shows that this alloy has significantly better mechanical properties and thermal stability.

  2. Advanced high performance solid wall blanket concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Malang, S.; Nishio, S.; Raffray, R.; Sagara, A.

    2002-01-01

    First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability

  3. Comparison of Cottonwood Dendrochronology and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Geochronometers Along a High Plains Meandering River, Powder River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, T. R.; Schook, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Geochronometers at centennial scales can aid our understanding of process rates in fluvial geomorphology. Plains cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides ssp. Monilifera) in the high plains of the United States are known to germinate on freshly created deposits such as point bars adjacent to rivers. As the trees mature they may be partially buried (up to a few meters) by additional flood deposits. Cottonwood age gives a minimum age estimate of the stratigraphic surface where the tree germinated and a maximum age estimate for overlying sediments, providing quantitative data on rates of river migration and sediment accumulation. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of sand grains can be used to estimate the time since the sand grains were last exposed to sunlight, also giving a minimum age estimate of sediment burial. Both methods have disadvantages: Browsing, partial burial, and other damage to young cottonwoods can increase the time required for the tree to reach a height where it can be sampled with a tree corer, making the germination point a few years to a few decades older than the measured tree age; fluvial OSL samples can have inherited age (when the OSL age is older than the burial age) if the sediment was not completely bleached prior to burial. We collected OSL samples at 8 eroding banks of the Powder River Montana, and tree cores at breast height (±1.2 m) from cottonwood trees growing on the floodplain adjacent to the OSL sample locations. Using the Minimum Age Model (MAM) we found that OSL ages appear to be 500 to 1,000 years older than the adjacent cottonwood trees which range in age (at breast height) from 60 to 185 years. Three explanations for this apparent anomaly in ages are explored. Samples for OSL could be below a stratigraphic unconformity relative to the cottonwood germination elevation. Shallow samples for OSL could be affected by anthropogenic mixing of sediments due to plowing and leveling of hay fields. The OSL samples could have

  4. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-01

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such as a

  5. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M K; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, B; Kumar, Sh; Joshi, S K; Kumar, S; Sathapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (Pratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

  6. Method of making a long life high current density cathode from tungsten and iridium powders using a quaternary compound as the impregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branovich, L.E.; Smith, B.; Freemen, G.L.; Eckart, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of making a long life high current density cathode. It is suitable for operation in microwave devices. It is made from tungsten and iridium powders using a quaternary compound including barium, oxygen, a metal selected from the group consisting of osmium, iridium, rhodium, and rhenium, and a metal selected from the group consisting of strontium, calcium, scandium, and titanium as the impregnant

  7. Preparation of high-purity ZrSiO4 powder using sol-gel processing and mechanical properties of the sintered body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, T.; Yamamura, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Mitamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that effects of the concentration of ZrOCl 2 , calcination temperature, heating rate, and the size of secondary particles after hydrolysis on the preparation of high-purity ZrSiO 4 fine powders from ZrOCl 2 :8H 2 O (0.2M to 1.7M) and equimolar colloidal SiO 2 using Sol--gel processing have been studied. Mechanical properties of the sintered ZrSiO 4 from the high-purity ZrSiO 4 powders have been also investigated. Single-phase ZrSiO 4 fine powders were synthesized at 1300 degrees C by forming ZrSiO 4 precursors having a Zr---O---Si bond, which was found in all the hydrolysis solutions, and by controlling a secondary particle size after hydrolysis. The conversion rate of ZrSiO 4 precursor gels to ZrSiO 4 powders from concentrations other than 0.4M ZrOCl 2 ·8H 2 O increased when the heating rate was high, whereupon the crystallization of unreacted ZrO 2 and SiO 2 was depressed and the propagation and increase of ZrSiO 4 nuclei in the gels were accelerated. The density of the ZrSiO 4 sintered bodies, manufactured by firing the ZrSiO 4 compacts at 1600 degrees to 1700 degrees C, was more than 95% of the theoretical density, and the grain size ranged around 2 to 4 μm. The mechanical strength was 320 MPa (room temperature to 1400 degrees C), and the thermal shock resistance was superior to that of mullite and alumina, with fairly high stability at higher temperatures

