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Sample records for high performance organic

  1. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  2. High performance organic solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kanzan

    This research is dedicated to the study of physical processes in solar cells based on organic polymers and small molecules, which may replace fossil-fuel based energy sources in future. The bulk of this research involves (1) improving charge generation and collection in well known bulk heterojunction polymer/fullerene-based devices via creating a percolating interpenetrating networks for further efficiency improvement, (2) developing new device architectures for multi-junction organic photovoltaics, and (3) developing new methods for encapsulation of organic solar cells by multilayer coatings. For bulk heterojunction Regio Regular P3HT/PCBM-based devices, the importance of pre-production and optimum post-production heat treatment conditions have been studied for different P3HT molecular weights and a record-breaking power conversion efficiency near 4% was achieved. This effect is partially achieved because annealing induces better crystalinity and hence increases the charge mobility in Regio Regular P3HT and initiates a diffusion controlled formation of PCBM network. This is reflected in the improvement of Fill Factor. The importance of pre-production to create a fine homogenization was discovered in this project. The novel electron and hole blocking layers deployed bulk heterojunction devices have been developed and the further improvement in the charge collection efficiency and fill factor were observed. Combining the P3HT/PCBM-based back cell with small organic molecular front cell, a new spectrally asymmetric multi-junction tandem device prototype has been created. With this device, wide range of solar spectra can be observed and open-circuit voltage greater than 1V can be routinely achieved, compared to 0.5--0.6V in conventional one layer devices. Purely polymeric tandem cell has also been tested. Such devices have a great prospect of low cost mass production.

  3. Advanced Risk Analysis for High-Performing Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher; Dorofee, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) are not readily identified using traditional risk analysis techniques. High-performing organizations have the basic skills needed to identify and manage these new types of risk, but lack sufficient techniques...

  4. High Performance Work Practices In Indian Organizations- An Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Shakti

    2013-01-01

    In todays global competitive era, every business aims to optimize their processes. High performance work practices are such a practice, which can lead to the optimal utilization of human resources. In the present article I have tried to bring into light different aspects related to the high performing work practices in the organizational setup and their implementation can make a difference in the organization. The high performance work practices not only can bring the change in human resource...

  5. CHAPTER 3. High-performance Organic Photovoltaic Donor Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-11-08

    The field of organic photovoltaics has advanced a great deal over the last decade, with device efficiencies now exceeding 11%. A large part of this success can be attributed to the development of donor polymer materials, from their humble beginnings as homopolymers to the highly tuned push-pull copolymer and terpolymer materials that are now being reported on a regular basis. Through the careful use of chemical modification, it has been possible to design and synthesize a wide variety of donor polymers, allowing optimization of both the optoelectronic and structural properties of the materials. In doing so, more favourable active layer blends have been achieved and therefore significant improvements in device performance have been observed. Herein we discuss how the chemical design of donor polymers for organic photovoltaics has led to the emergence of high-performance materials.

  6. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  7. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  8. Views from the Outside: How the Nonprofit Community Characterizes High Performance Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia PETRESCU

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available What high performance means for nonprofit organizations and how to define high performance is still a discussed issue. Building on Paul Light’s work and the Standards of Excellence Codes of Conduct developed by the Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations, this research presents how the community, respectively the nonprofit organizations themselves, views high performance and define the characteristics of high performing organizations. The paper also analysis how the community’s perception of high performance compares with the Standards of Excellence Codes of Conduct.

  9. Aligning the down-sized organization for high performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, G.; Holsapple, K.

    1997-12-31

    The Quality Management Group (QMG) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory provides expert support to the Laboratory`s diverse programs, projects and facilities. Organized as an internal consulting group, the QMG furnishes comprehensive quality management services to requesting organizations throughout the Laboratory. Based upon the needs and expectations of the requester, these services range from classical quality control to regulatory compliance to process characterization and improvement, customer relationship management, information gathering and metrics. In September 1995 the Laboratory Director announced a downsizing effort targeted to reduce the Laboratory`s cost of doing business and thereby improve its competitiveness. The downsizing effort was targeted on support organizations--laboratory divisions, groups, programs, and projects chartered with operating the administrative infrastructure within which Los Alamos` technical programs function. This report discusses the downsizing, its aftermath, strategies for solutions to lower morale, initiatives, and results.

  10. The Role of Performance Management in Creating and Maintaining a High-Performance Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    There is still a good deal of confusion in the literature about how the use of a performance management system affects overall organizational performance. Some researchers find that performance management enhances both the financial and non-financial results of an organization, while others do not

  11. The Role of Performance Management in Creating and Maintaining a High-Performance Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    There is still a good deal of confusion in the literature about how the use of a performance management system affects overall organizational performance. Some researchers find that performance management enhances both the financial and non-financial results of an organization, while others do not find any positive effects or, at most, ambiguous effects. An important step toward getting more clarity in this relationship is to investigate the role performance management plays in creating and m...

  12. High-Permittivity Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayers for High-Performance Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesters, Jurgen; Govaerts, Sanne; Pirotte, Geert; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Chevrier, Michèle; Van den Brande, Niko; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Van Mele, Bruno; Lutsen, Laurence; Vanderzande, Dirk; Manca, Jean; Clément, Sébastien; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Maes, Wouter

    2016-03-01

    Conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) interfacial layers present a powerful way to boost the I-V characteristics of organic photovoltaics. Nevertheless, clear guidelines with respect to the structure of high-performance interlayers are still lacking. In this work, impedance spectroscopy is applied to probe the dielectric permittivity of a series of polythiophene-based CPEs. The presence of ionic pendant groups grants the formation of a capacitive double layer, boosting the charge extraction and device efficiency. A counteracting effect is the diminishing affinity with the underlying photoactive layer. To balance these two effects, we found copolymer structures containing nonionic side chains to be beneficial.

  13. Towards High Performance Organic Photovoltaic Cells: A Review of Recent Development in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs have been a hot topic for research during the last decade due to their promising application in relieving energy pressure and environmental problems caused by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels. Much effort has been made toward understanding the photovoltaic mechanism, including evolving chemical structural motifs and designing device structures, leading to a remarkable enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of OPVs from 3% to over 15%. In this brief review, the advanced progress and the state-of-the-art performance of OPVs in very recent years are summarized. Based on several of the latest developed approaches to accurately detect the separation of electron-hole pairs in the femtosecond regime, the theoretical interpretation to exploit the comprehensive mechanistic picture of energy harvesting and charge carrier generation are discussed, especially for OPVs with bulk and multiple heterojunctions. Subsequently, the novel structural designs of the device architecture of OPVs embracing external geometry modification and intrinsic structure decoration are presented. Additionally, some approaches to further increase the efficiency of OPVs are described, including thermotics and dynamics modification methods. Finally, this review highlights the challenges and prospects with the aim of providing a better understanding towards highly efficient OPVs.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  15. Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Chizu; Tsubata, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Takeshi; Kitano, Makoto; Doi, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    The development of organic printed electronics has been expanding to a variety of applications and is expected to bring innovations to our future life. Along with this trend, high performance organic materials with cost-efficient fabrication processes and specific features such as thin, light weight, bendable, and low power consumption are required. A variety of organic materials have been investigated in the development of this field. The basic guidelines for material design and the recent progress of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are reported.

  16. Organization and multidisciplinary work in an olympic high performance centers in USA

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Moreau, DC Dacbsp.; Dustin Nabhan, DC, Dacbsp.

    2012-01-01

    The organization and methodology of providing services to athletes through Olympic high performance centers varies among the National Olympic Committees (NOC). Between NOCs, provider composition and methodology for the delivery of services differs. Services provided typically include sports medicine and sports performance. NOCs may provide service through a university-based system or high performance centers. The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) provides services using multiple approach...

  17. High Performance Short-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Graphene Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Narae; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2015-03-01

    Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs) have received a great deal of attention due to their easy-processing, low-cost, flexibility, and transparency that can lead to future electronic applications such as flexible display, solar cell, and sensors. One of the major challenges in fabricating high-performance OFETs is to reduce a large injection barrier formed at metal/organic interface, which results in poor electrical transport performance. In order to overcome this issue, graphene has been suggested as a promising electrode material for OFETs due to its unique electronic properties as well as strong π- π interaction with organic molecule, which can reduce the injection barrier at the electrode/organic interface. In this study, we fabricated short-channel OEFTs using mechanically exfoliated graphene electrodes, and performed temperature dependent transport studies. We will present the detailed temperature dependent data and discuss the charge carrier injection mechanism at graphene/organic interface. US NSF Grant No. ECCS 1102228.

  18. Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Khim, Dongyoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-10-28

    Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications.

  19. Organization and multidisciplinary work in an olympic high performance centers in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Moreau, DC Dacbsp.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The organization and methodology of providing services to athletes through Olympic high performance centers varies among the National Olympic Committees (NOC. Between NOCs, provider composition and methodology for the delivery of services differs. Services provided typically include sports medicine and sports performance. NOCs may provide service through a university-based system or high performance centers. The United States Olympic Committee (USOC provides services using multiple approaches through a hybrid model that includes three Olympic Training Centers, National Governing Bodies (NGB high performance centers and independent specialty care centers. Some highly developed National Governing Bodies have dedicated high performance training centers that serve only their sport. The model of sports medicine and sports performance programming utilized by the USOC Olympic Training Centers is described in this manuscript.

  20. Health Care, Heal Thyself! An Exploration of What Drives (and Sustains) High Performance in Organizations Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when researching the radical unveils the simplest of solutions? This article tells the story of the 2007 ISPI Annual Conference Encore Presentation, Healthcare, Heal Thyself, sharing the findings of an exploration into high-performance health care facilities and their relevance to all organizations today. It shows how to overcome…

  1. WHAT MEANS HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK PRACTICES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES IN AN ORGANIZATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-IOANA MUNTEANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on an overview of the different approaches in the literature to the concept of high performance work practices (HPWP, showing how this term evolves over time. Analyzing the literature, the significance of this term are seen as an evolved with customer requirements. Organizations need employees easily adaptable, able to meet customer needs in a timely manner. Therefore, organizations must on the one hand to satisfy their customers, on the other hand, employees, those in which firms can achieve their goals. Currently have placed particular emphasis on employee motivation, training, their involvement in decision making, delegation of authority, remuneration based on performance, rewarding loyalty. All above are considered HPWP and the AMO model is representative of these. The implementation of HPWP is a current problem for organizations wishing to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. In this sense, this article may provide information of interest to business.

  2. Improved uniformity in high-performance organic photovoltaics enabled by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane cathode functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kyle A; Shastry, Tejas A; Loser, Stephen; Ogien, Gabriel; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-12-28

    Organic photovoltaics have the potential to serve as lightweight, low-cost, mechanically flexible solar cells. However, losses in efficiency as laboratory cells are scaled up to the module level have to date impeded large scale deployment. Here, we report that a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) cathode interfacial treatment significantly enhances performance reproducibility in inverted high-efficiency PTB7:PC71BM organic photovoltaic cells, as demonstrated by the fabrication of 100 APTES-treated devices versus 100 untreated controls. The APTES-treated devices achieve a power conversion efficiency of 8.08 ± 0.12% with histogram skewness of -0.291, whereas the untreated controls achieve 7.80 ± 0.26% with histogram skewness of -1.86. By substantially suppressing the interfacial origins of underperforming cells, the APTES treatment offers a pathway for fabricating large-area modules with high spatial performance uniformity.

  3. Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Gate Dielectrics for High-Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A low-temperature solution-processed high-k gate dielectric layer for use in a high-performance solution-processed semiconducting polymer organic thin-film transistor (OTFT was demonstrated. Photochemical activation of sol-gel-derived AlOx films under 150 °C permitted the formation of a dense film with low leakage and relatively high dielectric-permittivity characteristics, which are almost comparable to the results yielded by the conventionally used vacuum deposition and high temperature annealing method. Octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM treatment of the AlOx was employed in order to realize high-performance (>0.4 cm2/Vs saturation mobility and low-operation-voltage (<5 V diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-based OTFTs on an ultra-thin polyimide film (3-μm thick. Thus, low-temperature photochemically-annealed solution-processed AlOx film with SAM layer is an attractive candidate as a dielectric-layer for use in high-performance organic TFTs operated at low voltages.

  4. Using high-performance work practices in health care organizations: a perspective for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that the use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) may help improve quality in health care. We interviewed 67 administrators and clinicians across 5 health care organizations and found that the use of HPWPs was valued and salient for nurses. Communication appeared particularly important to facilitate HPWP use. Enhancing our understanding of HPWP use may help improve the work environment for nurses while also increasing care quality.

  5. Work function tuning for high-performance solution-processed organic photodetectors with inverted structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Emeline; Bouthinon, Benjamin; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Celle, Caroline; Chevalier, Nicolas; Mariolle, Denis; Dhez, Olivier; Simonato, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-03

    Organic photodetectors with inverted structure are fabricated by solution process techniques. A very thin interfacing layer of polyethyleneimine leads to a homogenous interface with low work function. The devices exhibit excellent performances, in particular in terms of low dark current density, wide range linearity, high detectivity, and remarkable stability in ambient air without encapsulation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Innovative architecture design for high performance organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Spyropoulos, George D.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-08-01

    The multi-junction concept is especially attractive for the photovoltaic (PV) research community owing to its potential to overcome the Schockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells. Tremendous research interests are now focused on the development of high-performance absorbers and novel device architectures for emerging PV technologies, such as organic and perovskite PVs. It has been predicted that the multi-junction concept is able to boost the organic and perovskite PV technologies approaching the 20% and 30% benchmarks, respectively, showing a bright future of commercialization of the emerging PV technologies. In this contribution, we will demonstrate innovative architecture design for solution-processed, highly functional organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells. A simple but elegant approach to fabricating organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells will be introduced. By laminating single organic/hybrid solar cells together through an intermediate layer, the manufacturing cost and complexity of large-scale multi-junction solar cells can be significantly reduced. This smart approach to balancing the photocurrents as well as open circuit voltages in multi-junction solar cells will be demonstrated and discussed in detail.

  7. Strategies to Achieve High-Performance White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most promising technologies for next-generation lighting and displays, white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs have received enormous worldwide interest due to their outstanding properties, including high efficiency, bright luminance, wide viewing angle, fast switching, lower power consumption, ultralight and ultrathin characteristics, and flexibility. In this invited review, the main parameters which are used to characterize the performance of WOLEDs are introduced. Subsequently, the state-of-the-art strategies to achieve high-performance WOLEDs in recent years are summarized. Specifically, the manipulation of charges and excitons distribution in the four types of WOLEDs (fluorescent WOLEDs, phosphorescent WOLEDs, thermally activated delayed fluorescent WOLEDs, and fluorescent/phosphorescent hybrid WOLEDs are comprehensively highlighted. Moreover, doping-free WOLEDs are described. Finally, issues and ways to further enhance the performance of WOLEDs are briefly clarified.

  8. Implementing high-performance work practices in healthcare organizations: qualitative and conceptual evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H

    2013-01-01

    Studies across industries suggest that the systematic use of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) may be an effective but underused strategy to improve quality of care in healthcare organizations. Optimal use of HPWPs depends on how they are implemented, yet we know little about their implementation in healthcare. We conducted 67 key informant interviews in five healthcare organizations, each considered to have exemplary work practices in place and to deliver high-quality care, as part of an extensive study of HPWP use in healthcare. We analyzed interview transcripts inductively and deductively to examine why and how organizations implement HPWPs. We used an evidence-based model of complex innovation adoption to guide our exploration of factors that facilitate HPWP implementation. We found considerable variability in interviewees' reasons for implementing HPWPs, including macro-organizational (strategic level) and micro-organizational (individual level) reasons. This variability highlighted the complex context for HPWP implementation in many organizations. We also found that our application of an innovation implementation model helped clarify and categorize facilitators of HPWP implementation, thus providing insight on how these factors can contribute to implementation effectiveness. Focusing efforts on clarifying definitions, building commitment, and ensuring consistency in the application of work practices may be particularly important elements of successful implementation.

  9. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung

    2018-02-01

    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  10. Development of solution-processable high performance organic semiconductors for field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junying

    Conjugated polymers are potential active components in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and have received considerable attention due to their promise of high efficiency, low-cost, and mechanically flexible fabrication. This thesis describes the development of novel conjugated polymers for a high performance OFET application and the morphology and molecular packing effect on charge transport properties. We have developed highly disordered N-alkyl dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) and thiophene based copolymers with high charge carrier mobilities. Due to the comparatively high level of highest occupied molecular orbital, these polymers are readily oxided in air. To address this problem, we further developed environmentally stable, low temperature, solution processable DTP and bithiazole-based copolymers with reproducible high charge carrier mobilities. The morphology study revealed that unlike most conjugated polymers that have high charge carrier mobilities, these polymers are highly isotropic and have "amorphous" like microstructures. To expand the toolbox of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes)(rr-P3HT), we designed and synthesized diblock copolymers composed of P3HT as rod block and the fluorinated methacrylate as coil block. These blockpolymers not only showed high hydrophobicity in thin films but also exhibited charge carrier mobility as high as P3HT homopolymer.

  11. High Performance, Low Operating Voltage n-Type Organic Field Effect Transistor Based on Inorganic-Organic Bilayer Dielectric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A.; Singh, A.; Kalita, A.; Das, D.; Iyer, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated utilizing vacuum deposited n-type conjugated molecule N,N’-Dioctadecyl-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDIOD2) were investigated using single and bilayer dielectric system over a low-cost glass substrate. Single layer device structure consists of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the dielectric material whereas the bilayer systems contain two different device configuration namely aluminum oxide/Poly (vinyl alcohol) (Al2O3/PVA) and aluminum oxide/Poly (methyl mefhacrylate) (Al2O3/PMMA) in order to reduce the operating voltage and improve the device performance. It was observed that the devices with Al2O3/PMMA bilayer dielectric system and top contact aluminum electrodes exhibit excellent n-channel behaviour under vacuum compared to the other two structures with electron mobility value of 0.32 cm2/Vs, threshold voltages ~1.8 V and current on/off ratio ~104, operating under a very low voltage (6 V). These devices demonstrate highly stable electrical behaviour under multiple scans and low threshold voltage instability in vacuum condition even after 7 days than the Al2O3/PVA device structure. This low operating voltage, high performance OTFT device with bilayer dielectric system is expected to have diverse applications in the next generation of OTFT technologies.

  12. Structures and Gas Storage Performance of Metal-organic Framework Materials at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Hu, Yue; Huang, Yining

    2013-06-01

    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), are crystalline nanoporous materials comprised of small metal clusters connected three-dimensionally by polyfunctional organic ligands. MOFs have been widely studied due to their high porosity, surface area and thermal stability, which make them promising candidates for gas capture and storage. In the MOF family, Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) have attracted much attention because of their promising applications for CO2 storage. In contrast to the extensive studies under ambient conditions, most ZIFs have only been studied under pressure in a very limited range. It is known that pressure can provide an effective driving force to achieve structural modification which includes changes in pore size, opening and geometry, channel shape and internal surface area. Subsequently, these pressure-induced changes will affect the sorption selectivity, capacity and access to the binding sites of the porous materials. Here, we report the first in situ high-pressure investigation of several ZIFs by FTIR spectroscopy. We observed rich pressure-induced transformations upon compression in different pressure ranges. Furthermore, the reversibilities of these transformations upon decompression were also examined. Finally, the performance of CO2 storage of selected ZIFs at high pressures will be addressed. Our observation and analyses contribute to the understanding of chemical and mechanical properties of ZIFs under high-pressure conditions and provide new insight into their storage applications.

  13. Application of mixed-organic-cation for high performance hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Li, Yanyan; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-01-15

    ABX 3 -type organic lead halide perovskites have gained increasing attention as light harvester for solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE). Recently, it has become a trend to avoid the use of expensive hole-transport materials (HTMs) and precious metals, such as Au, to be competitive in future commercial development. In this study, we fabricated mixed-cation perovskite-based solar cells through one-step spin-coating using methylammonium (CH 3 NH 3 + ) and formamidinium (HN=CHNH 3 + ) cations to extend the optical absorption range into the red region and enhance the utilization of solar light. The synthesized hole-conductor-free cells with carbon electrode and mixed cations exhibited increased short-circuit current, outperforming the cells prepared with pure methylammonium, and PCE of 10.55%. This paper proposes an efficient approach for fabricating high-performance and low-cost perovskite solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  15. Conjugated block copolymers: A building block for high-performance organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changhe

    State-of-the-art organic photovoltaics rely on kinetically trapped, partially phase-separated structures of donor/acceptor mixtures to create a high interfacial area for exciton dissociation and networks of bicontinuous phases for charge transport. Nevertheless, intrinsic structural disorder and weak intermolecular interactions in polymer blends limit the performance and stability of organic electronic devices. We demonstrate a potential strategy to control morphology and donor/acceptor heterojunctions through conjugated block copolymer poly(3-hexylthiophene)- block-poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (P3HT-b-PFTBT). Block copolymers can self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures ideal for photovoltaic applications. When utilized as the photovoltaic active layer, P3HT-b-PFTBT block copolymer devices demonstrate thermal stability and photoconversion efficiency of 3% well beyond devices composed of the constituent polymer blends. Resonant soft X-ray scattering (RSOXS) is used to elucidate the structural origin for efficient block copolymer photovoltaics. Energy tuning in soft X-ray ranges gives RSOXS chemical sensitivity to characterize organic thin films with compositionally similar phases or complicated multiphase systems. RSOXS reveals that the remarkable performance of P3HT-b-PFTBT devices is due to self-assembly into nanoscale in-plane lamellar morphology, which not only establishes an equilibrium microstructure amenable for exciton dissociation but also provides pathways for efficient charge transport. Furthermore, we find evidence that covalent control of donor/acceptor interfaces in block copolymers has the potential to promote charge separation and optimize the photoconversion process by limiting charge recombination. To visualize the nanostructure in organic thin films, we introduce low energy-loss energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) as an important alternative

  16. Evaporation-induced self-organization of inkjet-printed organic semiconductors on surface-modified dielectrics for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jungah; Lee, Wihyoung; Kwak, Donghoon; Cho, Kilwon

    2009-05-05

    We demonstrate the influence of the surface wettability of a dielectric substrate on the crystalline microstructure and film morphology of an inkjet-printed organic semiconductor, namely 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS_PEN), using various self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Self-aligned crystals with highly ordered crystalline structure are developed by printing on hydrophilic surfaces with high surface energy. It is found that the pinning of the contact line induces an outward convective flow as the evaporation proceeds, which results in the nucleation of crystals and the self-assembly of TIPS_PEN molecules from the periphery to the central region of the droplet. However, for hydrophobic surfaces with low surface energy, small agglomerates with random orientation of molecules are formed, which is induced by depinning of the contact line. The field-effect transistors fabricated with self-organized crystals printed on hydrophilic surfaces exhibit a high field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1 )s(-1). These results indicate that the control of both the evaporation behavior and the contact line dynamics in a drying droplet plays an important role in the printing of organic semiconductor films with uniform morphology and desired molecular orientation for the direct-write fabrication of high-performance organic transistors.

  17. High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Shen, Su; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Xie, Hao-Jun; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Chen, Lin-Sen; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2014-12-23

    Because of their mechanical flexibility, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) hold great promise as a leading technology for display and lighting applications in wearable electronics. The development of flexible OLEDs requires high-quality transparent conductive electrodes with superior bendability and roll-to-roll manufacturing compatibility to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes. Here, we present a flexible transparent conductor on plastic with embedded silver networks which is used to achieve flexible, highly power-efficient large-area green and white OLEDs. By combining an improved outcoupling structure for simultaneously extracting light in waveguide and substrate modes and reducing the surface plasmonic losses, flexible white OLEDs exhibit a power efficiency of 106 lm W(-1) at 1000 cd m(-2) with angular color stability, which is significantly higher than all other reports of flexible white OLEDs. These results represent an exciting step toward the realization of ITO-free, high-efficiency OLEDs for use in a wide variety of high-performance flexible applications.

  18. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  19. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  20. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  1. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexuan Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for “green” buildings and the use of “environmentally friendly” products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m3, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Conventional and High Performance School Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lexuan; Su, Feng-Chiao; Batterman, Stuart

    2017-01-21

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature. Tested schools were built or renovated in the past 15 years, and included comparable numbers of conventional, Energy Star, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified buildings. Indoor and outdoor VOC samples were collected and analyzed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy for 94 compounds. Aromatics, alkanes and terpenes were the major compound groups detected. Most VOCs had mean concentrations below 5 µg/m³, and most indoor/outdoor concentration ratios ranged from one to 10. For 16 VOCs, the within-school variance of concentrations exceeded that between schools and, overall, no major differences in VOC concentrations were found between conventional and high performance buildings. While VOC concentrations have declined from levels measured in earlier decades, opportunities remain to improve indoor air quality (IAQ) by limiting emissions from building-related sources and by increasing ventilation rates.

  3. Fabrication of organic semiconducting materials and high-performance organic thin-film transistors based on electron-irradiated polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeok Moo

    2011-02-15

    It was discovered that non-luminescent polystyrene (PS) can be converted to luminescent materials whose color can be changed in a wide visible range by electron irradiation. After the analyses of electron-irradiated PS, it was found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are produced by the irradiation and these PAHs are the origin of the luminescence from the electron-irradiated polymer. Based on the finding, a straightforward approach to produce desired light-emitting nanoarchitectures and nanopatterns only by irradiating an electron beam to the polymer was presented. In particular, the top-down irradiation approach provides a powerful tool to fabricate a variety of interesting nanoarchitectures when combined with bottom-up approaches; PS nanostructures prepared by self-assembling techniques can be directly transformed to luminescent nanostructures by electron irradiation while keeping their pristine morphologies. Light-emitting materials are widely used for optical, photonic, chemical and biomedical devices and a rapid progress in the devices requires well-defined luminescent nanoarchitectures. The approach presented here will be useful for a wide range of research fields including optics, photonics, chemistry, and biologics. On the other hand, a very simple but effective approach to produce high-performance rubrene organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with characteristics better than amorphous silicon TFTs was presented. Only by an abrupt heating process, high-quality crystalline rubrene semiconductor thin films that have almost ideal structures for OTFTs are created. The produced crystalline thin films consist of highly ordered, uniaxially oriented single-crystalline grains with large average sizes and the grains are interconnected with one another to form continuous films over the whole dielectric surfaces. Such high-quality crystalline rubrene thin films are remarkably rapidly produced in just 30 sec through this approach. Moreover, the increase of carrier

  4. High-Performance Flexible Organic Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Hyung; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Hyeonjung; Park, Jongnam; Oh, Joon Hak

    2015-10-07

    Nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices are transistor-type memory devices that use nanostructured materials as charge trap sites. They have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their excellent performance, capability for multilevel programming, and suitability as platforms for integrated circuits. Herein, novel NFGM devices have been fabricated using semiconducting cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trap sites and pentacene as a p-type semiconductor. Monodisperse CoFe2O4 NPs with different diameters have been synthesized by thermal decomposition and embedded in NFGM devices. The particle size effects on the memory performance have been investigated in terms of energy levels and particle-particle interactions. CoFe2O4 NP-based memory devices exhibit a large memory window (≈73.84 V), a high read current on/off ratio (read I(on)/I(off)) of ≈2.98 × 10(3), and excellent data retention. Fast switching behaviors are observed due to the exceptional charge trapping/release capability of CoFe2O4 NPs surrounded by the oleate layer, which acts as an alternative tunneling dielectric layer and simplifies the device fabrication process. Furthermore, the NFGM devices show excellent thermal stability, and flexible memory devices fabricated on plastic substrates exhibit remarkable mechanical and electrical stability. This study demonstrates a viable means of fabricating highly flexible, high-performance organic memory devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-performance non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory on banknotes

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2012-03-21

    High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage, high mobility, and long retention times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High reliability organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety

  7. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unraveling the High Open Circuit Voltage and High Performance of Integrated Perovskite/Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiqi; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Yao, Enping; Sun, Pengyu; Meng, Lei; Lin, Yuze; Huang, Jinsong; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2017-08-09

    We have demonstrated high-performance integrated perovskite/bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells due to the low carrier recombination velocity, high open circuit voltage (VOC), and increased light absorption ability in near-infrared (NIR) region of integrated devices. In particular, we find that the VOC of the integrated devices is dominated by (or pinned to) the perovskite cells, not the organic photovoltaic cells. A Quasi-Fermi Level Pinning Model was proposed to understand the working mechanism and the origin of the VOC of the integrated perovskite/BHJ solar cell, which following that of the perovskite solar cell and is much higher than that of the low bandgap polymer based organic BHJ solar cell. Evidence for the model was enhanced by examining the charge carrier behavior and photovoltaic behavior of the integrated devices under illumination of monochromatic light-emitting diodes at different characteristic wavelength. This finding shall pave an interesting possibility for integrated photovoltaic devices to harvest low energy photons in NIR region and further improve the current density without sacrificing VOC, thus providing new opportunities and significant implications for future industry applications of this kind of integrated solar cells.

  9. A superhydrophobic surface with high performance derived from STA-APTES organic-inorganic molecular hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Fangfang; Zhao, Ning; Chen, Li; Xu, Jian; Tao, Qingsheng; Li, Jinyong; Ran, Chunbo

    2013-10-01

    The chemical originals of natural superhydrophobic surfaces are based on botanic or animal wax or fat, which have poor chemical and thermal resistance. Herein, we report a simple chemical modification of stearic acid (STA) with γ-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), to obtain an organic-inorganic molecular hybrid STA-APTES compound. A flower-like hierarchically structured surface with superhydrophobicity can be obtained simply by casting the STA-APTES solution under ambient circumstance. The crystallization of the hydrocarbon chain from STA leads to the formation of the binary microstructure and reduces the surface tension, contributing to the superhydrophobicity of the as-formed surface. In addition, the condensation of Si(OCH2CH3)3 from APTES can lead to the cross-linking of the resultant surface, which endows the as-formed superhydrophobic surface with high performances, such as excellent thermal and solvent resistance, etc. This superhydrophobic surface prepared is superior to its many analogs in nature, promising a wide application especially in harsh circumstance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An unconventional rapid synthesis of high performance metal-organic framework membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Miral N; Gonzalez, Mariel A; McCarthy, Michael C; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2013-06-25

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive for gas separation membrane applications due to their microporous channels with tunable pore shape, size, and functionality. Conventional MOF membrane fabrication techniques, namely in situ and secondary growth, pose challenges for their wider commercial applications. These challenges include reproducility, scalability, and high manufacturing cost. Recognizing that the coordination chemistry of MOFs is fundamentally different from the covalent chemistry of zeolites, we developed a radically different strategy for MOF membrane synthesis. Using this new technique, we were able to produce continuous well-intergrown membranes of prototypical MOFs, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, in a relatively short period of time (tens of min). With a minimal consumption of precursors and a greatly simplified synthesis protocol, our new technique provides potential for a continuous, scalable, reproducible, and easily commercializable route for the rapid synthesis of MOF membranes. RTD-prepared MOF membranes show greatly improved gas separation performances as compared to those prepared by conventional solvothermal methods, indicating improved membrane microstructure.

  11. Clicked Isoreticular Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their High Performance in the Selective Capture and Separation of Large Organic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Tan, Si Yu; Ang, Chung Yen; Chen, Hongzhong; Liu, Jia; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-10-19

    Three highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with a uniform rht-type topological network but hierarchical pores were successfully constructed by the assembly of triazole-containing dendritic hexacarboxylate ligands with Zn(II) ions. These transparent MOF crystals present gradually increasing pore sizes upon extension of the length of the organic backbone, as clearly identified by structural analysis and gas-adsorption experiments. The inherent accessibility of the pores to large molecules endows these materials with unique properties for the uptake of large guest molecules. The visible selective adsorption of dye molecules makes these MOFs highly promising porous materials for pore-size-dependent large-molecule capture and separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Performance in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder...... of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance....

  13. Organic Diode Rectifiers Based on a High-Performance Conjugated Polymer for a Near-Field Energy-Harvesting Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stuart G; Agostinelli, Tiziano; Markham, Steve; Whiteman, Robert; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Organic diodes manufactured on a plastic substrate capable of rectifying a high-frequency radio-frequency identification signal (13.56 MHz), with sufficient power to operate an interactive smart tag, are reported. A high-performance conjugated semiconductor (an indacenodithiophene-benzothiadiazole copolymer) is combined with a carefully optimized architecture to satisfy the electrical requirements for an organic-semiconductor-based logic chip. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Organizing NPD networks for high innovation performance: the case of Dutch medical devices SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.; Groen, Arend J.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Fisscher, O.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines which combination of network characteristics (the network configuration) leads to high innovation performance for small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Even though research has paid significant attention to the relation between the external network and the innovation

  15. Organizing principles and management climate in high-performing municipal elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajonius, Petri; Kazemi, Ali; Tengblad, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - Previous research has shown that user-oriented care predicts older persons' satisfaction with care. What is yet to be researched is how senior management facilitates the implementation of user-oriented care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the organizing principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care. Design/methodology/approach - The department in one highly ranked municipality was selected and compared with a more average municipality. On-site in-depth semi-structured interviews with department managers and participatory observations at managers' meetings were conducted in both municipalities. Findings - Results revealed three key principles for successful elderly care: organizing care from the viewpoint of the older person; recruiting and training competent and autonomous employees; instilling a vision for the mission that guides operations at all levels in the organization. Furthermore, using climate theory to interpret the empirical material, in the highly successful municipality the management climate was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on organizational structure and doing the right things characterizing the more average municipality. Originality/value - The authors suggest that guiding organizing principles are intertwined with management climate and that there are multiple perspectives that must be considered by the management, that is, the views of the older persons, the co-workers and the mission. These results can guide future care quality developments, and increase the understanding of the importance of organizational climate at the senior management level.

  16. “JOINT-DECENTRALIZATION”: SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE SPORTS EVENTS IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xijia; Sobry, Claude; Li, Jianxia; Liu, Jianguo

    2010-01-01

    Nowdays China is in a transition from the planned economy to the market economy. During the transition all activities have rapidly developed, and so it is with China’s high-performance sports. However, due to the inadequate reformation of the sports system, the sports organization structure is still not clear enough. So, according to the current reality of high-performance sports in China, this paper proposes an organizational structure model which could be appropriate for development of h...

