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Sample records for high performance heterogeneous

  1. Efficient High Performance Computing on Heterogeneous Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous platforms are mixes of different processing units in a compute node (e.g., CPUs+GPUs, CPU+MICs) or a chip package (e.g., APUs). This type of platforms keeps gaining popularity in various computer systems ranging from supercomputers to mobile devices. In this context, improving their

  2. Scout: high-performance heterogeneous computing made simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablin, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Cormick, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herlihy, Maurice [BROWN UNIV.

    2011-01-26

    Researchers must often write their own simulation and analysis software. During this process they simultaneously confront both computational and scientific problems. Current strategies for aiding the generation of performance-oriented programs do not abstract the software development from the science. Furthermore, the problem is becoming increasingly complex and pressing with the continued development of many-core and heterogeneous (CPU-GPU) architectures. To acbieve high performance, scientists must expertly navigate both software and hardware. Co-design between computer scientists and research scientists can alleviate but not solve this problem. The science community requires better tools for developing, optimizing, and future-proofing codes, allowing scientists to focus on their research while still achieving high computational performance. Scout is a parallel programming language and extensible compiler framework targeting heterogeneous architectures. It provides the abstraction required to buffer scientists from the constantly-shifting details of hardware while still realizing higb-performance by encapsulating software and hardware optimization within a compiler framework.

  3. DETECTION OF HETEROGENEOUS DRUG-PROTEIN BINDING BY FRONTAL ANALYSIS AND HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Zenghan; Joseph, K.S.; Hage, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of frontal analysis and high-performance affinity chromatography for detecting heterogeneous binding in biomolecular interactions, using the binding of acetohexamide with human serum albumin (HSA) as a model. It was found through the use of this model system and chromatographic theory that double-reciprocal plots could be used more easily than traditional isotherms for the initial detection of binding site heterogeneity. The deviations from linearity that were seen...

  4. Detection of heterogeneous drug-protein binding by frontal analysis and high-performance affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zenghan; Joseph, K S; Hage, David S

    2011-12-09

    This study examined the use of frontal analysis and high-performance affinity chromatography for detecting heterogeneous binding in biomolecular interactions, using the binding of acetohexamide with human serum albumin (HSA) as a model. It was found through the use of this model system and chromatographic theory that double-reciprocal plots could be used more easily than traditional isotherms for the initial detection of binding site heterogeneity. The deviations from linearity that were seen in double-reciprocal plots as a result of heterogeneity were a function of the analyte concentration, the relative affinities of the binding sites in the system and the amount of each type of site that was present. The size of these deviations was determined and compared under various conditions. Plots were also generated to show what experimental conditions would be needed to observe these deviations for general heterogeneous systems or for cases in which some preliminary information was available on the extent of binding heterogeneity. The methods developed in this work for the detection of binding heterogeneity are not limited to drug interactions with HSA but could be applied to other types of drug-protein binding or to additional biological systems with heterogeneous binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Heterogeneous High-Performance System for Computational and Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    System for Computational and Computer Science Report Title This DoD HBC/MI Equipment/Instrumentation grant was awarded in October 2014 for the purchase... Computing (HPC) course taught in the department of computer science as to attract more graduate students from many disciplines where their research...AND SUBTITLE A Heterogeneous High-Performance System for Computational and Computer Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-15-1-0023 5b

  6. Scalable parallel programming for high performance seismic simulation on petascale heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake in Los Angeles, California, killed 57 people, injured over 8,700 and caused an estimated $20 billion in damage. Petascale simulations are needed in California and elsewhere to provide society with a better understanding of the rupture and wave dynamics of the largest earthquakes at shaking frequencies required to engineer safe structures. As the heterogeneous supercomputing infrastructures are becoming more common, numerical developments in earthquake system research are particularly challenged by the dependence on the accelerator elements to enable "the Big One" simulations with higher frequency and finer resolution. Reducing time to solution and power consumption are two primary focus area today for the enabling technology of fault rupture dynamics and seismic wave propagation in realistic 3D models of the crust's heterogeneous structure. This dissertation presents scalable parallel programming techniques for high performance seismic simulation running on petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. A real world earthquake simulation code, AWP-ODC, one of the most advanced earthquake codes to date, was chosen as the base code in this research, and the testbed is based on Titan at Oak Ridge National Laboraratory, the world's largest hetergeneous supercomputer. The research work is primarily related to architecture study, computation performance tuning and software system scalability. An earthquake simulation workflow has also been developed to support the efficient production sets of simulations. The highlights of the technical development are an aggressive performance optimization focusing on data locality and a notable data communication model that hides the data communication latency. This development results in the optimal computation efficiency and throughput for the 13-point stencil code on heterogeneous systems, which can be extended to general high-order stencil codes. Started from scratch, the hybrid CPU/GPU version of AWP

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2002-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. High order finite difference schemes for one-dimensional, two-phase, multicomponent displacements are investigated. Numerical tests are run using a three component fluid description for a case when the interaction between phase behavior and flow is strong. Some currently used total variation diminishing (TVD) methods produce unstable results. A third order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) method captures the effects of phase behavior for this test case. Possible modifications to ensure stability are discussed along with plans to incorporate higher order schemes into the 3DSL streamline simulator.

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-12-31

    This report outlines progress in the first quarter of the second year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The application of the analytical theory for gas injection processes, including the effects of volume change on mixing, has up to now been limited to fully self-sharpening systems, systems where all solution segments that connect the key tie lines present in the displacement are shock fronts. In the following report, we describe the extension of the analytical theory to include systems with rarefactions (continuous composition and saturation variations) between key tie lines. With the completion of this analysis, a completely general procedure has been developed for finding solutions for problems in which a multicomponent gas displaces a multicomponent oil.

  9. Fully coupled multiscale modeling of cohesive failure in heterogeneous interfaces using high performance computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mosby, Matthew; Matous, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale interfaces are prevalent throughout engineering design and application, often in the form of layered composites and adhesive joints. Most modern adhesives are highly heterogeneous, containing a wide range of sizes, shapes, and material properties of reinforcing constituents. Predicting how the size, shape, orientation, and distribution of the reinforcing particles change the failure response of the bonded structure is important for design and safety assessment. Using Direct Numeric...

  10. A high-performance model for shallow-water simulations in distributed and heterogeneous architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    unstructured nature of the mesh topology with the corresponding employed solution, based on space-filling curves, being analyzed and discussed. Intra-node parallelism is achieved through OpenMP for CPUs and CUDA for GPUs, depending on which kind of device the process is running. Here the main difficulty is associated with the Object-Oriented approach, where the presence of complex data structures can degrade model performance considerably. STAV-2D now supports fully distributed and heterogeneous simulations where multiple different devices can be used to accelerate computation time. The advantages, short-comings and specific solutions for the employed unified Object-Oriented approach, where the source code for CPU and GPU has the same compilation units (no device specific branches like seen in available models), are discussed and quantified with a thorough scalability and performance analysis. The assembled parallel model is expected to achieve faster than real-time simulations for high resolutions (from meters to sub-meter) in large scaled problems (from cities to watersheds), effectively bridging the gap between detailed and timely simulation results. Acknowledgements This research as partially supported by Portuguese and European funds, within programs COMPETE2020 and PORL-FEDER, through project PTDC/ECM-HID/6387/2014 and Doctoral Grant SFRH/BD/97933/2013 granted by the National Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). References Canelas, R.; Murillo, J. & Ferreira, R.M.L. (2013), Two-dimensional depth-averaged modelling of dam-break flows over mobile beds. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 51(4), 392-407. Conde, D. A. S.; Baptista, M. A. V.; Sousa Oliveira, C. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2013), A shallow-flow model for the propagation of tsunamis over complex geometries and mobile beds, Nat. Hazards and Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 2533-2542. Conde, D. A. S.; Telhado, M. J.; Viana Baptista, M. A. & Ferreira, R. M. L. (2015) Severity and exposure associated with tsunami actions in

  11. Heterogeneous natural selection on oxidative phosphorylation genes among fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Broughton, Richard E

    2015-08-26

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the primary source of ATP in eukaryotes and serves as a mechanistic link between variation in genotypes and energetic phenotypes. While several physiological and anatomical factors may lead to increased aerobic capacity, variation in OXPHOS proteins may influence OXPHOS efficiency and facilitate adaptation in organisms with varied energy demands. Although there is evidence that natural selection acts on OXPHOS genes, the focus has been on detection of directional (positive) selection on specific phylogenetic branches where traits that increase energetic demands appear to have evolved. We examined patterns of selection in a broader evolutionary context, i.e., on multiple lineages of fishes with extreme high and low aerobic performance. We found that patterns of natural selection on mitochondrial OXPHOS genes are complex among fishes with different swimming performance. Positive selection is not consistently associated with high performance taxa and appears to be strongest on lineages containing low performance taxa. In contrast, within high performance lineages, purifying (negative) selection appears to predominate. We provide evidence that selection on OXPHOS varies in both form and intensity within and among lineages through evolutionary time. These results provide evidence for fluctuating selection on OXPHOS associated with divergence in aerobic performance. However, in contrast to previous studies, positive selection was strongest on low performance taxa suggesting that adaptation of OXPHOS involves many factors beyond enhancing ATP production in high performance taxa. The broader pattern indicates a complex interplay between organismal adaptations, ATP demand, and OXPHOS function.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  13. High Performance Ultrathin GaAs Solar Cells Enabled with Heterogeneously Integrated Dielectric Periodic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kwong, Anthony; Jung, Daehwan; Faucher, Joseph; Biswas, Roshni; Shen, Lang; Kang, Dongseok; Lee, Minjoo Larry; Yoon, Jongseung

    2015-10-27

    Due to their favorable materials properties including direct bandgap and high electron mobilities, epitaxially grown III-V compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) provide unmatched performance over silicon in solar energy harvesting. Nonetheless, their large-scale deployment in terrestrial photovoltaics remains challenging mainly due to the high cost of growing device quality epitaxial materials. In this regard, reducing the thickness of constituent active materials under appropriate light management schemes is a conceptually viable option to lower the cost of GaAs solar cells. Here, we present a type of high efficiency, ultrathin GaAs solar cell that incorporates bifacial photon management enabled by techniques of transfer printing to maximize the absorption and photovoltaic performance without compromising the optimized electronic configuration of planar devices. Nanoimprint lithography and dry etching of titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited directly on the window layer of GaAs solar cells formed hexagonal arrays of nanoscale posts that serve as lossless photonic nanostructures for antireflection, diffraction, and light trapping in conjunction with a co-integrated rear-surface reflector. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties and photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling, quantitatively describe the optimal design rules for ultrathin, nanostructured GaAs solar cells and their integrated modules.