  8. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  9. Powder metallurgy of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on the powder metallurgical methods for the production of high-melting materials, such as pure metals and their alloys, compound materials with a tungsten base and hard metals from liquid phase sintered carbides. (author)

  10. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  11. Size and surface AREA analysis of some metallic and intermetallic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Abadir, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The powder characterization of three intermetallic compounds ( Cr B, B 4 c and S ib 4 ) and three metallic powders (Fe, Co, and Ni) has been performed. This included the determination of powder density, chemical analysis, impurity analysis, shape factor, particle size analysis and specific surface area. The particle size analysis for the six powders was carried out using three techniques, namely; the 0-23, the microtrac and the fisher sub sieve and size. It was found that the analysis of the two powders and deviates from the log-normal probability distribution and the deviation was corrected. The specific surface area of the powders was measured using the high speed surface area analysis (BET method), and it was also calculated from surface area analysis findings, the BET technique was found to give the highest specific surface area values, and was attributed to the inclusion of internal porosity in the measurement. 8 fig., 10 tab

  12. Designing a High Performance Parallel Personal Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Kapanova, K. G.; Sellier, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, many scientific and engineering areas require high performance computing to perform computationally intensive experiments. For example, many advances in transport phenomena, thermodynamics, material properties, computational chemistry and physics are possible only because of the availability of such large scale computing infrastructures. Yet many challenges are still open. The cost of energy consumption, cooling, competition for resources have been some of the reasons why the scientifi...

  13. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  14. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  15. The effect of surfactant addition on high-energy milling upon the magnetic properties and microstructure of the Pr-Fe-B HDDR magnetic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.B.; Silva, S.C.; Faria, R.N.; Takiishia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanomagnetic powders based on the composition Pr 12 Fe 65.9 Co 16 B 6 Nb 0.1 have been obtained from using (a) the hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) process; (b) by varying of milling time and (c) with the addition of an oleic acid as a surfactant. The latter has been used to enhance milling condition by preventing the agglomeration of particles and hence to improve the intrinsic coercivity of the material. High-energy mechanical milling has been used to yield magnetic nanoparticles. Powders were characterized magnetically using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and microstructurally by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Field Emission Gun SEM (FEG-SEM) and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic and lattice parameter calculation of TiC x produced from Al-Ti-C powders by laser igniting self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.X.; Hu, J.D.; Wang, H.Y.; Guo, Z.X.; Chumakov, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    TiC x has been formed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from elemental powder mixtures with a range of C/Ti ratios. The combusting behavior of the powder mixtures was investigated. The effect of the processing variables on the lattice parameter and the composition of TiC were examined. The results show that lattice parameters of TiC x increase with the increase of C/Ti ratio. The variation of Gibbs free energy in Al-Ti-C system was studied based on the thermodynamics theory. The results show that TiC and Al 3 Ti phases are easier to form than Al 4 C 3 phase

  17. High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and neutron powder diffraction study of the adsorption of dihydrogen by the Cu(II) metal-organic framework material HKUST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callear, Samantha K.; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J.; David, William I. F.; Millange, Franck; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-12-01

    We present new high-resolution inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra (measured using the TOSCA and MARI instruments at ISIS) and powder neutron diffraction data (measured on the diffractometer WISH at ISIS) from the interaction of the prototypical metal-organic framework HKUST-1 with various dosages of dihydrogen gas. The INS spectra show direct evidence for the sequential occupation of various distinct sites for dihydrogen in the metal-organic framework, whose population is adjusted during increasing loading of the guest. The superior resolution of TOSCA reveals subtle features in the spectra, not previously reported, including evidence for split signals, while complementary spectra recorded on MARI present full information in energy and momentum transfer. The analysis of the powder neutron patterns using the Rietveld method shows a consistent picture, allowing the crystallographic indenisation of binding sites for dihydrogen, thus building a comprehensive picture of the interaction of the guest with the nanoporous host.