  17. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  18. Surface-directed molecular assembly of pentacene on monolayer graphene for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Jaesung; Sim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Cho, Kilwon

    2011-03-30

    Organic electronic devices that use graphene electrodes have received considerable attention because graphene is regarded as an ideal candidate electrode material. Transfer and lithographic processes during fabrication of patterned graphene electrodes typically leave polymer residues on the graphene surfaces. However, the impact of these residues on the organic semiconductor growth mechanism on graphene surface has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate that polymer residues remaining on graphene surfaces induce a stand-up orientation of pentacene, thereby controlling pentacene growth such that the molecular assembly is optimal for charge transport. Thus, pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs) using source/drain monolayer graphene electrodes with polymer residues show a high field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm(2)/V s. In contrast, epitaxial growth of pentacene having molecular assembly of lying-down structure is facilitated by π-π interaction between pentacene and the clean graphene electrode without polymer residues, which adversely affects lateral charge transport at the interface between electrode and channel. Our studies provide that the obtained high field-effect mobility in pentacene FETs using monolayer graphene electrodes arises from the extrinsic effects of polymer residues as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the highly conductive, ultrathin two-dimensional monolayer graphene electrodes.

  19. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V−1s−1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up. PMID:25234244

  20. High performance organic transistor active-matrix driver developed on paper substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Boyu; Ren, Xiaochen; Wang, Zongrong; Wang, Xinyu; Roberts, Robert C.; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of electronic circuits on unconventional substrates largely broadens their application areas. For example, green electronics achieved through utilization of biodegradable or recyclable substrates, can mitigate the solid waste problems that arise at the end of their lifespan. Here, we combine screen-printing, high precision laser drilling and thermal evaporation, to fabricate organic field effect transistor (OFET) active-matrix (AM) arrays onto standard printer paper. The devices show a mobility and on/off ratio as high as 0.56 cm2V-1s-1 and 109 respectively. Small electrode overlap gives rise to a cut-off frequency of 39 kHz, which supports that our AM array is suitable for novel practical applications. We demonstrate an 8 × 8 AM light emitting diode (LED) driver with programmable scanning and information display functions. The AM array structure has excellent potential for scaling up.

  1. High performance organic photovoltaics with zinc oxide and graphene oxide buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report air stable inverted organic photovoltaics (OPVs) incorporating graphene oxide (GO) and solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively. Both the hole transport layer and the electron transport layer (HTL and ETL) are of advantage in high transparency and environmental stability. The use of GO and ZnO in poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative (PCDTBT):fullerene derivative (PC70BM)-based inverted OPVs leads to an improved device stability and enhanced high open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.81 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 54.44 along with a power conversion efficiency of 6.20%.

  2. Fired Up by Commitment, Example, and Values: How High-Performance Organizations Develop Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kersh, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Each year, organizations big and small, public and private spend tremendous resources on programs to develop leaders that will guide those organizations to success, preferably extraordinary success...

  3. Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2016-07-22

    The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous envi-ronment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially availa-ble conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation. We discuss key aspects relating to OECT performance such as ion and hole transport, elec-trochromic properties, operational voltage and stability. The demonstration of our molecular design strategy is the fabrication of accumulation mode OECTs that clearly outperform state-of-the-art PEDOT based devices, and show stability under aqueous oper-ation without the need for formulation additives and cross-linkers.

  4. Polyvinylpyrrolidone as binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes with high electrochemical performance in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Jäckel, N.; Atchison, J. S.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2014-11-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is presented as a "greener" alternative to commonly used supercapacitor binders, namely polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The key advantages of using PVP are that it is non-toxic and soluble in ethanol and it can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector such as aluminum foil - in contrast to PTFE that requires rolling or PVDF that requires toxic N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP). The electrodes with the best mechanical stability incorporated 3.5 mass% of 1.300.000 g mol-1 PVP. Compared to PTFE or PVDF, the resulting pore volume was significantly higher and the specific surface area significantly larger when using PVP (normalized to the amount of AC). A good electrochemical performance was observed in organic electrolytes for AC-PVP electrodes: 112 or 97 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 in 1 M TEA-BF4 in propylene carbonate or acetonitrile, respectively. The performance stability was comparable to PTFE-bound electrodes when adjusting the maximum cell voltage to 2.5 V while preserving the manufacturing features of PVDF-AC films. (Electro)chemical stability is shown by electrochemical testing and infrared vibrational spectroscopy for propylene carbonate and acetonitrile.

  5. Dielectric nanocomposites for high performance embedded capacitors in organic printed circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianwen

    Conventionally discrete passive components like capacitors, resistors, and inductors are surface-mounted on top of the printed circuit boards (PCBs). To match the ever increasing demands of miniaturization, cost reduction, and high performance in microelectronic industry, a promising approach is to integrate passive components into the board during PCB manufacture. Because they are embedded inside multilayer PCBs, such components are called embedded passives. This work focuses on the materials design, development and processing of polymer-based dielectric nanocomposites for embedded capacitor applications. The methodology of this approach is to combine the advantages of the polymer and the filler to satisfy the electric, dielectric, mechanical, fabrication, and reliability requirements for embedded capacitors. Restrained by poor adhesion and poor thermal stress reliability at high filler loadings, currently polymer-ceramic composites can only achieve a dielectric constant of less than 50. In order to increase the dielectric constant to above 50, effects of high-kappa polymer matrix, bimodal fillers, and dispersing agent are systematically investigated. Surface functionalization of nanofiller particles and modification of epoxy matrix with a secondary rubberized epoxy to form sea-island structure are proposed to enhance the dielectric constant, adhesion and high-temperature thermal stress reliability of high-kappa composites. To obtain photodefinable high-kappa composites, fundamental understanding of the photopolymerization of the novel epoxy-ceramic composite photoresist is addressed. While the properties of high-kappa composites largely depend on the polymer matrix, the fillers can also drastically affect the material properties. Carbon black- and carbon nanotubes-filled ultrahigh-kappa polymer composites are investigated as the candidate materials for embedded capacitors. Dielectric composites based on percolation typically show a high dielectric constant, and a

  6. High-performance NiO/Ag/NiO transparent electrodes for flexible organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhichao; Liu, Xingyuan; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xuanming; Wang, Haiyu; Guo, Xiaoyang

    2014-09-24

    Transparent electrodes with a dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) structure can be implemented in a simple manufacturing process and have good optical and electrical properties. In this study, nickel oxide (NiO) is introduced into the DMD structure as a more appropriate dielectric material that has a high conduction band for electron blocking and a low valence band for efficient hole transport. The indium-free NiO/Ag/NiO (NAN) transparent electrode exhibits an adjustable high transmittance of ∼82% combined with a low sheet resistance of ∼7.6 Ω·s·q(-1) and a work function of 5.3 eV after UVO treatment. The NAN electrode shows excellent surface morphology and good thermal, humidity, and environmental stabilities. Only a small change in sheet resistance can be found after NAN electrode is preserved in air for 1 year. The power conversion efficiencies of organic photovoltaic cells with NAN electrodes deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates are 6.07 and 5.55%, respectively, which are competitive with those of indium tin oxide (ITO)-based devices. Good photoelectric properties, the low-cost material, and the room-temperature deposition process imply that NAN electrode is a striking candidate for low-cost and flexible transparent electrode for efficient flexible optoelectronic devices.

  7. Temperature-dependent Schottky barrier in high-performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; He, Dan; Zhou, Qing; Mao, Peng; Cao, Jiamin; Ding, Liming; Wang, Jizheng

    2017-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted great attention in the past 30 years, and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) now reaches around 10%, largely owning to the rapid material developments. Meanwhile with the progress in the device performance, more and more interests are turning to understanding the fundamental physics inside the OSCs. In the conventional bulk-heterojunction architecture, only recently it is realized that the blend/cathode Schottky junction serves as the fundamental diode for the photovoltaic function. However, few researches have focused on such junctions, and their physical properties are far from being well-understood. In this paper based on PThBDTP:PC71BM blend, we fabricated OSCs with PCE exceeding 10%, and investigated temperature-dependent behaviors of the junction diodes by various characterization including current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and impedance measurements between 70 to 290 K. We found the Schottky barrier height exhibits large inhomogeneity, which can be described by two sets of Gaussian distributions. PMID:28071700

  8. High performance hydrogen storage from Be-BTB metal-organic framework at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Xian; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M; Hill, Matthew R

    2013-07-09

    The metal-organic framework beryllium benzene tribenzoate (Be-BTB) has recently been reported to have one of the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptakes at room temperature. Storage at room temperature is one of the key requirements for the practical viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Be-BTB has an exceptional 298 K storage capacity of 2.3 wt % hydrogen. This result is surprising given that the low adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ mol(-1). In this work, a combination of atomistic simulation and continuum modeling reveals that the beryllium rings contribute strongly to the hydrogen interaction with the framework. These simulations are extended with a thermodynamic energy optimization (TEO) model to compare the performance of Be-BTB to a compressed H2 tank and benchmark materials MOF-5 and MOF-177 in a MOF-based fuel cell. Our investigation shows that none of the MOF-filled tanks satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE) storage targets within the required operating temperatures and pressures. However, the Be-BTB tank delivers the most energy per volume and mass compared to the other material-based storage tanks. The pore size and the framework mass are shown to be contributing factors responsible for the superior room temperature hydrogen adsorption of Be-BTB.

  9. A New Triazine-Based Covalent Organic Framework for High-Performance Capacitive Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Piyali; Bhunia, Kousik; Das, Sabuj K; Pradhan, Debabrata; Kimura, Ryuto; Hijikata, Yuh; Irle, Stephan; Bhaumik, Asim

    2017-03-09

    The new covalent organic framework material TDFP-1 was prepared through a solvothermal Schiff base condensation reaction of the monomers 1,3,5-tris-(4-aminophenyl)triazine and 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol. Owing to its high specific surface area of 651 m 2  g -1 , extended π conjugation, and inherent microporosity, TDFP-1 exhibited an excellent energy-storage capacity with a maximum specific capacitance of 354 F g -1 at a scan rate of 2 mV s -1 and good cyclic stability with 95 % retention of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles at 10 A g -1 . The π-conjugated polymeric framework as well as ionic conductivity owing to the possibility of ion conduction inside the micropores of approximately 1.5 nm make polymeric TDFP-1 a favorable candidate as a supercapacitor electrode material. The electrochemical properties of this electrode material were measured through cyclic voltammetry, galvanic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the results indicate its potential for application in energy-storage devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ambient Engineering for High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiabin; Yu, Xuegong; Xie, Jiangsheng; Xu, Dikai; Tang, Zeguo; Cui, Can; Yang, Deren

    2016-08-24

    Considering the evaporation of solvents during fabrication of perovskite films, the organic ambience will present a significant influence on the morphologies and properties of perovskite films. To clarify this issue, various ambiences of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and chlorobenzene (CBZ) are introduced during fabrication of perovskite films by two-step sequential deposition method. The results reveal that an ambient CBZ atmosphere is favorable to control the nucleation and growth of CH3NH3PbI3 grains while the others present a negative effect. The statistical results show that the average efficiencies of perovskite solar cells processed in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can be significantly improved by a relatively average value of 35%, compared with those processed under air. The efficiency of the best perovskite solar cells can be improved from 10.65% to 14.55% by introducing this ambience engineering technology. The CH3NH3PbI3 film with large-size grains produced in an ambient CBZ atmosphere can effectively reduce the density of grain boundaries, and then the recombination centers for photoinduced carriers. Therefore, a higher short-circuit current density is achieved, which makes main contribution to the improvement in efficiency. These results provide vital progress toward understanding the role of ambience in the realization of highly efficient perovskite solar cells.

  11. Improved interface control for high-performance graphene-based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungon; Lee, Junghyun; Choi, Yunseong; Myeon Lee, Sang; Yang, Changduk; Park, Hyesung

    2017-12-01

    The demand for high-efficiency flexible optoelectronic devices is ever-increasing because next-generation electronic devices that comprise portable or wearable electronic systems are set to play an important role. Graphene has received extensive attention as it is considered to be a promising candidate material for transparent flexible electrode platforms owing to its outstanding electrical, optical, and physical properties. Despite these properties, the inert and hydrophobic nature of graphene surfaces renders it difficult to use in optoelectronic devices. In particular, commonly used charge transporting layer (CTL) materials for organic solar cells (OSCs) cannot uniformly coat a graphene surface, which leads to such devices failing. Herein, this paper proposes an approach that will enable CTL materials to completely cover a graphene electrode; this is done with the assistance of commonly accessible polar solvents. These are successfully applied to various configurations of OSCs, with power conversion efficiencies of 8.17% for graphene electrode-based c-OSCs (OSCs with conventional structures), 8.38% for i-OSCs (OSCs with inverted structures), and 7.53% for flexible solar cells. The proposed approach is expected to bring about significant advances for efficiency enhancements in graphene-based optoelectronic devices, and it is expected that it will open up new possibilities for flexible optoelectronic systems.

  12. Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Organic Photovoltaics: Rational Control of Vertical Stratification for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Tao

    2017-05-01

    The photoactive layer of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells, in a thickness range of tens to hundreds of nanometers, comprises phase-separated electron donors and acceptors after solution casting. The component distribution in the cross-section of these thin films is found to be heterogeneous, with electron donors or acceptors accumulated or depleted near the electrode interfaces. This vertical stratification of the photovoltaic blend influences device metrics through its impact on charge transport and recombination, and consequently plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Here, different techniques, e.g., surface analysis and sputter-assisted depth-profiling, reflectivity modeling, and 3D imaging, that have been employed to characterize vertical stratification in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic blends are reviewed. The origins of vertical stratification are summarized, including thermodynamics, kinetics, surface free energy, and selective dissolubility. The impact of correct and wrong vertical stratification to device metrics of solar cells are highlighted. Examples are then given to demonstrate how desired vertical stratification can be controlled with properly aligned device architecture to enable solar cells with high efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Interfacial Layer for High-Performance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Cong, Shan; Lou, Yanhui; Han, Liang; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Yinghui; Zou, Guifu

    2017-09-20

    4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) is an efficient electron transport and hole blocking material in organic photoelectric devices. Here, we report cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) doped Bphen as cathode interfacial layer in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx based planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Investigation finds that introducing Cs2CO3 suppresses the crystallization of Bphen and benefits a smooth interface contact between the perovskite and electrode, resulting in the decrease in carrier recombination and the perovskite degradation. In addition, the matching energy level of Bphen film in the PSCs effectively blocks the holes diffusion to cathode. The resultant power conversion efficiency (PCE) achieves as high as 17.03% in comparison with 12.67% of reference device without doping. Besides, experiments also demonstrate the stability of PSCs have large improvement because the suppressed crystallization of Bphen by doping Cs2CO3 as a superior barrier layer blocks the Ag atom and surrounding moisture access to the vulnerable perovskite layer.

  14. Materials Design via Optimized Intramolecular Noncovalent Interactions for High-Performance Organic Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaojie; Liao, Qiaogan; Manley, Eric F.; Wu, Zishan; Wang, Yulun; Wang, Weida; Yang, Tingbin; Shin, Young-Eun; Cheng, Xing; Liang, Yongye; Chen, Lin X.; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Marks, Tobin J.; Guo, Xugang

    2016-03-15

    We report the design, synthesis, and implemention in semiconducting polymers of a novel head-to-head linkage containing the TRTOR (3-alkyl-3'-alkoxy-2,2'-bithiophene) donor subunit having a single strategically optimized, planarizing noncovalent S···O interaction. Diverse complementary thermal, optical, electrochemical, X-ray scattering, electrical, photovoltaic, and electron microscopic characterization techniques are applied to establish structure-property correlations in a TRTOR-based polymer series. In comparison to monomers having double S···O interactions, replacing one alkoxy substituent with a less electron-donating alkyl one yields TRTOR-based polymers with significantly depressed (0.2-0.3 eV) HOMOs. Furthermore, the weaker single S···O interaction and greater TRTOR steric encumberance enhances materials processability without sacrificing backbone planarity. From another perspective, TRTOR has comparable electronic properties to ring-fused 5Hdithieno[ 3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyran (DTP) subunits, but a centrosymmetric geometry which promotes a more compact and ordered structure than bulkier, axisymmetric DTP. Compared to monosubstituted TTOR (3-alkoxy-2,2'-bithiophene), alkylation at the TRTOR bithiophene 3-position enhances conjugation and polymer crystallinity with contracted π-π stacking. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) data reveal that the greater steric hindrance and the weaker single S···O interaction are not detrimental to close packing and high crystallinity. As a proof of materials design, copolymerizing TRTOR with phthalimides yields copolymers with promising thin-film transistor mobility as high as 0.42 cm2/(V·s) and 6.3% power conversion efficiency in polymer solar cells, the highest of any phthalimide copolymers reported to date. The depressed TRTOR HOMOs imbue these polymers with substantially increased Ion/Ioff ratios and Voc’s versus analogous subunits with multiple electron donating

  15. Strategy Only Matters A Bit: The role of Strategy in the High Performance Organization

    OpenAIRE

    André de Waal

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Porter’s book Competitive Strategy (1980), developing a generic strategy and then executing this strategy well has been seen as the main source of competitive advantage for organizations. However, since the publication of Porter’s book the business environment has changed dramatically, giving rise to the questions: How important is strategy nowadays for an organization to become and stay successful? and Are the generic strategies of Porter still valid? To find answers on these ques...

  16. Self-assembled nanoparticle aggregates: Organizing disorder for high performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, C.; Domenici, F.; Brasili, F.; Mura, F.; Sennato, S.; De Angelis, L.; Mazzi, E.; Bordi, F.; Postorino, P.

    2015-06-01

    The coherent oscillations of the surface electron gas, known as surface plasmons, in metal nanostructures can give rise to the localization of intense electromagnetic fields at the metal-dielectric interface. These strong fields are exploited in surface enhanced spectroscopies, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), for the detection and characterization of molecules at very low concentration. Still, the implementation of SERS-based biosensors requires a high level of reproducibility, combined with cheap and simple fabrication methods. For this purpose, SERS substrates based on self-assembled aggregates of commercial metallic nanoparticles (Nps) can meet all the above requests. Following this line, we report on a combined micro-Raman and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis of the SERS efficiency of micrometric silver Np aggregates (enhancement factors up to 109) obtained by self-assembly. Despite the intrinsic disordered nature of these Np clusters, we were able to sort out some general rules relating the specific aggregate morphology to its plasmonic response. We found strong evidences of cooperative effects among the NPs within the cluster and namely a clear dependence of the SERS-efficiency on both the cluster area (basically linear) and the number of stacked NPs layers. A cooperative action among the superimposed layers has been proved also by electromagnetic simulations performed on simplified nanostructures consisting of stacking planes of ordered Nps. Being clear the potentialities of these disordered self-assembled clusters, in terms of both easy fabrication and signal enhancement, we developed a specific nanofabrication protocol, based on electron beam lithography and molecular functionalization, that allowed for a fine control of the Np assemblies into designed shapes fixing their area and height. In particular, we fabricated 2D ordered arrays of disordered clusters choosing gold Nps owing to their high stability. AFM measurements confirmed

  17. Self-assembled nanoparticle aggregates: Organizing disorder for high performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasolato, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Center for Life Nanoscience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome (Italy); Domenici, F., E-mail: fabiodomenici@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Brasili, F.; Mazzi, E.; Postorino, P., E-mail: paolo.postorino@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Mura, F. [Center for Nanotechnology for Engineering (CNIS), Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base Applicate all’Ingegneria, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Sennato, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); CNR-ISC UOS Sapienza, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bordi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy); CNR-IPCF UOS Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    The coherent oscillations of the surface electron gas, known as surface plasmons, in metal nanostructures can give rise to the localization of intense electromagnetic fields at the metal-dielectric interface. These strong fields are exploited in surface enhanced spectroscopies, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), for the detection and characterization of molecules at very low concentration. Still, the implementation of SERS-based biosensors requires a high level of reproducibility, combined with cheap and simple fabrication methods. For this purpose, SERS substrates based on self-assembled aggregates of commercial metallic nanoparticles (Nps) can meet all the above requests. Following this line, we report on a combined micro-Raman and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis of the SERS efficiency of micrometric silver Np aggregates (enhancement factors up to 10{sup 9}) obtained by self-assembly. Despite the intrinsic disordered nature of these Np clusters, we were able to sort out some general rules relating the specific aggregate morphology to its plasmonic response. We found strong evidences of cooperative effects among the NPs within the cluster and namely a clear dependence of the SERS-efficiency on both the cluster area (basically linear) and the number of stacked NPs layers. A cooperative action among the superimposed layers has been proved also by electromagnetic simulations performed on simplified nanostructures consisting of stacking planes of ordered Nps. Being clear the potentialities of these disordered self-assembled clusters, in terms of both easy fabrication and signal enhancement, we developed a specific nanofabrication protocol, based on electron beam lithography and molecular functionalization, that allowed for a fine control of the Np assemblies into designed shapes fixing their area and height. In particular, we fabricated 2D ordered arrays of disordered clusters choosing gold Nps owing to their high stability. AFM measurements

  18. High-Performance Silver Window Electrodes for Top-Illuminated Organic Photovoltaics Using an Organo-molybdenum Oxide Bronze Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Martin S; Walker, Marc; Hatton, Ross A

    2016-05-18

    We report an organo-molybdenumn oxide bronze that enables the fabrication of high-performance silver window electrodes for top-illuminated solution processed organic photovoltaics without complicating the process of device fabrication. This hybrid material combines the function of wide-band-gap interlayer for efficient hole extraction with the role of metal electrode seed layer, enabling the fabrication of highly transparent, low-sheet-resistance silver window electrodes. Additionally it is also processed from ethanol, which ensures orthogonality with a large range of solution processed organic semiconductors. The key organic component is the low cost small molecule 3-mercaptopropionic acid, which (i) promotes metal film formation and imparts robustness at low metal thickness, (ii) reduces the contact resistance at the Ag/molybdenumn oxide bronze interface, (iii) and greatly improves the film forming properties. Silver electrodes with a thickness of 8 nm deposited by simple vacuum evaporation onto this hybrid interlayer have a sheet resistance as low as 9.7 Ohms per square and mean transparency ∼80% over the wavelength range 400-900 nm without the aid of an antireflecting layer, which makes them well-matched to the needs of organic photovoltaics and applicable to perovskite photovoltaics. The application of this hybrid material is demonstrated in two types of top-illuminated organic photovoltaic devices.

  19. Leading public service organizations: How to obtain high employee self-efficacy and organizational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    Concerns are sometimes raised that transactional leadership harms public organisations’ performance, because demands thwart employees’ self-efficacy. However, the opposite may be argued – conditional rewards strengthen feelings of competence because they provide positive feedback on performance. ......, the teachers’ self-efficacy can be linked positively to organisational performance. This suggests that rewards can be an important tool for managers in the public sector.......Concerns are sometimes raised that transactional leadership harms public organisations’ performance, because demands thwart employees’ self-efficacy. However, the opposite may be argued – conditional rewards strengthen feelings of competence because they provide positive feedback on performance. We...

  20. Pseudocapacitive organic catechol derivative-functionalized three-dimensional graphene aerogel hybrid electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaewon; Yang, MinHo; Kim, Sung-Kon

    2017-11-01

    Bio-inspired and environmentally friendly chemical functionalization is a successful way to a new class of hybrid electrode materials for applications in energy storage. Quinone (Q)-hydroquinone (QH2) couples, a prototypical example of organic redox systems, provide fast and reversible proton-coupled electron-transfer reactions which lead to increased capacity. To achieve high capacitance and rate performance, constructing three-dimensional (3D) continuous porous structure is highly desirable. Here we report the hybrid electrodes (GA-C) consisting of 3D graphene aerogel (GA) functionalized with organic redox-active material, catechol derivative, for application to high-performance supercapacitors. The catechol derivative is adsorbed on the surface of GA through non-covalent interactions and promotes fast and reversible Q/QH2 faradaic reactions, providing large specific capacitance of 188 F g-1 at a current of 1 A g-1 and a specific energy of ∼25 Wh kg-1 at a specific power of ∼18,000 W kg-1. 3D continuous porous structure of GA electrode facilitates ion and electron transports, resulting in high rate performance (∼140 F g-1 at a current of 10 A g-1).

  1. Performance Effects of Measurement and Analysis: Perspectives from CMMI High Maturity Organizations and Appraisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Mark Kasunic, Mike Konrad, Steve Masters, Mike Phillips, Shigeru Sasao, Rusty Young, and Dave Zubrow for their timely and helpful reviews of the...2010-TR-022 [26] D. J. Reifer, "Profiles of Level 5 CMMI Organizations," Crosstalk, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 24-28, Jan. 2007. [27] J. Sutherland

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) fruit phenolics grown either conventionally or organically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Mikko J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2006-10-04

    Black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) contain a diverse range of phenolics and possess a high antioxidant activity, which makes them an interesting target for the functional food industry. In this study, phenolic profiles of organically and conventionally grown black currant fruits, collected from commercial farms within a climatically similar area, were compared. Compounds were identified using UV/vis and mass spectroscopy techniques and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/vis detection. Several different conjugates of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins were quantified. Statistically significant differences between farms were found for almost all compounds. Differences between the highest and the lowest measured values of major phenolic compounds of different phenolic classes ranged from 24 to 77%. Principal component analysis quite effectively separated farms from each other but did not cluster them according to cultivation technique. Thus, it was concluded that the biochemical quality of organically grown black currant fruits does not differ from those grown conventionally.

  3. Repurposing compact discs as master molds to fabricate high-performance organic nanowire field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghun; Cho, Jinhwi; Jhon, Heesauk; Jeon, Jongwook; Kang, Myounggon; Eon Park, Chan; Lee, Jihoon; An, Tae Kyu

    2017-05-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been developed over the past few decades due to their potential applications in future electronics such as wearable and foldable electronics. As the electrical performance of OFETs has improved, patterning organic semiconducting crystals has become a key issue for their commercialization. However, conventional soft lithographic techniques have required the use of expensive processes to fabricate high-resolution master molds. In this study, we demonstrated a cost-effective method to prepare nanopatterned master molds for the fabrication of high-performance nanowire OFETs. We repurposed commercially available compact discs (CDs) as master molds because they already have linear nanopatterns on their surface. Flexible nanopatterned templates were replicated from the CDs using UV-imprint lithography. Subsequently, 6,13-bis-(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene nanowires (NWs) were grown from the templates using a capillary force-assisted lithographic technique. The NW-based OFETs showed a high average field-effect mobility of 2.04 cm2 V-1 s-1. This result was attributed to the high crystallinity of the NWs and to their crystal orientation favorable for charge transport.

  4. 3D Polyaniline Architecture by Concurrent Inorganic and Organic Acid Doping for Superior and Robust High Rate Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawli, Yogesh; Banerjee, Abhik; Dhakras, Dipti; Deo, Meenal; Bulani, Dinesh; Wadgaonkar, Prakash; Shelke, Manjusha; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-02-12

    A good high rate supercapacitor performance requires a fine control of morphological (surface area and pore size distribution) and electrical properties of the electrode materials. Polyaniline (PANI) is an interesting material in supercapacitor context because it stores energy Faradaically. However in conventional inorganic (e.g. HCl) acid doping, the conductivity is high but the morphological features are undesirable. On the other hand, in weak organic acid (e.g. phytic acid) doping, interesting and desirable 3D connected morphological features are attained but the conductivity is poorer. Here the synergy of the positive quality factors of these two acid doping approaches is realized by concurrent and optimized strong-inorganic (HCl) and weak-organic (phytic) acid doping, resulting in a molecular composite material that renders impressive and robust supercapacitor performance. Thus, a nearly constant high specific capacitance of 350 F g(-1) is realized for the optimised case of binary doping over the entire range of 1 A g(-1) to 40 A g(-1) with stability of 500 cycles at 40 A g(-1). Frequency dependant conductivity measurements show that the optimized co-doped case is more metallic than separately doped materials. This transport property emanates from the unique 3D single molecular character of such system.

  5. Managing excitons for high performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes by using a simple planar heterojunction interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Changsheng; Sun, Ning; Wu, Zhongbin; Chen, Jiangshan; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Ma, Dongge

    2018-01-01

    High performance hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) were fabricated by inserting a planar heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent emitting layers (EMLs). The maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 19.3%, current efficiency of 57.1 cd A-1, and power efficiency (PE) of 66.2 lm W-1 were achieved in the optimized device without any light extraction enhancement. At the luminance of 1000 cd m-2, the EQE and PE remained as high as 18.9% and 60 lm W-1, respectively, showing the reduced efficiency-roll. In order to disclose the reason for such high performance, the distribution of excitons was analyzed by using ultra-thin fluorescent and phosphorescent layers as sensors. It was found that the heterojunction interlayer can efficiently separate the singlet and triplet excitons, preventing the triplet excitons from being quenched by the fluorescent emitter. The introduction of the heterojunction interlayer between the fluorescent and phosphorescent EMLs should offer a simple and efficient route to fabricate the high performance hybrid WOLEDs.

  6. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  7. High performance all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor based on porous carbon made from a metal-organic framework compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Wang, Teng; Wen, Zubiao; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of porous carbon material with high specific surface area by using metal-organic framework (MOF) as precursor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have confirmed that the material was amorphous and consisted of nanoparticles (5-6 nm) and hierarchical distribution of pores. The characterization of the material by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm measurement have shown that the material had a high specific surface area reaching to 2618.7 m2 g-1 and abundant porosity with pore size less than 10 nm. The investigation of the electrochemical properties of the material has shown the porous carbon electrode possessed excellent rate performance with high specific capacitances of 150.8 F g-1 at a current density of 5 A g-1, and 133.6 F g-1 at a current density of 50 A g-1, respectively. An all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor assembled using the as-prepared porous carbon as electrodes and Na2SO4/PVA gel as an electrolyte delivered a high power density of 13 516.4 W kg-1 with an energy density of 8.26 Wh kg-1. A high energy density of 17.37 Wh kg-1 was obtained at discharge current density of 1 A g-1. In addition, the device exhibited superior cycling performance with 94.8% retention rate after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 10 A g-1.

  8. Genomic organization and polymorphisms detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography of porcine SLC11A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Fang; Luo, Wen-Hua; Yang, Guan-Fu; Zhang, Xi-Quan

    2007-10-01

    SLC11A1 (also known as Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein1, NRAMP1) plays a crucial role in resistance of inbred mice to infection with several intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium, Leishmania and Salmonella. In this study, PCR amplification and sequencing were performed to obtain the genomic organization and sequence of porcine SLC11A1 gene by comparative genomic analysis. Results showed that porcine SLC11A1 gene consists of 15 exons and 14 introns, which is consistent with that of mice and human. All introns were sequenced and their nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank. The exon/intron boundaries were determined by comparing cDNA sequence with amplified genomic DNA sequences. Mutational analysis was performed on exonic and neighboring intronic region by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and sequencing confirmation. Forty polymorphisms were identified; six are located in exons and thirty-four in introns. Two exonic polymorphisms are nonsynonymous changes (D6H and V175I), three are synonymous changes (S23, G33 and I155), and one is in 3' UTR. The availability of the fine genomic organization and identification of the polymorphisms will facilitate the evaluation of porcine SLC11A1 functional role in diseases resistance or susceptibility.

  9. MoS2 Quantum Dots with a Tunable Work Function for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wang; Chen, Yusheng; Wang, Xinlong; Lv, Lei; Ouyang, Xinhua; Ge, Ziyi; Huang, Hui

    2016-10-12

    An efficient hole extraction layer (HEL) is critical to achieve high-performance organic solar cells (OSCs). In this study, we developed a pinhole-free and efficient HEL based on MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) combined with UV-ozone (UVO) treatment. The optophysical properties and morphology of MoS2 QDs and their photovoltaic performance are investigated. The results showed that MoS2 QDs can form homogeneous films and can be applied as an interfacial layer not only for donors with shallow highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) but also for those with deep HOMO energy levels after UVO treatment (O-MoS2 QDs). The solar cells based on O-MoS2 QDs yield a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.66%, which is 71% and 12% higher than those of the OSCs with pristine MoS2 QD and O-MoS2 nanosheets, respectively, and the highest PCEs for OSCs containing MoS2 materials. Furthermore, the stability of solar cells based on MoS2 QDs is greatly improved in comparison with state-of-the-art PEDOT:PSS. These results demonstrate the great potential of O-MoS2 QDs as an efficient HEL for high-performance OSCs.

  10. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2016-12-13

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  11. Influence of various red doping materials on the photoelectric performance of highly efficient organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Wu; Li, Jian-Feng; Kuo, Wen-Fa

    2002-09-01

    The influence of various red doping materials on the photoelectric performance of highly efficient organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) were systematically investigated. The multilayerd red-light OLEDs fabricated in this work have the structure of ITO/m-MTDATA/NPB/Alq3:MGAg. Three different doping materials, including 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetra-methyl-ljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran, 4-Dicyanomethyl-lene-2-methyl-6-[2-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-benzo quinoliz-in-8-yl)vinyl]4H-pyran) (DCM2), and Nile Red (NIR), were adopted. Compared with the various red-doped OLEDs, the highest luminance occureed in DCM2-doped OLED. Evidence showed that the co-existence of exciton energy transfer and carrier trapping processes in DCM2-doped OLED is the main reason leading the highest luminance occurred in that device.

  12. About the prediction of Organic Rankine Cycles performances integrating local high-fidelity turbines simulation and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Pietro; de Santis, Dante; Geraci, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are of key-importance when exploiting energy systems with a high efficiency. The variability of renewable heat sources makes more complex the global performance prediction of a cycle. The thermodynamic properties of the complex fluids used in the process are another source of uncertainty. The need for a predictive and robust simulation tool of ORCs remains strong. A high-order accurate Residual Distribution scheme has been recently developed for efficiently computing a turbine stage on unstructured grids, including advanced equations of state in order to take into account the complex fluids used in ORCs. Advantages in using high-order methods have been highlighted, in terms of number of degrees of freedom and computational time used, for computing the numerical solution with a greater accuracy compared to lower-order methods, even for shocked flows. The objective of this work is to quantify the numerical error with respect to the various sources of uncertainty of the ORC turbine, thus providing a very high-fidelity prediction in the coupled physical/stochastic space.

  13. A new electrochemically responsive 2D π-conjugated covalent organic framework as a high performance supercapacitor

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Sabuj Kanti

    2018-03-02

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) build via periodic arrangement of organic building blocks are attracting increasing interest in recent times due to the huge scope in their synthesis through a wide range of structural motifs and diversity in their potential applications. Here we report the synthesis of a new porous extended network π-conjugated TFP-NDA-COF via solvothermal Schiff base condensation of 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (TFP) with 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (NDA). The electrochemical study demonstrates that TFP-NDA-COF has the capability of energy storage up to 379 F g−1 at 2 mV s−1 scan rate, 348 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and offer excellent specific capacitance retention of 75% after 8000 charge discharge cycles. High electrochemical performance could be attributed to the π-electronic conjugation along the polymeric 2D layered network and ion conduction inside the porous channel and permanent porosity of the framework. This indicates that the COF reported herein meets the key requirements like energy storage ability and electrochemical stability needed for developing an efficient energy storage device.