  14. Heterogeneous Gpu&Cpu Cluster For High Performance Computing In Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues associated with distributed computing systems andthe application of mixed GPU&CPU technology to data encryption and decryptionalgorithms. We describe a heterogenous cluster HGCC formed by twotypes of nodes: Intel processor with NVIDIA graphics processing unit and AMDprocessor with AMD graphics processing unit (formerly ATI, and a novel softwareframework that hides the heterogeneity of our cluster and provides toolsfor solving complex scientific and engineering problems. Finally, we present theresults of numerical experiments. The considered case study is concerned withparallel implementations of selected cryptanalysis algorithms. The main goal ofthe paper is to show the wide applicability of the GPU&CPU technology tolarge scale computation and data processing.

  15. High-performance hierarchically parallel multiscale framework for modeling heterogeneous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mosby, Matthew; Matous, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous multiscale materials are present in our everyday lives, embodied in engineered systems such as filled and layered composites, and in nature as soils and layered rock formations. The overall behavior of these materials is heavily influenced by the widely ranging size, shape, distribution, and material property contrasts of their microscale constituents. Understanding how changes in these microstructure parameters affects the overall behavior of the material is important to optima...

  16. High-performance simulation-based algorithms for an alpine ski racer’s trajectory optimization in heterogeneous computer systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębski Roman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective, simulation-based trajectory optimization algorithms adapted to heterogeneous computers are studied with reference to the problem taken from alpine ski racing (the presented solution is probably the most general one published so far. The key idea behind these algorithms is to use a grid-based discretization scheme to transform the continuous optimization problem into a search problem over a specially constructed finite graph, and then to apply dynamic programming to find an approximation of the global solution. In the analyzed example it is the minimum-time ski line, represented as a piecewise-linear function (a method of elimination of unfeasible solutions is proposed. Serial and parallel versions of the basic optimization algorithm are presented in detail (pseudo-code, time and memory complexity. Possible extensions of the basic algorithm are also described. The implementation of these algorithms is based on OpenCL. The included experimental results show that contemporary heterogeneous computers can be treated as μ-HPC platforms-they offer high performance (the best speedup was equal to 128 while remaining energy and cost efficient (which is crucial in embedded systems, e.g., trajectory planners of autonomous robots. The presented algorithms can be applied to many trajectory optimization problems, including those having a black-box represented performance measure

  17. Optimization procedure for algorithms of task scheduling in high performance heterogeneous distributed computing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmeen A. Bahnasawy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In distributed computing, the schedule by which tasks are assigned to processors is critical to minimizing the execution time of the application. However, the problem of discovering the schedule that gives the minimum execution time is NP-complete. In this paper, a new task scheduling algorithm called Sorted Nodes in Leveled DAG Division (SNLDD is introduced and developed for HeDCSs with consider a bounded number of processors. The main principle of the developed algorithm is to divide the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG into levels and sort the tasks in each level according to their computation size in descending order. To evaluate the performance of the developed SNLDD algorithm, a comparative study has been done between the developed SNLDD algorithm and the Longest Dynamic Critical Path (LDCP algorithm which is considered the most efficient existing algorithm. According to the comparative results, it is found that the performance of the developed algorithm provides better performance than the LDCP algorithm in terms of speedup, efficiency, complexity, and quality. Also, a new procedure called Superior Performance Optimization Procedure (SPOP has been introduced and implemented in the developed SNLDD algorithm and the LDCP algorithm to minimize the sleek time of the processors in the system. Again, the performance of the SNLDD algorithm outperforms the existing LDCP algorithm after adding the SPOP procedure.

  18. VLab: A Science Gateway for Distributed First Principles Calculations in Heterogeneous High Performance Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Pedro Rodrigo Castro

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and deployment of a cyberinfrastructure for distributed high-throughput computations of materials properties at high pressures and/or temperatures--the Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials--VLab. VLab was developed to leverage the aggregated computational power of grid systems to solve…

  19. On mechanics and material length scales of failure in heterogeneous interfaces using a finite strain high performance solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Matthew; Matouš, Karel

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional simulations capable of resolving the large range of spatial scales, from the failure-zone thickness up to the size of the representative unit cell, in damage mechanics problems of particle reinforced adhesives are presented. We show that resolving this wide range of scales in complex three-dimensional heterogeneous morphologies is essential in order to apprehend fracture characteristics, such as strength, fracture toughness and shape of the softening profile. Moreover, we show that computations that resolve essential physical length scales capture the particle size-effect in fracture toughness, for example. In the vein of image-based computational materials science, we construct statistically optimal unit cells containing hundreds to thousands of particles. We show that these statistically representative unit cells are capable of capturing the first- and second-order probability functions of a given data-source with better accuracy than traditional inclusion packing techniques. In order to accomplish these large computations, we use a parallel multiscale cohesive formulation and extend it to finite strains including damage mechanics. The high-performance parallel computational framework is executed on up to 1024 processing cores. A mesh convergence and a representative unit cell study are performed. Quantifying the complex damage patterns in simulations consisting of tens of millions of computational cells and millions of highly nonlinear equations requires data-mining the parallel simulations, and we propose two damage metrics to quantify the damage patterns. A detailed study of volume fraction and filler size on the macroscopic traction-separation response of heterogeneous adhesives is presented.

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-06-30

    This report presents a detailed analysis of the development of miscibility during gas cycling in condensates and the formation of condensate banks at the leading edge of the displacement front. Dispersion-free, semi-analytical one-dimensional (1D) calculations are presented for enhanced condensate recovery by gas injection. The semi-analytical approach allows investigation of the possible formation of condensate banks (often at saturations that exceed the residual liquid saturation) and also allows fast screening of optimal injection gas compositions. We describe construction of the semi-analytical solutions, a process which differs in some ways from related displacements for oil systems. We use an analysis of key equilibrium tie lines that are part of the displacement composition path to demonstrate that the mechanism controlling the development of miscibility in gas condensates may vary from first-contact miscible drives to pure vaporizing and combined vaporizing/condensing drives. Depending on the compositions of the condensate and the injected gas, multicontact miscibility can develop at the dew point pressure, or below the dew point pressure of the reservoir fluid mixture. Finally, we discuss the possible impact on performance prediction of the formation of a mobile condensate bank at the displacement front in near-miscible gas cycling/injection schemes.

  1. Heterogeneous Ti3SiC2@C-Containing Na2Ti7O15Architecture for High-Performance Sodium Storage at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guodong; Zhang, Qingrui; Fernandez, Carlos; Huang, Gang; Huang, Jianyu; Peng, Qiuming

    2017-12-26

    Rational design of heterogeneous electrode materials with hierarchical architecture is a potential approach to significantly improve their energy densities. Herein, we report a tailored microwave-assisted synthetic strategy to create heterogeneous hierarchical Ti 3 SiC 2 @C-containing Na 2 Ti 7 O 15 (MAX@C-NTO) composites as potential anode materials for high-performance sodium storage in a wide temperature range from 25 to 80 °C. This composite delivers first reversible capacities of 230 mAh g -1 at 200 mA g -1 and 149 mAh g -1 at 3000 mA g -1 at 25 °C. A high capacity of ∼93 mAh g -1 without any apparent decay even after more than 10 000 cycles is obtained at an ultrahigh current density of 10 000 mA g -1 . Moreover, both a high reversible capacity and an ultralong durable stability are achieved below 60 °C for the same composites, wherein a 75.2% capacity retention (∼120 mAh g -1 at 10 000 mA g -1 ) is achieved after 3000 cycles at 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, both the sodium storage performances and the temperature tolerances outperform those of all the Ti-based sodium storage materials reported so far. The superior sodium storage performances of the as-synthesized composites are attributed to the heterogeneous core-shell architecture, which not only provides fast kinetics by high pseudocapacitance but also prolongs cycling life by preventing particle agglomeration and facilitates the transportation of electrons and sodium ions by large micro/mesopore structure.

  2. High-performance simulation-based algorithms for an alpine ski racer’s trajectory optimization in heterogeneous computer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dębski Roman

    2014-01-01

    Effective, simulation-based trajectory optimization algorithms adapted to heterogeneous computers are studied with reference to the problem taken from alpine ski racing (the presented solution is probably the most general one published so far). The key idea behind these algorithms is to use a grid-based discretization scheme to transform the continuous optimization problem into a search problem over a specially constructed finite graph, and then to apply dynamic programming to find an approxi...

  3. A DFN-based High Performance Computing Approach to the Simulation of Radionuclide Transport in Mineralogically Heterogeneous Fractured Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, B.; Trinchero, P.; Molinero, J.; Deissmann, G.; Svensson, U.; Ebrahimi, H.; Hammond, G. E.; Bosbach, D.; Puigdomenech, I.