  18. Jerusalem artichoke powder: a useful material in producing high-optical-purity l-lactate using an efficient sugar-utilizing thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Xue, Zhangwei; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-02-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement crop, which does not interfere with food chain, and is a promising carbon source for industrial fermentation. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products, such as lactic acid, is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. In this study, high-optical-purity l-lactate was efficiently produced from the hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke powder by a thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus coagulans XZL4. High l-lactate production (134gl(-1)) was obtained using 267gl(-1) Jerusalem artichoke powder (total reducing sugars of 140gl(-1)) and 10gl(-1) of corn steep powder in fed-batch fermentation, with an average productivity of 2.5gl(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96gg(-1) reducing sugars. The final product optical purity is 99%, which meets the requirement of lactic acid polymerization. Our study represents a cost-effective and promising method for polymer-grade l-lactate production using a cheap raw bio-resource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in high-temperature flow core during plasma coatings application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, V. I.; Giorbelidze, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    A problem of mathematical modelling of powder material motion and transportation in gas thermal flow core has been addressed. Undertaken studies indicate significant impact on dynamics of motion of sprayed particles of phenomenological law for drag coefficient and accounting momentum loss of a plasma jet upon acceleration of these particles and their diameter. It is determined that at great dispersion of spraying particles, they reach detail surface at different velocity and significant particles separation takes place at spraying spot. According to the results of mathematical modelling, requirements for admissible dispersion of diameters of particles used for spraying have been formulated. Research has also allowed reducing separation of particles at the spraying spot due to the selection of the method of powder feed to the anode channel of the plasma torch.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    OpenAIRE

    RYU, HO JIN; KIM, CHANG KYU; SIM, MOONSOO; PARK, JONG MAN; LEE, JONG HYUN

    2013-01-01

    Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compou...

  1. Simple method of preparing nitrogen - doped nanosized TiO2 powders of high photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Dang Thi Thanh Le

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped nanosized TiO 2 powders were prepared by a simple thermal treatment method of the mixture of titanium dioxide and urea. The prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis-DRS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal structure of N-TiO 2 was a mixture of anatase and rutile phases, and the average particle size was 31 nm calculated from XRD results. The UV-vis spectra indicate an increase in absorption of visible light when compared to undoped TiO 2 . The photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. And it was found that nitrogen-doped TiO 2 powders exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO 2 . Moreover, the study also showed that, the doping N atoms improve the growth of the TiO 2 crystal and phase transformation. (author)

  2. High ion-exchange properties of hybrid materials from X-type zeolite and ground glass powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with a homogeneous distribution of micropores with a superior cation-exchange capacity. Because they have especially excellent selective exchange properties, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on treating water containing radioisotopes using the zeolites. When using artificial zeolites, they have inferior sinterability; in addition, it is quite hard for them to remove from polluted liquid since these artificial zeolites are principally synthesized as a form of powder, which is a disadvantage. In this study, hybrid materials were prepared from X-type zeolite and waste glass powder. Their ion-removal effect and mechanical strength were investigated. The zeolite and waste glass were ground in an agate mortar in several ratios. 0.5 g of the mixture was pressure-molded into pellets having a diameter of 7 mm. These pellets were slowly heated at the speed of 240°C/h to 700°C and maintained at 700°C for 2 h. The removal rate of Sr2+ ions increased as the amount of X-type zeolite in the hybrid materials increased; the former increased up to 100% when the content of latter exceeded 50%. The mechanical strength increased by increasing the amount of glass in the hybrid materials. This is attributed to the fact that the glass powder acts as a binder that improves the densification and consequently the mechanical strength of the hybrid materials.