  14. Fully-printed high-performance organic thin-film transistors and circuitry on one-micron-thick polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Takeda, Yasunori; Yoshimura, Yudai; Shiwaku, Rei; Tran, Lam Truc; Sekine, Tomohito; Mizukami, Makoto; Kumaki, Daisuke; Tokito, Shizuo

    2014-06-01

    Thin, ultra-flexible devices that can be manufactured in a process that covers a large area will be essential to realizing low-cost, wearable electronic applications including foldable displays and medical sensors. The printing technology will be instrumental in fabricating these novel electronic devices and circuits; however, attaining fully printed devices on ultra-flexible films in large areas has typically been a challenge. Here we report on fully printed organic thin-film transistor devices and circuits fabricated on 1-μm-thick parylene-C films with high field-effect mobility (1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1) and fast operating speeds (about 1 ms) at low operating voltages. The devices were extremely light (2 g m-2) and exhibited excellent mechanical stability. The devices remained operational even under 50% compressive strain without significant changes in their performance. These results represent significant progress in the fabrication of fully printed organic thin-film transistor devices and circuits for use in unobtrusive electronic applications such as wearable sensors.

  15. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Karnieli-Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values, using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  16. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  17. Synthesis and Electrospraying of Nanoscale MOF (Metal Organic Framework) for High-Performance CO2Adsorption Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman; Allmond, Kelsey; Stone, John; Harp, Spencer; Mujibur, Khan

    2017-12-01

    We report the sonochemical synthesis of MOF (metal organic framework) nanoparticles of 30-200 nm in size and electrospraying of those particles on electrospun nanofibers to process a MOF-attached nanofibrous membrane. This membrane displayed significant selectivity towards CO 2 and capacity of adsorbing with 4000-5000 ppm difference from a mixed gas flow of 1% CO 2 and 99% N 2 . Applying ultrasonic waves during the MOF synthesis offered rapid dispersion and formation of crystalline MOF nanoparticles in room temperature. The MOF nanoparticles of 100-200 nm in size displayed higher surface area and adsorption capacity comparing to that of 30-60 nm in size. Nanofibrous membrane was produced by electrospinning of MOF blended PAN solution followed by electrospraying of additional MOF nanoparticles. This yielded uniform MOF deposition on nanofibers, occurred due to electrostatic attraction between highly charged nanoparticles and conductive nanofibers. A test bench for real-time CO 2 adsorption at room temperature was built with non-dispersive Infrared (NDIR) CO 2 sensors. Comparative tests were performed on the membrane to investigate its enhanced adsorption capacity. Three layers of the as-produced membranes displayed CO 2 adsorption for approximately 2 h. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the membrane showed the thermal stability of the MOF and PAN up to 290 and 425 °C, respectively.

  18. Low-cost removal of organic pollutants with nickel nanoparticle loaded ordered macroporous hydrogel as high performance catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: tmyi@tjcu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Sai [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Liu, Yue [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Wang, Xingrui [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia, E-mail: qhx@tju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A facile route for the in situ preparation of catalytically active Ni nanoparticles (NPs) in ordered macroporous hydrogel (OMH) has been developed. The hydrogel was fabricated based on polystyrene colloid template. The electronegativity of amide and carboxyl groups on the poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) chains of the hydrogel caused strong binding of Ni{sup 2+} ions which made them distribute uniformly inside the hydrogel. When immersed in NaBH{sub 4} aqueous solution, the Ni{sup 2+} ions on the hydrogel were reduced to Ni NPs. The resultant Ni NPs loaded OMH showed good catalytic activity for the reduction of a common organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol, with NaBH{sub 4}. A kinetic study of the catalytic reaction was carried out. The rate constant per unit weight could reach 0.53 s{sup −1} g{sup −1}, which is much better than many common hydrogel loaded nickel catalysts. Moreover, the current catalyst can be easily separated and recovered with stable catalytic activity. - Highlights: • A new poly(acrylamide-co-acryl acid) hydrogel with ordered macropores. • A simple in situ fabrication of nickel nanoparticles under mild conditions. • High-performance heterogeneous catalyst for removal of nitrophenol from water. • Good recyclability of catalyst without any complicated regeneration process.

  19. Mesoporous Ag/In2O3 composite derived from indium organic framework as high performance formaldehyde sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying-Ying; Wang, Jin-Lian; Li, Shu-Ni; Jiang, Yu-Cheng; Hu, Man-Cheng; Zhai, Quan-Guo

    2017-07-01

    Mesoporous Ag/In2O3 composite materials with different concentrations of Ag particles have been prepared by the calcination of Ag+-entrapped indium-organic frameworks (InOFs). The structures and components of these MOF-derived Mesoporous Ag/In2O3 composite materials have been characterized thoroughly. Gas sensing measurements indicated that the incorporation of metallic Ag particles into the mesoporous structure significantly improves the gas-sensing properties of In2O3. Specially, the response of 5% Ag-loaded In2O3 sensor to 50 ppm formaldehyde is 5 times higher than that of pure In2O3 particles at 210 °C, which is among the best formaldehyde sensor materials reported to date. Also, Ag/In2O3 composite sensor exhibit short response time ( 22 s) and excellent recovery. These results indicated that the InOF-derived mesoporous Ag/In2O3 materials maybe can be used to fabricate high performance formaldehyde sensors in practice.

  20. Metal-Organic-Compound-Modified MoS2 with Enhanced Solubility for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruina; Wang, Yangyang; Wang, Jie; Deng, Xianyu

    2017-07-21

    MoS2 as a graphene-like 2 D material shows a large potential to replace and even overcome graphene in various important applications owing to its ideal properties of electrical, optical, frictional, and tunable band gap. However, its low solubility in the most of common solvents makes it difficult to prepare by a simple solution process. Here, we introduce a metal-organic compound to modify MoS2 . Phenyl acetylene silver (PAS)-functionalized MoS2 is easily dispersed in solvents like DMF and water. A conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) blend with the MoS2 leads to a significant enhancement of the performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. The solar cells have a high power conversion efficiency of 16.47 % as well as largely increased stability. This provides a feasible method for large-scale production of MoS2 for wide applications in various electric devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Transparent Hole Transporting Layer with Solvent Treatment for High Performance Silicon/Organic Hybrid Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingduan; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Shuangshuang; Zou, Jizhao; Xie, Weiguang; Zeng, Xierong

    2017-08-23

    Efficient Si/organic hybrid solar cells were fabricated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and surfactant-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene (PEDOT:PSS). A post-treatment on PEDOT:PSS films with polar solvent was performed to increase the device performance. We found that the performance of hybrid solar cells increase with the polarity of solvent. A high conductivity of 1105 S cm - 1 of PEDOT:PSS was achieved by adopting methanol treatment, and the best efficiency of corresponding hybrid solar cells reaches 12.22%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and RAMAN spectroscopy were utilized to conform to component changes of PEDOT:PSS films after solvent treatment. It was found that the removal of the insulator PSS from the film and the conformational changes are the determinants for the device performance enhancement. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the recombination resistance and capacitance of methanol-treated and untreated hybrid solar cells, indicating that methanol-treated devices had a larger recombination resistance and capacitance. Our findings bring a simple and efficient way for improving the performance of hybrid solar cell.

  2. Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Transparent Hole Transporting Layer with Solvent Treatment for High Performance Silicon/Organic Hybrid Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingduan; Yang, Jianwei; Chen, Shuangshuang; Zou, Jizhao; Xie, Weiguang; Zeng, Xierong

    2017-08-01

    Efficient Si/organic hybrid solar cells were fabricated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and surfactant-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene (PEDOT:PSS). A post-treatment on PEDOT:PSS films with polar solvent was performed to increase the device performance. We found that the performance of hybrid solar cells increase with the polarity of solvent. A high conductivity of 1105 S cm- 1 of PEDOT:PSS was achieved by adopting methanol treatment, and the best efficiency of corresponding hybrid solar cells reaches 12.22%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and RAMAN spectroscopy were utilized to conform to component changes of PEDOT:PSS films after solvent treatment. It was found that the removal of the insulator PSS from the film and the conformational changes are the determinants for the device performance enhancement. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the recombination resistance and capacitance of methanol-treated and untreated hybrid solar cells, indicating that methanol-treated devices had a larger recombination resistance and capacitance. Our findings bring a simple and efficient way for improving the performance of hybrid solar cell.

  3. How to Recruit High-Performing Charter Management Organizations to a New Region: Results from the 2015 CMO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Charter Management Organizations (CMOs) are nonprofit entities that manage at least two charter schools. They play an important role in increasing the number of high-quality charter public schools by enabling the replication and expansion of models that work, creating economies of scale, encouraging collaboration, and building support structures…

  4. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  5. High?Performance Organic Lithium Batteries with an Ether?Based Electrolyte and 9,10?Anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK?3 Cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kai; Guo, Chunyang; Zhao, Qing; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials of lithium batteries have shown multifunctional molecule design and high capacity, but have the problems of poor cycling and low rate performance due to their high solubility in traditional carbonate?based electrolytes and low conductivity. High?performance organic lithium batteries with modified ether?based electrolyte (2 m LiN(CF3SO2)2 in 1,3?dioxolane/dimethoxyethane solvent with 1% LiNO3 additive (2m?DD?1%L)) and 9,10?anthraquinone (AQ)/CMK?3 (AQC) nan...

  6. High performance silicon-organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-06-01

    The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si-organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si-organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a Jsc of 31.94 mAcm-2, a Voc of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of PEDOT:PSS thin film leading to further enhanced performances of solar cells.

  7. Hollow/porous nanostructures derived from nanoscale metal-organic frameworks towards high performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Chen, Qianwang

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), owing to their high energy density, light weight, and long cycle life, have shown considerable promise for storage devices. The successful utilization of LIBs depends strongly on the preparation of nanomaterials with outstanding lithium storage properties. Recent progress has demonstrated that hollow/porous nanostructured oxides are very attractive candidates for LIBs anodes due to their high storage capacities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs)-templated synthesis of hollow/porous nanostructured oxides and their LIBs applications. By choosing some typical NMOFs as examples, we present a comprehensive summary of synthetic procedures for nanostructured oxides, such as binary, ternary and composite oxides. Hollow/porous structures are readily obtained due to volume loss and release of internally generated gas molecules during the calcination of NMOFs in air. Interestingly, the NMOFs-derived hollow/porous structures possess several special features: pores generated from gas molecules release will connect to each other, which are distinct from ``dead pores'' pore size often appears to be pore surface is hydrophobic. These structural features are believed to be the most critical factors that determine LIBs' performance. Indeed, it has been shown that these NMOFs-derived hollow/porous oxides exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs, including high storage capacity, good cycle stability, and so on. For example, a high charge capacity of 1465 mA h g-1 at a rate of 300 mA g-1 was observed after 50 cycles for NMOFs-derived Co3O4 porous nanocages, which corresponds to 94.09% of the initial capacity (1557 mA h g-1), indicating excellent stability. The capacity of NMOFs-derived Co3O4 is higher than that of other Co3O4 nanostructures obtained by a conventional two-step route, including nanosheets (1450 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1), nanobelts (1400 mA h g-1 at 40 mA g-1) and

  8. An Alternating 5,5-Dimethylcyclopentadiene-based Copolymer prepared at Room Temperature for High Performance Organic Thin Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Fei, Zhuping

    2017-06-05

    We report that the inclusion of non-aromatic 5,5-dimethylcyclopentadiene monomer into a conjugated backbone is an attractive strategy to high performance semiconducting polymers. The use of this monomer enables a room temperature Suzuki copolymerization with a diketopyrrolopyrrole comono-mer to afford a highly soluble, high molecular weight material. The resulting low band gap polymer exhibits excellent photo and thermal stability, and despite a large π-π stacking distance of 4.26 Å, it demonstrates excellent performance in thin-film transistor devices.

  9. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2015-11-24

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  10. Bay-annulated indigo (BAI) as an excellent electron accepting building block for high performance organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; He, Bo; Pun, Andrew

    2016-04-19

    A novel electron acceptor based on bay-annulated indigo (BAI) was synthesized and used for the preparation of a series of high performance donor-acceptor small molecules and polymers. The resulting materials possess low-lying LUMO energy level and small HOMO-LUMO gaps, while their films exhibited high crystallinity upon thermal treatment, commensurate with high field effect mobilities and ambipolar transfer characteristics.

  11. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Performance of Siloxane Mixtures in a High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Considering the Heat Transfer Characteristics during Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Theresa Weith; Florian Heberle; Markus Preißinger; Dieter Brüggemann

    2014-01-01

    The application of the Organic Rankine Cycle to high temperature heat sources is investigated on the case study of waste heat recovery from a selected biogas plant. Two different modes of operation are distinguished: pure electric power and combined heat and power generation. The siloxanes hexamethyldisiloxane (MM) and octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM) are chosen as working fluids. Moreover, the effect of using mixtures of these components is analysed. Regarding pure electricity generation, process...

  13. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of unsaturated organic compounds by a monolithic silica column embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Hasegawa, George; Moitra, Nirmalya; Kiyomura, Tsutomu; Kurata, Hiroki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    The optimization of a porous structure to ensure good separation performances is always a significant issue in high-performance liquid chromatography column design. Recently we reported the homogeneous embedment of Ag nanoparticles in periodic mesoporous silica monolith and the application of such Ag nanoparticles embedded silica monolith for the high-performance liquid chromatography separation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. However, the separation performance remains to be improved and the retention mechanism as compared with the Ag ion high-performance liquid chromatography technique still needs to be clarified. In this research, Ag nanoparticles were introduced into a macro/mesoporous silica monolith with optimized pore parameters for high-performance liquid chromatography separations. Baseline separation of benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene was achieved with the theoretical plate number for analyte naphthalene as 36,000 m(-1). Its separation function was further extended to cis/trans isomers of aromatic compounds where cis/trans stilbenes were chosen as a benchmark. Good separation of cis/trans-stilbene with separation factor as 7 and theoretical plate number as 76,000 m(-1) for cis-stilbene was obtained. The trans isomer, however, is retained more strongly, which contradicts the long- established retention rule of Ag ion chromatography. Such behavior of Ag nanoparticles embedded in a silica column can be attributed to the differences in the molecular geometric configuration of cis/trans stilbenes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hou, Juan [School of Science, Key Laboratory of Ecophysics, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Huang, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States); Peng, Shanglong, E-mail: pengshl@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Deyan [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of

  15. High Performers in Complex Spatial Systems: A Self-Organizing Mapping Approach with Reference to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourtit, K.; Arribas-Bel, D.; Nijkamp, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of creative firms from the perspective of complex spatial systems. Based on an extensive high-dimensional database on both the attributes of individual creative firms in the Netherlands and a series of detailed regional facilitating and driving factors related,

  16. Redesigning Community Colleges for Completion: Lessons from Research on High-Performance Organizations. CCRC Working Paper No. 24. Assessment of Evidence Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the research from within and outside of higher education on the practices of high-performance organizations. It assesses the extent to which community colleges generally are following these practices and evaluates current reform efforts in light of models of organizational effectiveness that emerge from the research literature.…

  17. Driving High-Performance n- and p-type Organic Transistors with Carbon Nanotube/Conjugated Polymer Composite Electrodes Patterned Directly from Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Hellstrom, Sondra L.

    2010-07-12

    We report patterned deposition of carbon nanotube/conjugated polymer composites from solution with high nanotube densities and excellent feature resolution. Such composites are suited for use as electrodes in high-performance transistors of pentacene and C60, with bottom-contact mobilities of ?0.5 and ?1 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. This represents a clear step towards development of inexpensive, high-performance all-organic circuits. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Solvent-annealing-induced self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene), a high-performance electrochromic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Hsien; Yang, Chuan-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Lun; Lin, Lu-Yin; Wang, Rui-Ren; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2009-12-01

    We have systematically studied the self-organization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), an electrochromic material, upon control of the solvent evaporation rate. We characterized these polymer films using atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. Well-ordered P3HT structures were developed after solvent annealing; these highly crystalline structures exhibited enhanced electrochromic contrast and reduced resistance within the film, leading to larger coloration efficiencies and faster switching times. The optical contrast (Delta%T), coloration efficiency, and switching time of the P3HT films increased from 54.2%, 182.6 cm(2) C(-1), and 5.3 s, respectively, prior to solvent annealing to 64.8%, 293.5 cm(2) C(-1), and 3.2 s, respectively, after application of the solvent-annealing conditions.

  19. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, M.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, A.C.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Batista, I.R. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fu, G. [GE Global Research, Schenectady, NY (United States); Chen, C.T. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Meng, L.J. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Bressan, R.A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Neurociências Clínicas, Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro, E. Jr [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Instituto do Cérebro, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-06

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s{sup -1}·MBq{sup -1} were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging {sup 99m}Tc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  20. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The single photon emission microscope (SPEM is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD. Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

  1. High performance organic nonvolatile memory transistors based on HfO2 and poly(α-methylstyrene) electret hybrid charge-trapping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. C.; He, H. X.; Jing, X. S.; Wu, S. J.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, J. W.; Gao, X. S.; Zhou, G. F.; Lu, X. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we fabricated a high performance flash-type organic nonvolatile memory transistor, which adopted polymer-electret poly(α-methylstyrene) (PαMS) and HfO2 films as hybrid charge trapping layer (CTL). Compared with a single HfO2 or PαMS CTL structure, the hybrid HfO2/PαMS CTL structure can provide enhanced charge trapping efficiency to increase the device operation speed and reduce the leakage current to boost the device reliability. The fabricated nonvolatile organic memory transistors with the hybrid CTL shows excellent electrical properties, including low operation voltage (8 V), high speed (retention (on-off current ratio of 2.6 × 104 after 104 s), and good endurance (more than 2000 program/erase cycles). The present work provides useful idea for the design of future low-power consumption and highly reliable organic nonvolatile memories.

  2. Performance of Siloxane Mixtures in a High-Temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Considering the Heat Transfer Characteristics during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Weith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of the Organic Rankine Cycle to high temperature heat sources is investigated on the case study of waste heat recovery from a selected biogas plant. Two different modes of operation are distinguished: pure electric power and combined heat and power generation. The siloxanes hexamethyldisiloxane (MM and octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM are chosen as working fluids. Moreover, the effect of using mixtures of these components is analysed. Regarding pure electricity generation, process simulations using the simulation tool Aspen Plus show an increase in second law efficiency of 1.3% in case of 97/03 wt % MM/MDM-mixture, whereas for the combined heat and power mode a 60/40 wt % MM/MDM-mixture yields the highest efficiency with an increase of nearly 3% compared to most efficient pure fluid. Next to thermodynamic analysis, measurements of heat transfer coefficients of these siloxanes as well as their mixtures are conducted and Kandlikar’s correlation is chosen to describe the results. Based on that, heat exchanger areas for preheater and evaporator are calculated in order to check whether the poorer heat transfer characteristics of mixtures devalue their efficiency benefit due to increased heat transfer areas. Results show higher heat transfer areas of 0.9% and 14%, respectively, compared to MM.

  3. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  4. A polyhedral metal-organic framework based on the supermolecular building block strategy exhibiting high performance for carbon dioxide capture and separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Yao, Shuo; Wang, Tao; Li, Guanghua; Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Yunling

    2015-10-25

    By using the supermolecular building block (SBB) strategy, a polyhedron-based metal-organic framework (PMOF), which features three types of cages with multiple sizes and shapes, has been synthesized. It exhibits high performance for CO2 capture (170 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 K under 1 bar) and selectivity of CO2/CH4 (9.4) and C3H8/CH4 (271.5).

  5. Evaluation of drug loading capabilities of γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaonan; Wang, Caifen; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xue; Liu, Botao; Singh, Vikramjeet; Wang, Shuxia; Sun, Lixin; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-03-10

    Drug loading into γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOFs) using the impregnation approach is a laborious process. In this study, a γ-CD-MOF construct (2-5μm particle diameter) was used as the stationary phase under HPLC conditions with the aim to correlate retention properties and drug loading capability of the CD-based structure. Ketoprofen, fenbufen and diazepam were chosen as model drugs with m-xylene as a control analyte to investigate the correlation of drug loading and their chromatographic behaviour in the γ-CD-MOF column. Furthermore, γ-CD itself was also prepared as the stationary phase by coupling with silica in the column to illustrate the enhanced interaction between drugs and γ-CD-MOF as a reference. The retention and loading efficiency of the drugs were determined with different ratios of hexane and ethanol (10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 90:10, v/v) at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 37°C. With the increment in hexane content, the loading efficiency of ketoprofen and fenbufen increased from 2.39±0.06% to 4.38±0.04% and from 5.82±0.94% to 6.37±0.29%, respectively. The retention time and loading efficiency of ketoprofen and diazepam were the lowest at 30°C while those of fenbufen had the different tendency. The excellent relation between the retention and loading efficiency onto γ-CD-MOF could be clearly observed through mobile phase and temperature investigation. In conclusion, a highly efficient chromatographic method has been established to evaluate the drug loading capability of γ-CD-MOF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE AND EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Jakšiæ, Miloš Jakšiæ

    2014-01-01

    Employee satisfaction related to their job, possibilities of career development, mechanisms of performance measurement and reward, as remuneration systems are of growing importance. Expectations of highly educated workforce continuously increase, so recruiting and retention of such workers becomes key factor of success for modern companies. Success of companies is expected to change together with employee saticfaction.

  7. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  8. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  9. Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene-Based Derivative As High-Performance Hole Transport Material for Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Andrea; Salamandra, Luigi; Faggio, Giuliana; Dikonimos, Theodoros; Buonocore, Francesco; Morandi, Vittorio; Ortolani, Luca; Lisi, Nicola

    2016-09-14

    The development of efficient charge transport layers is a key requirement for the fabrication of efficient and stable organic solar cells. A graphene-based derivative with planar resistivity exceeding 10(5) Ω/□ and work function of 4.9 eV is here produced by finely tuning the parameters of the chemical vapor deposition process on copper. After the growth, the film is transferred to glass/indium tin oxide and used as hole transport layer in organic solar cells based on a PBDTTT-C-T:[70]PCBM blend. The cells attained a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5%, matching reference cells made with state-of-the-art PSS as the hole transport layer. Our results indicate that functionalized graphene could represent an effective alternative to PSS as hole transport/electron blocking layer in solution-processed organic photovoltaics.

  10. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  11. Chemically modified polymeric resins for separation of cations, organic acids, and small polar moleculea by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, John B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: a review, ion chromatography of metal cations on carboxylic resins, separation of hydrophilic organic acids and small polar compounds on macroporous resin columns, and use of eluent modifiers for liquid chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids using conductivity detection.

  12. Growth of large-size-two-dimensional crystalline pentacene grains for high performance organic thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Du

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New approach is presented for growth of pentacene crystalline thin film with large grain size. Modification of dielectric surfaces using a monolayer of small molecule results in the formation of pentacene thin films with well ordered large crystalline domain structures. This suggests that pentacene molecules may have significantly large diffusion constant on the modified surface. An average hole mobility about 1.52 cm2/Vs of pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs is achieved with good reproducibility.

  13. High altitude organic gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years...

  14. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy......Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur...... efficient to operate and valuable for building communities. Herein discussed are two successful examples of low energy prefabricated housing projects built in Copenhagen Denmark, which embraced both the constraints and possibilities offered by prefabrication....

  15. In Situ Stringing of Metal Organic Frameworks by SiC Nanowires for High-Performance Electromagnetic Radiation Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wu, Fan; Xie, Aming; Sun, Mengxiao; Dong, Wei

    2017-09-27

    The design of novel hybrid nanostructures has been seen as an effective route to tune the properties of materials. Herein, we provide an in situ growth strategy to efficiently construct kebab-like hybrids, which are composed of one-dimensional SiC nanowires stringing polyhedral metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Through a heat-treatment process regardless of under air or argon, these hybrids generate an excellent electromagnetic absorption (EMA) ability. We comprehensively explored the growth and calcination process of these hybrids as well as their EMA enhanced mechanism. The results indicate that the MOFs kept as shrunken polyhedrons under air but decomposed to small particles under argon, due to the different calcination mechanism. In addition, the enhanced EMA ability should be attributed to the combined influences of the reduced dielectric constant, enlarged aspect ratio, and enhanced interface polarization. This research opens up the rational designs and applications of novel materials by the hybridizing of nanomaterials in multidimensions.

  16. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  17. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  18. Tuning crystal polymorphs of a Π-extended tetrathiafulvalene-based cruciform molecule towards high-performance organic field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Linlin; Dong, Huanli; Li, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    packing arrangements in solid state) towards efficient charge transport and high performance devices. Here, the choice of solvent had a marked effect on controlling the growth of α-phase ribbon and β-phase platelet during crystallization for an indenofluorene (IF) π-extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF......It is a common phenomenon for organic semiconductors to crystallize in two or more polymorphs, leading to various molecular packings and different charge transport properties. Therefore, it is a crucial issue of tuning molecular crystal polymorphs (i.e., adjusting the same molecule with different......)-based cruciform molecule, named as IF-TTF. The charge carrier mobility of the α-phase IF-TTF crystals was more than one order of magnitude higher than that of β-phase crystals, suggesting the importance of reasonably tuning molecular packing in solid state for the improvement of charge transport in organic...

  19. High performance x-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Moet, Date; van der Steen, Jan Laurens; van Breemen, Albert; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Gilot, Jan; Andriessen, Ronn; Simon, Matthias; Ruetten, Walter; Douglas, Alexander; Raaijmakers, Rob; Malinowski, Pawel E.; Myny, Kris; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-10-01

    High performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil using solution-processed organic photodiodes with extremely low dark leakage current Abhishek Kumara, Date Moeta, Albert van Breemena, Santhosh Shanmugama, Jan-Laurens van der Steena, Jan Gilota, Ronn Andriessena, Matthias Simonb, Walter Ruettenb, Alexander U. Douglasb, Rob Raaijmakersc, Pawel E. Malinowskid, Kris Mynyd and Gerwin H. Gelincka,e a. Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, Eindhoven 5656 AE, The Netherlands b. Philips Research, High Tech Campus 34, 5656 AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands c. Philips Healthcare, Veenpluis 6-8, 5684 PC Best, The Netherlands d. Department of Large Area Electronics, imec vzw, Kapeldreef 75, Leuven B3001, Belgium e. Applied Physics Department, TU Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands We demonstrate high performance X-ray imaging detectors on foil suitable for medical grade X-ray imaging applications. The detectors are based on solution-processed organic photodiodes forming bulk-heterojunctions from photovoltaic donor and acceptor blend. The organic photodiodes are deposited using an industrially compatible slot die coating technique with end of line processing temperature below 100°C. These photodiodes have extremely low dark leakage current density of 10-7 mA/cm2 at -2V bias with very high yield and have peak absorption around 550 nm wavelength. We combine these organic photodiodes with high mobility metal oxide semiconductor based thin film transistor arrays with high pixel resolution of 200ppi on thin plastic substrate. When combined with a typical CsI(TI) scintillator material on top, they are well suited for low dose X-ray imaging applications. The optical crosstalk is insignificant upto resolution of 200 ppi despite the fact that the photodiode layer is one continuous layer and is non-pixelated. Low processing temperatures are another key advantage since they can be fabricated on plastic substrate. This implies that we can make X-ray detectors on flexible foil. Those

  20. High performance flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting devices and chromaticity shift mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Shi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible warm-white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs are fabricated onto PET substrates with a simple semi-transparent cathode Sm/Ag and two-color phosphors respectively doped into a single host material TCTA. By adjusting the relative position of the orange-red EML sandwiched between the blue emitting layers, the optimized device exhibits the highest power/current efficiency of 8.07 lm/W and near 13 cd/A, with a correlated color temperature (CCT of 4105 K and a color rendering index (CRI of 70. In addition, a moderate chromaticity variation of (-0.025, +0.008 around warm white illumination coordinates (0.45, 0.44 is obtained over a large luminance range of 1000 to 10000 cd/m2. The emission mechanism is discussed via delta-doping method and single-carrier device, which is summarized that the carrier trapping, the exciton quenching, the mobility change and the recombination zone alteration are negative to color stability while the energy transfer process and the blue/red/blue sandwiched structure are contributed to the color stability in our flexible white TEOLEDs.

  1. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  2. Determination of organic acids, amino acids and saccharides by high-performance liquid chromatography and a postcolumn enzyme reactor with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mögele, R; Pabel, B; Galensa, R

    1992-02-07

    A technique for the determination of organic acids, amino acids and sugars is described. The compounds of interest are separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and converted on-line by immobilized enzymes. The enzymes employed are covalently bound to a synthetic carrier. Hydrogen peroxide, which is produced in the reaction with oxidases, makes possible the application of an electrochemical detector. This arrangement combines the separation efficiency of HPLC, the substrate specificity of enzymes and the high sensitivity of electrochemical detection. The enzymes act according to known reaction mechanisms, but coupling with HPLC leads to a promising extension in the field of biosensors. The simple pretreatment of the samples (often a dilution step is sufficient) allows a rapid analysis of foodstuffs and biological or clinical extracts. The examples presented demonstrate the very high sensitivity of the method with detection limits in the nano- to picomolar range and a wide field of application.

  3. Flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of some organic acids in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Pramote, Benjaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2009-09-15

    A combined system of flow injection on-line dialysis sample pretreatment and high performance liquid chromatographic separation/detection (FID-HPLC) was developed for simultaneous determination of six organic acids (tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acids). A sample or mixed standard solution (400 microL) was injected into a donor stream (water) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (water) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate containing organic acids in the acceptor solution was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analysed under normal HPLC conditions, using a reversed-phase (C(18)) analytical column and UV detection (210 nm). The order of elution was tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acids with the analysis time of 8 min. The FID system could be operated in parallel with HPLC separation, providing sample throughput of 7.5h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of six organic acids were in range of 4.6-9.5%. Calibration graphs for all the mentioned organic acids were linear over the range of 250-7500 mg L(-1). Precisions for all the organic acids were within 5.4%. The proposed system was successfully applied for analysis of some Thai wines. By spiking wine samples with mixed acid standard solutions, the percentage recoveries in range of 84-104 were found. This system has advantages of fast and high degrees of automation for dialysis sample pretreatment, on-line sample separation and dilution, good clean-up for prolongation of life-time of the HPLC column and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  4. Surprising transformation of a block copolymer into a high performance polystyrene ultrafiltration membrane with a hierarchically organized pore structure

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2018-02-08

    We describe the preparation of hierarchical polystyrene nanoporous membranes with a very narrow pore size distribution and an extremely high porosity. The nanoporous structure is formed as a result of unusual degradation of the poly(4-vinyl pyridine) block from self-assembled poly(styrene)-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) membranes through the formation of an unstable pyridinium intermediate in an alkaline medium. During this process, the confined swelling and controlled degradation produced a tunable pore size. We unequivocally confirmed the successful elimination of the P4VP block from a PS-b-P4VPVP membrane using 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy and other characterization techniques. Surprisingly, the long range ordered surface porosity was preserved even after degradation of the P4VP block from the main chain of the diblock copolymer, as revealed by SEM. Aside from a drastically improved water flux (∼67% increase) compared to the PS-b-P4VP membrane, the hydraulic permeability measurements validated pH independent behaviour of the isoporous PS membrane over a wide pH range from 3 to 10. The effect of the pore size on protein transport rate and selectivity (a) was investigated for lysozyme (Lys), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and globulin-γ (IgG). A high selectivity of 42 (Lys/IgG) and 30 (BSA/IgG) was attained, making the membranes attractive for size selective separation of biomolecules from their synthetic model mixture solutions.

  5. High-Performance CH3NH3PbI3-Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Fill Factor Over 83% via Excess Organic/Inorganic Halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar, Muhammad; Khan, Nasir; Lee, Hang Ken; Lee, Sang Kyu; Shin, Won Suk; Lee, Jong-Cheol; Song, Chang Eun; Moon, Sang-Jin

    2017-10-18

    The reduction of charge carrier recombination and intrinsic defect density in organic-inorganic halide perovskite absorber materials is a prerequisite to achieving high-performance perovskite solar cells with good efficiency and stability. Here, we fabricated inverted planar perovskite solar cells by incorporation of a small amount of excess organic/inorganic halide (methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I; MAI), formamidinium iodide (CH(NH2)2I; FAI), and cesium iodide (CsI)) in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film. Larger crystalline grains and enhanced crystallinity in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films with excess organic/inorganic halide reduce the charge carrier recombination and defect density, leading to enhanced device efficiency (MAI+: 14.49 ± 0.30%, FAI+: 16.22 ± 0.38% and CsI+: 17.52 ± 0.56%) compared to the efficiency of a control MAPbI3 device (MAI: 12.63 ± 0.64%) and device stability. Especially, the incorporation of a small amount of excess CsI in MAPbI3 perovskite film leads to a highly reproducible fill factor of over 83%, increased open-circuit voltage (from 0.946 to 1.042 V), and short-circuit current density (from 18.43 to 20.89 mA/cm2).