    2016-12-01

    Geological repositories for nuclear waste are based multi-barrier concepts using engineered and natural barriers. In fractured crystalline rocks, the efficiency of the host rock as transport barrier is related to the processes: advection along fractures, diffusion into the rock matrix and retention onto the available sorption sites. Anomalous matrix penetration profiles were observed in experiments (i.e. REPRO carried out by Posiva at the ONKALO underground facility in Finland and the Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment, LTDE-SD, carried out by SKB at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden). The textural and mineralogical heterogeneity of the rock matrix was offered as plausible explanation for these anomalous penetration profiles. The heterogeneous structure of the rock matrix was characterised at the grain-scale using a micron-scale Discrete Fracture Network (DFN), which is then represented onto a micron-scale structured grid. Matrix fracture free volumes are identified as reactive biotite-bearing grains whereas the rest of the matrix domain constitutes the inter-granular regions. The reactive transport problem mimics the ingress of cesium along a single transmissive fracture. Part of the injected mass diffuses into the matrix where it might eventually sorb onto the surface of reactive grains. The reactive transport calculations are carried out using iDP (interface between DarcyTools and PFLOTRAN). The generation of the DFN is done by DarcyTools, which also takes care of solving the groundwater flow problem. Computed Darcy velocities are extracted and used as input for PFLOTRAN. All the simulation runs are carried out on the supercomputer JUQUEEN at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre. The results are compared with those derived with an alternative model, where biotite abundance is averaged over the whole matrix volume. The analysis of the cesium breakthrough computed at the fracture outlet shows that the averaged model provides later first-arrival time

  4. A Parallel Neuromorphic Text Recognition System and Its Implementation on a Heterogeneous High-Performance Computing Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    segmentation , feature extraction , and character classification [22]. Some typically used feature extraction techniques...for OCR include, template matching [23], zoning [24], moments extraction [25], [26], contour information, etc. A detailed survey of feature extraction ...mentioned work addresses the performance of OCR . Our review shows that existing OCR technique usually requires complicated feature extraction

  5. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of some ultra-heterogeneous and covalently-modified proteins from human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, H M; Newsom, A E; Tippins, B L; Mathews, R A

    1985-05-17

    A new procedure for the fractionation of the heterogeneous cystine-rich proteins from human hair, utilizing reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, is described. Of these proteins 27 fractions have been collected and analyzed for amino acid composition. There seems to be little correlation between the elution order and the hydrophobicity of the fraction constituents except for the late-eluting fractions. Based on the elution profiles and amino acid contents, these fractions appear to fall into four families. The effects of alkyl chain length, flow-rate and gradient slope, as well as various additives to the organic modifier on the separation have also been investigated. A low flow-rate (0.4 ml/min) and a shallow gradient were essential for the separation of these proteins as was the use of short alkyl chain (C4) or medium alkyl chain (C8) columns. However, with the C4 column reproducibility and recovery were excellent.

  6. Impacts of fluvial sedimentary heterogeneities on CO2 storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issautier, B. H.; Viseur, S.; Audigane, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    The heterogeneity of fluvial systems is a key parameter in sedimentology due to the associated impacts on flow performance. In a broader context, fluvial reservoirs are now targets for CO2 storage projects in several sedimentary basins (Paris Basin, North German Basin), thus calling for detailed characterization of reservoir behaviour and capacity. Fluvial reservoirs are a complex layout of highly heterogeneous sedimentary bodies with varying connectivity, depending on the sedimentary history of the system. Reservoir characterization must determine (a) the nature and dimension of the sedimentary bodies, and (b) the connectivity drivers and their evolution throughout the stratigraphic succession. Based on reservoir characterization, geological modelling must account for this information and can be used as a predictive tool for capacity estimation. Flow simulation, however, describes the reservoir behaviour with respect to CO2 injection. The present work focuses on fluvial reservoir performance and was carried out as part of a PhD (2008-2011) dedicated to the impact of sedimentary heterogeneity on CO2 storage performance. The work comprises three steps: ? Reservoir characterization based on detailed fieldwork (sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy) carried out in Central Arabia on the Minjur Sandstone. Twelve depositional environments and their associated heterogeneity are identified, and their layout is presented in a high-resolution sequence stratigraphy analysis. This step is summed up in a 3D geological model. ? Conceptual modelling based on this field data, using gOcad software and an in-house python code. The purpose was to study, for a given architecture, the impact of sedimentary heterogeneity on storage capacity estimations using two models: one with heterogeneity within the sedimentary fill (model A); the other without heterogeneity within the sedimentary fill (model B). A workflow was designed to estimate and compare the storage capacities for a series

  7. High Performance Computing of Complex Electromagnetic Algorithms Based on GPU/CPU Heterogeneous Platform and Its Applications to EM Scattering and Multilayered Medium Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast and accurate numerical analysis for large-scale objects and complex structures is essential to electromagnetic simulation and design. Comparing to the exploration in EM algorithms from mathematical point of view, the computer programming realization is coordinately significant while keeping up with the development of hardware architectures. Unlike the previous parallel algorithms or those implemented by means of parallel programming on multicore CPU with OpenMP or on a cluster of computers with MPI, the new type of large-scale parallel processor based on graphics processing unit (GPU has shown impressive ability in various scenarios of supercomputing, while its application in computational electromagnetics is especially expected. This paper introduces our recent work on high performance computing based on GPU/CPU heterogeneous platform and its application to EM scattering problems and planar multilayered medium structure, including a novel realization of OpenMP-CUDA-MLFMM, a developed ACA method and a deeply optimized CG-FFT method. With fruitful numerical examples and their obvious enhancement in efficiencies, it is convincing to keep on deeply investigating and understanding the computer hardware and their operating mechanism in the future.

  8. Heterogeneous flow during high-pressure torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. Figueiredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available High-Pressure Torsion (HPT has attracted significant attention in recent years as an effective technique to process ultrafine and nanostructured materials. The hydrostatic pressure developed during processing prevents the occurrence of cracks and the low thickness to diameter ratio provides the opportunity for developing high strains at low numbers of rotations. The present work analyses the plastic flow during HPT. Experimental results and computer modeling are used to describe heterogeneous plastic flow. It is shown that variations in structure, hardness and in the distribution of strain are observed along the disc thickness. The sources of these heterogeneities are discussed.

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH POWER HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R.P.; Wykoff, W.R.; Busey, H.M.

    1960-06-14

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor is designed comprising a stationary housing and a rotatable annular core being supported for rotation about a vertical axis in the housing, the core containing a plurality of radial fuel- element supporting channels, the cylindrical empty space along the axis of the core providing a central plenum for the disposal of spent fuel elements, the core cross section outer periphery being vertically gradated in radius one end from the other to provide a coolant duct between the core and the housing, and means for inserting fresh fuel elements in the supporting channels under pressure and while the reactor is in operation.

  10. Heterogeneity in Firm Performance During Economic Crisis

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    Sergio Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What happens to firms during periods of deep economic crisis? Did different types of firms perform differently under the economic crisis? With the aid of a rich database and focusing on the literature regarding the growth of firms, this paper investigates the relative profitability performance of Italian firms during the current economic crisis, exploring those factors, which help certain firms to do relatively better even in the slowdown period. Some preliminary results show that the Italian firms that are relatively young in age, with relatively better current liquidity and more focused on domestic market have performed better than other firms. Furthermore, firms operating in high-tech and in highly concentrated sectors have enjoyed a better performance in this period.

  11. Heterogeneous cores for improved safety performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Magnus [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (FZK/IKET), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)]. E-mail: mori@world-nuclear.org; Maschek, Werner [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (FZK/IKET), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (FZK/IKET), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Light water reactor (LWR) technology is nowadays the most successful commercial application of fission reactors for the production of electricity. However, in the next few years, nuclear industry will have to face new and demanding challenges: the need for sustainable and cheap sources of energy, the need for public acceptance, the need for even higher safety standards, the need to minimize the waste production are only a few examples. It is for these very reasons that a few next generation nuclear reactor concepts were selected for extensive research and development; super critical water reactors are among them. The use of a supercritical coolant would allow for higher thermal efficiencies and a more compact plant design, since steam generators, or steam separators and driers would not be needed, hence achieving a better economy. Moreover, because of the high heat capacity of supercritical water, relatively less coolant would be needed to refrigerate the reactor, therefore the feasibility to design a water cooled fast reactor: the supercritical water fast reactor (SCFR). This system presents unique features combining well-known fast and light water reactor characteristics in one design (e.g. a tendency to a positive void reactivity coefficient together with loss of coolant accident - LOCAs as a design basis accident). The core is in fact loaded with highly enriched MOX fuel (average plutonium content of {approx}23%), and presents a peculiar and significant geometrical and material heterogeneity (use of radial and axial blankets, solid moderator layers, 12 different enrichment zones). The safety analysis of this very complex core layout, together with the optimization of the void reactivity effect through core design, is the main objective of this work.

  12. Identifying and Quantifying Heterogeneity in High Content Analysis: Application of Heterogeneity Indices to Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Albert H.; Chen, Ning; Shun, Tong Ying; Lezon, Timothy R.; Boltz, Robert C.; Reese, Celeste E.; Wagner, Jacob; Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Lee, Adrian V.; Stern, Andrew M.; Schurdak, Mark E.; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology. PMID:25036749

  13. Organizing the Cellular and Molecular Heterogeneity in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Mass Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor heterogeneity in high grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) represents a significant barrier for successful therapeutic intervention. To further...understand the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity we performed a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of 22 primary ovarian tumor...also showed greater overall phenotypic heterogeneity quantified by Simpsons Diversity Index. Importantly the novel cell types identified have the

  14. The Methods of Implementation of the Three-dimensional Pseudorandom Number Generator DOZEN for Heterogeneous CPU/GPU /FPGA High-performance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Petrovich Vasilyev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the scope of information security protocols based on PRN G in industrial systems. A method for implementing three-dimensional pseudorandom number generator D O Z E N in hybrid systems is provided. The description and results of studies parallel CUDA-version of the algorithm for use in hybrid data centers and high-performance FPGA-version for use in hardware solutions in controlled facilities of SCADA-systems are given.

  15. Performance Modeling for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks with Multiservice Overflow Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Ko, King-Tim; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2009-01-01

    Performance modeling is important for the purpose of developing efficient dimensioning tools for large complicated networks. But it is difficult to achieve in heterogeneous wireless networks, where different networks have different statistical characteristics in service and traffic models....... Multiservice loss analysis based on multi-dimensional Markov chain becomes intractable in these networks due to intensive computations required. This paper focuses on performance modeling for heterogeneous wireless networks based on a hierarchical overlay infrastructure. A method based on decomposition...... of the correlated traffic is used to achieve an approximate performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks with overflow traffic. The accuracy of the approximate performance obtained by our proposed modeling is verified by simulations....