  3. 3D Model Studies on the Effect of Bed and Powder Type Upon Radial Static Pressure and Powder Distribution in Metallurgical Shaft Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panic B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of gases in metallurgical shaft furnaces has a decisive influence on the course and process efficiency. Radial changes in porosity of the bed cause uneven flow of gas along the radius of the reactor, which sometimes is deliberate and intentional. However, holdup of solid particles in descending packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces can lead to unintentional changes in porosity of the bed along the radial reactor. Unintentional changes in porosity often disrupt the flow of gas causing poor performance of the furnace. Such disruptions of flow may occur in the blast furnace due to high level of powder content in gas caused by large amount of coal dust/powder insufflated as fuel substitute. The paper describes the model test results of radial distribution of static pressure and powder hold up within metallurgical reactor. The measurements were carried out with the use of 3D physical model of two-phase flow gas-powder in the moving (descending packed bed. Sinter or blast furnace pellets were used as packed bed while carbon powder or iron powder were used as the powder. Wide diversity within both static pressure distribution and powder distribution along the radius of the reactor were observed once the change in the type of powder occurred.

  4. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  5. Characterization of high-energy milled alumina powders Caracterização de pós de alumina submetidos a moagem de alta energia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tomasi

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of reactive high-energy milling has been reported for the synthesis of ceramic powders namely, metal oxides, carbides, borides, nitrides or mixtures of ceramics or ceramic and metal compounds. In this work, high-energy milling was used for reduction of alumina powders to nanometric particle size. The ceramic characteristics of the powders were analyzed in terms of the behavior during deagglomeration, compaction curves, sintering and microstructure characterization. It was observed that the high energy milling has strong effect in producing agglomeration of the nanosized powders. This effect is explained by the high-energy impact of the balls, which may fracture particles or just cause the particles compacting. In this case, strong agglomerates are produced. As the powder surface area increases, stronger agglomerates are produced.Tem sido amplamente divulgada a utilização da moagem reativa de alta energia para a síntese de pós cerâmicos de óxidos de metais, carbetos, boretos, nitretos ou misturas de compostos cerâmicos ou compostos cerâmicos e metálicos. Neste trabalho, a moagem de alta energia (não reativa foi utilizada para a redução de pós de alumina para partículas de dimensões nanométricas. As características cerâmicas dos pós obtidos foram analisadas a partir de resultados de comportamento durante a desaglomeração, curvas de densificação, sinterização e caracterização de microestrutura. Observou-se que a moagem de alta energia tem forte efeito de aglomeração dos pós com partículas em dimensões nanométricas. Esse efeito é explicado pelo impacto de alta energia das bolas, os quais podem fraturar as partículas ou apenas causar a compactação das mesmas. Nesse último caso, que sempre ocorre, são formados aglomerados de alta resistência. O aumento da área superficial do pó produz aglomerados mais resistentes.

  6. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  7. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefadroxil monohydrate in human plasma. Methods: Schimadzu HPLC with LC solution software was used with Waters Spherisorb, C18 (5 μm, 150mm × 4.5mm) column. The mobile phase ...

  8. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  9. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  10. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  11. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  12. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  13. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  14. Towards high performance in industrial refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...

  15. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  16. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid ... response, tailing factor and resolution of six replicate injections was < 3 %. ... Cefadroxil monohydrate, Human plasma, Pharmacokinetics Bioequivalence ... Drug-free plasma was obtained from the local .... Influence of probenicid on the renal.

  17. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  18. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  19. High performance structural ceramics for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Faker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A family of Saint-Gobain structural ceramic materials and products produced by its High performance Refractory Division is described. Over the last fifty years or so, Saint-Gobain has been a leader in developing non oxide ceramic based novel materials, processes and products for application in Nuclear, Chemical, Automotive, Defense and Mining industries

  20. A new high performance current transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijun; Lu Songlin; Li Deming

    2003-01-01

    A DC-100 kHz current transducer is developed using a new technique on zero-flux detecting principle. It was shown that the new current transducer is of high performance, its magnetic core need not be selected very stringently, and it is easy to manufacture