  6. Bioinspired synthesis of high-performance nanocomposite imprinted membrane by a polydopamine-assisted metal-organic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yilin; Liu, Xinlin; Cui, Jiuyun; Meng, Minjia; Dai, Jiangdong; Li, Chunxiang; Yan, Yongsheng

    2017-02-05

    Significant efforts have been focused on the functionalization and simplification of membrane-associated molecularly imprinted materials, which can rapidly recognize and separate specific compound. However, issues such as low permselectivity and unstable composite structures are restricting it from developing stage to a higher level. In this work, with the bioinspired design of polydopamine (pDA)-assisted inorganic film, we present a novel molecular imprinting strategy to integrate multilevel nanocomposites (Ag/pDA) into the porous membrane structure. The molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes were then obtained through an in situ photoinitiated ATRP method by using tetracycline (TC) as the template molecule. Importantly, attributing to the formation of the Ag/pDA-based TC-imprinted layers, largely enhance TC-rebinding capacity (35.41mg/g), adsorption selectivity and structural stability (still maintained 92.1% of the maximum adsorption capacity after 10 cycling operations) could been easily achieved. Moreover, largely enhanced permselectivity performance toward template molecule (the permeability factor β values were also more than 5.95) was also obtained. Finally, all synthesis methods were conducted in aqueous solution at ambient temperature, which was environmental friendly for scaling up without causing pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  8. An Efficient Synthesis Strategy for Metal-Organic Frameworks: Dry-Gel Synthesis of MOF-74 Framework with High Yield and Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Atanu Kumar; Vemuri, Rama Sesha; Kutnyakov, Igor; McGrail, B Peter; Motkuri, Radha Kishan

    2016-06-16

    Vapor-assisted dry-gel synthesis of the metal-organic framework-74 (MOF-74) structure, specifically Ni-MOF-74 produced from synthetic precursors using an organic-water hybrid solvent system, showed a very high yield (>90% with respect to 2,5-dihydroxyterepthalic acid) and enhanced performance. The Ni-MOF-74 obtained showed improved sorption characteristics towards CO2 and the refrigerant fluorocarbon dichlorodifluoromethane. Unlike conventional synthesis, which takes 72 hours using the tetrahydrofuran-water system, this kinetic study showed that Ni-MOF-74 forms within 12 hours under dry-gel conditions with similar performance characteristics, and exhibits its best performance characteristics even after 24 hours of heating. In the dry-gel conversion method, the physical separation of the solvent and precursor mixture allows for recycling of the solvent. We demonstrated efficient solvent recycling (up to three times) that resulted in significant cost benefits. The scaled-up manufacturing cost of Ni-MOF-74 synthesized via our dry-gel method is 45% of conventional synthesis cost. Thus, for bulk production of the MOFs, the proposed vapor-assisted, dry-gel method is efficient, simple, and inexpensive when compared to the conventional synthesis method.

  9. Predicting the Performance of Organic Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of effective but toxic corrosion inhibitors has provided an impetus for the discovery of new, benign organic compounds to fill that role. Concurrently, developments in the high-throughput synthesis of organic compounds, the establishment of large libraries of available chemicals, accelerated corrosion inhibition testing technologies, and the increased capability of machine learning methods have made discovery of new corrosion inhibitors much faster and cheaper than it used to be. We summarize these technical developments in the corrosion inhibition field and describe how data-driven machine learning methods can generate models linking molecular properties to corrosion inhibition that can be used to predict the performance of materials not yet synthesized or tested. We briefly summarize the literature on quantitative structure–property relationships models of small organic molecule corrosion inhibitors. The success of these models provides a paradigm for rapid discovery of novel, effective corrosion inhibitors for a range of metals and alloys in diverse environments.

  10. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  11. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  12. Validation of a Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Cysteine and Reduced Glutathione in Mouse Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Brundu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH has been observed in pathological conditions and in aging. Measuring GSH in tissues using mouse models is an excellent way to assess GSH depletion and the potential therapeutic efficacy of drugs used to maintain and/or restore cellular redox potential. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of GSH and cysteine (Cys in mouse organs was validated according to USA and European standards. The method was based on separation coupled with ultraviolet detection and precolumn derivatization with 5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB. The required validation parameters, that are, selectivity, linearity, lower limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability, were studied for spleen, lymph nodes, pancreas, and brain. The results showed that the lower limits of quantification were 0.313 μM and 1.25 μM for Cys and GSH, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions were less than 11% and 14%, respectively, for both compounds. The mean extraction recoveries of Cys and GSH from all organs were more than 93% and 86%, respectively. Moreover, the stability of both analytes during sample preparation and storage was demonstrated. The method was accurate, reliable, consistent, and reproducible and it was useful to determine Cys and GSH in the organs of different mouse strains.

  13. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  14. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  15. High-performance single-crystalline arsenic-doped indium oxide nanowires for transparent thin-film transistors and active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Haitian; Ha, Young-geun; Wu, Chao; Sukcharoenchoke, Saowalak; Fu, Yue; Liu, Jun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-11-24

    We report high-performance arsenic (As)-doped indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanowires for transparent electronics, including their implementation in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) and transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The As-doped In(2)O(3) nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation process and then fabricated into TTFTs with indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the source, drain, and gate electrodes. The nanowire TTFTs on glass substrates exhibit very high device mobilities (approximately 1490 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), current on/off ratios (5.7 x 10(6)), steep subthreshold slopes (88 mV/dec), and a saturation current of 60 microA for a single nanowire. By using a self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) as the gate dielectric, the device mobilities and saturation current can be further improved up to 2560 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 160 microA, respectively. All devices exhibit good optical transparency (approximately 81% on average) in the visible spectral range. In addition, the nanowire TTFTs were utilized to control green OLEDs with varied intensities. Furthermore, a fully integrated seven-segment AMOLED display was fabricated with a good transparency of 40% and with each pixel controlled by two nanowire transistors. This work demonstrates that the performance enhancement possible by combining nanowire doping and self-assembled nanodielectrics enables silicon-free electronic circuitry for low power consumption, optically transparent, high-frequency devices assembled near room temperature.

  16. A novel structural Fenton-like nanocatalyst with highly improved catalytic performance for generalized preparation of iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghui; Peng, Xiaomen; Li, Hongping; Wang, Jianzhi; Zhou, Lincheng; Zhao, Tianqi; Huang, Zhihao; Jiang, Haifei

    2015-05-01

    FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles with a soap-bubble-like shell have been synthesized, and the materials exhibit excellent Fenton catalytic performance. More importantly, FexOy@FexOy/C nanoparticles as catalysts and precursors could catalyze organic dye molecules to form iron oxide@organic dye polymer core-shell nanospheres.

  17. Designing High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The specific problem considered in this paper is what are the key issues to consider for managers involved in designing high-trust organizations, a design problem still not properly explored. This paper intends to take the first step in filling this lacuna. In the paper, I first present...... the existing management and research literature on building high-trust organizations. Then I explore Alan Fox’s (1974) analysis of low-trust vs. high-trust dynamics which, I argue, may serve as a theoretically stronger basis for understanding the issues management have to consider when designing hightrust...

  18. An analysis of dissolved organic matter from freshwater Karelian Lakes using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with online absorbance and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khundzhua, D. A.; Patsaeva, S. V.; Trubetskoj, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral and optical properties of the fractionated components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of three freshwater lakes in Karelia were studied using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with online detection of fluorescence and absorption spectra. It is shown that the DOM fractions are qualitatively similar, but differ quantitatively in the ratio of components and consist of at least three types of fluorophores: (1) hydrophilic "humic-like" fluorophore(s) with the emission maximum in the region of 420 nm and an absorption band at 260-270 nm; (2) hydrophobic "humic-like" fluorophore(s) with the emission maximum at approximately 450 nm that has no characteristic absorption maxima in the region from 220 to 400 nm; and (3) a "protein-like" fluorophore with the emission maximum in the region of 340-350 nm, which is typical of proteins and peptides containing tryptophan.

  19. Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrode by InCl3 aqueous solution for high-performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Zhou, Dong-Ying; Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The authors develop a facile and effective method to produce the chlorinated indium tin oxide (Cl-ITO) treated by InCl3 aqueous solution and UV/ozone. The work function of the Cl-ITO achieved by this treatment is as high as 5.69 eV, which is increased by 1.09 eV compared with that of the regular ITO without any treatment. Further investigation proved that the enhancement of the work function is attributed to the formation of In-Cl bonds on the Cl-ITO surface. Green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the Cl-ITO electrodes exhibit excellent electroluminescence performance, elongating lifetime due to the improvement in hole injection.

  20. Regulating Charge and Exciton Distribution in High-Performance Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with n-Type Interlayer Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Yang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Ye; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Yibin; Liu, Baiquan

    2017-10-01

    The interlayer (IL) plays a vital role in hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs); however, only a negligible amount of attention has been given to n-type ILs. Herein, the n-type IL, for the first time, has been demonstrated to achieve a high efficiency, high color rendering index (CRI), and low voltage trade-off. The device exhibits a maximum total efficiency of 41.5 lm W-1, the highest among hybrid WOLEDs with n-type ILs. In addition, high CRIs (80-88) at practical luminances (≥1000 cd m-2) have been obtained, satisfying the demand for indoor lighting. Remarkably, a CRI of 88 is the highest among hybrid WOLEDs. Moreover, the device exhibits low voltages, with a turn-on voltage of only 2.5 V (>1 cd m-2), which is the lowest among hybrid WOLEDs. The intrinsic working mechanism of the device has also been explored; in particular, the role of n-type ILs in regulating the distribution of charges and excitons has been unveiled. The findings demonstrate that the introduction of n-type ILs is effective in developing high-performance hybrid WOLEDs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Forest products research and development organizations : organization, governance, and measures of performance in a worldwide setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; M.A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    The ability of forest products research and development organizations to contribute to a nation’s well-being requires that they be well organized, effectively managed, and held to high standards of performance. In order to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered, and how they judge organizational performance, a review of...

  2. C70/C70:pentacene/pentacene organic heterojunction as the connecting layer for high performance tandem organic light-emitting diodes: Mechanism investigation of electron injection and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingxun; Yang, Dezhi; Chen, Jiangshan; Qiao, Xianfeng; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Ma, Dongge

    2017-03-01

    A high performance tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is realized by employing a C70/C70:pentacene/pentacene organic heterojunction as the efficient charge generation layer (CGL). Not only more than two time enhancement of external quantum efficiency but also significant improvement in both power efficiency and lifetime are well achieved. The mechanism investigations find that the electron injection from the CGL to the adjacent electron transport layer (ETL) in tandem devices is injection rate-limited due to the high interface energy barrier between the CGL and the ETL. By the capacitance-frequency (C-F) and low temperature current density-voltage (J-V) characteristic analysis, we confirm that the electron transport is a space-charge-limited current process with exponential trap distribution. These traps are localized states below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge inside the gap and would be filled with the upward shift of the Fermi level during the n-doping process. Furthermore, both the trap density (Ht) and the activation energy (Ea) could be carefully worked out through low temperature J-V measurements, which is very important for developing high performance tandem OLEDs.

  3. High performance polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance of concrete whose chief components are natural aggregate and an organic binder —a thermosetting polyester resin— denominated polymer concrete or PC. The material was examined macro- and microscopically and its basic physical and mechanical properties were determined using mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and strength tests (modulus of elasticity, stress-strain curves and ultimate strengths. According to the results of these experimental studies, the PC exhibited a low density (4.8%, closed pore system and a concomitantly continuous internal microstructure. This would at least partially explain its mechanical out-performance of traditional concrete, with average compressive and flexural strength values of 100 MPa and over 20 MPa, respectively. In the absence of standard criteria, the bending test was found to be a useful supplement to compressive strength tests for establishing PC strength classes.Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de un hormigón de altas prestaciones, formado por áridos naturales y un aglomerante orgánico constituido por una resina termoestable poliéster, denominado hormigón polimérico HP. Se describe el material a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, presentando sus propiedades físicas y mecánicas fundamentales, mediante diferentes técnicas experimentales, tales como: porosimetría de mercurio, microscopía electrónica (SEM-EDAX, difracción de rayos X (DRX y ensayos mecánicos (módulo de elasticidad, curvas tensión- deformación y resistencias últimas. Como consecuencia del estudio experimental llevado a cabo, se ha podido apreciar cómo el HP está formado por porosidad cerrada del 4,8%, proporcionando una elevada continuidad a su microestructura interna, lo que justifica, en parte, la mejora de propiedades mecánicas respecto al hormigón tradicional, con unos valores medios de resistencia a compresión de 100

  4. High Performance Nanostructured Silicon-Organic Quasi p-n Junction Solar Cells via Low-Temperature Deposited Hole and Electron Selective Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Xia, Zhouhui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Feng; Li, Yongfang; Song, Tao; Yu, Xuegong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2016-01-26

    Silicon-organic solar cells based on conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) on n-type silicon (n-Si) attract wide interest because of their potential for cost-effectiveness and high-efficiency. However, a lower barrier height (Φb) and a shallow built in potential (Vbi) of Schottky junction between n-Si and PSS hinders the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in comparison with those of traditional p-n junction. Here, a strong inversion layer was formed on n-Si surface by inserting a layer of 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN), resulting in a quasi p-n junction. External quantum efficiency spectra, capacitance-voltage, transient photovoltage decay and minority charge carriers life mapping measurements indicated that a quasi p-n junction was built due to the strong inversion effect, resulting in a high Φb and Vbi. The quasi p-n junction located on the front surface region of silicon substrates improved the short wavelength light conversion into photocurrent. In addition, a derivative perylene diimide (PDIN) layer between rear side of silicon and aluminum cathodes was used to block the holes from flowing to cathodes. As a result, the device with PDIN layer also improved photoresponse at longer wavelength. A champion PCE of 14.14% was achieved for the nanostructured silicon-organic device by combining HAT-CN and PDIN layers. The low temperature and simple device structure with quasi p-n junction promises cost-effective high performance photovoltaic techniques.

  5. Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes without blue molecular emitter: An unexplored approach to achieve high performance via exciplex emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xiao, Ye; Hao, Mingming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Yibin; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Baiquan

    2017-02-01

    Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes (DF-WOLEDs) are promising for the low-cost commercialization because of their simplified device structures. However, DF-WOLEDs reported thus far in the literature are based on the use of blue single molecular emitters, whose processing can represent a crucial point in device manufacture. Herein, DF-WOLEDs without the blue single molecular emitter have been demonstrated by managing a blue exciplex system. For the single-molecular-emitter (orange or yellow emitter) DF-WOLEDs, (i) a color rendering index (CRI) of 81 at 1000 cd/m2 can be obtained, which is one of the highest for the single-molecular-emitter WOLEDs, or (ii) a high efficiency of 35.4 lm/W can be yielded. For the dual-molecular-emitter (yellow/red emitters) DF-WOLED, a high CRI of 85 and low correlated color temperature of 2376 K at 1000 cd/m2 have been simultaneously achieved, which has not been reported by previous DF-WOLEDs. Such presented findings may unlock an alternative avenue to the simplified but high-performance WOLEDs.

  6. Performance management practices in public sector organizations : Impact on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate whether performance management practices affect performance in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretically, the research project is based on economic as well as behavioral theories. The study distinguishes amongst

  7. High Performance Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  8. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  9. Highly Efficient Deep Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Imidazole: Significantly Enhanced Performance by Effective Energy Transfer with Negligible Efficiency Roll-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Tong; Liu, Yulong; Tang, Xiangyang; Bai, Qing; Gao, Yu; Gao, Zhao; Li, Jinyu; Deng, Jian; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-10-26

    Great efforts have been devoted to develop efficient deep blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) materials meeting the standards of European Broadcasting Union (EBU) standard with Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) for flat-panel displays and solid-state lightings. However, high-performance deep blue OLEDs are still rare for applications. Herein, two efficient deep blue emitters, PIMNA and PyINA, are designed and synthesized by coupling naphthalene with phenanthreneimidazole and pyreneimidazole, respectively. The balanced ambipolar transporting natures of them are demonstrated by single-carrier devices. Their nondoped OLEDs show deep blue emissions with extremely small CIEy of 0.034 for PIMNA and 0.084 for PyINA, with negligible efficiency roll-off. To take advantage of high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of PIMNA and large fraction of singlet exciton formation of PyINA, doped devices are fabricated by dispersing PyINA into PIMNA. A significantly improved maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.05% is obtained through very effective energy transfer with CIE coordinates of (0.156, 0.060), and the EQE remains 4.67% at 1000 cd m(-2), which is among the best of deep blue OLEDs reported matching stringent EBU standard well.

  10. Simultaneous determination of the quantity and isotopic signature of dissolved organic matter from soil water using high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrea; Krantz, Lars; Gleixner, Gerd

    2012-01-30

    We assessed the accuracy and utility of a modified high-performance liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC/IRMS) system for measuring the amount and stable carbon isotope signature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) <1 µm. Using a range of standard compounds as well as soil solutions sampled in the field, we compared the results of the HPLC/IRMS analysis with those from other methods for determining carbon and (13)C content. The conversion efficiency of the in-line wet oxidation of the HPLC/IRMS averaged 99.3% for a range of standard compounds. The agreement between HPLC/IRMS and other methods in the amount and isotopic signature of both standard compounds and soil water samples was excellent. For DOM concentrations below 10 mg C L(-1) (250 ng C total) pre-concentration or large volume injections are recommended in order to prevent background interferences. We were able to detect large differences in the (13)C signatures of soil solution DOM sampled in 10 cm depth of plots with either C3 or C4 vegetation and in two different parent materials. These measurements also demonstrated changes in the (13)C signature that demonstrate rapid loss of plant-derived C with depth. Overall the modified HLPC/IRMS system has the advantages of rapid sample preparation, small required sample volume and high sample throughput, while showing comparable performance with other methods for measuring the amount and isotopic signature of DOM. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. High performance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.

    1992-06-01

    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  12. High performance liquid chromatography of substituted aromatics with the metal-organic framework MIL-100(Fe): Mechanism analysis and model-based prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weiwei; Silvestre, Martin Eduardo; Li, Yongli; Franzreb, Matthias

    2016-02-05

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-100(Fe) with well-defined thickness was homogenously coated onto the outer surface of magnetic microparticles via a liquid-phase epitaxy method. The as-synthesized MIL-100(Fe) was used as stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and separations of two groups of mixed aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene, styrene and p-xylene; acetanilide, 2-nirtoaniline and 1-naphthylamine) using methanol/water as mobile phase were performed to evaluate its performance. Increasing water content of the mobile phase composition can greatly improve the separations on the expense of a longer elution time. Stepwise elution significantly shortens the elution time of acetanilide, 2-nirtoaniline and 1-naphthylamine mixtures, while still achieving a baseline separation. Combining the experimental results and in-depth modeling using a recently developed chromatographic software (ChromX), adsorption equilibrium parameters, including the affinities and maximum capacities, for each analyte toward the MIL-100(Fe) are obtained. In addition, the pore diffusivity of aromatic hydrocarbons within MIL-100(Fe) was determined to be 5×10(-12)m(2)s(-1). While the affinities of MIL-100(Fe) toward the analyte molecules differs much, the maximum capacities of the analytes are in a narrow range with q*MOFmax,toluene=3.55molL(-1), q*MOFmax,styrene or p-xylene=3.53molL(-1), and q*MOFmax,anilines=3.12molL(-1) corresponding to approximately 842 toluene and 838 styrene or p-xylene, and 740 aniline molecules per MIL-100(Fe) unit cell, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  14. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  15. High Reliability Organizations in Education. Noteworthy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, James H.; Bellamy, G. Thomas; Schaffer, Eugene; Stringfield, Sam; Reynolds, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this monograph assert that by assisting school systems to more closely resemble "high reliability" organizations (HROs) that already exist in other industries and benchmarking against top-performing education systems from around the globe, America's school systems can transform themselves from compliance-driven…

  16. Accounting for results: how conservation organizations report performance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena R; Smail, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Environmental program performance information is in high demand, but little research suggests why conservation organizations differ in reporting performance information. We compared performance measurement and reporting by four private-land conservation organizations: Partners for Fish and Wildlife in the US Fish and Wildlife Service (national government), Forest Stewardship Council-US (national nonprofit organization), Land and Water Conservation Departments (local government), and land trusts (local nonprofit organization). We asked: (1) How did the pattern of performance reporting relationships vary across organizations? (2) Was political conflict among organizations' principals associated with greater performance information? and (3) Did performance information provide evidence of program effectiveness? Based on our typology of performance information, we found that most organizations reported output measures such as land area or number of contracts, some reported outcome indicators such as adherence to performance standards, but few modeled or measured environmental effects. Local government Land and Water Conservation Departments reported the most types of performance information, while local land trusts reported the fewest. The case studies suggest that governance networks influence the pattern and type of performance reporting, that goal conflict among principles is associated with greater performance information, and that performance information provides unreliable causal evidence of program effectiveness. Challenging simple prescriptions to generate more data as evidence, this analysis suggests (1) complex institutional and political contexts for environmental program performance and (2) the need to supplement performance measures with in-depth evaluations that can provide causal inferences about program effectiveness.

  17. Staff Performance Evaluation in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drumea C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In public Organizations staff performance is difficult to measure in absence of overall quantitative performance indicators. There are also the qualitative indicators that give an overview on staff’s motivation, strive, ability, commitment to values, teamwork. These aspects are even less easy to illustrate, in private and public sectors equally. In both cases, measuring staff performance at work, as well as its input on the global performance of the organization is a difficult task which has in practice different approaches. Subsequently, this paper is discussing the system indicators and performance triggers used in International Organizations UN affiliated, in order to adjust staff classification and benefits to their staff’s performance.

  18. Toward high-performance vacuum-deposited organic light-emitting diodes: novel sublimable cationic iridium(III) complexes with yellow and orange electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Ma, Dongxin; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Ruihuan; Qiu, Yong

    2018-01-28

    Great advances in the development of efficient luminescent materials are the driving force behind organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Sublimable ionic transition metal complexes (iTMCs) have emerged as a large family of new emissive dopants applied for vacuum-deposited OLEDs, while the achievement of excellent performance remains arduous. A series of novel sublimable cationic iridium(III) complexes is designed and synthesized, containing an imidazole-type ancillary ligand and tetraphenylborate-type negative counter-ions with large steric hindrance and well-dispersed charges. The photophysical properties, electrochemical behaviors and thermal stability are fully investigated and discussed, then demonstrated by theoretical calculations. Yellow- and orange-emitting OLEDs thereof are fabricated by vacuum evaporation deposition, realizing high external quantum efficiency up to 11 %, maximum brightness over 27.3×103 cd/m2 and low turn-on voltages below 2.4 V, among the best results of analogous phosphorescent OLEDs based on iTMCs. This work indicates the promising applications of sublimable iTMCs in state-of-the-art vacuum-deposited optoelectronic devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H2O)]n·2nH2O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g-1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g-1 and 1185 mA h g-1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g-1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  20. Optimization of dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of glucocorticoid residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Zheng, Zhiqun; Huang, Liying; Yao, Hong; Wu, Xiao Shan; Li, Shaoguang; Lin, Dandan

    2017-05-10

    A rapid, simple, cost-effective dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop (SFOD-LPME) was developed in this study. Along with high-performance liquid chromatography, we used the developed approach to determine and enrich trace amounts of four glucocorticoids, namely, prednisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, and cortisone acetate, in animal-derived food. We also investigated and optimized several important parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of SFOD-LPME. These parameters include the extractant species, volumes of extraction and dispersant solvents, sodium chloride addition, sample pH, extraction time and temperature, and stirring rate. Under optimum experimental conditions, the calibration graph exhibited linearity over the range of 1.2-200.0ng/ml for the four analytes, with a reasonable linearity(r 2 : 0.9990-0.9999). The enrichment factor was 142-276, and the detection limits was 0.39-0.46ng/ml (0.078-0.23μg/kg). This method was successfully applied to analyze actual food samples, and good spiked recoveries of over 81.5%-114.3% were obtained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Electron-transporting layer doped with cesium azide for high-performance phosphorescent and tandem white organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yaoyao; Chen, Xingming; Jin, Yu; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Ye; Lin, Wenyan; Yang, Huishan

    2017-07-01

    Cesium azide was employed as an effective n-dopant in the electron-transporting layer (ETL) of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) owing to its low deposition temperature and high ambient stability. By doping cesium azide onto 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, a green phosphorescent OLED having best efficiencies of 66.25 cd A-1, 81.22 lm W-1 and 18.82% was realized. Moreover, the efficiency roll-off from 1000 cd m-2 to 10 000 cd m-2 is only 12.9%, which is comparable with or even lower than that of devices utilizing the co-host system. Physical mechanisms for the improvement of device performance were studied in depth by analyzing the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the electron-only devices. In particular, by comparing the J-V characteristics of the electron-only devices instead of applying the complicated ultraviolet photoelectron spectrometer measurements, we deduced the decrease in barrier height for electron injection at the ETL/cathode contact. Finally, an efficient tandem white OLED utilizing the n-doped layer in the charge generation unit (CGU) was constructed. As far as we know, this is the first report on the application of this CGU for fabricating tandem white OLEDs. The emissions of the tandem device are all in the warm white region from 1213 cd m-2 to 10870 cd m-2, as is beneficial to the lighting application.

  2. Automated preconcentration and analysis of organic compounds by on-line hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrafili, Ali; Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Ebrahimpour, Behnam

    2012-11-02

    The present work describes the first automated instrument, based on on-line hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the preconcentration and determination of organic compounds in various matrices. Using an automated syringe pump for loading the supported liquid membrane and acceptor solvents, a platform lift for moving the sample vial, a sampling loop for on-line injection of the extract to HPLC, along with an electronic board with an AVR microcontroller for storage of data and instrument programs, a sample preparation-HPLC method was developed that allowed sample extraction and extract injection to be carried out completely automatically. Pyridine and pyridine derivatives were chosen for the development and for testing the applicability of the automated instrument. The limits of detection (3 times the S/N) ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 μgL(-1). Effective preconcentration of the analytes was also achieved (preconcentration factors of between 40 and 220). The main advantages of the method developed are minimum sample manipulation, full automation, suitable extraction time, low solvent consumption, and ease of use. The applicability of the on-line automated HF-LPME/HPLC-UV instrument was validated for quantitative extraction and determination of pyridines in cigarette smoke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Public management: organizations, governance, and performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, Laurence J; Meier, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    ...? Can their separable contributions to performance be estimated? The fate of public policies in today's world lies in the hands of public organizations, which in turn are often intertwined with others in latticed patterns of governance...

  4. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  5. Python high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lanaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    An exciting, easy-to-follow guide illustrating the techniques to boost the performance of Python code, and their applications with plenty of hands-on examples.If you are a programmer who likes the power and simplicity of Python and would like to use this language for performance-critical applications, this book is ideal for you. All that is required is a basic knowledge of the Python programming language. The book will cover basic and advanced topics so will be great for you whether you are a new or a seasoned Python developer.

  6. NGINX high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    System administrators, developers, and engineers looking for ways to achieve maximum performance from NGINX will find this book beneficial. If you are looking for solutions such as how to handle more users from the same system or load your website pages faster, then this is the book for you.

  7. A novel high-temperature combustion based system for stable isotope analysis of dissolved organic carbon in aqueous samples. : II optimization and assessment of analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkels, F. M. S. A.; Cerli, C.; Federherr, E.; Gao, J.; Kalbitz, K.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in carbon cycling, making precise and routine measurement of delta C-13 values and DOC concentration highly desirable. A new promising system has been developed for this purpose. However, broad-scale application of this new technique

  8. Understanding Academic Performance in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Evan; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Lopez, Enrique J.; Penn, John H.; Scharberg, Maureen; Hill, Geannine W.

    2011-01-01

    Successful completion of organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional programs in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, yet the failure rate for this sequence of courses is notoriously high. To date, few studies have examined why some students succeed while others have difficulty in organic chemistry. This…

  9. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  10. Rapid extraction and determination of amphetamines in human urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and solidification of floating organic drop followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2014-06-01

    A novel, rapid, simple and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine samples. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency of DLLME-SFO such as the kind and volume of the extraction and the disperser solvents, effect of concentration of K2CO3 and extraction time were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established. Under the optimum conditions (extraction solvent: 30.0μl 1-undecanol; disperser solvent: 300μl acetonitrile; buffer concentration: 2% (w/v) K2CO3 and extraction time: 1min), calibration curves are linear in the range of 10-3000μgl(-1) and limit of detections (LODs) are in the range of 2-8μgl(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for 100μgl(-1) of amphetamine and methamphetamine in diluted urine are in the range of 6.2-7.8% (n=7). The method was successfully applied for the determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in the actual urine samples. The relative recoveries of urine samples spiked with amphetamine and methamphetamine are 87.8-113.2%. The obtained results show that DLLME-SFO combined with HPLC-UV is a fast and simple method for the determination of amphetamine and methamphetamine in urine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High performance steam development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  12. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  13. Effects of organic loading rates on reactor performance and microbial community changes during thermophilic aerobic digestion process of high-strength food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Won; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of single-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process treating high-strength food wastewater (FWW), TAD process was operated at four organic loading rates (OLRs) from 9.2 to 37.2 kg COD/m(3)d. The effects of OLRs on microbial community changes were also examined. The highest volumetric removal rate (13.3 kg COD/m(3)d) and the highest thermo-stable protease activity (0.95 unit/mL) were detected at OLR=18.6 kg COD/m(3)d. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles and quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed significant microbial community shifts in response to changes in OLR. In particular, DGGE and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that the presence of Bacillus sp. (phylum of Firmicutes) was strongly correlated with efficient removal of organic particulates from high-strength food wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High Performance Computing at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The speaker will give an overview of high performance computing in the U.S. in general and within NASA in particular, including a description of the recently signed NASA-IBM cooperative agreement. The latest performance figures of various parallel systems on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks will be presented. The speaker was one of the authors of the NAS (National Aerospace Standards) Parallel Benchmarks, which are now widely cited in the industry as a measure of sustained performance on realistic high-end scientific applications. It will be shown that significant progress has been made by the highly parallel supercomputer industry during the past year or so, with several new systems, based on high-performance RISC processors, that now deliver superior performance per dollar compared to conventional supercomputers. Various pitfalls in reporting performance will be discussed. The speaker will then conclude by assessing the general state of the high performance computing field.

  15. Knowledge management performance methodology regarding manufacturing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, C.; Herghiligiu, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    The current business situation is extremely complicated. Business must adapt to the changes in order (a) to survive on the increasingly dynamic markets, (b) to meet customers’ new request for complex, customized and innovative products. In modern manufacturing organizations it can be seen a substantial improvement regarding the management of knowledge. This occurs due to the fact that organizations realized that knowledge and an efficient management of knowledge generates the highest value. Even it could be said that the manufacturing organizations were and are the biggest beneficiary of KM science. Knowledge management performance (KMP) evaluation in manufacturing organizations can be considered as extremely important because without measuring it, they are unable to properly assess (a) what goals, targets and activities must have continuity, (b) what must be improved and (c) what must be completed. Therefore a proper KM will generate multiple competitive advantages for organizations. This paper presents a developed methodological framework regarding the KMP importance regarding manufacturing organizations. This methodological framework was developed using as research methods: bibliographical research and a panel of specialists. The purpose of this paper is to improve the evaluation process of KMP and to provide a viable tool for manufacturing organizations managers.

  16. High-performance sports medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speed, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    High performance sports medicine involves the medical care of athletes, who are extraordinary individuals and who are exposed to intensive physical and psychological stresses during training and competition...

  17. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  18. High Electron Mobility and Ambient Stability in Solution-Processed Perylene-Based Organic Field-Effect Transistors : origin of the enhanced electrical performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piliego, Claudia; Jarzab, Dorota; Gigli, Giuseppe; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio; Loi, Maria Antonietto

    2009-01-01

    Bottom-contact n-channel OFETs basedon spin-coated films of N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenediimide (PDI-FCN(2)) exhibit a saturation-regime mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in vacuum and good air stability. These performances are attributed to the high crystallinity and to the edge-on

  19. Performance tuning for high performance computing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pahuja, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    A Distributed System is composed by integration between loosely coupled software components and the underlying hardware resources that can be distributed over the standard internet framework. High Performance Computing used to involve utilization of supercomputers which could churn a lot of computing power to process massively complex computational tasks, but is now evolving across distributed systems, thereby having the ability to utilize geographically distributed computing resources. We...

  20. Improving performance of high risk organizations Spanish nuclear sector from the analysis of organizational culture factors; Mejora del desempeno de las organizaciones de alto riesgo del sector nuclear espanol a partir del analisis de los factores de cultura organizativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Salabarnada, E.; German, S.; Silla, I.; Navajas, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the research project funded by UNESA and conducted by the CISOT-CIEMAT that aims to contribute to improving the operating performance of the Spanish nuclear power plants. This paper aims to identify the factors and key organizational processes to improve efficiency, in order to advance knowledge about the influence of organizational culture on the safety of high reliability organizations.

  1. Rational Design of High-Performance Wide-Bandgap (≈2 eV) Polymer Semiconductors as Electron Donors in Organic Photovoltaics Exhibiting High Open Circuit Voltages (≈1 V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chochos, Christos L; Katsouras, Athanasios; Gasparini, Nicola; Koulogiannis, Chrysanthos; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Systematic optimization of the chemical structure of wide-bandgap (≈2.0 eV) "donor-acceptor" copolymers consisting of indacenodithiophene or indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene as the electron-rich unit and thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione as the electron-deficient moiety in terms of alkyl side chain engineering and distance of the electron-rich and electron-deficient monomers within the repeat unit of the polymer chain results in high-performance electron donor materials for organic photovoltaics. Specifically, preliminary results demonstrate extremely high open circuit voltages (V oc s) of ≈1.0 V, reasonable short circuit current density (J sc ) of around 11 mA cm-2 , and moderate fill factors resulting in efficiencies close to 6%. All the devices are fabricated in an inverted architecture with the photoactive layer processed by doctor blade equipment, showing the compatibility with roll-to-roll large-scale manufacturing processes. From the correlation of the chemical structure-optoelectronic properties-photovoltaic performance, a rational guide toward further optimization of the chemical structure in this family of copolymers, has been achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  3. High Performance Flexible Thermal Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arne; Preller, Fabian

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design and performance verification of a high performance and flexible carbon fibre thermal link.Project goal was to design a space qualified thermal link combining low mass, flexibility and high thermal conductivity with new approaches regarding selected materials and processes. The idea was to combine the advantages of existing metallic links regarding flexibility and the thermal performance of high conductive carbon pitch fibres. Special focus is laid on the thermal performance improvement of matrix systems by means of nano-scaled carbon materials in order to improve the thermal performance also perpendicular to the direction of the unidirectional fibres.One of the main challenges was to establish a manufacturing process which allows handling the stiff and brittle fibres, applying the matrix and performing the implementation into an interface component using unconventional process steps like thermal bonding of fibres after metallisation.This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  4. The performance of organic electronic ratchets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M. Roeling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic electronic ratchets rectify time-correlated external driving forces, giving output powers that can drive electronic circuitry. In this work their performance characteristics are investigated using numerical modeling and measurements. It is shown how the characteristic parameters of the time–varying asymmetric potential like length scales and amplitude, as well as the density and mobility of the charge carriers in the device influence the performance characteristics. Various ratchet efficiencies and their relations are discussed. With all settings close to optimum, a ratchet with charge displacement and power efficiencies close to 50% and 7% respectively is obtained.