  16. Heterogeneous Roles and Heterogeneous Practices: Understanding the Adoption and Uses of Nonprofit Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Adam; Moulton, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of nonprofit organizations has been of growing importance for the last several decades. Although there is much good that can come out of self-improvement, there is substantial heterogeneity within the sector that calls into question the usefulness of "across the board" evaluation tools. In this article, the authors…

  17. Heterogeneous fragmentation of metallic liquid microsheet with high velocity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    An-Min, He; Pei, Wang; Jian-Li, Shao

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the fragmentation of metallic liquid sheets with high velocity gradient. Dynamic fragmentation of the system involves the formation of a network of fragments due to the growth and coalescence of holes, decomposition of the network into filaments, and further breakup of the filaments into spherical clusters. The final size distribution of the fragmented clusters in the large volume limit is found to obey a bilinear exponential form, which is resulted from the heterogeneous breakup of quasi-cylindrical filaments. The main factors contributing to fragmentation heterogeneity are introduced, including strain rate inhomogeneity and matter distribution nonuniformity of fragments produced during decomposition of the network structure. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0201010 and 2015B0201039) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402032).

  18. Prepulse inhibition predicts spatial working memory performance in the inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance rats and in genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rats: relevance for studying pre-attentive and cognitive anomalies in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi eOliveras

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. Prepulse inhibition (PPI and working memory, which are impaired in schizophrenic patients, are among the symptoms/processes modeled in those animal analogues. We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I, displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. We have investigated whether PPI deficits predict spatial working memory impairments (in the Morris water maze; MWM in these three rat types (Experiment 1, as well as in a separate sample of NIH-HS rats stratified according to their extreme (High, Medium, Low PPI scores (Experiment 2. The results from Exp. 1 show that RHA-I rats display PPI and spatial working memory deficits compared to both RLA-I and NIH-HS rats. Likewise, in Exp. 2, Low-PPI NIH-HS rats present significantly impaired working memory with respect to Medium-PPI and High-PPI NIH-HS subgroups. Further support to these results comes from correlational, factorial and multiple regression analyses, which reveal that PPI is positively associated with spatial working memory performance. Conversely, cued learning in the MWM was not associated with PPI. Thus, using genetically-selected and genetically heterogeneous rats, the present study shows, for the first time, that PPI is a positive predictor of performance in a spatial working memory task. These results may have translational value for schizophrenia symptom research in humans, as they suggest that either by psychogenetic selection or by focusing on extreme PPI scores from a genetically heterogeneous rat stock, it is possible to detect a useful (perhaps at risk phenotype to study cognitive anomalies linked to schizophrenia.

  19. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  20. Highly heterogeneous Ty3/Gypsy -like retrotransposon sequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    like), sequences to be highly heterogeneous. Some Megyps clustered with other plants' Ty3/Gypsy-like retrotransposons, while some clustered with Gypsy of Drosophila melanogaster and Ty3-2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the comparative ...

  1. Upper Bounds on Performance Measures of Heterogeneous // Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Q. Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many real-life queueing systems, the servers are often heterogeneous, namely they work at different rates. This paper provides a simple method to compute tight upper bounds on two important performance measures of single-class heterogeneous multi-server Markovian queueing systems, namely the average number in queue and the average waiting time in queue. This method is based on an expansion of the state space that is followed by an approximate reduction of the state space, only considering the most probable states. In most cases tested, we were able to approximate the actual behavior of the system with smaller errors than those obtained from traditional homogeneous multiserver Markovian queues, as shown by GPSS simulations. In addition, we have correlated the quality of the approximation with the degree of heterogeneity of the system, which was evaluated using its Gini index. Finally, we have shown that the bounds are robust and still useful, even considering quite different allocation strategies. A large number of simulation results show the accuracy of the proposed method that is better than that of classical homogeneous multiserver Markovian formulae in many situations.

  2. PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin J. Blunt; Franklin M. Orr Jr

    2000-06-01

    This final report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996--May 2000 under a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The advances from the research include: new tools for streamline-based simulation including the effects of gravity, changing well conditions, and compositional displacements; analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements which can speed-up gas injection simulation still further; and modeling and experiments that delineate the physics that is unique to three-phase flow.

  3. The establishment of heterogeneous networks in performative spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suenson, Valinka; Harder, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical research combining the Actor Network Theory with a development of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology for tracking indoor movement behavior. The aim of the paper is to disucss the value of RFID technology as a method for observing heterogeneous networks...... and architecture through this theoretical perspective, it highlights the importance of the user involvement in the performative spaces where materiality becomes an actant on equal terms with the users. This paper discusses the use of RFID technology for tracking indoor movenment behavior as a method for examining...

  4. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso

    2012-06-01

    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  5. Heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Lind

    oxygen surplus, is presented. The e_ect of pretreating the catalyst, CuZnO, in a mixture of H2 and CO before methanol synthesis, is presented. Transient increased methanol production is seen after pretreatment, with a maximum in the transient for a pretreatment with a one to one CO to H2 ratio...... of adsorbates readily converted to methanol as the source of the transient increase in methanol production, is eliminated. A study of mass selected ruthenium nanoparticles from a magnetron-sputter gas-aggregation source, deposited in microreactors, is presented. It is, shown that CO methanation can be measured....... The highly active state of the catalyst after pretreatment in a CO and H2 mixture is shown to have transient methanol synthesis capabilities at 60.. Estimates of the area of the catalytic surface, is obtained using formate temperature programmed desorption measurements. From these, the possibility...

  6. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Jr., Franklin M.

    1999-12-20

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1998 - September 1998 under the third year of a three-year Department of Energy (DOE) grant on the ''Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The research is divided into four main areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three-phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three-phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator.

  7. High temperature heterogeneous reaction kinetics and mechanisms of tungsten oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Justin L.

    Tungsten, which is a material used in many high temperature applications, is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation at elevated temperatures. Although tungsten has the highest melting temperature of any metal, at much lower temperatures volatile oxides are formed during oxidation with oxygen containing species. This differs from many heterogeneous oxidation reactions involving metals since most reactions form very stable oxides that have higher melting or boiling points than the pure metal (e.g., aluminum, iron). Understanding heterogeneous oxidation and vaporization processes may allow for the expansion and improvement of high temperature tungsten applications. In order to increase understanding of the oxidation processes of tungsten, there is a need to develop reaction mechanisms and kinetics for oxidation processes involving oxidizers and environmental conditions of interest. Tungsten oxidation was thoroughly studied in the past, and today there is a good phenomenological understanding of these processes. However, as the design of large scale systems increasingly relies on computer modeling there becomes a need for improved descriptions of chemical reactions. With the increase in computing power over the last several decades, and the development of quantum chemistry and physics theories, heterogeneous systems can be modeled in detail at the molecular level. Thermochemical parameters that may not be measured experimentally may now be determined theoretically, a tool that was previously unavailable to scientists and engineers. Additionally, chemical kinetic modeling software is now available for both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. This study takes advantage of these new theoretical tools, as well as a thermogravimetric (TG) flow reactor developed as part of this study to learn about mechanisms and kinetics of tungsten oxidation. Oxidizers of interest are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO 2), water (H2O), and other oxidizers present in combustion and

  8. HSM: Heterogeneous Subspace Mining in High Dimensional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Seidl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous data, i.e. data with both categorical and continuous values, is common in many databases. However, most data mining algorithms assume either continuous or categorical attributes, but not both. In high dimensional data, phenomena due to the "curse of dimensionality" pose additional...... challenges. Usually, due to locally varying relevance of attributes, patterns do not show across the full set of attributes. In this paper we propose HSM, which defines a new pattern model for heterogeneous high dimensional data. It allows data mining in arbitrary subsets of the attributes that are relevant...... for the respective patterns. Based on this model we propose an efficient algorithm, which is aware of the heterogeneity of the attributes. We extend an indexing structure for continuous attributes such that HSM indexing adapts to different attribute types. In our experiments we show that HSM efficiently mines...

  9. Heterogeneity in business groups and the corporate diversification firm performance relationship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how heterogeneous features among business groups influence the corporate diversification–firm performance relationship. The study classifies heterogeneity along three dimensions: group size, group diversity, and share ownership. Using a sample of firms from India, the study

  10. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  11. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-17

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  12. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, Michael J.; Orr, Franklin M.

    1999-05-26

    This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1996 - September 1997 under the first year of a three-year Department of Energy grant on the Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs. The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four main areas; (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each stage of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

  13. Top management team heterogeneity, strategic change and operational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo Gil, D.; Hartmann, F.; Maas, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of top management team (TMT) heterogeneity in facilitating strategic change. Based on the upper echelons literature, we argue that heterogeneous management teams are better able to handle the simultaneous and conflicting demands of refocusing the organization

  14. Coexistence: Threat to the Performance of Heterogeneous Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neetu; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2010-11-01

    Wireless technology is gaining broad acceptance as users opt for the freedom that only wireless network can provide. Well-accepted wireless communication technologies generally operate in frequency bands that are shared among several users, often using different RF schemes. This is true in particular for WiFi, Bluetooth, and more recently ZigBee. These all three operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz band, also known as ISM band, which has been key to the development of a competitive and innovative market for wireless embedded devices. But, as with any resource held in common, it is crucial that those technologies coexist peacefully to allow each user of the band to fulfill its communication goals. This has led to an increase in wireless devices intended for use in IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless personal area networks (WPANs), both of which support operation in the crowded 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. Despite efforts made by standardization bodies to ensure smooth coexistence it may occur that communication technologies transmitting for instance at very different power levels interfere with each other. In particular, it has been pointed out that ZigBee could potentially experience interference from WiFi traffic given that while both protocols can transmit on the same channel, WiFi transmissions usually occur at much higher power level. In this work, we considered a heterogeneous network and analyzed the impact of coexistence between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b. To evaluate the performance of this network, measurement and simulation study are conducted and developed in the QualNet Network simulator, version 5.0.Model is analyzed for different placement models or topologies such as Random. Grid & Uniform. Performance is analyzed on the basis of characteristics such as throughput, average jitter and average end to end delay. Here, the impact of varying different antenna gain & shadowing model for this

  15. System for Performing Single Query Searches of Heterogeneous and Dispersed Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gurram, Mohana M. (Inventor); Knight, Christopher D. (Inventor); Okimura, Takeshi (Inventor); Tran, Vu Hoang (Inventor); Trinh, Anh Ngoc (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is a distributed computer system of heterogeneous databases joined in an information grid and configured with an Application Programming Interface hardware which includes a search engine component for performing user-structured queries on multiple heterogeneous databases in real time. This invention reduces overhead associated with the impedance mismatch that commonly occurs in heterogeneous database queries.