  5. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  6. Fabrication of magnetically recyclable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites with high catalytic performance for the reduction of organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: mingyitjucu@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Zhang, Sai; Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A facile and efficient approach to synthesize Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites using L-Lysine as a linker was developed. The morphology, composition and crystallinity of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. In addition, the magnetic properties were determined with vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} contained many small Cu nanoparticles with sizes of about 3 nm. It was found that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites could catalyze the degradation of organic dyes. The catalytic activities of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites for the reduction of nitrophenol were also studied. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites are more efficient catalysts compared with Cu nanoparticles and can easily be recovered from the reaction mixture with magnet. The cost effective and recyclable Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu nanocomposites provide an exciting new material for environmental protection applications. - Highlights: • Cu nanoparticles as small as 3 nm are synthesized. • Low cost Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu magnetical nanoparticles show catalytic activity for organic dyes and 4-nitrophenol. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Cu display high catalytic activity after 13 cycles.

  7. Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpropamide in human plasma. MTB Odunola, IS Enemali, M Garba, OO Obodozie. Abstract. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 ìl aliquot injected ...

  8. ZnS-Sb2S3@C Core-Double Shell Polyhedron Structure Derived from Metal-Organic Framework as Anodes for High Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shihua; Li, Caixia; Ge, Xiaoli; Li, Zhaoqiang; Miao, Xianguang; Yin, Longwei

    2017-06-27

    Taking advantage of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), ZnS-Sb2S3@C core-double shell polyhedron structure is synthesized through a sulfurization reaction between Zn2+ dissociated from ZIF-8 and S2- from thioacetamide (TAA), and subsequently a metal cation exchange process between Zn2+ and Sb3+, in which carbon layer is introduced from polymeric resorcinol-formaldehyde to prevent the collapse of the polyhedron. The polyhedron composite with a ZnS inner-core and Sb2S3/C double-shell as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) shows us a significantly improved electrochemical performance with stable cycle stability, high Coulombic efficiency and specific capacity. Peculiarly, introducing a carbon shell not only acts as an important protective layer to form a rigid construction and accommodate the volume changes, but also improves the electronic conductivity to optimize the stable cycle performance and the excellent rate property. The architecture composed of ZnS inner core and a complex Sb2S3/C shell not only facilitates the facile electrolyte infiltration to reduce the Na-ion diffusion length to improve the electrochemical reaction kinetics, but also prevents the structure pulverization caused by Na-ion insertion/extraction. This approach to prepare metal sulfides based on MOFs can be further extended to design other nanostructured systems for high performance energy storage devices.

  9. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  10. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  11. Chalcogenophene comonomer comparison in small band gap diketopyrrolopyrrole-based conjugated polymers for high-performing field-effect transistors and organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ashraf, Raja Shahid

    2015-01-28

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with different chalcogenophene comonomers (thiophene, selenophene, and tellurophene) for use in field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaic devices are reported. The effect of the heteroatom substitution on the optical, electrochemical, and photovoltaic properties and charge carrier mobilities of these polymers is discussed. The results indicate that by increasing the size of the chalcogen atom (S < Se < Te), polymer band gaps are narrowed mainly due to LUMO energy level stabilization. In addition, the larger heteroatomic size also increases intermolecular heteroatom-heteroatom interactions facilitating the formation of polymer aggregates leading to enhanced field-effect mobilities of 1.6 cm2/(V s). Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the chalcogenophene polymer series blended with fullerene derivatives show good photovoltaic properties, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 7.1-8.8%. A high photoresponse in the near-infrared (NIR) region with excellent photocurrents above 20 mA cm-2 was achieved for all polymers, making these highly efficient low band gap polymers promising candidates for use in tandem solar cells. (Graph Presented).

  12. High performance flexible heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  13. The High Performance Computing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Smith, Paul H.; Macdonald, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA High Performance Computing Initiative (HPCI), an essential component of the Federal High Performance Computing Program. The HPCI program is designed to provide a thousandfold increase in computing performance, and apply the technologies to NASA 'Grand Challenges'. The Grand Challenges chosen include integrated multidisciplinary simulations and design optimizations of aerospace vehicles throughout the mission profiles; the multidisciplinary modeling and data analysis of the earth and space science physical phenomena; and the spaceborne control of automated systems, handling, and analysis of sensor data and real-time response to sensor stimuli.

  14. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  15. Porous metal-organic framework Cu3(BTC)2 as catalyst used in air-cathode for high performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pei; Liu, Di; Li, Kexun; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Junjie; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Song

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic framework Cu3(BTC)2, prepared by an easy hydrothermal method, was used as the oxygen-based catalyst in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The maximum power density of Cu3(BTC)2 modified air-cathode MFC was 1772±15mWm-2, almost 1.8 times higher than the control. BET results disclosed high specific surface area of 2159.7m2g-1 and abundant micropores structure. Regular octahedron and porous surface of Cu3(BTC)2 were observed in SEM. XPS testified the existence of divalent copper in the extended 3D frameworks, which importantly acted as the Lewis-acid sites or redox centers in ORR. Additionally, the total resistance decreased by 42% from 17.60 to 10.24Ω compared with bare AC electrode. The rotating disk electrode test results showed a four-electron transfer pathway for Cu3(BTC)2, which was crucial for electrochemical catalytic activity. All the structural and electrochemical advantages make Cu3(BTC)2 a promising catalyst for ORR in MFC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Novel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} porous polyhedrons derived from metal–organic framework toward high performance for electrochemical energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Youcun, E-mail: chenyc@aqtc.edu.cn [Anqing Normal College, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anqing 246011 (China); Hu, Lin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} polyhedrons with porous structure have been synthesized simply by annealing Prussian blue analogue (PBA) Co{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} polyhedrons at 400 °C in air. The product was characterized by a series of techniques, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), High-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) gas adsorption. Interestingly, when evaluated as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} porous polyhedrons manifested high reversible capacity (about 1200 mAh g{sup −1} at 50 mA g{sup −1}) and excellent cycling performance. Moreover, they also exhibited a high specific capacitance of 110 Fg{sup −1} when used as an electrode in the supercapacitor. It is suggested that the special morphology and porous nanostructure lead to the promising electrochemical properties. - Graphical abstract: Novel and complicated mesoporous architectures of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} have been fabricated by thermal decomposition of Prussian Blue Analog (PBA) Co{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} polyhedrons which obtained at the room temperature. When Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} product was evaluated for Li-ion batteries (LIBs), they exhibited high reversible capacity of 1000 mAh g{sup −1} with excellent cycle life because of the hollow/porous structure. Display Omitted.

  17. Applying Thienyl Side Chains and Different π-Bridge to Aromatic Side-Chain Substituted Indacenodithiophene-Based Small Molecule Donors for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Kai-Kai; Liu, Sha; Liu, Feng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Cao, Yong; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-06-14

    A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement. The ThIDTSe4F (with selenophene π-bridge)-based device exhibited superior performance than devices based on ThIDTh4F (with thiophene π-bridge) after post annealing treatment owing to optimized film morphology and improved charge transport. Power conversion efficiency of 7.31% and fill factor of ∼0.70 were obtained by using a blend of ThIDTSe4F and PC71BM with thermal annealing and solvent vapor annealing treatments, which is the highest PCE from aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based small molecular solar cells. The scope of this study is to reveal the structure-property relationship of the aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based donor materials as a function of π-bridge and the post annealing conditions.

  18. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  19. Comparing the performance and operation stability of an SBR and MBBR for single-stage nitritation-anammox treating wastewater with high organic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Susanne; Horn, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Single stage nitritation-anammox reactors have gained increasing attention for their application in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The most commonly used system in municipal reject water treatment is at present the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is the second most common. However, little is known about their applicability to industrial wastewaters with high C/N ratios. This study presents a comparative approach to evaluate the performance of these two systems by changing the influent from reject water (C:N ratio 1:1) stepwise to an industrial wastewater (C:N ratio 3:1). An intentionally induced temperature drop that led to nitrite accumulation was also tested. The results showed that the MBBR (1.9 kg-N m(-3) d(-1)) was superior to the SBR (0.5 kg-N m(-3) d(-1)) with at maximum up to four times higher volumetric nitrogen removal rates. Both systems accumulated nitrite (> 100 mg-N L(-1)) during the temperature drop from 30 degrees C to as low as 18 degrees C (MBBR) and 20 degrees C (SBR), which subsequently resulted in almost complete loss in the removal capacities. However, the previous removal rates could be re-established in both systems within approximately 40 days. In comparison, the MBBR showed the more stable and higher performance even though higher nitrite concentrations (up to 500 mg-N L(-1)) were encountered. Overall, MBBR operation and handling was also easier and the system was more robust to disturbances compared to the SBR.

  20. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  1. Creating high reliability in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Goeschel, Christine A; Needham, Dale M; Sexton, J Bryan; Thompson, David A; Lubomski, Lisa H; Marsteller, Jill A; Makary, Martin A; Hunt, Elizabeth

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to present a comprehensive approach to help health care organizations reliably deliver effective interventions. Reliability in healthcare translates into using valid rate-based measures. Yet high reliability organizations have proven that the context in which care is delivered, called organizational culture, also has important influences on patient safety. MODEL FOR IMPROVEMENT: Our model to improve reliability, which also includes interventions to improve culture, focuses on valid rate-based measures. This model includes (1) identifying evidence-based interventions that improve the outcome, (2) selecting interventions with the most impact on outcomes and converting to behaviors, (3) developing measures to evaluate reliability, (4) measuring baseline performance, and (5) ensuring patients receive the evidence-based interventions. The comprehensive unit-based safety program (CUSP) is used to improve culture and guide organizations in learning from mistakes that are important, but cannot be measured as rates. We present how this model was used in over 100 intensive care units in Michigan to improve culture and eliminate catheter-related blood stream infections--both were accomplished. Our model differs from existing models in that it incorporates efforts to improve a vital component for system redesign--culture, it targets 3 important groups--senior leaders, team leaders, and front line staff, and facilitates change management-engage, educate, execute, and evaluate for planned interventions.

  2. The Impact of a Learning Organization on Performance: Focusing on Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungshin; Watkins, Karen E.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among a learning organization, knowledge and financial performance using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire and its abbreviated version. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a secondary data set and performed second-order factor analysis and…

  3. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of plasmonic ZnO/Ag/Ag2WO4nanocomposites with high visible-light photocatalytic performance for degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhashemi, Mahsa; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2017-04-01

    In this work, plasmonic ternary ZnO/Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 nanocomposites as efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts prepared by a facile ultrasonic-irradiation method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, XPS, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, and PL techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared ZnO/Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradations of rhodamine B, methylene blue, methyl orange, and fuchsine under visible-light irradiation. The optimal nanocomposite with 15wt% of Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 to ZnO showed the highest photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation, which is about 95 and 19 times higher than those of the Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 and ZnO samples, respectively. The highly enhanced activity of the ZnO/Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 (15%) nanocomposite was attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of metallic silver and the formation of heterojunctions between the counterparts, which effectively suppresses recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers. Lastly, the plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic mechanism associated with the ZnO/Ag/Ag 2 WO 4 nanocomposites was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Performance Tools And Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, M R; Corey, I R; Johnson, J R

    2005-01-24

    This goal of this project was to evaluate the capability and limits of current scientific simulation development tools and technologies with specific focus on their suitability for use with the next generation of scientific parallel applications and High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and reflect the authors' current understanding and functionality of the many tools investigated. As a deliverable for this effort, we are presenting this report describing our findings along with an associated spreadsheet outlining current capabilities and characteristics of leading and emerging tools in the high performance computing arena. This first chapter summarizes our findings (which are detailed in the other chapters) and presents our conclusions, remarks, and anticipations for the future. In the second chapter, we detail how various teams in our local high performance community utilize HPC tools and technologies, and mention some common concerns they have about them. In the third chapter, we review the platforms currently or potentially available to utilize these tools and technologies on to help in software development. Subsequent chapters attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of the available parallel software development tools and technologies, including their strong and weak points and future concerns. We categorize them as debuggers, memory checkers, performance analysis tools, communication libraries, data visualization programs, and other parallel development aides. The last chapter contains our closing information. Included with this paper at the end is a table of the discussed development tools and their operational environment.

  5. Performance Management in Healthcare Organizations: Concept and Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Panagiotis E

    2017-01-01

    Organizational performance can create and sustain competitive advantages for corporations and even improve their sustainability and future prospects. Health care organizations present a sector where performance management is structured by multiple dimensions. The scope of this study is to analyze the issue of performance management in healthcare organizations and specifically the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology on organizations providing health services. The study provides a discussion on the BSC development process, the steps that management has to take in order to prepare the implementation of the BSC and finally discusses a practical example of a scorecard with specific strategic goals and performance indicators. Managers of healthcare organizations and specifically those providing services to the elderly and the general population could use the propositions of the study as a roadmap for processing, analyzing, evaluating and implementing the balanced scorecard approach in their organizations' daily operations. BSC methodology can give an advantage in terms of enhanced stakeholder management and preservation within a highly volatile and competitive economic environment.

  6. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  7. High-performance sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    High performance sports medicine involves the medical care of athletes, who are extraordinary individuals and who are exposed to intensive physical and psychological stresses during training and competition. The physician has a broad remit and acts as a 'medical guardian' to optimise health while minimising risks. This review describes this interesting field of medicine, its unique challenges and priorities for the physician in delivering best healthcare.

  8. Influence of blend microstructure on bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Christoph J; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny

    2011-03-01

    The performance of organic photovoltaic devices based upon bulk heterojunction blends of donor and acceptor materials has been shown to be highly dependent on the thin film microstructure. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors responsible for influencing blend microstructure and how these affect device performance. In particular we discuss how various molecular design approaches can affect the thin film morphology of both the donor and acceptor components, as well as their blend microstructure. We further examine the influence of polymer molecular weight and blend composition upon device performance, and discuss how a variety of processing techniques can be used to control the blend microstructure, leading to improvements in solar cell efficiencies.

  9. Decoupling optical and electronic optimization of organic solar cells using high-performance temperature-stable TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2} electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang-Dae; Pfadler, Thomas; Zimmermann, Eugen; Feng, Yuyi; Weickert, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.weickert@uni-konstanz.de; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, P.O. Box 680, 78467 Constance (Germany); Dorman, James A. [Louisiana State University, Chemical Engineering Building, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    An electrode structured with a TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2} (TAT) multilayer as indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement with a superior thermal stability has been successfully fabricated. This electrode allows to directly tune the optical cavity mode towards maximized photocurrent generation by varying the thickness of the layers in the sandwich structure. This enables tailored optimization of the transparent electrode for different organic thin film photovoltaics without alteration of their electro-optical properties. Organic photovoltaic featuring our TAT multilayer shows an improvement of ∼12% over the ITO reference and allows power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 8.7% in PTB7:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  10. A framework for organizing cancer-related variations from existing databases, publications and NGS data using a High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment (HIVE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Jung; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Pan, Yang; Smith, Krista; Crichton, Daniel J; Simonyan, Vahan; Mazumder, Raja

    2014-01-01

    Years of sequence feature curation by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PIR-PSD, NCBI-CDD, RefSeq and other database biocurators has led to a rich repository of information on functional sites of genes and proteins. This information along with variation-related annotation can be used to scan human short sequence reads from next-generation sequencing (NGS) pipelines for presence of non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs) that affect functional sites. This and similar workflows are becoming more important because thousands of NGS data sets are being made available through projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and researchers want to evaluate their biomarkers in genomic data. BioMuta, an integrated sequence feature database, provides a framework for automated and manual curation and integration of cancer-related sequence features so that they can be used in NGS analysis pipelines. Sequence feature information in BioMuta is collected from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), ClinVar, UniProtKB and through biocuration of information available from publications. Additionally, nsSNVs identified through automated analysis of NGS data from TCGA are also included in the database. Because of the petabytes of data and information present in NGS primary repositories, a platform HIVE (High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment) for storing, analyzing, computing and curating NGS data and associated metadata has been developed. Using HIVE, 31 979 nsSNVs were identified in TCGA-derived NGS data from breast cancer patients. All variations identified through this process are stored in a Curated Short Read archive, and the nsSNVs from the tumor samples are included in BioMuta. Currently, BioMuta has 26 cancer types with 13 896 small-scale and 308 986 large-scale study-derived variations. Integration of variation data allows identifications of novel or common nsSNVs that can be prioritized in validation studies. Database URL: BioMuta: http

  11. High-performing physician executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Larson, S R; McCool, B P

    1988-01-01

    Physician leadership extends beyond traditional clinical disciplines to hospital administration, group practice management, health policy making, management of managed care programs, and many business positions. What kind of person makes a good physician executive? What stands out as the most important motivations, attributes, and interests of high-performing physician executives? How does this compare with non-physician health care executives? Such questions have long been high on the agenda of executives in other industries. This article builds on existing formal assessments of leadership attributes of high-performing business, government, and educational executives and on closer examination of health care executives. Previous studies looked at the need for innovative, entrepreneurial, energetic, community-oriented leaders for positions throughout health care. Traits that distinguish excellence and leadership were described by Brown and McCool.* That study characterized successful leaders in terms of physical strengths (high energy, good health, and propensity for hard work), mental strengths (creativity, intuition, and innovation), and organizational strengths (mission orientation, vision, and entrepreneurial spirit). In this investigation, a subset of health care executives, including physician executives, was examined more closely. It was initially assumed that successful physician executives exhibit many of the same positive traits as do nonphysician executives. This assumption was tested with physician leaders in a range of administrative and managerial positions. We also set out to identify key differences between physician and nonphysician executives. Even with our limited exploration, it seems to us that physician executives probably do differ from nonphysician executives.

  12. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  13. Rational Design and Construction of Well-Organized Macro-Mesoporous SiO2/TiO2 Nanostructure toward Robust High-Performance Self-Cleaning Antireflective Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binbin; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jing

    2017-05-24

    Antireflection (AR) thin films on optical substrates are of great significance in high-performance optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a rational design and construction of well-organized macro-mesoporous nanostructure toward robust high-performance self-cleaning antireflective thin films on the basis of effective medium theory and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations that combine the optical design principle. A hierarchical macro-mesoporous SiO2 thin film with very high porosity and gradient refractive indexes works as a λ/4-wavelength AR layer and significantly suppresses the reflection in the range from 350 to 1200 nm. Even after dip-coating a layer of high refractive index TiO2 nanocrystals, the nanostructured thin film still exhibits broadband AR properties which are much superior to conventional flat SiO2/TiO2 thin films, especially in the range of 350-500 nm. In addition, the obtained thin film exhibits photocatalytic self-cleaning and durable superhydrophilicity. The advantages brought by the well-organized macro-mesoporous structure are also testified through comparing to the solely mesoporous SiO2/TiO2 film counterpart. Moreover, the pencil hardness test and sandpaper abrasion test show favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin film, which make it extremely attractive for practical applications in optical devices, display devices, and photovoltaic cells.

  14. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  15. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential...... this problem. This way, the delta-sigma quantizer's feedback signal is obtained by a multiple-stage quantization, where the loop quantizer (low-resolution and minimum-delay) implements only the last-stage quantization. Hence, high-speed, high-resolutiondelta-sigma quantization is feasible without using complex...... circuitry. An improved version of the MASH topology is also proposed. A delta-sigma quantizer is used to quantize the input signal into an oversampled digital representation of low-to-moderate resolution. The delta-sigma quantizer'struncation error is estimated either directly, or as the first...

  16. Understanding the grain-growth mechanism of high-performance organic semiconducting diphenyl-dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwa; Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Eunkyung; Jung, Ji Young; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Jaikwang; Park, Jeong-Il; Choi, Ajeong

    2017-12-01

    We report here our investigation on the grain-growth mechanism of diphenyl-dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DPh-DBTTT), which was recently published as a high-performance organic semiconductor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that unconventional needle-like structures grew on the surface of DPh-DBTTT thin films, and these structures became more dominant as the film thickness increased and the deposited film's surface temperature decreased. In combination with the crystal structure simulations, the grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering data indicated that the DPh-DBTTT molecules preferred an edge-on orientation near the interface between the substrate and DPh-DBTTT thin film, while the needle-like structures consisted of a face-on arrangement of the molecules. We suggest that this structural change originates from the large step-edge energy barrier of the DPh-DBTTT molecules. Our findings would be highly valuable to the design of new high-performance organic semiconducting materials and optimization of the conditions of thin-film deposition.

  17. High-Performance Long-Term-Stable Dopant-Free Perovskite Solar Cells and Additive-Free Organic Solar Cells by Employing Newly Designed Multirole π-Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Kim, Hyunji; Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Seonha; Kim, Bumjoon J; Nishikubo, Ryosuke; Saeki, Akinori; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising renewable light-harvesting technologies with high performance, but the utilization of hazardous dopants and high boiling additives is harmful to all forms of life and the environment. Herein, new multirole π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) are developed via a rational design approach through theoretical hindsight, further successfully subjecting them into dopant-free PSCs as hole-transporting materials and additive-free OSCs as photoactive donors, respectively. Especially, P3-based PSCs and OSCs not only show high power conversion efficiencies of 17.28% and 8.26%, but also display an excellent ambient stability up to 30 d (for PSCs only), owing to their inherent superior optoelectronic properties in their pristine form. Overall, the rational approach promises to support the development of environmentally and economically sustainable PSCs and OSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  19. High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Lin, Feng; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells fabricated from organometal halide light harvesters have captured significant attention due to their tremendously low device costs as well as unprecedented rapid progress on power conversion efficiency (PCE). A certified PCE of 20.1% was achieved in late 2014 following the first study of long‐term stable all‐solid‐state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, showing their promising potential towards future cost‐effective and high performance solar cells. Here, notable achievements of primary device configuration involving perovskite layer, hole‐transporting materials (HTMs) and electron‐transporting materials (ETMs) are reviewed. Numerous strategies for enhancing photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells, including morphology and crystallization control of perovskite layer, HTMs design and ETMs modifications are discussed in detail. In addition, perovskite solar cells outside of HTMs and ETMs are mentioned as well, providing guidelines for further simplification of device processing and hence cost reduction. PMID:27774402

  20. High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Lin, Feng; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M

    2016-05-01

    Perovskite solar cells fabricated from organometal halide light harvesters have captured significant attention due to their tremendously low device costs as well as unprecedented rapid progress on power conversion efficiency (PCE). A certified PCE of 20.1% was achieved in late 2014 following the first study of long-term stable all-solid-state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, showing their promising potential towards future cost-effective and high performance solar cells. Here, notable achievements of primary device configuration involving perovskite layer, hole-transporting materials (HTMs) and electron-transporting materials (ETMs) are reviewed. Numerous strategies for enhancing photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells, including morphology and crystallization control of perovskite layer, HTMs design and ETMs modifications are discussed in detail. In addition, perovskite solar cells outside of HTMs and ETMs are mentioned as well, providing guidelines for further simplification of device processing and hence cost reduction.

  1. Core-expanded naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malonitrile groups for high-performance, ambient-stable, solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xike; Di, Chong-an; Hu, Yunbin; Yang, Xiaodi; Fan, Hongyu; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Hongxiang; Zhu, Daoben

    2010-03-24

    A new class of n-type semiconductors for organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), based on core-expanded naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malonitrile groups, is reported. The first two representatives of these species, derived from long branched N-alkyl chains, have been successfully used as active layers for high-performance, ambient-stable, solution-processed n-channel OTFTs. Their bottom-gate top-contact devices fabricated by spin-coating methods exhibit high electron mobilities of up to 0.51 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with current on/off ratios of 10(5)-10(7), and small threshold voltages below 10 V under ambient conditions. As this class of n-type organic semiconductors has relatively low-lying LUMO levels and good film-formation ability, they also displayed good environmental stability even with prolonged exposure to ambient air. Both the device performance and the ambient stability are among the best for n-channel OTFTs reported to date.

  2. Bioreactor performance and functional gene analysis of microbial community in a limited-oxygen fed bioreactor for co-reduction of sulfate and nitrate with high organic input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-jun; Chen, Chuan; Wang, Ai-jie; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Xu; Guo, Hong-liang; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Duu-jong; Zhou, Jizhong; Ren, Nan-qi

    2014-08-15

    Limited-oxygen mediated synergistic relationships between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, including nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria NR-SOB) were predicted to simultaneously remove contaminants of nitrate, sulfate and high COD, and eliminate sulfide generation. A lab-scale experiment was conducted to examine the impact of limited oxygen on these oxy-anions degradation, sulfide oxidation and associated microbial functional responses. In all scenarios tested, the reduction of both nitrate and sulfate was almost complete. When limited-oxygen was fed into bioreactors, S(0) formation was significantly improved up to ∼ 70%. GeoChip 4.0, a functional gene microarray, was used to determine the microbial gene diversity and functional potential for nitrate and sulfate reduction, and sulfide oxidation. The diversity of the microbial community in bioreactors was increased with the feeding of limited oxygen. Whereas the intensities of the functional genes involved in sulfate reduction did not show a significant difference, the abundance of the detected denitrification genes decreased in limited oxygen samples. More importantly, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria may alter their populations/genes in response to limited oxygen potentially to function more effectively in sulfide oxidation, especially to elemental sulfur. The genes fccA/fccB from nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), such as Paracoccus denitrificans, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Beggiatoa sp., Thiomicrospira sp., and Thioalkalivibrio sp., were more abundant under limited-oxygen condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High performance computing applications in neurobiological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cheng, Rei; Doshay, David G.; Linton, Samuel W.; Montgomery, Kevin; Parnas, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The human nervous system is a massively parallel processor of information. The vast numbers of neurons, synapses and circuits is daunting to those seeking to understand the neural basis of consciousness and intellect. Pervading obstacles are lack of knowledge of the detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) organization of even a simple neural system and the paucity of large scale, biologically relevant computer simulations. We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the 3-D organization of gravity sensors as a prototype architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scale-up, three-dimensional versions run on the Cray Y-MP and CM5 supercomputers.

  4. Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Zubillaga, Oihana; de Seoane, José María Vega

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of poor intercomparability of measurements of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices among different laboratories. We present a round robin performance testing of novel OPV devices among 16 laboratories, organized within the framework of European Research Infrastructure...

  5. Differentiation, Interdependence, and Performance in Formal Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Johannes M.

    Studying 40 branch offices of a large brokerage firm, the investigator attempted to develop a framework for theoretically and operationally defining the concept of interdependence in organizations. After defining task, position-role, social, and skill interdependence, the author explores the consequences of differentiation in terms of the…

  6. PLAN FOR PERFORMANCE ADMINISTRATION IN PYRAMIDAL STRUCTURE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance administration has become a current strategy in evaluating management within organizations, but its implementation often lacks an action plan, resulting from the valuation of climate and leadership styles embedded in the culture of the organization. This paper proposes a model action plan for performance management, which has been implemented, executed and evaluated in pyramidal organizational structure organizations where a diagnosis of the cultural climate and leadership styles recurring in the organization have been previously made.

  7. Very High Performance Organic Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-15

    http:/lapl.aip.org/ api /copyrigrit.jsp Appl. Phys. Left., Vol 85, No. 23, 6 December 2004 Xue et at 5759 ie P...........s diction (6.5%), mainly due to...conventional CuPc/PTCBI bilayer cell’ rou--i-td hthluut.in,. C.aut- .yr, App) P, Im, 84.4219. 42211 Q1 )4) under AMI.5G illumination using a calibrated...positive and negative time-of-flight (TOF) mass spec - electronic properties are determined by both the caged metal trometry. atoms and the parent

  8. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  9. Online analysis of five organic ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples using magnetism-enhanced monolith-based in-tube solid phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2017-11-24

    Due to the endocrine disrupting properties, organic UV filters have been a great risk for humans and other organisms. Therefore, development of accurate and effective analytical methods is needed for the determination of UV filters in environmental waters. In this work, a fast, sensitive and environmentally friendly method combining magnetism-enhanced monolith-based in-tube solid phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (DAD) (ME-MB-IT/SPME-HPLC-DAD) for the online analysis of five organic UV filters in environmental water samples was developed. To extract UV filters effectively, an ionic liquid-based monolithic capillary column doped with magnetic nanoparticles was prepared by in-situ polymerization and used as extraction medium of online ME-MB-IT/SPME-HPLC-DAD system. Several extraction conditions including the intensity of magnetic field, sampling and desorption flow rate, volume of sample and desorption solvent, pH value and ionic strength of sample matrix were optimized thoroughly. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiencies for five organic UV filters were in the range of 44.0-100%. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were 0.04-0.26μg/L and 0.12-0.87μg/L, respectively. The precisions indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10% for both intra- and inter-day variabilities. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the determination of UV filters in three environmental water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Rhonda F [Ann Arbor, MI; Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI

    2009-01-27

    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  11. Trends in Schooling: Demography, Performance and Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Robert D.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing "Social Indicators" (1979), discusses growth and distribution of schooling in the U.S., trends in student test performance, and major organizational changes in elementary/secondary education. Comments on quality of available data and suggests improvements for future reporting of educational indicators. (Reprint of article is available…

  12. Strategic Performance Options in Professional Service Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Meihuizen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the current debate on HRM and organisational performance (Mahoney and Pandian, 1992; Storey, 1992; Paauwe, 1994; Wright et al, 1994; Flood et al, 1995; Becker and Gerhardt, 1996; Boxall, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Beatty and Schneider, 1997; Coff, 1997; Guest, 1997; Paauwe and Richardson, 1997;

  13. MANAGING SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DIVERSITY FOR PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Mallory E.; Meier, Kenneth J.

    Managers concerned with the performance of their organizations will exploit available social, administrative, and human capital resources. However, extant theory and mixed empirical evidence leave the effect of social capital on performance unclear. The gains from these norms of reciprocity,

  14. Separation of enantiomers of chiral weak acids with polysaccharide-based chiral columns and aqueous-organic mobile phases in high-performance liquid chromatography: Typical reversed-phase behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarashvili, Iza; Ghughunishvili, Darejan; Chankvetadze, Lali; Takaishvili, Nino; Khatiashvili, Tamar; Tsintsadze, Maia; Farkas, Tivadar; Chankvetadze, Bezhan

    2017-02-03

    When polysaccharide-based chiral columns are used in combination with aqueous-organic mobile phases for the separation of enantiomers in high-performance liquid chromatography the separation mode is commonly called "reversed-phase" in analogy to achiral separations. In several earlier and recent studies on neutral and basic chiral analytes it was shown by our and other groups that due to multiple type of interactions involved in selector-selectand binding and enantioselective recognition with polysaccharide derivatives, the above mentioned separation system may not always behave like a reversed-phase system. In the present study additional examples of non-reversed-phase behavior are described for the first time for weak acidic chiral analytes. In addition, the reversal of enantiomer elution order was observed again for the first time for several analytes based on water-content in the mobile phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly Sensitive Flexible Pressure Sensors Based on Printed Organic Transistors with Centro-Apically Self-Organized Organic Semiconductor Microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, So Young; Park, Sangsik; Yi, Yeon Jin; Kim, Do Hwan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2017-12-13

    A highly sensitive pressure sensor based on printed organic transistors with three-dimensionally self-organized organic semiconductor microstructures (3D OSCs) was demonstrated. A unique organic transistor with semiconductor channels positioned at the highest summit of printed cylindrical microstructures was achieved simply by printing an organic semiconductor and polymer blend on the plastic substrate without the use of additional etching or replication processes. A combination of the printed organic semiconductor microstructure and an elastomeric top-gate dielectric resulted in a highly sensitive organic field-effect transistor (FET) pressure sensor with a high pressure sensitivity of 1.07 kPa-1 and a rapid response time of <20 ms with a high reliability over 1000 cycles. The flexibility and high performance of the 3D OSC FET pressure sensor were exploited in the successful application of our sensors to real-time monitoring of the radial artery pulse, which is useful for healthcare monitoring, and to touch sensing in the e-skin of a realistic prosthetic hand.

  16. High Performance Torso Cooling Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Makinen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The concept proposed in this paper is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area, which could facilitate removal of LCVG tubing from the arms and legs, thereby increasing suited crew member mobility. EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is challenging, and it becomes even more challenging in the gravity of Mars. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased. This increase in efficiency could provide the required liquid cooling via torso tubing only; no arm or leg LCVG tubing would be required. Benefits of this approach include increased crewmember mobility, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development. This report describes analysis and test activities performed to evaluate the potential improvements to the thermal performance of the LCVG. Analyses evaluated potential tube shapes for improving the thermal performance of the LCVG. The analysis results fed into the selection of flat flow strips to improve thermal contact with the skin of the suited test subject. Testing of small segments was performed to compare thermal performance of the tubing approach of the current LCVG to the flat flow strips proposed as the new concept. Results of the testing is presented along with recommendations for future development of this new concept.

  17. The Relationship between Learning Organization Dimensions and Library Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Qing Kong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between learning organization dimensions and academic library performance. It studied whether differences existed in learning organization dimensions given the predictor variables of performance indicators, library resources, and demographics of the academic library. This research…

  18. High performance leadership in unusually challenging educational circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Hargreaves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on findings from the results of a study of leadership in high performing organizations in three sectors. Organizations were sampled and included on the basis of high performance in relation to no performance, past performance, performance among similar peers and performance in the face of limited resources or challenging circumstances. The paper concentrates on leadership in four schools that met the sample criteria.  It draws connections to explanations of the high performance ofEstoniaon the OECD PISA tests of educational achievement. The article argues that leadership in these four schools that performed above expectations comprised more than a set of competencies. Instead, leadership took the form of a narrative or quest that pursued an inspiring dream with relentless determination; took improvement pathways that were more innovative than comparable peers; built collaboration and community including with competing schools; and connected short-term success to long-term sustainability.

  19. High Triplet Energy Level Achieved by Tuning the Arrangement of Building Blocks in Phosphorescent Polymer Backbones for Furnishing High Electroluminescent Performances in Both Blue and White Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boao; Dang, Feifan; Tian, Zhuanzhuan; Feng, Zhao; Jin, Deyuan; Dang, Wanping; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2017-05-17

    A high triplet energy level (E T ) of ca. 2.83 eV has been achieved in a novel polymer backbone through tuning the arrangement of two kinds of building blocks, showing enhanced hole injection/transporting capacity. Based on this new polymer backbone with high E T , both blue and white phosphorescent polymers were successfully developed with a trade-off between high E T and enhanced charge-carrier transporting ability. In addition, their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. Benefitting from the advantages associated with the novel polymer backbone, the blue phosphorescent polymers show top-ranking EL performances with a maximum luminance efficiency (η L ) of 15.22 cd A -1 , corresponding to a power efficiency (η P ) of 12.64 lm W -1 , and external quantum efficiency (η ext ) of 6.22% and the stable Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.19, 0.38). Furthermore, blue-orange (B-O) complementary-colored white phosphorescent polymers based on this novel polymer backbone were also obtained showing encouraging EL efficiencies of 12.34 cd A -1 , 9.59 lm W -1 , and 4.10% in the optimized WOLED together with exceptionally stable CIE coordinates of (Δx = 0.014, Δy = 0.010) in a wide driving voltage range from 4 to 16 V. All of these attractive EL results achieved by these novel phosphorescent polymers show the great potential of this new polymer backbone in developing highly efficient phosphorescent polymers.

  20. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  1. Conceptualizing Learning Organization towards Sustaining Learning Organization’s Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Faizal Iylia Mohd Ghazali; Norliya Ahmad Kassim; Lokman Hakim Khalib; Muhammad Nurjufri Jaafar; Muhammad Ariff Idris

    2015-01-01

    A learning organization is a place where people in the organization are powerfully learning collectively and by their own to expand their knowledge and skills so that they can enhance and optimize their organizational performance at the maximum. This paper reviews the literature that leads to developing a conceptual framework of a study on the factors of learning organization towards sustaining an organization’s performance. Based on the literature review, three main independent variables are...

  2. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  3. High Performance Computing Modernization Program Kerberos Throughput Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-26

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR / MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY...the high computing power of the main supercomputer. Each supercomputer is different in node architecture as well as hardware specifications. 2

  4. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  5. Blue emitting organic semiconductors under high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Guha, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    highlighted by high pressure optical spectroscopy whilst analogous x-ray diffraction experiments remain less frequent. By focusing on a class of blue-emitting π-conjugated polymers, polyfluorenes, this article reviews optical spectroscopic studies under hydrostatic pressure, addressing the impact of molecular......This review describes essential optical and emerging structural experiments that use high GPa range hydrostatic pressure to probe physical phenomena in blue-emitting organic semiconductors including π-conjugated polyfluorene and related compounds. The work emphasizes molecular structure...... and intermolecular self-organization that typically determine transport and optical emission in π-conjugated oligomers and polymers. In this context, hydrostatic pressure through diamond anvil cells has proven to be an elegant tool to control structure and interactions without chemical intervention. This has been...

  6. High pressure photophysics of organic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    High pressure spectroscopic studies on several classes of organic compounds were made both in fluid solution (to 10 kbar) and in polymeric media (to 40 kbar). The first three studies were conducted in fluid solution and concern the effect of solvent viscosity on the nonradiative deactivation rates from electronically excited states. Pressure was utilized to attain high viscosities in organic solvents at room temperature. The primary experimental technique used was fluorescence emission spectroscopy. In the fourth and last study observations were made both in fluid solution and in plastic films. The focus of this study was the effect of pressure on the solvent-chromophore dispersion interaction in several polyenes and the concomitant changes in both the radiative and non-radiative rates from the excited states. Extensive use was made of fluorescence lifetime measurements and excitation spectra. 105 references.

  7. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  8. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  9. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...... at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT...

  10. High-Performance Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1985-01-01

    Single vapor channel and single liquid channel joined by axial slot. New design, permits high heat-transport capacity without excessively reducing heat-transfer efficiency. Contains two large axial channels, one for vapor and one for liquid, permitting axial transport and radial heat-transfer requirements met independently. Heat pipe has capacity of approximately 10 to sixth power watt-inches (2.5 X 10 to sixth power watt-cm) orders of magnitude greater than heat capacity of existing heat pipes. Design has high radial-heat-transfer efficiency, structurally simple, and has large liquid and vapor areas.

  11. High-performance solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  12. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  13. High Performance JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Zakas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    If you're like most developers, you rely heavily on JavaScript to build interactive and quick-responding web applications. The problem is that all of those lines of JavaScript code can slow down your apps. This book reveals techniques and strategies to help you eliminate performance bottlenecks during development. You'll learn how to improve execution time, downloading, interaction with the DOM, page life cycle, and more. Yahoo! frontend engineer Nicholas C. Zakas and five other JavaScript experts -- Ross Harmes, Julien Lecomte, Steven Levithan, Stoyan Stefanov, and Matt Sweeney -- demonstra

  14. A magnetic-based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction method using the metal-organic framework HKUST-1 and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waters and fruit tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Ayala, Juan H; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-03-04

    A hybrid material composed by the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has been synthetized in a quite simple manner, characterized, and used in a magnetic-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (M-d-μSPE) method in combination with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and fluorescence detection (FD). The application was devoted to the determination of 8 heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different aqueous samples, specifically tap water, wastewaters, and fruit tea infusion samples. The overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method was optimized and validated. The method is characterized by: its simplicity in both the preparation of the hybrid material (simple mixing) and the magnetic-assisted approach (∼10min extraction time), the use of low sorbent amounts (20mg of HKUST-1 and 5mg of Fe3O4 MNPs), and the low organic solvent consumption in the overall M-d-μSPE-UHPLC-FD method (1.5mL of acetonitrile in the M-d-μSPE method and 2.8mL of acetonitrile in the UHPLC-FD run). The resulting method has high sensitivity, with LODs down to 0.8ngL(-1); adequate intermediate precision, with relative standard deviation values (RSD) always lower than 6.3% (being the range 5.9-9.0% in tap water for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), 6.1-14% in wastewaters for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1), and 7.2-17% in fruit tea infusion samples for a spiked level of 45ngL(-1)); and adequate relative recoveries, with average values of 82% in tap water, and 94% and 75% in wastewater and fruit tea infusion samples, respectively, if using the proper matrix-matched calibration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High-performance hierarchical fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nicolas B.; Zhang, Weidong

    2002-07-01

    We describe in more detail a mask data preparation (MDP) flow previously proposed. The focus on this paper is a performance comparison of hierarchical fracturing techniques compared to standard fracturing. Our flow uses GDSII data as input, including a GDSII-based job deck description. The output is maximally compacted, trapezoidal mask writer (MW) formatted data. Our flow takes advantage of hierarchy explicit in the GDSII file(s). This allows optimal determination of 'cover cells', which are repeatable groups of patterns within the data. The use of cover cells allows a reduction of fracturing runtime. In one case, a 21 GB MEBES file was fractured in 30 hours using the standard technique and 53 minutes using the hierarchical cover cell technique.

  16. High-efficiency organic glass scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Patrick L.; Carlson, Joseph S.

    2017-12-19

    A new family of neutron/gamma discriminating scintillators is disclosed that comprises stable organic glasses that may be melt-cast into transparent monoliths. These materials have been shown to provide light yields greater than solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals and efficient PSD capabilities when combined with 0.01 to 0.05% by weight of the total composition of a wavelength-shifting fluorophore. Photoluminescence measurements reveal fluorescence quantum yields that are 2 to 5 times greater than conventional plastic or liquid scintillator matrices, which accounts for the superior light yield of these glasses. The unique combination of high scintillation light-yields, efficient neutron/gamma PSD, and straightforward scale-up via melt-casting distinguishes the developed organic glasses from existing scintillators.

  17. Injection-ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on using low-density organic solvent followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of pyrethroids in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailin; Liang, Bing; Li, Yanfang; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Yuyan

    2013-02-21

    A highly efficient, simple and rapid method, injection-ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on using low-density organic solvents followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, was developed for the determination of trace level pyrethroids in water samples. Various parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as type of extractant, extractant volume, ultrasonic time, centrifugation time and salt addition, were studied and optimized by two methods: the single factor experiment and the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, great enrichment factors (678-713) and good recoveries (92.48-97.31%) were obtained for the extraction and analysis of artificial water samples. Linearity of the method for three pyrethroids was in the range of 0.11-218 μg L(-1) for fenpropathrin, and 0.07-136 μg L(-1) for fenvalerate and permethrin, respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9994 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for the target analytes were 12.13 to 20.16 ng L(-1), and the limits of quantification were 40.43 to 67.19 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the three pyrethroids from actual water samples at three spiked levels were in the range of 83.25 to 103.3% with relative standard deviation RSDs less than 7.40%.

  18. Determination of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in wastewater samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldean-Galea, Mihail Simion; Coman, Virginia; Thiébaut, Didier; Vial, Jérome

    2015-02-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet for the extraction of four acidic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) from wastewater samples subsequent by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was developed. The influence of extraction parameters such as pH, the effect of solution ionic strength, type of extraction solvent, disperser solvent, and extraction solvent volume were studied. High enrichment factors (283-302) were obtained through the developed method. The method provides good linearity (r > 0.999) in a concentration range of 1-100 μg/L, good intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation < 7%) and low limits of quantification. The relative recoveries of the selected compounds were situated over 80% both in synthetic and real water samples. The developed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the selected compounds in wastewater samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  20. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  1. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  2. A Two-Step Method to Identify Positive Deviant Physician Organizations of Accountable Care Organizations with Robust Performance Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperl, Alexander F; Rodriguez, Hector P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2017-04-06

    To identify positive deviant (PD) physician organizations of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) with robust performance management systems (PMSYS). Third National Survey of Physician Organizations (NSPO3, n = 1,398). Organizational and external factors from NSPO3 were analyzed. Linear regression estimated the association of internal and contextual factors on PMSYS. Two cutpoints (75th/90th percentiles) identified PDs with the largest residuals and highest PMSYS scores. A total of 65 and 41 PDs were identified using 75th and 90th percentiles cutpoints, respectively. The 90th percentile more strongly differentiated PDs from non-PDs. Having a high proportion of vulnerable patients appears to constrain PMSYS development. Our PD identification method increases the likelihood that PD organizations selected for in-depth inquiry are high-performing organizations that exceed expectations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  4. Identification of Employee Performance Appraisal Methods in Agricultural Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venclova Katerina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A formal employee performance appraisal is regarded as one of the tools of human resources performance management. People, their knowledge and skills are currently considered to be the most valuable resource a company has. The article focuses on methods of employee performance appraisal in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic. The first part of the article deals with the theoretical background of the term “formal appraisal” and employee performance appraisal methods as defined by Czech and foreign specialists. Further, the article describes, based on a questionnaire survey, employee performance appraisal methods that are considered importantfor the agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic. The aim of the article is to identify the current state of formal employee appraisal in a sample group of agricultural organizationsand to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The outcomes show that the most commonly used methods of employee performance appraisal in agricultural organizations include predefined goal-based performance appraisal, predefined standard outcome-based performance appraisal and appraisal interviews. Agricultural organizations apply these methodsin particular due to the fact that their findings are further utilized in other areas of human resource management, such as reward system and personnel planning. In statistical terms, dependencybetween the method of employee performance appraisal according to predefined goals applied by agricultural organizations and personnel planning (an area of human resources managementhas been proven (p-value: 0.032, Phi coefficient: 4.578.

  5. CULTURE – GROWTH FACTOR OF THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    MIRCEA DRAGHICI

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues reflected in this paper is that of the relationship between organizational culture, organizational change and the strategy of the organization. Besides this, another underlined aspect is that there is a strong connection between organizational culture and the community and environment the organization presides in. Also, by understanding the organizational culture we take a step forward in improving the performance of the organizations. Another fact to be taken into acco...

  6. Advanced Organic Permeable-Base Transistor with Superior Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Markus P; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Scholz, Reinhard; Lüssem, Björn; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-12-16

    An optimized vertical organic permeable-base transistor (OPBT) competing with the best organic field-effect transistors in performance, while employing low-cost fabrication techniques, is presented. The OPBT stands out by its excellent power efficiency at the highest frequencies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An Associate Degree in High Performance Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Arnold

    In order for more individuals to enter higher paying jobs, employers must create a sufficient number of high-performance positions (the demand side), and workers must acquire the skills needed to perform in these restructured workplaces (the supply side). Creating an associate degree in High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) will help address four…

  8. Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Ulrik; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2014-01-01

    of management is less effective in public organizations. A difference-in-differences model based on survey data on management in Danish public and private schools, combined with administrative data of students’ test scores, confirms the hypothesis. The results have important implications for the transfer......Recent theoretical developments suggest that management actions have different impacts on outcomes in public and private organizations. This proposition is important to public organizations’ widespread import of private sector management tools such as performance management. This article examines...... how performance management influences performance outcomes in otherwise similar public and private organizations. Showing that the factors expected to diminish the impact of performance management parallel the organizational characteristics of public organizations, we hypothesize that this type...

  9. Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed growth in the derived savanna of south eastern Nigeria. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... The experiment was conducted at the Research and Teaching Farm of the Federal ...

  10. PREFACE: High Performance Computing Symposium 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, Suzanne; Mousseau, Normand; Peslherbe, Gilles; Bertrand, François; Gauthier, Pierre; Kadem, Lyes; Moitessier, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy; Wittig, Rod

    2012-02-01

    HPCS (High Performance Computing Symposium) is a multidisciplinary conference that focuses on research involving High Performance Computing and its application. Attended by Canadian and international experts and renowned researchers in the sciences, all areas of engineering, the applied sciences, medicine and life sciences, mathematics, the humanities and social sciences, it is Canada's pre-eminent forum for HPC. The 25th edition was held in Montréal, at the Université du Québec à Montréal, from 15-17 June and focused on HPC in Medical Science. The conference was preceded by tutorials held at Concordia University, where 56 participants learned about HPC best practices, GPU computing, parallel computing, debugging and a number of high-level languages. 274 participants from six countries attended the main conference, which involved 11 invited and 37 contributed oral presentations, 33 posters, and an exhibit hall with 16 booths from our sponsors. The work that follows is a collection of papers presented at the conference covering HPC topics ranging from computer science to bioinformatics. They are divided here into four sections: HPC in Engineering, Physics and Materials Science, HPC in Medical Science, HPC Enabling to Explore our World and New Algorithms for HPC. We would once more like to thank the participants and invited speakers, the members of the Scientific Committee, the referees who spent time reviewing the papers and our invaluable sponsors. To hear the invited talks and learn about 25 years of HPC development in Canada visit the Symposium website: http://2011.hpcs.ca/lang/en/conference/keynote-speakers/ Enjoy the excellent papers that follow, and we look forward to seeing you in Vancouver for HPCS 2012! Gilles Peslherbe Chair of the Scientific Committee Normand Mousseau Co-Chair of HPCS 2011 Suzanne Talon Chair of the Organizing Committee UQAM Sponsors The PDF also contains photographs from the conference banquet.

  11. Identification of Employee Performance Appraisal Methods in Agricultural Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Venclova Katerina; Salkova Andrea; Kolackova Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    A formal employee performance appraisal is regarded as one of the tools of human resources performance management. People, their knowledge and skills are currently considered to be the most valuable resource a company has. The article focuses on methods of employee performance appraisal in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic. The first part of the article deals with the theoretical background of the term “formal appraisal” and employee performance appraisal methods as defined by ...

  12. High performance computing and communications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee

    1992-01-01

    A review of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is provided in vugraph format. The goals and objectives of this federal program are as follows: extend U.S. leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; disseminate the technologies to speed innovation and to serve national goals; and spur gains in industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing integral to design and production.

  13. High Performance Spaceflight Computing (HPSC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In 2012, the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCDP), residing in the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), commissioned a High Performance...

  14. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  15. Market performance of organic food brands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Vasilev, Boyan

    products. Such information would be useful since some researchers argue that one way to grow the organic market is by making (existing) consumers more loyal to organic food brands (Wier et al, 2008). This is true if we accept the argument that organic food brands are small and therefore behave as niche...... brands showing excess repeat purchase behaviour given their market share. However, niche brands rarely exist (Sharp, 2010), and other factors, such as lack of availability and competition from conventional brands, may lead organic food brands to show higher switching rates. If this holds true, then what...... has led to this growth? In this study we aimed at exploring what has contributed to the growth of organic food market and whether organic food brands perform better than conventional brands. To do so, we used panel data provided by GfK in Denmark and analysed 9 product categories across a series of 10...

  16. [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine as Building Blocks for Universal Host Materials for High-Performance Red, Green, Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenxuan; Shi, Lijiang; Gao, Lei; Hu, Peijun; Mu, Haichuan; Xia, Zhenyuan; Huang, Jinhai; Su, Jianhua

    2018-02-14

    The electron-accepting [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (TP) moiety was introduced to build bipolar host materials for the first time, and two host materials based on this TP acceptor and carbazole donor, namely, 9,9'-(2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (o-CzTP) and 9,9'-(5-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (m-CzTP), were designed and synthesized. These two TP-based host materials possess a high triplet energy (>2.9 eV) and appropriate highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels as well as the bipolar transporting feature, which permits their applicability as universal host materials in multicolor phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). Blue, green, and red PhOLEDs based on o-CzTP and m-CzTP with the same device configuration all show high efficiencies and low efficiency roll-off. The devices hosted by o-CzTP exhibit maximum external quantum efficiencies (η ext ) of 27.1, 25.0, and 15.8% for blue, green, and red light emitting, respectively, which are comparable with the best electroluminescene performance reported for FIrpic-based blue, Ir(ppy) 3 -based green, and Ir(pq) 2 (acac)-based red PhOLEDs equipped with a single-component host. The white PhOLEDs based on the o-CzTP host and three lumophors containing red, green, and blue emitting layers were fabricated with the same device structure, which exhibit a maximum current efficiency and η c of 40.4 cd/A and 17.8%, respectively, with the color rendering index value of 75.

  17. Method for analysis of psychopharmaceuticals in real industrial wastewater and groundwater with suspended organic particulate matter using solid phase extraction disks extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Petrů, Klára; Krejčová, Lucie; Šrédlová, Kamila; Lhotský, Ondřej; Kameník, Zdeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of psychopharmaceuticals, their precursors and by-products in real contaminated samples from a pharmaceutical company in Olomouc (Czech Republic), based on SPE disk extraction and detection by ultra performance liquid chromatography, combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The target compounds were quantified in the real whole-water samples (water including suspended particles), both in the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and high concentrations of other organic pollutants. A total of nine compounds were analyzed which consisted of three commonly used antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics), one antitussive agent and five by-products or precursors. At first, the SPE disk method was developed for the extraction of water samples (dissolved analytes, recovery 84-104%) and pressurised liquid extraction technique was verified for solid matrices (sludge samples, recovery 81-95%). In order to evaluate the SPE disk technique for whole water samples containing SPM, non contaminated groundwater samples were also loaded with different amounts (100 and 300mgL(-1)) of real contaminated sludge originating from the same locality. The recoveries from the whole-water samples obtained by SPE disk method ranged between 67 and 119% after the addition of the most contaminated sludge. The final method was applied to several real groundwater (whole-water) samples from the industrial area and high concentrations (up to 10(3)μgL(-1)) of the target compounds were detected. The results of this study document and indicate the feasibility of the SPE disk method for analysis of groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  19. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  20. Ultra-high gain diffusion-driven organic transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Fabrizio; Colalongo, Luigi; Raiteri, Daniele; Kovács-Vajna, Zsolt Miklós; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Emerging large-area technologies based on organic transistors are enabling the fabrication of low-cost flexible circuits, smart sensors and biomedical devices. High-gain transistors are essential for the development of large-scale circuit integration, high-sensitivity sensors and signal amplification in sensing systems. Unfortunately, organic field-effect transistors show limited gain, usually of the order of tens, because of the large contact resistance and channel-length modulation. Here we show a new organic field-effect transistor architecture with a gain larger than 700. This is the highest gain ever reported for organic field-effect transistors. In the proposed organic field-effect transistor, the charge injection and extraction at the metal–semiconductor contacts are driven by the charge diffusion. The ideal conditions of ohmic contacts with negligible contact resistance and flat current saturation are demonstrated. The approach is general and can be extended to any thin-film technology opening unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance flexible electronics. PMID:26829567

  1. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  2. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and ...

  3. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and comprehensive approach that takes into view factors impacting organisational performance with the required attention to people who must deliver the corporate brand promise. This paper demonstrates that internal branding of African organisations ...

  4. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  5. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Spatola, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mo...

  6. Probabilistic performance-based design for high performance control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Laura; Cao, Liang; Gong, Yongqiang; Cancelli, Alessandro; Laflamme, Simon; Alipour, Alice

    2017-04-01

    High performance control systems (HPCS) are advanced damping systems capable of high damping performance over a wide frequency bandwidth, ideal for mitigation of multi-hazards. They include active, semi-active, and hybrid damping systems. However, HPCS are more expensive than typical passive mitigation systems, rely on power and hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators) to operate, and require maintenance. In this paper, a life cycle cost analysis (LCA) approach is proposed to estimate the economic benefit these systems over the entire life of the structure. The novelty resides in the life cycle cost analysis in the performance based design (PBD) tailored to multi-level wind hazards. This yields a probabilistic performance-based design approach for HPCS. Numerical simulations are conducted on a building located in Boston, MA. LCA are conducted for passive control systems and HPCS, and the concept of controller robustness is demonstrated. Results highlight the promise of the proposed performance-based design procedure.

  7. High performance computing at Sandia National Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, R.M.; Noe, J.P.; Vandevender, W.H.

    1995-10-01

    Sandia`s High Performance Computing Environment requires a hierarchy of resources ranging from desktop, to department, to centralized, and finally to very high-end corporate resources capable of teraflop performance linked via high-capacity Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The mission of the Scientific Computing Systems Department is to provide the support infrastructure for an integrated corporate scientific computing environment that will meet Sandia`s needs in high-performance and midrange computing, network storage, operational support tools, and systems management. This paper describes current efforts at SNL/NM to expand and modernize centralized computing resources in support of this mission.

  8. Morphology optimization for enhanced performance in organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodo, Olga; Zola, Jaroslaw; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2015-03-01

    Organic solar cells have the potential for widespread usage due to their low cost-per-watt and mechanical flexibility. Their wide spread use, however, is bottlenecked primarily by their low solar efficiencies. Experimental evidence suggests that a key property determining the solar efficiency of such devices is the final morphological distribution of the electron-donor and electron-acceptor constituents. By carefully designing the morphology of the device, one could potentially significantly enhance their performance. This is an area of intense experimental effort that is mostly trial-and-error based, and serves as a fertile area for introducing mechanics and computational thinking. In this work, we use optimization techniques coupled with computational modeling to identify the optimal structures for high efficiency solar cells. In particular, we use adaptive population-based incremental learning method linked to graph-based surrogate model to evaluate properties for given structure. We study several different criterions and find optimal structure that that improve the performance of currently hypothesized optimal structures by 29%.

  9. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN A HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  10. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  11. The Impact of Knowledge Management, Learning Organization, and Educations Organization on Organization Performance: A Case in Brawijaya University

    OpenAIRE

    Giuma Omar Al Ahmar; Ainur Rofiq; Djumilah Zain Hadiwodjojo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of knowledge management, learning organization, and education organization on organization performance at University of Brawijaya. The Quantitative   method was applied to conduct this study. A questionnaire of four dimensions with 41 items was distributed to the sample target of 140 administrative employees at University of Brawijaya. Structural Equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results show that there are positive relationships bet...

  12. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Porous Core/Shell Structured ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C Hybrids as Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaoli; Li, Zhaoqiang; Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei

    2015-12-09

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) derived porous core/shell ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C hybrids with ZnO as a core and ZnCo2O4 as a shell are for the first time fabricated by using core/shell ZnCo-MOF precursors as reactant templates. The unique MOFs-derived core/shell structured ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C hybrids are assembled from nanoparticles of ZnO and ZnCo2O4, with homogeneous carbon layers coated on the surface of the ZnCo2O4 shell. When acting as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the MOFs-derived porous ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C anodes exhibit outstanding cycling stability, high Coulombic efficiency, and remarkable rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance of the ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C LIB anodes can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the porous structure of the MOFs-derived core/shell ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C and homogeneous carbon layer coating on the surface of the ZnCo2O4 shells. The hierarchically porous core/shell structure offers abundant active sites, enhances the electrode/electrolyte contact area, provides abundant channels for electrolyte penetration, and also alleviates the structure decomposition induced by Li(+) insertion/extraction. The carbon layers effectively improve the conductivity of the hybrids and thus enhance the electron transfer rate, efficiently prevent ZnCo2O4 from aggregation and disintegration, and partially buffer the stress induced by the volume change during cycles. This strategy may shed light on designing new MOF-based hybrid electrodes for energy storage and conversion devices.

  13. Dispersive liquid-phase microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of Sudan dyes in foodstuffs and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Yuming

    2014-06-25

    Dispersive liquid-phase microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop (SFO-DLPME) is one of the most interesting sample preparation techniques developed in recent years. In this paper, a new, rapid, and efficient SFO-DLPME coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established for the extraction and sensitive detection of banned Sudan dyes, namely, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV, in foodstuff and water samples. Various factors, such as the type and volume of extractants and dispersants, pH and volume of sample solution, extraction time and temperature, ion strength, and humic acid concentration, were investigated and optimized to achieve optimal extraction of Sudan dyes in one single step. After optimization of extraction conditions using 1-dodecanol as an extractant and ethanol as a dispersant, the developed procedure was applied for extraction of the target Sudan dyes from 2 g of food samples and 10 mL of the spiked water samples. Under the optimized conditions, all Sudan dyes could be easily extracted by the proposed SFO-DLPME method. Limits of detection of the four Sudan dyes obtained were 0.10-0.20 ng g(-1) and 0.03 μg L(-1) when 2 g of foodstuff samples and 10 mL of water samples were adopted, respectively. The inter- and intraday reproducibilities were below 4.8% for analysis of Sudan dyes in foodstuffs. The method was satisfactorily used for the detection of Sudan dyes, and the recoveries of the target for the spiked foodstuff and water samples ranged from 92.6 to 106.6% and from 91.1 to 108.6%, respectively. These results indicated that the proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and suitable for the pre-concentration and detection of the target dyes in foodstuff samples.

  14. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  15. Virtualization in High-Performance Computing: An Analysis of Physical and Virtual Node Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jungels, Glendon M

    2012-01-01

    The process of virtualizing computing resources allows an organization to make more efficient use of it's resources. In addtion, this process enables flexibility that deployment on raw hardware does not. Virtualization, however, comes with a performance penalty. This study examines the performance of utilizing virtualization technology for use in high performance computing to determine the suitibility of using this technology. It makes use of a small (4 node) virtual cluster as well as a ...

  16. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  17. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  18. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  19. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN A HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LOGOFĂTU MONICA; ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-01-01

    In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a mult...

  20. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN; LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-01-01

    In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a mult...

  1. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijaard, J.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses

  2. Radiation Hard High Performance Optoelectronic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-hard, widely-tunable integrated laser/modulator chip and large-area avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components of optical...

  3. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  4. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Anethole in Rat Plasma. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 5 (2014) > ... Results: GC determination showed that anethole in the essential oil of star anise exhibited a ...

  6. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  7. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  8. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  9. Learning Organization and Transfer: Strategies for Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, Teresa G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for learning and managing knowledge to make performance improvements and gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Various similarities are identified in the literature that are indicative of a…

  10. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partanen, K.H.; Mroz, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Organic acids and their salts appear to be potential alternatives to prophylactic in-feed antibiotics and growth promoters in order to improve the performance of weaned piglets, fattening pigs and reproductive sows, although their growth-promoting effects are generally less than that of antibiotics.

  11. Performance, organ growth and economics of finisher broiler fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, organ growth and economics of finishing broilers. The harvested neem leaves were chopped and air dried under room temperature for ten days until they became crispy while retaining ...

  12. Impact Of Staff Morale On Performance In School Organizations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between the morale of staff (i.e. teachers' morale) and performance in school organizations was looked at in this study. The research was carried out on a randomly selected sample of one hundred and twenty (120) students and teaching staff from the three colleges in Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State.

  13. the performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    amelioration compared to senescent cowpea and wild spikenard, which had lower alkalinity. The performance of maize grown in respective soil incorporated with the organic residues followed the same pattern. The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most ...

  14. Effects of organic acid and probiotic on performance and gut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of organic acid, probiotic and a combination of the two on performance and gut morphology in broiler chickens were investigated. Two hundred and forty one-day-old Arbor Acre broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates, each with eight birds. The treatments were basal ...

  15. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research aimed to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) on performance, immune system, gut, and lymphoid organs' microarchitecture in broilers. A total of 120 day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four groups. The birds were fed a corn-soy-based basal diet (BD) (control) or the ...

  16. Assessing the Sustainability Performance of Organic Farms in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M. de Olde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of organic agriculture in Denmark raises the interest of both producers and consumers in the sustainability performance of organic production. The aim of this study was to examine the sustainability performance of farms in four agricultural sectors (vegetable, dairy, pig and poultry using the sustainability assessment tool RISE 2.0. Thirty seven organic farms were assessed on 10 themes, including 51 subthemes. For one theme (water use and 17 subthemes, a difference between sectors was found. Using the thresholds of RISE, the vegetable, dairy and pig sector performed positively for seven themes and the poultry sector for eight themes. The performance on the nutrient flows and energy and climate themes, however, was critical for all sectors. Moreover, the performance on the economic viability theme was critical for vegetable, dairy and pig farms. The development of a tool, including decisions, such as the selection of themes and indicators, reference values, weights and aggregation methods, influences the assessment results. This emphasizes the need for transparency and reflection on decisions made in sustainability assessment tools. The results of RISE present a starting point to discuss sustainability at the farm-level and contribute to an increase in awareness and learning about sustainability.

  17. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  19. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  20. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  1. Performance effect of multiple control forms in a Lean organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades Lean has developed into a prominent management philosophy reaching beyond shop floor tools. However, substantial support of performance effects from Lean is still scarce and at best with mixed results. Recently, research has turned its focus towards perceiving Lean...... as a control package. In this paper we present statistical support for enhanced performance coming from Lean. Furthermore, our results strongly support the perception of Lean as a set of multiple control forms (output, behavioral, and social controls) that complement each other. Therefore, performance...... is increased if the average level of control forms is increased, and performance is further increased if the control forms are balanced at the same level representing a complementary effect between them. Our data are archival data spanning multiple years in a strong Lean organization. The dependent performance...

  2. Alpine skiing and anaerobic performance in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roi, G S; Mosconi, G; Capelli, I; Cuna, V; Persici, E; Parigino, M; Pisoni, D; Todeschini, P; Costa, A Nanni; Stefoni, S

    2010-05-01

    Limited information has been published about sporting activities in solid organ transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to assess "in the field" performance capacities of a group of transplant recipients involved in an alpine skiing competition. We studied 16 transplant recipients (13 men and 3 women) who had undergone transplantations (11 kidney, 4 liver, and 1 heart) at 89 +/- 68 months prior while participating in an alpine skiing race. The patients performed a countermovement jumping test to measure the explosive power of the lower limbs. In all patients blood lactate concentrations (La) were measured at the end of a giant slalom race. The maximum displacement of the center of mass during the jumping test was 22.4 +/- 9.3 cm; the time to complete the giant slalom was 75.5 +/- 16.5 seconds and La was 3.5 +/- 0.8 mmol/L. We observed significant linear relationships between race time and La (R(2) = 0.4733; P < .01) and between race time and performance in the jumping test (R(2) = 0.3655; P < .05). This study indicated that recovery of anaerobic and technical sporting activities is possible in organ transplant recipients. Muscular power and anaerobic performances among a selected group of solid organ transplant recipients were similar to those of the general untrained population. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using a standardized donor ratio to assess the performance of organ procurement organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogis, Sheryl; Hirth, Richard A; Strawderman, Robert L; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Smith, Dean G

    2002-10-01

    To develop a Standardized Donor Ratio (SDR) as an outcome measure for evaluating the effectiveness of organ procurement organizations (OPOs). All deaths by cause in the United States during 1993-1994 as reported in the Vital Mortality Statistics, Multiple Cause of Death files. The OPO-specific data were provided by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Each OPO's expected number of donors was calculated by applying national donation rates to deaths with potential for donation in 24 age, sex, and race cells. The SDR was calculated by dividing the observed number of donors by the expected number. The chi2 tests of the hypothesis that the OPO's performance differed from the national norm of 1.0 were performed. The SDR was compared to the existing performance standard based on the unadjusted number of donors per million live population in the OPO's service area. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression assessed predictors of the SDR. The SDRs ranged from 0.41 to 1.99. Twenty-nine of 64 OPOs had SDRs significantly different than 1.0. The SDRs were positively associated with the percent of white living population and the number of organ types transplanted per transplant center served by the OPO. The SDRs can be used by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), UNOS, and OPOs to target quality improvement initiatives, present more accurate comparisons of OPO performance, and develop public policy on the evaluation of the effectiveness of organ procurement efforts.

  4. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2017-09-05

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  5. High-symmetry organic scintillator systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Patrick L.

    2018-02-06

    An ionizing radiation detector or scintillator system includes a scintillating material comprising an organic crystalline compound selected to generate photons in response to the passage of ionizing radiation. The organic compound has a crystalline symmetry of higher order than monoclinic, for example an orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal, hexagonal, or cubic symmetry. A photodetector is optically coupled to the scintillating material, and configured to generate electronic signals having pulse shapes based on the photons generated in the scintillating material. A discriminator is coupled to the photon detector, and configured to discriminate between neutrons and gamma rays in the ionizing radiation based on the pulse shapes of the output signals.

  6. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  7. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  8. Measuring business performance using indicators of ecologically sustainable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Charles G., Jr.; Snow, Charles C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of ecology-based performance measures as a way of augmenting the Balanced Scorecard approach to organizational performance measurement. The Balanced Scorecard, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton, focuses on four primary dimensions; financial, internal-business-process, customer, and learning and growth perspectives. Recently, many 'green' organizational theorists have developed the concept of "Ecologically Sustainable Organizations" or ESOs, a concept rooted in open systems theory. The ESO is called upon to consider resource use and conservation as a strategy for long-term viability. This paper asserts that in order to achieve ESO status, an organization must not only measure but also reward resource conservation measures. Only by adding a fifth perspective for ecological dimensions will the entity be truly motivated toward ESO status.

  9. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  10. Towards High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  11. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  12. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in diets. ... Similarly, the weight of liver (40.35-57.05g), lungs (10.22-11.24g), heart (2.95-4.10g), kidney (8.30-10.70g), kidney fat (11.10-12.65g), small intestine (81.25-99.80g), large intestine ...

  13. Thermal effect on the morphology and performance of organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Eisuke; Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2016-09-29

    The morphology of organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is a significant factor in improving performance, and establishing a method for controlling morphology is necessary. In this study, we propose a device-size simulation model, combining reptation and the dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm, to investigate the relationship between the manufacturing process, morphology, and OPV performance. The reptation reproduces morphologies under thermal annealing, and DMC showed morphology-dependence of performance: not only short-circuit current density but also open-circuit voltage had optimal interfacial areas due to competition between exciton dissociation and charge collection. Besides, we performed transient absorption spectroscopy of various BHJ morphologies under realistic conditions, which revealed prompt and delayed dynamics of charge generation-the majority of the charges were from excitons that were generated on interfaces and dissociated within a few picoseconds, and the others from excitons that migrated to interfaces and dissociated on the order of sub-nanoseconds.