  16. Dynamic High-Pressure Behavior of Hierarchical Heterogeneous Geological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Taylor, N. E., Jardine, A. P., Behaviour of sand during release from a shocked state, Applied Physics Letters 103, 154103 (2013); doi: 10.1063...V., and M. N. Pavlovskii (1971), Response of clay and clay shale to heavy dynamic loading, Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics , 1, 161...multiple mechanisms in simulations 15.  SUBJECT TERMS High-rate Deformation, Heterogeneous Materials, Shock Physics Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98

  17. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  18. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  19. Responsive design high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Els, Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This book is ideal for developers who have experience in developing websites or possess minor knowledge of how responsive websites work. No experience of high-level website development or performance tweaking is required.

  20. Loss Performance Modeling for Hierarchical Heterogeneous Wireless Networks With Speed-Sensitive Call Admission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim

    2011-01-01

    A hierarchical overlay structure is an alternative solution that integrates existing and future heterogeneous wireless networks to provide subscribers with better mobile broadband services. Traffic loss performance in such integrated heterogeneous networks is necessary for an operator's network...... dimensioning and planning. This paper investigates the computationally efficient loss performance modeling for multiservice in hierarchical heterogeneous wireless networks. A speed-sensitive call admission control (CAC) scheme is considered in our model to assign overflowed calls to appropriate tiers...

  1. The influence of reservoir heterogeneities on geothermal doublet performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doddema, Leon

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The current main problem with deep geothermal energy in the Netherlands is the uncertainty in terms of attainable flow rate and life time. The goal of this research is therefore modeling a geothermal doublet in a heterogeneous reservoir, using a

  2. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  3. Computationally Probing the Performance of Hybrid, Heterogeneous, and Homogeneous Iridium-Based Catalysts for Water Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Melchor, Max [SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford CA (United States); Vilella, Laia [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Tarragona (Spain); Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); López, Núria [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia (ICIQ), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST), Tarragona (Spain); Vojvodic, Aleksandra [SUNCAT Center for Interface Science and Catalysis, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park CA (United States)

    2016-04-29

    An attractive strategy to improve the performance of water oxidation catalysts would be to anchor a homogeneous molecular catalyst on a heterogeneous solid surface to create a hybrid catalyst. The idea of this combined system is to take advantage of the individual properties of each of the two catalyst components. We use Density Functional Theory to determine the stability and activity of a model hybrid water oxidation catalyst consisting of a dimeric Ir complex attached on the IrO2(110) surface through two oxygen atoms. We find that homogeneous catalysts can be bound to its matrix oxide without losing significant activity. Hence, designing hybrid systems that benefit from both the high tunability of activity of homogeneous catalysts and the stability of heterogeneous systems seems feasible.

  4. Nanotemplate-Enabled Arrays of Highly Heterogeneous Nanostructures for Infrared Detection and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    California, Department of Chemical Eng. & Materials Science, Vivian Hall of Engineeering, 3651Watt Way, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0241 8. PERFORMING...funds to provide for laboratory materials and supplies. In spite of such setback, the following significant goal was reached: highly lattice... photoluminescence , spectral uniformity, exciton decay, time-resolved photoluminescence , InGaAs/AlGaAs, highly heterogeneous heterojunctions, single photon source

  5. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy......Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur...... efficient to operate and valuable for building communities. Herein discussed are two successful examples of low energy prefabricated housing projects built in Copenhagen Denmark, which embraced both the constraints and possibilities offered by prefabrication....

  6. Clojure high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Shantanu

    2013-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that will teach you everything you need to know to start writing high performance Clojure code.This book is ideal for intermediate Clojure developers who are looking to get a good grip on how to achieve optimum performance. You should already have some experience with Clojure and it would help if you already know a little bit of Java. Knowledge of performance analysis and engineering is not required. For hands-on practice, you should have access to Clojure REPL with Leiningen.

  7. High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Oneţ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the last studies and researches accomplished in Cluj-Napoca related to high performance concrete, high strength concrete and self compacting concrete. The purpose of this paper is to raid upon the advantages and inconveniences when a particular concrete type is used. Two concrete recipes are presented, namely for the concrete used in rigid pavement for roads and another one for self-compacting concrete.

  8. Disentangling the effects of new venture team functional heterogeneity on new venture performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Goethner, Maximilian; Stuetzer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on entrepreneurial teams has failed to settle the controversy over whether team heterogeneity helps or hinders new venture performance. Reconciling this inconsistency, this paper suggests a new conceptual approach to disentangle differential effects of team heterogeneity by modeling two separate heterogeneity dimensions, namely knowledge scope and knowledge disparity. Analyzing unique data on functional experiences of the members of 337 start-up teams, we find support for ou...

  9. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  10. Danish High Performance Concretes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. P.; Christoffersen, J.; Frederiksen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the main results obtained in the research program High Performance Concretes in the 90's are presented. This program was financed by the Danish government and was carried out in cooperation between The Technical University of Denmark, several private companies, and Aalborg University...

  11. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  12. High-Performance Networking

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    The series will start with an historical introduction about what people saw as high performance message communication in their time and how that developed to the now to day known "standard computer network communication". It will be followed by a far more technical part that uses the High Performance Computer Network standards of the 90's, with 1 Gbit/sec systems as introduction for an in depth explanation of the three new 10 Gbit/s network and interconnect technology standards that exist already or emerge. If necessary for a good understanding some sidesteps will be included to explain important protocols as well as some necessary details of concerned Wide Area Network (WAN) standards details including some basics of wavelength multiplexing (DWDM). Some remarks will be made concerning the rapid expanding applications of networked storage.

  13. High-resolution Slide Spotlight SAR Imaging by BP Algorithm and Heterogeneous Parallel Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jiangwen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution synthetic aperture radar presents a significant challenge to imaging algorithms and computing power. Slide spotlight is an important mode that has both high resolution and wide azimuth swath. Generally, in the slide spotlight mode, the performance of conventional frequency domain imaging algorithms degrades because of orbit curvature, the time-variant azimuth chirp rate, and other factors. We adopt the Back-Projection (BP algorithm in this study to counteract this limitation. We also propose a CPU/GPU heterogeneous BP algorithm to deal with the high computing complexity O(N3 of the BP algorithm. This heterogeneous BP algorithm makes full use of computing resources and accelerates imaging progress, and the design of a scheduling thread improves the flexibility of the algorithm.

  14. Heterogeneous kinetics of vegetable oil transesterification at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasreen Sadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the catalytic efficiency and reusability of the solid base catalysts cannot meet the demand of industrial biodiesel production under low temperature. The purpose of this study is to define the kinetics of heterogeneous transesterification process which might be used for the prediction of the biodiesel synthesis at high temperature and pressure. The focus in this study was paid to recently reported data obtained with different catalysts used for biodiesel synthesis in a batch reactor at high temperatures. It was shown that three kinetic models that include: a irreversible first order reaction; b reaction with changeable order; and c resistances of mass transfer and chemical reaction at active sites of the catalyst could be applied for predicting the effect of high temperature of the transesterification. The apparent reaction rate constant of the irreversible first order reaction was determined, as well as the parameters of the other two, more complicated kinetic models. The best agreement was obtained with the more complicated models and the mean relative percent deviation between calculated and experimentally determined triacylglycerols conversion for these kinetic models is between 3 and 10%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  15. High performance data transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R.; Fang, C.; Hanushevsky, A.; Kreuger, W.; Yang, W.

    2017-10-01

    The exponentially increasing need for high speed data transfer is driven by big data, and cloud computing together with the needs of data intensive science, High Performance Computing (HPC), defense, the oil and gas industry etc. We report on the Zettar ZX software. This has been developed since 2013 to meet these growing needs by providing high performance data transfer and encryption in a scalable, balanced, easy to deploy and use way while minimizing power and space utilization. In collaboration with several commercial vendors, Proofs of Concept (PoC) consisting of clusters have been put together using off-the- shelf components to test the ZX scalability and ability to balance services using multiple cores, and links. The PoCs are based on SSD flash storage that is managed by a parallel file system. Each cluster occupies 4 rack units. Using the PoCs, between clusters we have achieved almost 200Gbps memory to memory over two 100Gbps links, and 70Gbps parallel file to parallel file with encryption over a 5000 mile 100Gbps link.

  16. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talcott, Stephen

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has many applications in food chemistry. Food components that have been analyzed with HPLC include organic acids, vitamins, amino acids, sugars, nitrosamines, certain pesticides, metabolites, fatty acids, aflatoxins, pigments, and certain food additives. Unlike gas chromatography, it is not necessary for the compound being analyzed to be volatile. It is necessary, however, for the compounds to have some solubility in the mobile phase. It is important that the solubilized samples for injection be free from all particulate matter, so centrifugation and filtration are common procedures. Also, solid-phase extraction is used commonly in sample preparation to remove interfering compounds from the sample matrix prior to HPLC analysis.