  14. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  15. Nanoparticles for high performance concrete (HPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Miraldo, Sérgio; Ding, Yining; J.A. Labrincha

    2013-01-01

    According to the 2011 ERMCO statistics, only 11% of the production of ready-mixed concrete relates to the high performance concrete (HPC) target. This percentage has remained unchanged since at least 2001 and appears a strange choice on the part of the construction industry, as HPC offers several advantages over normal-strength concrete, specifically those of high strength and durability. It allows for concrete structures requiring less steel reinforcement and offers a longer serviceable life...

  16. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect......% rejection for urea and a water permeability around 10 L/(m2h) with 2M NaCl as draw solution. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using aquaporin proteins in biomimetic membranes for technological applications....

  17. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  18. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  19. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  20. Supervising the highly performing general practice registrar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon

    2014-02-01

    There is extensive literature on the poorly performing learner. In contrast, there is very little written on supervising the highly performing registrar. Outstanding trainees with high-level knowledge and skills can be a challenge for supervisors to supervise and teach. Narrative review and discussion. As with all learners, a learning-needs analysis is fundamental to successful supervision. The key to effective teaching of the highly performing registrar is to contextualise clinical knowledge and skills with the wisdom of accumulated experience. Moreover, supervisors must provide a stimulating learning environment, with regular opportunities for intellectual challenge. The provision of specific, constructive feedback is essential. There are potential opportunities to extend the highly performing registrar in all domains of general practice, namely communication skills and patient-centred care, applied knowledge and skills, population health, professionalism, and organisation and legal issues. Specific teaching strategies include role-play, video-consultation review, random case analysis, posing hypothetical clinical scenarios, role modelling and teaching other learners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Optimization and validation of high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization and validation of high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet method for quantitation of metoprolol in rabbit plasma: application to ... Methods: Mobile phase of methanol and 50 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution (50:50) at pH 3.05 was used for separation of metoprolol on BDS hypersil ...

  2. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  3. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  4. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid dosage form. Methods: HPLC determination was carried out on an Agilent XDB C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5 μ particle size) with a gradient ...

  5. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  6. High Performance Computing and Communications Panel Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    This report offers advice on the strengths and weaknesses of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative, one of five presidential initiatives launched in 1992 and coordinated by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The HPCC program has the following objectives: (1) to extend U.S.…

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, precise and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic technique coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of rutin, quercetin, luteolin, genistein, galangin and curcumin in propolis. Methods: Ultrasound-assisted extraction was applied to ...

  8. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography (HPLC) technique with UV-VIS detection method was developed for the determination of the compound in rat ... Keywords: Anethole, High performance liguid chromatography, Star anise, Essential oil, Rat plasma,. Illicium verum Hook. .... solution of anethole. Plasma proteins were precipitated by adding 0.3.

  9. Complex performance during exposure to high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-06-01

    The effects of high temperature on psychomotor performance and physiological function were studied on male pilots (age 30-51) holding a current medical certificate. A total of 41 runs were made at neutral (23.8C (75F), or hot (60.0C (140F), 71.1C (16...

  10. High-performance computing reveals missing genes

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    Scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute and the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech have used high-performance computing to locate small genes that have been missed by scientists in their quest to define the microbial DNA sequences of life.

  11. Performance analysis of memory hierachies in high performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogesh, Agrawel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis studies memory bandwidth as a performance predictor of programs. The focus of this work is on computationally intensive programs. These programs are the most likely to access large amounts of data, stressing the memory system. Computationally intensive programs are also likely to use highly optimizing compilers to produce the fastest executables possible. Methods to reduce the amount of data traffic by increasing the average number of references to each item while it resides in the cache are explored. Increasing the average number of references to each cache item reduces the number of memory requests. Chapter 2 describes the DLX architecture. This is the architecture on which all the experiments were performed. Chapter 3 studies memory moves as a performance predictor for a group of application programs. Chapter 4 introduces a model to study the performance of programs in the presence of memory hierarchies. Chapter 5 explores some compiler optimizations that can help increase the references to each item while it resides in the cache.

  12. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  13. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  14. Many shades of gray-The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture is often proposed as a more sustainable alternative to current conventional agriculture. We assess the current understanding of the costs and benefits of organic agriculture across multiple production, environmental, producer, and consumer dimensions. Organic agriculture shows many potential benefits (including higher biodiversity and improved soil and water quality per unit area, enhanced profitability, and higher nutritional value) as well as many potential costs including lower yields and higher consumer prices. However, numerous important dimensions have high uncertainty, particularly the environmental performance when controlling for lower organic yields, but also yield stability, soil erosion, water use, and labor conditions. We identify conditions that influence the relative performance of organic systems, highlighting areas for increased research and policy support.

  15. Many shades of gray—The context-dependent performance of organic agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert, Verena; Ramankutty, Navin

    2017-01-01

    Organic agriculture is often proposed as a more sustainable alternative to current conventional agriculture. We assess the current understanding of the costs and benefits of organic agriculture across multiple production, environmental, producer, and consumer dimensions. Organic agriculture shows many potential benefits (including higher biodiversity and improved soil and water quality per unit area, enhanced profitability, and higher nutritional value) as well as many potential costs including lower yields and higher consumer prices. However, numerous important dimensions have high uncertainty, particularly the environmental performance when controlling for lower organic yields, but also yield stability, soil erosion, water use, and labor conditions. We identify conditions that influence the relative performance of organic systems, highlighting areas for increased research and policy support. PMID:28345054

  16. Multisource feedback, human capital, and the financial performance of organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Yong; Atwater, Leanne; Patel, Pankaj C; Smither, James W

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between organizations' use of multisource feedback (MSF) programs and their financial performance. We proposed a moderated mediation framework in which the employees' ability and knowledge sharing mediate the relationship between MSF and organizational performance and the purpose for which MSF is used moderates the relationship of MSF with employees' ability and knowledge sharing. With a sample of 253 organizations representing 8,879 employees from 2005 to 2007 in South Korea, we found that MSF had a positive effect on organizational financial performance via employees' ability and knowledge sharing. We also found that when MSF was used for dual purpose (both administrative and developmental purposes), the relationship between MSF and knowledge sharing was stronger, and this interaction carried through to organizational financial performance. However, the purpose of MSF did not moderate the relationship between MSF and employees' ability. The theoretical relevance and practical implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  18. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  19. NINJA: Java for High Performance Numerical Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available When Java was first introduced, there was a perception that its many benefits came at a significant performance cost. In the particularly performance-sensitive field of numerical computing, initial measurements indicated a hundred-fold performance disadvantage between Java and more established languages such as Fortran and C. Although much progress has been made, and Java now can be competitive with C/C++ in many important situations, significant performance challenges remain. Existing Java virtual machines are not yet capable of performing the advanced loop transformations and automatic parallelization that are now common in state-of-the-art Fortran compilers. Java also has difficulties in implementing complex arithmetic efficiently. These performance deficiencies can be attacked with a combination of class libraries (packages, in Java that implement truly multidimensional arrays and complex numbers, and new compiler techniques that exploit the properties of these class libraries to enable other, more conventional, optimizations. Two compiler techniques, versioning and semantic expansion, can be leveraged to allow fully automatic optimization and parallelization of Java code. Our measurements with the NINJA prototype Java environment show that Java can be competitive in performance with highly optimized and tuned Fortran code.

  20. Magnetic field enhancement of organic photovoltaic cells performance

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo-Casado, S.; Urbina, A.; Prior, J.

    2017-01-01

    Charge separation is a critical process for achieving high efficiencies in organic photovoltaic cells. The initial tightly bound excitonic electron-hole pair has to dissociate fast enough in order to avoid photocurrent generation and thus power conversion efficiency loss via geminate recombination. Such process takes place assisted by transitional states that lie between the initial exciton and the free charge state. Due to spin conservation rules these intermediate charge transfer states typ...

  1. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  2. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  3. High performance HRM: NHS employee perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Paula; Sparrow, Paul; Boaden, Ruth; Harris, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine National Health Service (NHS) employee perspectives of how high performance human resource (HR) practices contribute to their performance. The paper draws on an extensive qualitative study of the NHS. A novel two-part method was used; the first part used focus group data from managers to identify high-performance HR practices specific to the NHS. Employees then conducted a card-sort exercise where they were asked how or whether the practices related to each other and how each practice affected their work. In total, 11 high performance HR practices relevant to the NHS were identified. Also identified were four reactions to a range of HR practices, which the authors developed into a typology according to anticipated beneficiaries (personal gain, organisation gain, both gain and no-one gains). Employees were able to form their own patterns (mental models) of performance contribution for a range of HR practices (60 interviewees produced 91 groupings). These groupings indicated three bundles particular to the NHS (professional development, employee contribution and NHS deal). These mental models indicate employee perceptions about how health services are organised and delivered in the NHS and illustrate the extant mental models of health care workers. As health services are rearranged and financial pressures begin to bite, these mental models will affect employee reactions to changes both positively and negatively. The novel method allows for identification of mental models that explain how NHS workers understand service delivery. It also delineates the complex and varied relationships between HR practices and individual performance.

  4. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  5. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  6. Analysis of Tocopherols by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Edison

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available : Gas chromatography is the key technique for organic components and also for tocopherols analysis. High performance liquid chromatography has an important role to take part in applications such as the handling of less usual samples, prevention of degradation of heat sensitive functional groups and for micro preparative purposes. Many approaches for development of improved methods are suggested, especially for reversed phase applications.

  7. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  8. Designing High-Performance Schools: A Practical Guide to Organizational Reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    This book offers a step-by-step, systematic process for designing high-performance learning organizations. The process helps administrators develop proposals for redesigning school districts that are tailored to the district's environment, work system, and social system. Chapter 1 describes the characteristics of high-performing organizations, and…

  9. Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors with Crumpled Graphene Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianfeng; Cao, Changyong; Feng, Yaying; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-10-01

    Fabrication of unconventional energy storage devices with high stretchability and performance is challenging, but critical to practical operations of fully power-independent stretchable electronics. While supercapacitors represent a promising candidate for unconventional energy-storage devices, existing stretchable supercapacitors are limited by their low stretchability, complicated fabrication process, and high cost. Here, we report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate extremely stretchable and high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors based on new crumpled-graphene papers. Electrolyte-mediated-graphene paper bonded on a compliant substrate can be crumpled into self-organized patterns by harnessing mechanical instabilities in the graphene paper. As the substrate is stretched, the crumpled patterns unfold, maintaining high reliability of the graphene paper under multiple cycles of large deformation. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the crumpled graphene papers exhibit a unique combination of high stretchability (e.g., linear strain ~300%, areal strain ~800%), high electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacitance ~196 F g-1), and high reliability (e.g., over 1000 stretch/relax cycles). An all-solid-state supercapacitor capable of large deformation is further fabricated to demonstrate practical applications of the crumpled-graphene-paper electrodes. Our method and design open a wide range of opportunities for manufacturing future energy-storage devices with desired deformability together with high performance.

  10. Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors with Crumpled Graphene Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianfeng; Cao, Changyong; Feng, Yaying; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of unconventional energy storage devices with high stretchability and performance is challenging, but critical to practical operations of fully power-independent stretchable electronics. While supercapacitors represent a promising candidate for unconventional energy-storage devices, existing stretchable supercapacitors are limited by their low stretchability, complicated fabrication process, and high cost. Here, we report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate extremely stretchable and high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors based on new crumpled-graphene papers. Electrolyte-mediated-graphene paper bonded on a compliant substrate can be crumpled into self-organized patterns by harnessing mechanical instabilities in the graphene paper. As the substrate is stretched, the crumpled patterns unfold, maintaining high reliability of the graphene paper under multiple cycles of large deformation. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the crumpled graphene papers exhibit a unique combination of high stretchability (e.g., linear strain ~300%, areal strain ~800%), high electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacitance ~196 F g−1), and high reliability (e.g., over 1000 stretch/relax cycles). An all-solid-state supercapacitor capable of large deformation is further fabricated to demonstrate practical applications of the crumpled-graphene-paper electrodes. Our method and design open a wide range of opportunities for manufacturing future energy-storage devices with desired deformability together with high performance. PMID:25270673

  11. Incentive System in Hungarian High Performance Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterbenz Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study will attempt to describe the role of existing incentives which have a significant effect on Hungarian sport's performance. The aim of the paper is to understand why a large gap has emerged between successful elite sports and the popular but underperforming spectacular sport. According to the concept of dual competition, in addition to sport results, the analyzed fields also concern competition for resources, particularly for the attention of supporters and sponsors. The methodology of the analysis is fundamentally economic in nature; however, qualitative methods are also given emphasis, as the analyzed topic has specific characteristics. Based on new institutional economics, the study presumes that the behavior of organizations is determined by the decisions of bounded rational individuals, and highlights the significance of the created mechanisms and institutions.

  12. Playa: High-Performance Programmable Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Howle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Playa, a high-level user interface layer for composing algorithms for complex multiphysics problems out of objects from other Trilinos packages. Among other features, Playa provides very high-performance overloaded operators implemented through an expression template mechanism. In this paper, we give an overview of the central Playa objects from a user's perspective, show application to a sequence of increasingly complex solver algorithms, provide timing results for Playa's overloaded operators and other functions, and briefly survey some of the implementation issues involved.

  13. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  14. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  15. High performance FDTD algorithm for GPGPU supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirov, Andrey; Levchenko, Vadim; Perepelkina, Anastasia; Zempo, Yasunari

    2016-10-01

    An implementation of FDTD method for solution of optical and other electrodynamic problems of high computational cost is described. The implementation is based on the LRnLA algorithm DiamondTorre, which is developed specifically for GPGPU hardware. The specifics of the DiamondTorre algorithms for staggered grid (Yee cell) and many-GPU devices are shown. The algorithm is implemented in the software for real physics calculation. The software performance is estimated through algorithms parameters and computer model. The real performance is tested on one GPU device, as well as on the many-GPU cluster. The performance of up to 0.65 • 1012 cell updates per second for 3D domain with 0.3 • 1012 Yee cells total is achieved.

  16. High Performance Computing Operations Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.

  17. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '08 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The discussions and plans on all scienti?c, advisory, and political levels to realize an even larger “European Supercomputer” in Germany, where the hardware costs alone will be hundreds of millions Euro – much more than in the past – are getting closer to realization. As part of the strategy, the three national supercomputing centres HLRS (Stuttgart), NIC/JSC (Julic ¨ h) and LRZ (Munich) have formed the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (GCS) as a new virtual organization enabled by an agreement between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the state ministries for research of Baden-Wurttem ¨ berg, Bayern, and Nordrhein-Westfalen. Already today, the GCS provides the most powerful high-performance computing - frastructure in Europe. Through GCS, HLRS participates in the European project PRACE (Partnership for Advances Computing in Europe) and - tends its reach to all European member countries. These activities aligns well with the activities of HLRS in the European HPC infrastructur...

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  19. Financial Performance Determinants of Organizations: The Case of Mongolian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayaraa Batchimeg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at examining what ratios can determine financial performance of Mongolian companies which are divided into 6 major sectors to increase their competitiveness. This study analyzes the performance of companies in terms of profitability and its association with multiple determinants for 100 Mongolian joint stock companies (JSC listed in Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE. Financial statements of those companies from MSE are evaluated by panel regression covering the period of 2012-2015. Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Return on Sales (ROS are chosen as performance indicators, while growth in sales, growth in profit, growth in assets, earnings per share, gross profit margin, cost to revenue ratio, return on costs, short-term debt to assets ratio, current assets to total assets ratio, long-term debt to total assets, quick ratio, current ratio, and cash ratio are used as explanatory variables. The panel regression results show that ROA has more determinants than ROE and ROS, such as earnings per share, return on costs have positive impacts, while short-term debts to total assets ratio and cost to revenue ratio have negative impacts. Growth in sales, earnings per share and costs to revenue ratio influence positively the financial performance of an organization by ROS, while return on cost has a positive effect on the financial performance measured by return on sale.

  20. High Performance High-Tc Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Heatherly Jr, Lee [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Lee, Dominic F [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated short segments of a superconducting wire that meets or exceeds performance requirements for many large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting materials, especially those requiring a high supercurrent and/or a high engineering critical current density in applied magnetic fields. The performance requirements for these varied applications were met in 3-micrometer-thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films epitaxially grown via pulsed laser ablation on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates. Enhancements of the critical current in self-field as well as excellent retention of this current in high applied magnetic fields were achieved in the thick films via incorporation of a periodic array of extended columnar defects, composed of self-aligned nanodots of nonsuperconducting material extending through the entire thickness of the film. These columnar defects are highly effective in pinning the superconducting vortices or flux lines, thereby resulting in the substantially enhanced performance of this wire.

  1. High Performance with Prescriptive Optimization and Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo

    Parallel programming is the dominant approach to achieve high performance in computing today. Correctly writing efficient and fast parallel programs is a big challenge mostly carried out by experts. We investigate optimization and debugging of parallel programs. We argue that automatic paralleliz......Parallel programming is the dominant approach to achieve high performance in computing today. Correctly writing efficient and fast parallel programs is a big challenge mostly carried out by experts. We investigate optimization and debugging of parallel programs. We argue that automatic...... analysis and vectorizer in GCC. Automatic optimizations often fail for theoretical and practical reasons. When they fail we argue that a hybrid approach can be effective. Using compiler feedback, we propose to use the programmer’s intuition and insight to achieve high performance. Compiler feedback...... the prescriptive debugging model, which is a user-guided model that allows the programmer to use his intuition to diagnose bugs in parallel programs. The model is scalable, yet capable enough, to be general-purpose. In our evaluation we demonstrate low run time overhead and logarithmic scalability. This enable...

  2. Organic solar cells: Degradation processes and approaches to enhance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungura, Fadzai

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their potential as flexible, lightweight, and low-cost renewable energy sources. Significant improvements have been made in increasing the devices' power conversion efficiency (PCE) and extensive efforts to understand degradation mechanisms and increase OSCs' lifetimes are ongoing. OSCs with higher than 10% efficiency have been reported. Enhanced stability and efficiency of inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solar cells with Cesium (Cs) halides were achieved by spin-coating Bphen (4,7-di(phenyl)-1,10-phenanthroline) on the halide layer and adding an 100nm polystyrene beads layer on the blank side of the OSC. To investigate photodegradation in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT (benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT) and thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene), PBDTTT-EFT:PCBM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were irradiated under 1X sun intensity and their electronic measurements were monitored over time. The electronic measurements revealed an increase in deep defect density in the polymer and at the donor-acceptor (D/A) interface of BHJ SCs and an increase in charge recombination as well as a decrease in external quantum efficiency, charge collection, short circuit current, open circuit voltage and hole mobility. Filtering blue and UV light resulted in drastically reduced photodegradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were performed on the photodegraded polymer and BHJ films, and revealed for the first time experimental evidence for metastable carbon dangling bonds (g=2.0029+/-0.0004) formed by blue/UV irradiation of the films. Dark EPR showed an increase in densities of other spin-active sites in the polymer, fullerene and polymer:fullerene blends in agreement with electronic measurements. The EPR results revealed that the carbon dangling bonds were at the D/A interface. These studies helped to better understand degradation mechanisms in a low-bandgap polymer, PBDTTT-EFT, ways to enhance

  3. Graphene Oxide Interlayers for Robust, High-Efficiency Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Ian P.; Lou, Sylvia J.; Cote, Laura J.; Loser, Stephen; Kadleck, Cameron J.; Xu, Tao; Szarko, Jodi M.; Rolczynski, Brian S.; Johns, James E.; Huang, Jiaxing; Yu, Luping; Chen, Lin X.; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. (NWU)

    2012-02-07

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials have recently garnered significant attention as enablers of high power conversion efficiency (PCE), low-cost, mechanically flexible solar cells. Nevertheless, further understanding-based materials developments will be required to achieve full commercial viability. In particular, the performance and durability of many current generation OPVs are limited by poorly understood interfacial phenomena. Careful analysis of typical OPV architectures reveals that the standard electron-blocking layer, poly-3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), is likely a major factor limiting the device durability and possibly performance. Here we report that a single layer of electronically tuned graphene oxide is an effective replacement for PEDOT:PSS and that it significantly enhances device durability while concurrently templating a performance-optimal active layer {pi}-stacked face-on microstructure. Such OPVs based on graphene oxide exhibit PCEs as high as 7.5% while providing a 5x enhancement in thermal aging lifetime and a 20x enhancement in humid ambient lifetime versus analogous PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  4. Understanding organic photovoltaic cells: Electrode, nanostructure, reliability, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Su

    My Ph.D. research has focused on alternative renewable energy using organic semiconductors. During my study, first, I have established reliable characterization methods of organic photovoltaic devices. More specifically, less than 5% variation of power conversion efficiency of fabricated organic blend photovoltaic cells (OBPC) was achieved after optimization. The reproducibility of organic photovoltaic cell performance is one of the essential issues that must be clarified before beginning serious investigations of the application of creative and challenging ideas. Second, the relationships between fill factor (FF) and process variables have been demonstrated with series and shunt resistance, and this provided a chance to understand the electrical device behavior. In the blend layer, series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) were varied by controlling the morphology of the blend layer, the regioregularity of the conjugated polymer, and the thickness of the blend layer. At the interface between the cathode including PEDOT:PSS and the blend layer, cathode conductivity was controlled by varying the structure of the cathode or adding an additive. Third, we thoroughly examined possible characterization mistakes in OPVC. One significant characterization mistake is observed when the crossbar electrode geometry of OPVC using PEDOT:PSS was fabricated and characterized with illumination which is larger than the actual device area. The hypothesis to explain this overestimation was excess photo-current generated from the cell region outside the overlapped electrode area, where PEDOT:PSS plays as anode and this was clearly supported with investigations. Finally, I incorporated a creative idea, which enhances the exciton dissociation efficiency by increasing the interface area between donor and acceptor to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells. To achieve this, nanoimprint lithography was applied for interface area increase. To clarify the

  5. A high performance microfabricated surface ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobser, Daniel; Blain, Matthew; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Revelle, Melissa; Stick, Daniel; Yale, Christopher; Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Microfabricated surface ion traps present a natural solution to the problem of scalability in trapped ion quantum computing architectures. We address some of the chief concerns about surface ion traps by demonstrating low heating rates, long trapping times as well as other high-performance features of Sandia's high optical access (HOA-2) trap. For example, due to the HOA's specific electrode layout, we are able to rotate principal axes of the trapping potential from 0 to 2 π without any change in the secular trap frequencies. We have also achieved the first single-qubit gates with a diamond norm below a rigorous fault tolerance threshold, and a two-qubit Mølmer-Sørensen gate with a process fidelity of 99.58(6). Here we present specific details of trap capabilities, such as shuttling and ion reordering, as well as details of our high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates.

  6. High Performance Database Management for Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishe, Naphtali; Barton, David; Urban, Frank; Chekmasov, Maxim; Martinez, Maria; Alvarez, Elms; Gutierrez, Martha; Pardo, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The High Performance Database Research Center at Florida International University is completing the development of a highly parallel database system based on the semantic/object-oriented approach. This system provides exceptional usability and flexibility. It allows shorter application design and programming cycles and gives the user control via an intuitive information structure. It empowers the end-user to pose complex ad hoc decision support queries. Superior efficiency is provided through a high level of optimization, which is transparent to the user. Manifold reduction in storage size is allowed for many applications. This system allows for operability via internet browsers. The system will be used for the NASA Applications Center program to store remote sensing data, as well as for Earth Science applications.

  7. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  8. Biogas production from substrates with high amounts of organic nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ-EVUS Development Center for Process Engineering, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Thermophilic fermentation is a favoured method for treating animal by-products because of its short hydraulic retention time and hygienic features. However, substrates with high organic nitrogen content can create problems in the fermentation process due to the high ammonium concentration produced during anaerobic degradation. More economical and ecological solutions for treating animal by-products are also needed to address concerns of the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis. This study considered a recycling concept based on the Thermal Pressure Hydrolysis (TPH) process with subsequent anaerobic digestion. A heat exchange system was also developed. The sterilization in the TPH reactor guarantees complete disinfection. The study examined the reactor temperature, pH-value, hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and degradation performance. The amount of volatile fatty acids in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor suggests good biological degradation. A combined heat and power station with an electrical efficiency of 38 per cent made it possible to produce up to 780 kWh of electricity from 1,000 kg of raw material. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Assessing performance of Botswana's public hospital system: the use of the World Health Organization Health System Performance Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna; Gauld, Robin Dc; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2014-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed performance of Botswana public hospitals. We draw from a large research study assessing performance of the Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH) to evaluate the performance of public hospital system using the World Health Organization Health Systems Performance Assessment Framework (WHO HSPAF). We aimed to evaluate performance of Botswana public hospital system; relate findings of the assessment to the potential for improvements in hospital performance; and determine the usefulness of the WHO HSPAF in assessing performance of hospital systems in a developing country. This article is based on data collected from document analysis, 54 key informants comprising senior managers and staff of the MoH (N= 40) and senior officers from stakeholder organizations (N= 14), and surveys of 42 hospital managers and 389 health workers. Data from documents and transcripts were analyzed using content and thematic analysis while data analysis for surveys was descriptive determining proportions and percentages. The organizational structure of the Botswana's public hospital system, authority and decision-making are highly centralized. Overall physical access to health services is high. However, challenges in the distribution of facilities and inpatient beds create inequities and inefficiencies. Capacity of the hospitals to deliver services is limited by inadequate resources. There are significant challenges with the quality of care. While Botswana invested considerably in building hospitals around the country resulting in high physical access to services, the organization and governance of the hospital system, and inadequate resources limit service delivery. The ongoing efforts to decentralize management of hospitals to district level entities should be expedited. The WHO HSPAF enabled us to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the public hospital system. Though relatively new, this approach proved useful in this study.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography - Ultraviolet method for the determination of total specific migration of nine ultraviolet absorbers in food simulants based on 1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine and organic phase anion exchange solid phase extraction to remove glyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Xiao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Tong; Liu, Tingfei; Tao, Huaming; He, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The glyceride in oil food simulant usually causes serious interferences to target analytes and leads to failure of the normal function of the RP-HPLC column. In this work, a convenient HPLC-UV method for the determination of the total specific migration of nine ultraviolet (UV) absorbers in food simulants was developed based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and organic phase anion exchange (OPAE) SPE to efficiently remove glyceride in olive oil simulant. In contrast to the normal ion exchange carried out in an aqueous solution or aqueous phase environment, the OPAE SPE was performed in the organic phase environments, and the time-consuming and challenging extraction of the nine UV absorbers from vegetable oil with aqueous solution could be readily omitted. The method was proved to have good linearity (r≥0.99992), precision (intra-day RSD≤3.3%), and accuracy(91.0%≤recoveries≤107%); furthermore, the lower limit of quantifications (0.05-0.2mg/kg) in five types of food simulants(10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, 20% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) was observed. The method was found to be well suited for quantitative determination of the total specific migration of the nine UV absorbers both in aqueous and vegetable oil simulant according to Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Migration levels of the nine UV absorbers were determined in 31 plastic samples, and UV-24, UV-531, HHBP and UV-326 were frequently detected, especially in olive oil simulant for UV-326 in PE samples. In addition, the OPAE SPE procedure was also been applied to efficiently enrich or purify seven antioxidants in olive oil simulant. Results indicate that this procedure will have more extensive applications in the enriching or purification of the extremely weak acidic compounds with phenol hydroxyl group that are relatively stable in TMG n-hexane solution and that can be barely extracted from vegetable oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  13. A HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR POLE BALANCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır KARASULU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing techniques can be used effectively for solution of the complex scientific problems. Pole balancing problem is a basic benchmark tool of robotic field, which is an important field of Artificial Intelligence research areas. In this study, a solution is developed for pole balancing problem using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and high performance computation technique. Algorithm, that basis of the Reinforcement Learning method which is used to find the force of pole's balance, is transfered to parallel environment. In Implementation, C is preferred as programming language and Message Passing Interface (MPI is used for parallel computation technique. Self–Organizing Map (SOM ANN model's neurons (artificial neural nodes and their weights are distributed to six processors of a server computer which equipped with each quad core processor (total 24 processors. In this way, performance values are obtained for different number of artificial neural nodes. Success of method based on results is discussed.

  14. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  15. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  16. High-Performance Computing Opportunities and Challenges for Army R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    sec Gigabits per Second GMO Genetically Modified Organism GPS Global Positioning System HEC High-End Computing HP Hewlett-Packard HPC High Performance...missing body organs). It includes the engi- neering (design, fabrication, and testing) of genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ). Molecular Modeling...accurate modeling of the physiological processes present in organisms able to down- regulate their metabolism. Research has shown that sleep deprivation is

  17. The high performance solar array GSR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamode, A.; Bartevian, J.; Bastard, J. L.; Auffray, P.; Plagne, A.

    A foldout solar array for communication satellites was developed. A wing composed of 4 panels of 1.6 x 1.5 m and a Y-shaped yoke, and a wing with 3 panels of 2.4 x 2.4 m were made. End of life performance goal is greater than 35 W/kg with BSR 180 micron solar cells, and 50 W/kg using 50 micron BSFR cells. Analysis shows that all identified requirements can be covered with current skin made of open weave very high modulus carbon fiber; reinforcements of unidirectional carbon fiber; honeycomb in current section; hold-down inserts made of wound carbon fibers; titanium hinge fitting; and Kapton foil (25 or 50 micron thickness). Tests confirm performance predictions.

  18. High-performance arrayed waveguide grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondeur, Bart; Sala, Anca; Thekdi, Sanjay; Gopinathan, Niranjan; Nakamoto, David; Aghel, Masoud; Brainard, Bob; Vaidyanathan, Anant

    2004-06-01

    Planar technology and design have evolved significantly in the past decade, both in terms of performance and yield, reducing the cost/performance advantage of thin-film filters (TFF) over Array-Waveguide Grating (AWG) devices. This evolution is primarily due to two reasons. One of the reasons for this is the adoption of the latest in semi-conductor fabrication techniques with respect to wafer scale, process equipment automation, and yield engineering. The other reason is the many advancements made in the Planar Light Circuit (PLC) design front which have resulted in lower optical insertion loss, reduced crosstalk, increased channel bandwidth, decreased channel spacing, and minimal chromatic dispersion. We demonstrate here how such state-of-the-art fabrication technology in combination with advanced PLC designs can be effectively used to engineer the filter shape (ripple, bandwidth, and flatness) and chromatic dispersion of AWG's to match or exceed that of their thin-film counterparts. Low passband ripple is critical for cascading multiple nodes in ring network architecture whereas minimal chromatic dispersion (CD) is desired in high rate data systems to avoid signal distortion. The AWG device presented here has a 1dB bandwidth that exceeds 80% of the channel spacing awhile exhibiting a high flatness (25dB/1dB ratio < 1.7), both of which are at least a 50% improvement over generic flat-top AWG designs available in the market and are equivalent in performance to TFF devices. At 100 GHz spacing, AWG's have intrinsic low-dispersion, but narrowing the spacing to 50GHz leads to a four fold increase in the CD. Here, we have successfully overcome this limitation and have been able to design and fabricate a 50GHz wide-band AWG with less than 1ps/nm chromatic dispersion, which exceeds TFF performance.

  19. The monogroove high performance heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1981-06-01

    The development of the monogroove heat pipe, a fundamentally new high-performance device suitable for multi-kilowatt space radiator heat-rejection systems, is reported. The design separates heat transport and transfer functions, so that each can be separately optimized to yield heat transport capacities on the order of 25 kW/m. Test versions of the device have proven the concept of heat transport capacity control by pore dimensions and the permeability of the circumferential wall wick structure, which together render it insensitive to tilt. All cases tested were for localized, top-side heat input and cooling and produced results close to theoretical predictions.

  20. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuated Gimbal (HIERAX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Tschaggeny; Warren Jones; Eberhard Bamberg

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-axis gimbal whose three rotational axes are actuated by a novel drive system: linear piezoelectric motors whose linear output is converted to rotation by using drive disks. Advantages of this technology are: fast response, high accelerations, dither-free actuation and backlash-free positioning. The gimbal was developed to house a laser range finder for the purpose of tracking and guiding unmanned aerial vehicles during landing maneuvers. The tilt axis was built and the test results indicate excellent performance that meets design specifications.

  1. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  2. Portability Support for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Doreen Y.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    While a large number of tools have been developed to support application portability, high performance application developers often prefer to use vendor-provided, non-portable programming interfaces. This phenomena indicates the mismatch between user priorities and tool capabilities. This paper summarizes the results of a user survey and a developer survey. The user survey has revealed the user priorities and resulted in three criteria for evaluating tool support for portability. The developer survey has resulted in the evaluation of portability support and indicated the possibilities and difficulties of improvements.

  3. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  4. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  5. Performance of diffusion absorption refrigeration cycle with organic working fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, A.; Jelinek, M.; Levy, A.; Borde, I. [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Mechanical Engineering Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2009-09-15

    A diffusion absorption refrigeration (DAR) cycle is driven by heat and utilizes a binary solution of refrigerant and absorbent as working fluid, together with an auxiliary inert gas. Commercial DAR systems operate with ammonia-water solution and hydrogen or helium as the inert gas. In this work, the performance of a simplified DAR system working with an organic absorbent (DMAC - dimethylacetamide) and five different refrigerants and helium as inert gas was examined numerically, with the aim of lowering the generator temperature and system pressure along with a non-toxic refrigerant The refrigerants were: chlorodifluoromethane (R22), difluoromethane (R32), 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R124), pentafluoroethane (R125) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). The results were compared with the performance of the same system working with ammonia-water and helium. Similar behavior was found for all systems, regarding the coefficient of performance (COP) and rich and poor solution concentrations as functions of generator temperature. It was found that typical generator temperature with the new substances was 150 C, yet lower COPs, higher evaporator temperatures and lower condensation temperature of about 40 C governed these systems. (author)

  6. Performance limits of plasmon-enhanced organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Salvador, Michael [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yao, Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We use a combination of experiment and modeling to explore the promise and limitations of using plasmon-resonant metal nanoparticles to enhance the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We focus on optical properties typical of the current generation of low-bandgap donor polymers blended with the fullerene (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) and use the polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phenanthro[9,10-b]quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ) as our test case. We model the optical properties and performance of these devices both in the presence and absence of a variety of colloidal silver nanoparticles. We show that for these materials, device performance is sensitive to the relative z-position and the density of nanoparticles inside the active layer. Using conservative estimates of the internal quantum efficiency for the PIDT-PhanQ/PC{sub 71}BM blend, we calculate that optimally placed silver nanoparticles could yield an enhancement in short-circuit current density of over 31% when used with ∼ 80-nm-thick active layers, resulting in an absolute increase in power conversion efficiency of up to ∼2% for the device based on optical engineering.

  7. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-07-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations--primarily safety driven--that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities.

  8. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairbanks, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desgeorges, Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-06-28

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  9. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  10. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  11. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC MUD AGITATOR SCREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special performances obtained by means of the optimisation method applied to the axial runners of run-of-river hydraulic turbines and of wind turbines, as well as in the case of the screws for boat propulsion, perfected by the first of the authors [1] - [10], in this work one extend the application of this method at the case of an organic mud agitator screw for fermentation and biogas production. One presents the obtaining of the bio liquid circulation minimal velocity in the two possible cases [3]: extracting the fluid velocity from the peripheral force exerted by the runner, as well as from the mechanical power consumed for its driving. After the obtaining of the optimal relative peripheral angle one determines also the optimal incidence angles of the profile for other blade radii. This method permits in the same time to find the optimal profile, using the multitude of the profile characteristics, experimentally studied.

  12. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  13. Wearable Accelerometers in High Performance Jet Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, G Merrill; VanBrunt, Thomas B; Snider, Dallas H; Hoyt, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Wearable accelerometers have become ubiquitous in the fields of exercise physiology and ambulatory hospital settings. However, these devices have yet to be validated in extreme operational environments. The objective of this study was to correlate the gravitational forces (G forces) detected by wearable accelerometers with the G forces detected by high performance aircraft. We compared the in-flight G forces detected by the two commercially available portable accelerometers to the F/A-18 Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (CAINS-2) during 20 flights performed by the Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels). Postflight questionnaires were also used to assess the perception of distractibility during flight. Of the 20 flights analyzed, 10 complete in-flight comparisons were made, accounting for 25,700 s of correlation between the CAINS-2 and the two tested accelerometers. Both accelerometers had strong correlations with that of the F/A-18 Gz axis, averaging r = 0.92 and r = 0.93, respectively, over 10 flights. Comparison of both portable accelerometer's average vector magnitude to each other yielded an average correlation of r = 0.93. Both accelerometers were found to be minimally distracting. These results suggest the use of wearable accelerometers is a valid means of detecting G forces during high performance aircraft flight. Future studies using this surrogate method of detecting accelerative forces combined with physiological information may yield valuable in-flight normative data that heretofore has been technically difficult to obtain and hence holds the promise of opening the door for a new golden age of aeromedical research.

  14. High exposures to organic solvents among graffiti removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anundi, H; Lind, M L; Friis, L; Itkes, N; Langworth, S; Edling, C

    1993-01-01

    The exposure to organic solvents among 12 graffiti removers was studied. Health effects were also assessed by structured interview and a symptom questionnaire. Blood and urine samples were collected at the end of the day of air sampling. The concentrations of dichloromethane, glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone in the breathing zone of each worker were measured during one working day. The 8-h time-weighted average exposure to dichloromethane ranged from 18 to 1200 mg/m3. The Swedish Permissible Exposure Limit value for dichloromethane is 120 mg/m3. The air concentrations of glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone were low or not detectable. No exposure-related deviations in the serum concentrations of creatinine, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or hyaluronan or the urine concentrations of alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin or N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase were found. Irritative symptoms of the eyes and upper respiratory tract were more prevalent than in the general population. This study demonstrates that old knowledge about work hazards is not automatically transferred to new professions. Another aspect is that the public is also exposed as the job is performed during daytime in underground stations. At least for short periods, bystanders may be exposed to high concentrations of organic solvent vapours. People with predisposing conditions, e.g. asthmatics, may risk adverse reactions.

  15. Scalable resource management in high performance computers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frachtenberg, E. (Eitan); Petrini, F. (Fabrizio); Fernandez Peinador, J. (Juan); Coll, S. (Salvador)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of workstations have emerged as an important platform for building cost-effective, scalable and highly-available computers. Although many hardware solutions are available today, the largest challenge in making large-scale clusters usable lies in the system software. In this paper we present STORM, a resource management tool designed to provide scalability, low overhead and the flexibility necessary to efficiently support and analyze a wide range of job scheduling algorithms. STORM achieves these feats by closely integrating the management daemons with the low-level features that are common in state-of-the-art high-performance system area networks. The architecture of STORM is based on three main technical innovations. First, a sizable part of the scheduler runs in the thread processor located on the network interface. Second, we use hardware collectives that are highly scalable both for implementing control heartbeats and to distribute the binary of a parallel job in near-constant time, irrespective of job and machine sizes. Third, we use an I/O bypass protocol that allows fast data movements from the file system to the communication buffers in the network interface and vice versa. The experimental results show that STORM can launch a job with a binary of 12MB on a 64 processor/32 node cluster in less than 0.25 sec on an empty network, in less than 0.45 sec when all the processors are busy computing other jobs, and in less than 0.65 sec when the network is flooded with a background traffic. This paper provides experimental and analytical evidence that these results scale to a much larger number of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, STORM is at least two orders of magnitude faster than existing production schedulers in launching jobs, performing resource management tasks and gang scheduling.

  16. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 1. High mobility polymer gated organic field effect transistor using zinc ... fabricated using evaporated zinc phthalocyanine as the active layer. Parylene film prepared by chemical vapour deposition was used as the organic gate insulator. The annealing of the ...

  17. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  18. Development of high performance ODS alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lin; Gao, Fei; Garner, Frank

    2018-01-29

    This project aims to capitalize on insights developed from recent high-dose self-ion irradiation experiments in order to develop and test the next generation of optimized ODS alloys needed to meet the nuclear community's need for high strength, radiation-tolerant cladding and core components, especially with enhanced resistance to void swelling. Two of these insights are that ferrite grains swell earlier than tempered martensite grains, and oxide dispersions currently produced only in ferrite grains require a high level of uniformity and stability to be successful. An additional insight is that ODS particle stability is dependent on as-yet unidentified compositional combinations of dispersoid and alloy matrix, such as dispersoids are stable in MA957 to doses greater than 200 dpa but dissolve in MA956 at doses less than 200 dpa. These findings focus attention on candidate next-generation alloys which address these concerns. Collaboration with two Japanese groups provides this project with two sets of first-round candidate alloys that have already undergone extensive development and testing for unirradiated properties, but have not yet been evaluated for their irradiation performance. The first set of candidate alloys are dual phase (ferrite + martensite) ODS alloys with oxide particles uniformly distributed in both ferrite and martensite phases. The second set of candidate alloys are ODS alloys containing non-standard dispersoid compositions with controllable oxide particle sizes, phases and interfaces.

  19. Design of high performance CMC brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, W.; Henke, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials based on 2D-carbon fibre preforms show high heat-absorption capacities and good tribological as well as thermomechanical properties. To take advantage of the full lightweight potential of these new materials in high performance automotive brake discs, the thermal conductivity transverse to the friction surface has to be high in order to reduce the surface temperature. Experimental tests showed, that lower surface temperatures prevent overheating of the brake`s periphery and stabilizes the friction behaviour. In this study different design approaches with improved transverse heat conductivity have been investigated by finite element analysis. C/C-SiC bolts as well as SiC coatings and combinations of them have been investigated and compared with an orthotropic brake disc, showing a reduction of temperature of up to 50%. Original sized brake discs with C/C-SiC have been manufactured and tested under real conditions which verified the calculations. Using only low-cost CMC materials and avoiding any additional processing steps, the potential of C/C-SiC brake discs are very attractive under tribological as well as under economical aspects. (orig.) 4 refs.

  20. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '17 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  1. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '15 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  2. Women's participation in high performance work practices: a comparative analysis of Portugal and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro; Porto, Nelida; Portela, Marta

    2010-01-01

    High-performance work systems (HPWS) can be seen as a set of new forms of work organization combined with flexible human resources (HR) practices that enhance organizational performance through employee involvement and empowerment. Although in the past two decades much research has been conducted on the effects that high-performance work practices can have on organizations, there is still much to know about the ideal conditions for the adoption of such practices. According to s...

  3. Magnetic field enhancement of organic photovoltaic cells performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Casado, S; Urbina, A; Prior, J

    2017-06-27

    Charge separation is a critical process for achieving high efficiencies in organic photovoltaic cells. The initial tightly bound excitonic electron-hole pair has to dissociate fast enough in order to avoid photocurrent generation and thus power conversion efficiency loss via geminate recombination. Such process takes place assisted by transitional states that lie between the initial exciton and the free charge state. Due to spin conservation rules these intermediate charge transfer states typically have singlet character. Here we propose a donor-acceptor model for a generic organic photovoltaic cell in which the process of charge separation is modulated by a magnetic field which tunes the energy levels. The impact of a magnetic field is to intensify the generation of charge transfer states with triplet character via inter-system crossing. As the ground state of the system has singlet character, triplet states are recombination-protected, thus leading to a higher probability of successful charge separation. Using the open quantum systems formalism we demonstrate that the population of triplet charge transfer states grows in the presence of a magnetic field, and discuss the impact on carrier population and hence photocurrent, highlighting its potential as a tool for research on charge transfer kinetics in this complex systems.

  4. Photovoltaic effect on the performance enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes with planar heterojunction architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan; Huang, Wei; Guo, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua001@tyut.edu.cn [Research Center of Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology (TYUT), Taiyuan 030024 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The photovoltaic effect on the performance of OLEDs was studied. • The device performance with different planar heterojunctions was investigated. • The mechanism relies on the overlap of electroluminescence and absorption spectrum. - Abstract: Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with planar heterojunction (PHJ) architecture consisting of photovoltaic organic materials of fullerene carbon 60 (C{sub 60}) and copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) inserted between emitting unit and cathode were constructed, and the photovoltaic effect on OLEDs performance was studied. The electroluminescent (EL) characteristics and mechanism of device performance variation without and with different PHJs (herein including C{sub 60}/CuPc, CuPc/C{sub 60} and CuPc) were systematically investigated in red, green and blue OLEDs. Of the three combinations, OLEDs with C{sub 60}/CuPc showed the highest efficiency. It is revealed that the photovoltaic C{sub 60}/CuPc PHJ can absorb part of photons, which are radiated from emission zone, then form excitons, and dissociated into free charges. Consequently, the high device efficiency of OLEDs performance improvement was acquired. This research demonstrates that PHJ consisting of two n- and p-type photovoltaic organic materials could be a promising methodology for high performance OLEDs.

  5. Do "High-Performance" Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter; Neumark, David

    2001-01-01

    Links between organizational performance and high-performance work practices were studied using data from the National Employment Survey, measures of work practices comparable across organizations, and a longitudinal design incorporating data predating use of high-performance practices. Practices raise employee compensation without necessarily…

  6. High performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the first ever CMOS compatible soft etch back based high performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs. The move from planar to non-planar FinFETs has enabled continued scaling down to the 14 nm technology node. This has been possible due to the reduction in off-state leakage and reduced short channel effects on account of the superior electrostatic charge control of multiple gates. At the same time, flexible electronics is an exciting expansion opportunity for next generation electronics. However, a fully integrated low-cost system will need to maintain ultra-large-scale-integration density, high performance and reliability - same as today\\'s traditional electronics. Up until recently, this field has been mainly dominated by very weak performance organic electronics enabled by low temperature processes, conducive to low melting point plastics. Now however, we show the world\\'s highest performing flexible version of 3D FinFET CMOS using a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible fabrication technique for high performance ultra-mobile consumer applications with stylish design. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  8. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  9. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen [Sandy Hook, CT; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan [New Milford, CT; Novacco, Lawrence J [Brookfield, CT

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  10. High performance platforms for integrated nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  11. How to create high-performing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  12. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  13. High performance stepper motors for space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Patrick; Estevenon, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid stepper motors are very well adapted to high performance space mechanisms. They are very simple to operate and are often used for accurate positioning and for smooth rotations. In order to fulfill these requirements, the motor torque, its harmonic content, and the magnetic parasitic torque have to be properly designed. Only finite element computations can provide enough accuracy to determine the toothed structures' magnetic permeance, whose derivative function leads to the torque. It is then possible to design motors with a maximum torque capability or with the most reduced torque harmonic content (less than 3 percent of fundamental). These later motors are dedicated to applications where a microstep or a synchronous mode is selected for minimal dynamic disturbances. In every case, the capability to convert electrical power into torque is much higher than on DC brushless motors.

  14. Materials for high performance light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, K.; Konys, J.; Heikinheimo, L.

    2004-05-01

    A state-of-the-art study was performed to investigate the operational conditions for in-core and out-of-core materials in a high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) and to evaluate the potential of existing structural materials for application in fuel elements, core structures and out-of-core components. In the conventional parts of a HPLWR-plant the approved materials of supercritical fossil power plants (SCFPP) can be used for given temperatures (⩽600 °C) and pressures (≈250 bar). These are either commercial ferritic/martensitic or austenitic stainless steels. Taking the conditions of existing light water reactors (LWR) into account an assessment of potential cladding materials was made, based on existing creep-rupture data, an extensive analysis of the corrosion in conventional steam power plants and available information on material behaviour under irradiation. As a major result it is shown that for an assumed maximum temperature of 650 °C not only Ni-alloys, but also austenitic stainless steels can be used as cladding materials.

  15. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  16. High performance computing and communications: FY 1996 implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-16

    The High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program was formally authorized by passage of the High Performance Computing Act of 1991, signed on December 9, 1991. Twelve federal agencies, in collaboration with scientists and managers from US industry, universities, and research laboratories, have developed the Program to meet the challenges of advancing computing and associated communications technologies and practices. This plan provides a detailed description of the agencies` HPCC implementation plans for FY 1995 and FY 1996. This Implementation Plan contains three additional sections. Section 3 provides an overview of the HPCC Program definition and organization. Section 4 contains a breakdown of the five major components of the HPCC Program, with an emphasis on the overall directions and milestones planned for each one. Section 5 provides a detailed look at HPCC Program activities within each agency.

  17. The challenge of innovation and the high-performance team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, David A; Chessum, Thomas; Leopold, Jay

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a high-performance team model in the leadership of a healthcare construction project with a vision of fostering innovation in the design and building process. This model facilitated the effective implementation of = Lean principles and a joint governance model combining stakeholders under a shared vision. The healthcare facility discussed is a California healthcare district in San Diego. Because of state seismic safety legislation, the district elected to build a replacement hospital for its tertiary care trauma facility. The organization's leadership decided to pursue a course that demanded innovation in both the design and construction process. The owner, architects, construction manager, and trade contractors adopted a high-performance team model to meet this challenge. The governance and leadership of a construction project should reflect the design and ultimate intent of the facility. The vision of building the most innovative hospital under constrained resources required the implementation of an innovative approach to leading the construction process.

  18. Research on Appraisal System of Procurator Performance by Using High-Order CFA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-mao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosecutor is the main body of procuratorial organs. The performance appraisal system plays an important role in promoting the work efficiency of procurator. In this paper, we establish the performance appraisal system of procurators by high-order confirmatory factor analysis method and evaluate procurators’ performance by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the 360 degrees. The results have some help to performance management of procuratorial organs.

  19. NCI's Transdisciplinary High Performance Scientific Data Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and

  20. Effect of the direction of ester linkage on molecular shape selectivity through multiple carbonyl-pi interaction with octadecyl chain branched polymers as organic phases in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Ashequl A; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2009-10-30

    Poly(vinyl octadecanoate)-grafted porous silica (Sil-VODn, n=23) was newly prepared to investigate the efficiencies of the carbonyl groups in the polymer chain for recognition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in RP-HPLC. In Sil-VOD23, the octadecyl side chains were connected to the polymer main chain through ester linkage in opposite direction to that in poly(octadecylacrylate)-grafted silica (Sil-ODAn, n=25) which has been reported by us. Sil-ODAn performs enhanced molecular shape selectivity of PAHs in RP-HPLC through multiple carbonyl-pi interaction of aligned carbonyl groups which are induced by the formation of highly oriented structure of side chains. Differential scanning calorimetry of VOD23 demonstrated that octadecyl alkyl chains showed crystalline to isotropic phase transition with endothermic peak at 48.7 degrees C which was similar to ODA25 (at 47.8 degrees C). After grafting of both polymers, phase transition phenomenon was completely disappeared in Sil-VOD23 whereas Sil-ODA25 still exhibits phase transition although at lower endothermic peak top temperature (38.5 degrees C). This indicates that the slight structural change in Sil-VODn and Sil-ODAn influence the ordered structure of side alkyl chains. Moreover, solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the long alkyl chain in Sil-VOD23 is highly disordered as compared with that of Sil-ODA25. Sil-VOD23 was applied to RP-HPLC stationary phase using PAHs as pi-electron containing elutes, and compared with Sil-ODA25 and conventional monomeric octadecylated silica (ODS). Results confirmed that Sil-VOD23 showed much higher selectivity for PAH isomers than ODS, but lower than Sil-ODA25. For example, the separation factors for trans-/cis-stilbene were 1.47 (Sil-VOD23), 1.70 (Sil-ODA25) and 1.07 (ODS), respectively. These results indicate that carbonyl groups in Sil-VOD23 are effective for molecular shape recognition of PAHs through carbonyl-pi interactions even in the disordered state.

  1. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C M; Koo, J C

    2001-01-10

    Gas chromatography is a prominent technique for separating complex gases and then analyzing the relative quantities of the separate components. This analytical technique is popular with scientists in a wide range of applications, including environmental restoration for air and water pollution, and chemical and biological analysis. Today the analytical instrumentation community is to working towards moving the analysis away from the laboratory to the point of origin of the sample (''the field'') to achieve real-time data collection and lower analysis costs. The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed a hand-held, real-time detection gas chromatograph (GC) through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this GC is approximately 8 pounds, and it measures 8 inches by 5 inches by 3 inches. It consumes approximately 12 watts of electrical power and has a response time on the order of 2 minutes. The current detector is a glow discharge detector with a sensitivity of parts per billion. The average retention time is about 30 to 45 seconds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated effective plate number is 40,000. The separation column in the portable GC is fabricated completely on silicon wafers. Silicon is a good thermal conductor and provides rapid heating and cooling of the column. The operational temperature can be as high as 350 degrees Celsius. The GC system is capable of rapid column temperature ramping and cooling operations. These are especially important for organic and biological analyses in the GC applications.

  2. High-pressure high-temperature phase diagram of organic crystal paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Spencer J.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) Raman spectroscopy studies have been performed on the organic crystal paracetamol in a diamond anvil cell utilizing boron-doped heating diamond anvil. Isobaric measurements were conducted at pressures up to 8.5 GPa and temperature up to 520 K in five different experiments. Solid state phase transitions from monoclinic Form I  →  orthorhombic Form II were observed at various pressures and temperatures as well as transitions from Form II  →  unknown Form IV. The melting temperature for paracetamol was observed to increase with increasing pressures to 8.5 GPa. This new data is combined with previous ambient temperature high-pressure Raman and x-ray diffraction data to create the first HPHT phase diagram of paracetamol.

  3. Controlling excitons. Concepts for phosphorescent organic LEDs at high brightness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineke, Sebastian

    2009-11-15

    This work focusses on the high brightness performance of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The use of phosphorescent emitter molecules in OLEDs is essential to realize internal electron-photon conversion efficiencies of 100 %. However, due to their molecular nature, the excited triplet states have orders of magnitude longer time constants compared to their fluorescent counterparts which, in turn, strongly increases the probability of bimolecular annihilation. As a consequence, the efficiencies of phosphorescent OLEDs decline at high brightness - an effect known as efficiency roll-off, for which it has been shown to be dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, TTA of the archetype phosphorescent emitter Ir(ppy){sub 3} is investigated in time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. For the widely used mixed system CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}, host-guest TTA - an additional unwanted TTA channel - is experimentally observed at high excitation levels. By using matrix materials with higher triplet energies, this effect is efficiently suppressed, however further studies show that the efficiency roll-off of Ir(ppy)3 is much more pronounced than predicted by a model based on Foerster-type energy transfer, which marks the intrinsic limit for TTA. These results suggest that the emitter molecules show a strong tendency to form aggregates in the mixed film as the origin for enhanced TTA. Transmission electron microscopy images of Ir(ppy){sub 3} doped mixed films give direct proof of emitter aggregates. Based on these results, two concepts are developed that improve the high brightness performance of OLEDs. In a first approach, thin intrinsic matrix interlayers are incorporated in the emission layer leading to a one-dimensional exciton confinement that suppresses exciton migration and, consequently, TTA. The second concept reduces the efficiency roll-off by using an emitter molecule with slightly different chemical structure, i.e. Ir(ppy){sub 2

  4. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  5. Viral nucleic acid testing (NAT) and OPO-level disposition of high-risk donor organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirka, L M; Alexander, C; Namuyinga, R; Hanrahan, C; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L

    2009-03-01

    The use of Public Health Service/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (PHS/CDC) high-risk donor (HRD) organs remains controversial, especially in light of a recent high-profile case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. Nucleic acid testing (NAT), while more expensive and time consuming, reduces infectious risk by shortening the period between infection and detectability. The purpose of this study was to characterize HRDs and disposition of their organs by organ procurement organization (OPO), to measure NAT practices by OPO and to examine associations between NAT practices and use of HRD organs. We analyzed 29 950 deceased donors (2574 HRDs) reported to UNOS since July 1, 2004 and May 8, 2008. We then surveyed all OPO clinical directors about their use of NAT, average time to receive NAT results, locations where NAT is performed and percentage of the time NAT results are available for allocation decisions. In total, 51.7% of OPOs always perform HIV NAT, while 24.1% never do. A similar pattern is seen for HCV NAT performance, while the majority (65.6%) never perform HBV NAT. AIDS prevalence in an OPO service area is not associated with NAT practice. OPOs that perform HIV NAT are less likely to export organs outside of their region. The wide variation of current practice and the possibility that NAT would improve organ utilization support consideration for a national policy.

  6. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  7. Initial rheological description of high performance concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lorenzetti de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is defined as a composite material and, in rheological terms, it can be understood as a concentrated suspension of solid particles (aggregates in a viscous liquid (cement paste. On a macroscopic scale, concrete flows as a liquid. It is known that the rheological behavior of the concrete is close to that of a Bingham fluid and two rheological parameters regarding its description are needed: yield stress and plastic viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the initial rheological description of high performance concretes using the modified slump test. According to the results, an increase of yield stress was observed over time, while a slight variation in plastic viscosity was noticed. The incorporation of silica fume showed changes in the rheological properties of fresh concrete. The behavior of these materials also varied with the mixing procedure employed in their production. The addition of superplasticizer meant that there was a large reduction in the mixture's yield stress, while plastic viscosity remained practically constant.

  8. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  9. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  10. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Feng, Guang; Dai, Sheng; Cummings Peter, T

    2014-07-16

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance-electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation.

  11. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  12. Using performance parameters, metrified performance objectives, and quality management assessments to improve the effectiveness of research organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M

    1995-04-01

    This paper begins by raising the issue of whether the theoretical model of customer-suppliers-products-services usefully describes the activities of laboratory life, using a case study from Fermilab. After describing scientific activities as work, not volunteerism, I present a model that has four performance parameters that can be used to evaluate DOE-funded research laboratories: (1) Do they have a well-defined management system? (2) Are they doing good science? (3) Are they managing their resources effectively? (4) Are they responsive to their customers? From these four parameters I describe how to metrify performance objectives, then use them to evaluate research organizations. I describe these performance objectives within the context of views I have published elsewhere, and according to Stephen R. Covey`s metaphor of production/production capability (P/PC) balance in his book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People.

  13. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.71 Incentives for high performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be...

  14. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp...

  15. High-performance teams and the physician leader: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, Aalap; Jain, Anshu K; Chaudry, Joseph; Schwartz, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of health care delivery within the United States continues to escalate in an exponential fashion driven by an explosion of medical technology, an ever-expanding research enterprise, and a growing emphasis on evidence-based practices. The delivery of care occurs on a continuum that spans across multiple disciplines, now requiring complex coordination of care through the use of novel clinical teams. The use of teams permeates the health care industry and has done so for many years, but confusion about the structure and role of teams in many organizations contributes to limited effectiveness and suboptimal outcomes. Teams are an essential component of graduate medical education training programs. The health care industry's relative lack of focus regarding the fundamentals of teamwork theory has contributed to ineffective team leadership at the physician level. As a follow-up to our earlier manuscripts on teamwork, this article clarifies a model of teamwork and discusses its application to high-performance teams in health care organizations. Emphasized in this discussion is the role played by the physician leader in ensuring team effectiveness. By educating health care professionals on the fundamentals of high-performance teamwork, we hope to stimulate the development of future physician leaders who use proven teamwork principles to achieve the goals of trainee education and excellent patient care. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of strobilurin fungicides in fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Liu, Guojiao; Wang, Fang; Wang, Wanting

    2013-05-01

    A novel method, ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (UASEME-SFOD), has been developed for the extraction of four strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) in fruit juices. In the UASEME-SFOD technique, Tween 80 was used as emulsifier, and 1-undecanol was used as extraction solvent without using any organic dispersive solvent. Several parameters that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the kind and volume of extraction solvent, the type and concentration of the surfactant, extraction time, extraction temperature and salt addition were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction condition, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 5 to 10,000 ng mL(-1) for the targeted analytes with the correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. The enrichment factors were in the range between 95 and 135, and the limits of detection of the method were 2-4 ng mL(-1). The fruit juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and the relative recoveries at fortified levels of 50 and 100 ng mL(-1) were in the range of 82.6-97.5%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow simulation and high performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.

    1996-10-01

    Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.

  18. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  19. Determination of glyphosate by high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to design a glyphosate analysis method. This molecule is an organic pollutant from water and soil. We have developed a chromatographic method with phenylisothiocyanate. This molecule has allowed obtaining an intermediate molecule with the glyphosate being easily detectable in ...

  20. Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-18

    Jun 18, 2007 ... Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 µl aliquot injected onto the column. Tolbutamide was used as the internal standard for chlorpropamide. The UV detector response was linear over the range 0 – 300.

  1. Improving the high performance concrete (HPC behaviour in high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattelan Antocheves De Lima, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance concrete (HPC is an interesting material that has been long attracting the interest from the scientific and technical community, due to the clear advantages obtained in terms of mechanical strength and durability. Given these better characteristics, HFC, in its various forms, has been gradually replacing normal strength concrete, especially in structures exposed to severe environments. However, the veiy dense microstructure and low permeability typical of HPC can result in explosive spalling under certain thermal and mechanical conditions, such as when concrete is subject to rapid temperature rises, during a f¡re. This behaviour is caused by the build-up of internal water pressure, in the pore structure, during heating, and by stresses originating from thermal deformation gradients. Although there are still a limited number of experimental programs in this area, some researchers have reported that the addition of polypropylene fibers to HPC is a suitable way to avoid explosive spalling under f re conditions. This change in behavior is derived from the fact that polypropylene fibers melt in high temperatures and leave a pathway for heated gas to escape the concrete matrix, therefore allowing the outward migration of water vapor and resulting in the reduction of interned pore pressure. The present research investigates the behavior of high performance concrete on high temperatures, especially when polypropylene fibers are added to the mix.

    El hormigón de alta resistencia (HAR es un material de gran interés para la comunidad científica y técnica, debido a las claras ventajas obtenidas en término de resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. A causa de estas características, el HAR, en sus diversas formas, en algunas aplicaciones está reemplazando gradualmente al hormigón de resistencia normal, especialmente en estructuras expuestas a ambientes severos. Sin embargo, la microestructura muy densa y la baja permeabilidad t

  2. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting : a review of structure, governance, and measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2006-01-01

    The ability of forest products research programs to contribute to a nation’s well-being requires that research organizations be well organized, effectively managed, and held to high standards of performance. In 2004-2005, a review of forest products and related research organizations beyond the boundaries of the United States was carried out. The intent was to obtain a...

  3. High Performance Input/Output Systems for High Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geoffrey C.; Ou, Chao-Wei

    1997-01-01

    The approach of this task was to apply leading parallel computing research to a number of existing techniques for assimilation, and extract parameters indicating where and how input/output limits computational performance. The following was used for detailed knowledge of the application problems: 1. Developing a parallel input/output system specifically for this application 2. Extracting the important input/output characteristics of data assimilation problems; and 3. Building these characteristics s parameters into our runtime library (Fortran D/High Performance Fortran) for parallel input/output support.

  4. Simplified Production of Organic Compounds Containing High Enantiomer Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for making an enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses including the steps of a) providing an aqueous solution including an initial reactant and a catalyst; and b) subjecting said aqueous solution simultaneously to a magnetic field and photolysis radiation such that said photolysis radiation produces light rays that run substantially parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field passing through said aqueous solution, wherein said catalyst reacts with said initial reactant to form the enantiomeric organic compound having a high amount of enantiomer excesses.

  5. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  6. High performance MEMS micro-gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S. Y.; Hayworth, K. J.; Yee, K. Y.; Shcheglov, K.; Challoner, A. D.; Wiberg, D. V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on JPL's on-going research into MEMS gyroscopes. This paper will describe the gyroscope's fabrication-methods, a new 8-electrode layout developed to improve performance, and performance statistics of a batch of six gyroscopes recently rate tested.

  7. High speed curving performance of rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    On March 13, 2013, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) published a final rule titled Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations which amended the Track Safety Standards (49 CFR Part213) and ...

  8. Toward high performance in Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torralba, José M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Powder Metallurgy (PM is technology well known for mass production of parts at low cost but usually with worse mechanical properties than same parts obtained by alternative routes. But using this technology, high performance materials can be obtained, depending of the processing route and the type and amount of porosity. In this paper, a brief review of the capabilities of powder technology is made with the objective of attaining the highest level of mechanical and physical properties. For this purpose, different strategies over the processing can be chosen: to act over the density/porosity level and properties of the pores, to act over strengthening mechanisms apart from the density of the material (the alloying system, the microstructure, the grain size,.., to improve the sintering activity by different routes and to use techniques that avoid the grain growth during sintering.La Pulvimetalurgia es una tecnología bien conocida por su faceta de producir piezas de forma masiva a bajo coste, pero habitualmente con una pérdida de propiedades mecánicas si se la compara con tecnologías alternativas para obtener las mismas piezas. Sin embargo, mediante esta tecnología, también se pueden obtener piezas de altas prestaciones, dependiendo de la ruta de procesado y del nivel de porosidad. En este trabajo, se realiza una sucinta revisión de las posibilidades de la tecnología de polvos que permitirían obtener los mayores niveles de prestaciones en cuanto a propiedades mecánicas y físicas. Se pueden elegir distintas estrategias en el procesado: actuar sobre el nivel de densidad/porosidad y las propiedades de los poros, actuar sobre mecanismos de endurecimiento distintos a la densidad (el sistema de aleación, la microestructura, el tamaño de grano,…, mejorar la activación durante la sinterización y utilizar técnicas que inhiban el tamaño de grano durante la sinterización.

  9. Road to High-Performance Workplaces. A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Office of the American Workplace.

    This guide identifies selected workplace practices that individual businesses have used to become high performance work organizations. The guide, which is intended for managers, directors, labor leaders, workers, investors, and other individuals interesting in adopting high performance work practices, lays out the basic steps involved in…

  10. Chemical principles underpinning the performance of the metal–organic framework HKUST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    A common feature of multi-functional metal–organic frameworks is a metal dimer in the form of a paddlewheel, as found in the structure of Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1). The HKUST-1 framework demonstrates exceptional gas storage, sensing and separation, catalytic activity and, in recent studies, unprecedented ionic and electrical conductivity. These results are a promising step towards the real-world application of metal–organic materials. In this perspective, we discuss progress in the understanding of the electronic, magnetic and physical properties of HKUST-1, representative of the larger family of Cu···Cu containing metal–organic frameworks. We highlight the chemical interactions that give rise to its favourable properties, and which make this material well suited to a range of technological applications. From this analysis, we postulate key design principles for tailoring novel high-performance hybrid frameworks. PMID:28706713

  11. Chemical principles underpinning the performance of the metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron

    2015-07-15

    A common feature of multi-functional metal-organic frameworks is a metal dimer in the form of a paddlewheel, as found in the structure of Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1). The HKUST-1 framework demonstrates exceptional gas storage, sensing and separation, catalytic activity and, in recent studies, unprecedented ionic and electrical conductivity. These results are a promising step towards the real-world application of metal-organic materials. In this perspective, we discuss progress in the understanding of the electronic, magnetic and physical properties of HKUST-1, representative of the larger family of Cu···Cu containing metal-organic frameworks. We highlight the chemical interactions that give rise to its favourable properties, and which make this material well suited to a range of technological applications. From this analysis, we postulate key design principles for tailoring novel high-performance hybrid frameworks.

  12. High performance linear algebra algorithms: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, F.G.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    . In talk two, Jerzy Waśniewski presented the recursive packed format and its related Cholesky factorization algorithm, [2]. This novel format gave especially good Cholesky performance for very large matrices. In talk three, Jerzy Waśniewski demonstrated a detailed tuning strategy for talk one and presented...... performance results on six important platforms, Alpha, IBM, Intel, Itanium, SGI and Sun. The performance runs covered the algorithms of talks one and two as well as Lapack’s full and packed Cholesky codes, [3]. Overall, the square block hybrid method was best but was not a clear winner. The recursive method...

  13. 7 CFR 275.24 - High performance bonuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High performance bonuses. 275.24 Section 275.24... High performance bonuses. (a) General rule. (1) FNS will award bonuses totaling $48 million for each fiscal year to State agencies that show high or improved performance in accordance with the performance...

  14. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '02 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.

  15. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  16. The Performance of Edge Organizations in a Collaborative Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Kok M

    2005-01-01

    .... In this thesis, the author investigates how the various characteristics of agents influence the efficiency of an edge organization in an intelligence-gathering task using an agent-based simulation...

  17. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anca Mehedintu; Cerasela Pîrvu; Cristian Pîrvu

    2012-01-01

    ... areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development...

  18. 'High' achievers? Cannabis access and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, O.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals’ nationality. We apply a difference in-difference approach using administrative

  19. From adaptive to high-performance structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuffel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple design aspects influence the building performance such as architectural criteria, various environmental impacts and user behaviour. Specific examples are sun, wind, temperatures, function, occupancy, socio-cultural aspects and other contextual aspects and needs. Even though these aspects

  20. High Performance Human-Computer Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Despain, a

    1997-01-01

    Human interfaces to the computer have remained fairly crude since the use of teletypes despite the fact that computer, storage and communication performance have continued to improve by many orders of magnitude...