  17. Flow and travel time statistics in highly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present flow and travel time ensemble statistics based on a new simulation methodology, the adaptive Fup Monte Carlo method (AFMCM). As a benchmark case, we considered two-dimensional steady flow in a rectangular domain characterized by multi-Gaussian heterogeneity structure with an isotropic exponential correlation and lnK variance σY2 up to 8. Advective transport is investigated using the travel time framework where Lagrangian variables (e.g., velocity, transverse displacement, or travel time) depend on space rather than on time. We find that Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity distributions diverge for increasing lnK variance due to enhanced channeling. Transverse displacement is a nonnormal for all σY2 and control planes close to the injection area, but after xIY = 20 was found to be nearly normal even for high σY2. Travel time distribution deviates from the Fickian model for large lnK variance and exhibits increasing skewness and a power law tail for large lnK variance, the slope of which decreases for increasing distance from the source; no anomalous features are found. Second moment of advective transport is analyzed with respect to the covariance of two Lagrangian velocity variables: slowness and slope which are directly related to the travel time and transverse displacement variance, which are subsequently related to the longitudinal and transverse dispersion. We provide simple estimators for the Eulerian velocity variance, travel time variance, slowness, and longitudinal dispersivity as a practical contribution of this analysis. Both two-parameter models considered (the advection-dispersion equation and the lognormal model) provide relatively poor representations of the initial part of the travel time probability density function in highly heterogeneous porous media. We identify the need for further theoretical and experimental scrutiny of early arrival times, and the need for computing higher-order moments for a more accurate

  18. High-density multicore fiber with heterogeneous core arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amma, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Takenaga, K.

    2015-01-01

    A 30-core fiber with heterogeneous cores that achieved large spatial multiplicity and low crosstalk of less than −40 dB at 100 km was demonstrated. The correlation lengths were estimated to be more than 1 m.......A 30-core fiber with heterogeneous cores that achieved large spatial multiplicity and low crosstalk of less than −40 dB at 100 km was demonstrated. The correlation lengths were estimated to be more than 1 m....

  19. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  20. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr; Martin J. Blunt

    1998-03-31

    This project performs research in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative perme- ability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and waterfl ooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale oil. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. In this report we provide a detailed description of our measurements of three-phase relative permeability.

  1. High Performance Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-10

    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  2. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  3. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  4. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bockelman, Brian; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  5. HUMAN CAPITAL HETEROGENEITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ABOUT INTERNATIONAL HOTEL CHAINS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Halici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, workforce diversity is not only a legal requirement for organizations, but it is also a must to survive in a highly competitive business environment. The prime motive for this study is to investigate the relationship between workforce diversity and perception of discrimination. The basic hypothesis of the study is that as the workforce diversity increases, the perception of discrimination decreases. In order to test the hypothesis, a survey is carried out international hotel chains in Istanbul. There are 19 international hotel chains in Turkey. In this study research is designed to understand human capital heterogeneity pattern of international chains of hotel industry and how this contribute organizational culture strategically that help to manage organizational performance much more efficiently with cross sectional data. Globalization of markets, changing demographics in the labor market, new business strategies requiring team work and the shift from a manufacturing to a service economy are the prime reasons for human capital heterogeneity (HCH. HCH improves the organizational capabilities in terms of flexibility, creativity, problem solving and competitive advantage. Especially in the service sector, in order to gain competitive advantage, organizations need a diverse workforce for both understanding the diverse needs of customers and answering to these needs in a prompt and proper way.

  6. Performance Analysis of Heterogeneous Data Centers in Cloud Computing Using a Complex Queuing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hua Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of modern cloud data centers has attracted considerable research attention among both cloud providers and cloud customers. In this paper, we investigate the heterogeneity of modern data centers and the service process used in these heterogeneous data centers. Using queuing theory, we construct a complex queuing model composed of two concatenated queuing systems and present this as an analytical model for evaluating the performance of heterogeneous data centers. Based on this complex queuing model, we analyze the mean response time, the mean waiting time, and other important performance indicators. We also conduct simulation experiments to confirm the validity of the complex queuing model. We further conduct numerical experiments to demonstrate that the traffic intensity (or utilization of each execution server, as well as the configuration of server clusters, in a heterogeneous data center will impact the performance of the system. Our results indicate that our analytical model is effective in accurately estimating the performance of the heterogeneous data center.

  7. High performance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.

    1992-06-01

    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  8. High-density biosynthetic fuels: the intersection of heterogeneous catalysis and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Meylemans, Heather A; Gough, Raina V; Quintana, Roxanne L; Garrison, Michael D; Bruno, Thomas J

    2014-05-28

    Biosynthetic valencene, premnaspirodiene, and natural caryophyllene were hydrogenated and evaluated as high performance fuels. The parent sesquiterpenes were then isomerized to complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Nafion SAC-13. High density fuels with net heats of combustion ranging from 133-141 000 Btu gal(-1), or up to 13% higher than commercial jet fuel could be generated by this approach. The products of caryophyllene isomerization were primarily tricyclic hydrocarbons which after hydrogenation increased the fuel density by 6%. The isomerization of valencene and premnaspirodiene also generated a variety of sesquiterpenes, but in both cases the dominant product was δ-selinene. Ab initio calculations were conducted to determine the total electronic energies for the reactants and products. In all cases the results were in excellent agreement with the experimental distribution of isomers. The cetane numbers for the sesquiterpane fuels ranged from 20-32 and were highly dependent on the isomer distribution. Specific distillation cuts may have the potential to act as high density diesel fuels, while use of these hydrocarbons as additives to jet fuel will increase the range and/or time of flight of aircraft. In addition to the ability to generate high performance renewable fuels, the powerful combination of metabolic engineering and heterogeneous catalysis will allow for the preparation of a variety of sesquiterpenes with potential for pharmaceutical, flavor, and fragrance applications.

  9. High Content Analysis of Compositional Heterogeneities to Study GPCR Oligomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Samuel McEwen

    appended manuscripts that investigate 1) the intrinsic nature of GPCR oligomerization in the simple lipid environment of a proteoliposome, 2) the regulation of GPCR oligomerization by membrane curvature, and 3) the extent of heterogeneities in GPCR oligomerization within the plasma membrane of living cells...

  10. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  11. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  12. Single-molecule detection and radiation control in solutions at high concentrations via a heterogeneous optical slot antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; Liu, Yongmin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiasen

    2014-08-07

    We designed a heterogeneous optical slot antenna (OSA) that is capable of detecting single molecules in solutions at high concentrations, where most biological processes occur. A heterogeneous OSA consists of a rectangular nanoslot fabricated on heterogeneous metallic films formed by sequential deposition of gold and aluminum on a glass substrate. The rectangular nanoslot gives rise to large field and fluorescence enhancement for single molecules. The near-field intensity inside a heterogeneous OSA is 170 times larger than that inside an aluminum zero-mode waveguide (ZMW), and the fluorescence emission rate of a molecule inside the heterogeneous OSA is about 70 times higher than that of the molecule in free space. Our proposed heterogeneous optical antenna enables excellent balance between performance and cost. The design takes into account the practical experimental conditions so that the parameters chosen in the simulation are well within the reach of current nano-fabrication technologies. Our results can be used as a direct guidance for designing high-performance, low-cost plasmonic nanodevices for the study of bio-molecule and enzyme dynamics at the single-molecule level.

  13. Dosimetric verification of a high dose rate brachytherapy treatment planning system in homogeneous and heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, S C; Sharma, S D; Naithani, U C

    2013-03-01

    To verify the dosimetric accuracy of treatment plans in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy by using Gafchromic EBT2 film and to demonstrate the adequacy of dose calculations of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in a heterogeneous medium. Absorbed doses at chosen points in anatomically different tissue equivalent phantoms were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 film. In one case, tandem ovoid brachytherapy was performed in a homogeneous cervix phantom, whereas in the other, organ heterogeneities were introduced in a phantom to replicate the upper thorax for esophageal brachytherapy treatment. A commercially available TPS was used to perform treatment planning in each case and the EBT2 films were irradiated with the HDR Ir-192 brachytherapy source. Film measurements in the cervix phantom were found to agree with the TPS calculated values within 3% in the clinically relevant volume. In the thorax phantom, the presence of surrounding heterogeneities was not seen to affect the dose distribution in the volume being treated, whereas, a little dose perturbation was observed at the lung surface. Doses to the spinal cord and to the sternum bone were overestimated and underestimated by 14.6% and 16.5% respectively by the TPS relative to the film measurements. At the trachea wall facing the esophagus, a dose reduction of 10% was noticed in the measurements. The dose calculation accuracy of the TPS was confirmed in homogeneous medium, whereas, it was proved inadequate to produce correct dosimetric results in conditions of tissue heterogeneity. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Python high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lanaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    An exciting, easy-to-follow guide illustrating the techniques to boost the performance of Python code, and their applications with plenty of hands-on examples.If you are a programmer who likes the power and simplicity of Python and would like to use this language for performance-critical applications, this book is ideal for you. All that is required is a basic knowledge of the Python programming language. The book will cover basic and advanced topics so will be great for you whether you are a new or a seasoned Python developer.

  15. NGINX high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    System administrators, developers, and engineers looking for ways to achieve maximum performance from NGINX will find this book beneficial. If you are looking for solutions such as how to handle more users from the same system or load your website pages faster, then this is the book for you.

  16. High Intra- and Inter-Tumoral Heterogeneity of RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Jeantet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of patients with wild type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer are non-responders to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR mAbs, possibly due to undetected tumoral subclones harboring RAS mutations. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of RAS mutations in different areas of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes and distant metastasis. A retrospective cohort of 18 patients with a colorectal cancer (CRC was included in the study. Multiregion analysis was performed in 60 spatially separated tumor areas according to the pathological tumor node metastasis (pTNM staging and KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations were tested using pyrosequencing. In primary tumors, intra-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation was found in 33% of cases. Inter-tumoral heterogeneity for RAS mutation between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes or distant metastasis was found in 36% of cases. Moreover, 28% of tumors had multiple RAS mutated subclones in the same tumor. A high proportion of CRCs presented intra- and/or inter-tumoral heterogeneity, which has relevant clinical implications for anti-EGFR mAbs prescription. These results suggest the need for multiple RAS testing in different parts of the same tumor and/or more sensitive techniques.

  17. High Velocity Impact Interaction of Metal Particles with Porous Heterogeneous Materials with an Inorganic Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazunov, A. A.; Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanasyeva, S. A.; Belov, N. N.; Burkin, V. V.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibulin, M. V.; Yugov, N. T.

    2016-03-01

    A computational-experimental investigation of stress-strain state and fracture of a porous heterogeneous material with an inorganic matrix, used as a thermal barrier coating of flying vehicles, under conditions of a high-velocity impact by a spherical steel projectile imitating a meteorite particle is discussed. Ballistic tests are performed at the velocities about 2.5 km/s. Numerical modeling of the high-velocity impact is described within the framework of a porous elastoplastic model including fracture and different phase states of the materials. The calculations are performed using the Euler and Lagrange numerical techniques for the velocities up to 10 km/s in a complete-space problem statement.

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Cluster-Based Service Discovery Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—This paper evaluates the performance in terms of resource consumption of a service discovery protocol proposed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The protocol is based on a clustering structure, which facilitates the construction of a distributed directory. Nodes with higher

  19. High performance steam development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P. [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  20. High performance polymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the performance of concrete whose chief components are natural aggregate and an organic binder —a thermosetting polyester resin— denominated polymer concrete or PC. The material was examined macro- and microscopically and its basic physical and mechanical properties were determined using mercury porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and strength tests (modulus of elasticity, stress-strain curves and ultimate strengths. According to the results of these experimental studies, the PC exhibited a low density (4.8%, closed pore system and a concomitantly continuous internal microstructure. This would at least partially explain its mechanical out-performance of traditional concrete, with average compressive and flexural strength values of 100 MPa and over 20 MPa, respectively. In the absence of standard criteria, the bending test was found to be a useful supplement to compressive strength tests for establishing PC strength classes.Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de un hormigón de altas prestaciones, formado por áridos naturales y un aglomerante orgánico constituido por una resina termoestable poliéster, denominado hormigón polimérico HP. Se describe el material a nivel microscópico y macroscópico, presentando sus propiedades físicas y mecánicas fundamentales, mediante diferentes técnicas experimentales, tales como: porosimetría de mercurio, microscopía electrónica (SEM-EDAX, difracción de rayos X (DRX y ensayos mecánicos (módulo de elasticidad, curvas tensión- deformación y resistencias últimas. Como consecuencia del estudio experimental llevado a cabo, se ha podido apreciar cómo el HP está formado por porosidad cerrada del 4,8%, proporcionando una elevada continuidad a su microestructura interna, lo que justifica, en parte, la mejora de propiedades mecánicas respecto al hormigón tradicional, con unos valores medios de resistencia a compresión de 100

  1. The performance of 3500 MWth homogeneous and heterogeneous metal fueled core designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turski, R.; Yang, Shi-tien

    1987-11-01

    Performance parameters are calculated for a representative 3500 MWth homogeneous and a heterogeneous metal fueled reactor design. The equilibrium cycle neutronic characteristics, safety coefficients, control system requirements, and control rod worths are evaluated. The thermal-hydraulic characteristics for both configurations are also compared. The heavy metal fuel loading requirements and neutronic performance characteristics are also evaluated for the uranium startup option. 14 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: a phylogenetic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland F Schwarz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The major clinical challenge in the treatment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the development of progressive resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity resulting from clonal evolution and the emergence of subclonal tumour populations in HGSOC was associated with the development of resistant disease.Evolutionary inference and phylogenetic quantification of heterogeneity was performed using the MEDICC algorithm on high-resolution whole genome copy number profiles and selected genome-wide sequencing of 135 spatially and temporally separated samples from 14 patients with HGSOC who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Samples were obtained from the clinical CTCR-OV03/04 studies, and patients were enrolled between 20 July 2007 and 22 October 2009. Median follow-up of the cohort was 31 mo (interquartile range 22-46 mo, censored after 26 October 2013. Outcome measures were overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. There were marked differences in the degree of clonal expansion (CE between patients (median 0.74, interquartile range 0.66-1.15, and dichotimization by median CE showed worse survival in CE-high cases (PFS 12.7 versus 10.1 mo, p = 0.009; OS 42.6 versus 23.5 mo, p = 0.003. Bootstrap analysis with resampling showed that the 95% confidence intervals for the hazard ratios for PFS and OS in the CE-high group were greater than 1.0. These data support a relationship between heterogeneity and survival but do not precisely determine its effect size. Relapsed tissue was available for two patients in the CE-high group, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the prevalent clonal population at clinical recurrence arose from early divergence events. A subclonal population marked by a NF1 deletion showed a progressive increase in tumour allele fraction during chemotherapy.This study demonstrates that quantitative measures of intra

  3. Performance of a Polymer Flood with Shear-Thinning Fluid in Heterogeneous Layered Systems with Crossflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the potential of a polymer flood for mobility control requires an accurate model on the viscosities of displacement fluids involved in the process. Because most polymers used in EOR exhibit shear-thinning behavior, the effective viscosity of a polymer solution is a highly nonlinear function of shear rate. A reservoir simulator including the model for the shear-rate dependence of viscosity was used to investigate shear-thinning effects of polymer solution on the performance of the layered reservoir in a five-spot pattern operating under polymer flood followed by waterflood. The model can be used as a quantitative tool to evaluate the comparative studies of different polymer flooding scenarios with respect to shear-rate dependence of fluids’ viscosities. Results of cumulative oil recovery and water-oil ratio are presented for parameters of shear-rate dependencies, permeability heterogeneity, and crossflow. The results of this work have proven the importance of taking non-Newtonian behavior of polymer solution into account for the successful evaluation of polymer flood processes. Horizontal and vertical permeabilities of each layer are shown to impact the predicted performance substantially. In reservoirs with a severe permeability contrast between horizontal layers, decrease in oil recovery and sudden increase in WOR are obtained by the low sweep efficiency and early water breakthrough through highly permeable layer, especially for shear-thinning fluids. An increase in the degree of crossflow resulting from sufficient vertical permeability is responsible for the enhanced sweep of the low permeability layers, which results in increased oil recovery. It was observed that a thinning fluid coefficient would increase injectivity significantly from simulations with various injection rates. A thorough understanding of polymer rheology in the reservoir and accurate numerical modeling are of fundamental importance for the exact estimation

  4. High Performance Computing at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The speaker will give an overview of high performance computing in the U.S. in general and within NASA in particular, including a description of the recently signed NASA-IBM cooperative agreement. The latest performance figures of various parallel systems on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks will be presented. The speaker was one of the authors of the NAS (National Aerospace Standards) Parallel Benchmarks, which are now widely cited in the industry as a measure of sustained performance on realistic high-end scientific applications. It will be shown that significant progress has been made by the highly parallel supercomputer industry during the past year or so, with several new systems, based on high-performance RISC processors, that now deliver superior performance per dollar compared to conventional supercomputers. Various pitfalls in reporting performance will be discussed. The speaker will then conclude by assessing the general state of the high performance computing field.

  5. High-performance sports medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speed, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    High performance sports medicine involves the medical care of athletes, who are extraordinary individuals and who are exposed to intensive physical and psychological stresses during training and competition...

  6. Investigation of the Failure of Advanced High Strength Steels Heterogeneous Spot Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Huin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental regulation encourages carmakers to reduce the global vehicle weight. Steelmakers develop grades with high performance (Advanced High Strength Steels, AHSS and fine steel sheet assemblies are used in car body structures, with an optimized thickness in each part. However, unusual fracture modes are sometimes observed during the mechanical tests of heterogeneous AHSS welds, made of dissimilar steel grades and sheet thicknesses. Weld fractures can occur with a strength lower than expected. This study aims at understanding these fracture mechanisms and focuses on two common steel grades joined by Resistance Spot Welding (RSW: DP600 (a dual phase steel and Usibor®1500 (a martensitic steel. The parameters affecting the failure modes and load bearing capacity are investigated during two common types of tests: the Cross Tension and Tensile Shear tests. The positive effects of heterogeneous welding with respect to the corresponding homogeneous configurations are discussed, as well as the consequences of a so-called Dome failure occurring at the weld nugget boundary.

  7. High Performance Space Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  8. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  9. Performance tuning for high performance computing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pahuja, Himanshu

    2017-01-01

    A Distributed System is composed by integration between loosely coupled software components and the underlying hardware resources that can be distributed over the standard internet framework. High Performance Computing used to involve utilization of supercomputers which could churn a lot of computing power to process massively complex computational tasks, but is now evolving across distributed systems, thereby having the ability to utilize geographically distributed computing resources. We...

  10. Subjective Evaluation of Packet Service Performance in UMTS and Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Quality of Service (QoS) in mobile telecommunication systems is usually identified by some basic performance metrics such as delay, throughput and jitter. However, the main impact of service quality is on the end user, and as such a detailed study of service performance should involve the end user....... In this paper, such an approach is taken where subjective performance evaluation is undertaken for web browsing and video streaming services in Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and a heterogeneous network comprised of UMTS and Wireless LAN (WLAN). Using a real-time network emulation testbed...

  11. High Performance Networks for High Impact Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Mary A.; Bair, Raymond A.

    2003-02-13

    This workshop was the first major activity in developing a strategic plan for high-performance networking in the Office of Science. Held August 13 through 15, 2002, it brought together a selection of end users, especially representing the emerging, high-visibility initiatives, and network visionaries to identify opportunities and begin defining the path forward.

  12. High Performance Flexible Thermal Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Arne; Preller, Fabian

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with the design and performance verification of a high performance and flexible carbon fibre thermal link.Project goal was to design a space qualified thermal link combining low mass, flexibility and high thermal conductivity with new approaches regarding selected materials and processes. The idea was to combine the advantages of existing metallic links regarding flexibility and the thermal performance of high conductive carbon pitch fibres. Special focus is laid on the thermal performance improvement of matrix systems by means of nano-scaled carbon materials in order to improve the thermal performance also perpendicular to the direction of the unidirectional fibres.One of the main challenges was to establish a manufacturing process which allows handling the stiff and brittle fibres, applying the matrix and performing the implementation into an interface component using unconventional process steps like thermal bonding of fibres after metallisation.This research was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  13. High heterogeneity in soil composition and quality in different mangrove forests of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, X L; Méndez, A; Nóbrega, G N; Ferreira, T O; Meléndez, W; Macías, F

    2017-09-18

    Mangrove forests play an important role in biogeochemical cycles of metals, nutrients, and C in coastal ecosystems. However, these functions could be strongly affected by the mangrove soil degradation. In this study, we performed an intensive sampling characterizing mangrove soils under different types of environment (lagoon/gulf) and vegetation (Rhizophora/Avicennia/dead mangrove) in the Venezuelan coast. To better understand the spatial heterogeneity of the composition and characteristics of the soils, a wide range of the soil attributes were analyzed. In general, the soils were anoxic (Eh  15%). Finally, the dead mangrove showed significantly lower amounts of TOC and fibers (in comparison to the well-preserved mangrove forest), which indicates that the C pools in mangrove soils are highly sensitive also to natural impact, such as ENSO.

  14. Design and Performance Analysis of Multi-tier Heterogeneous Network through Coverage, Throughput and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabbir,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented acceleration in wireless industry strongly compels wireless operators to increase their data network throughput, capacity and coverage on emergent basis. In upcoming 5G heterogeneous networks inclusion of low power nodes (LPNs like pico cells and femto cells for increasing network’s throughput, capacity and coverage are getting momentum. Addition of LPNs in such a massive level will eventually make a network populated in terms of base stations (BSs.The dense deployments of BSs will leads towards high operating expenditures (Op-Ex, capital expenditure (Cap-Ex and most importantly high energy consumption in future generation networks. Recognizing theses networks issues this research work investigates data throughput and energy efficiency of 5G multi-tier heterogeneous network. The network is modeled using tools from stochastic geometry. Monte Carlo results confirmed that rational deployment of LPNs can contribute towards increased throughput along with better energy efficiency of overall network.

  15. Two-Level Domain Decomposition Methods for Highly Heterogeneous Darcy Equations. Connections with Multiscale Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolean Victorita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase, compositional porous media flow models lead to the solution of highly heterogeneous systems of Partial Differential Equations (PDE. We focus on overlapping Schwarz type methods on parallel computers and on multiscale methods. We present a coarse space [Nataf F., Xiang H., Dolean V., Spillane N. (2011 SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33, 4, 1623-1642] that is robust even when there are such heterogeneities. The two-level domain decomposition approach is compared to multiscale methods.

  16. Advanced Support for Multilevel Heterogeneous Embedded High Performance Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio, John

    1999-01-01

    ...: synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and space-time adaptive processing (STAP). Advanced techniques for optimally configuring and utilizing the components of a commercially particular multicomputer platform are described for these two applications...

  17. Mapping the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm onto High Performance Heterogeneous Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    l o c a t i o n s i z e of v e c t o r s1595 i n t vsz ;1596 i n t gotA = 0 ; / / t r u e when A i s a l r e a d y on FPGA1597 / / f o r MAP a l l o... gotA ) { / / on ly copy A one t ime1795 / / copy d a t a t o t h e OBCM b u f f e r s1796 gcm cp to ( kvalA , kva l , k v a l s z ) ;1797 gcm cp to...p1801 mvm( kvalA , kcolA , kptrA , pA , n , knz , vA , gotA , mapnum ) ;1802 gotA = 1 ;1803 gcm cp from (vA , v , vsz ) ; / / copy r e s u l t back from

  18. High Productivity Programming of Dense Linear Algebra on Heterogeneous NUMA Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Alomairy, Rabab M.

    2013-07-01

    High-end multicore systems with GPU-based accelerators are now ubiquitous in the hardware landscape. Besides dealing with the nontrivial heterogeneous environ- ment, end users should often take into consideration the underlying memory architec- ture to decrease the overhead of data motion, especially when running on non-uniform memory access (NUMA) platforms. We propose the OmpSs parallel programming model approach using its Nanos++ dynamic runtime system to solve the two challeng- ing problems aforementioned, through 1) an innovative NUMA node-aware scheduling policy to reduce data movement between NUMA nodes and 2) a nested parallelism feature to concurrently exploit the resources available from the GPU devices as well as the CPU host, without compromising the overall performance. Our approach fea- tures separation of concerns by abstracting the complexity of the hardware from the end users so that high productivity can be achieved. The Cholesky factorization is used as a benchmark representative of dense numerical linear algebra algorithms. Superior performance is also demonstrated on the symmetric matrix inversion based on Cholesky factorization, commonly used in co-variance computations in statistics. Performance on a NUMA system with Kepler-based GPUs exceeds that of existing implementations, while the OmpSs-enabled code remains very similar to its original sequential version.

  19. RavenDB high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Brian

    2013-01-01

    RavenDB High Performance is comprehensive yet concise tutorial that developers can use to.This book is for developers & software architects who are designing systems in order to achieve high performance right from the start. A basic understanding of RavenDB is recommended, but not required. While the book focuses on advanced topics, it does not assume that the reader has a great deal of prior knowledge of working with RavenDB.

  20. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  1. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, we introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, we demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection.

  2. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  3. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  4. High performance flexible heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  5. The High Performance Computing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Smith, Paul H.; Macdonald, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA High Performance Computing Initiative (HPCI), an essential component of the Federal High Performance Computing Program. The HPCI program is designed to provide a thousandfold increase in computing performance, and apply the technologies to NASA 'Grand Challenges'. The Grand Challenges chosen include integrated multidisciplinary simulations and design optimizations of aerospace vehicles throughout the mission profiles; the multidisciplinary modeling and data analysis of the earth and space science physical phenomena; and the spaceborne control of automated systems, handling, and analysis of sensor data and real-time response to sensor stimuli.

  6. Development of a phantom to validate high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning systems with heterogeneous algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo S., E-mail: emoura@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Micka, John A.; Hammer, Cliff G.; Culberson, Wesley S.; DeWerd, Larry A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Rostelato, Maria Elisa C. M.; Zeituni, Carlos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: This work presents the development of a phantom to verify the treatment planning system (TPS) algorithms used for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. It is designed to measure the relative dose in a heterogeneous media. The experimental details used, simulation methods, and comparisons with a commercial TPS are also provided. Methods: To simulate heterogeneous conditions, four materials were used: Virtual Water™ (VM), BR50/50™, cork, and aluminum. The materials were arranged in 11 heterogeneity configurations. Three dosimeters were used to measure the relative response from a HDR {sup 192}Ir source: TLD-100™, Gafchromic{sup ®} EBT3 film, and an Exradin™ A1SL ionization chamber. To compare the results from the experimental measurements, the various configurations were modeled in the PENELOPE/penEasy Monte Carlo code. Images of each setup geometry were acquired from a CT scanner and imported into BrachyVision™ TPS software, which includes a grid-based Boltzmann solver Acuros™. The results of the measurements performed in the heterogeneous setups were normalized to the dose values measured in the homogeneous Virtual Water™ setup and the respective differences due to the heterogeneities were considered. Additionally, dose values calculated based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine-Task Group 43 formalism were compared to dose values calculated with the Acuros™ algorithm in the phantom. Calculated doses were compared at the same points, where measurements have been performed. Results: Differences in the relative response as high as 11.5% were found from the homogeneous setup when the heterogeneous materials were inserted into the experimental phantom. The aluminum and cork materials produced larger differences than the plastic materials, with the BR50/50™ material producing results similar to the Virtual Water™ results. Our experimental methods agree with the PENELOPE/penEasy simulations for most setups and dosimeters. The

  7. Heterogeneity of dietary profiles in highly sedentary young Guadeloupean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Sinnapah, Stéphane; Laviolle, Bruno; Paillard, François; Hue, Olivier

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to examine the relationship between physical activity pattern and dietary profile. Although some clustering of the variables related to these major determinants of cardiovascular risk has been demonstrated, they have not been extensively studied together. Two hundred two female university students from the main Guadeloupe (French West Indies) campus participated. They self-administered a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire and the 1-yr recall Modifiable Activity Questionnaire. Principal-component analysis was performed on the scores and the variables related to the physical activity pattern and dietary profile. A model including 10 variables explained 84.9% of the total variance. The physical activity pattern was not associated with the dietary profile, apart from fruit intake. The physical activity level was homogeneously low (median 1.58, first and last quartile cutoffs 1.54 and 1.66, respectively). There was no correlation between the physical activity level and the Food Frequency Questionnaire score (r=-.005). The absence of a strong relationship between the food and physical activity profiles is interpreted as a possible reflection of a dysregulation of the quality of food intake in this population with a sedentary lifestyle.

  8. Effects of permeability heterogeneity on the performance of closed reservoirs under nonunidirectional flow condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Sang [Kumho R and D Center, (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of heterogeneity on the long-time behavior of a closed depletion reservoir is investigated. An application of a direct pseudosteady-state equation solution is used to conduct an extensive stochastic simulation study at greatly increased computational efficiency. Dozens of permeability fields corresponding to various Dykstra-Parsons coefficients (V{sub DP}) and correlation lengths are generated using geostatistical simulation technique. The results of pressure drawdown are analyzed statistically to examine the effects of geostatistical parameters of reservoir heterogeneity on the long-time performance of closed reservoirs. Univariate analysis shows that all statistical properties of pressure drawdown distribution are sensitive to structure and intensity but weakly to connectivity of permeability variation. Bivariate analysis indicates that the relation between pressure drawdown and near-well permeability can be approximated by log-log function with good correlation. Comparison with the behavior of equivalent homogeneous systems allows quantification of an additional pressure loss due to reservoir heterogeneity. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs.

  9. A performance study on the synchronisation of heterogeneous Grid databases using CONStanza

    CERN Document Server

    Pucciani, G; Domenici, Andrea; Stockinger, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In Grid environments, several heterogeneous database management systems are used in various administrative domains. However, data exchange and synchronisation need to be available across different sites and different database systems. In this article we present our data consistency service CONStanza and give details on how we achieve relaxed update synchronisation between different database implementations. The integration in existing Grid environments is one of the major goals of the system. Performance tests have been executed following a factorial approach. Detailed experimental results and a statistical analysis are presented to evaluate the system components and drive future developments. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of positioning information for performance enhancement of uncoordinated heterogeneous network deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semov, Plamen T.; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    with information but the locations of the mobile users and neighboring cells to solve the problem of dynamic physical resource assignment in uncoordinated scenario while accounting for improved allocation and scheduling. The results are compared to the performance when known scheduling algorithms are employed......This paper proposes a novel algorithm for dynamic physical resource allocation based on the use of positioning information during carrier aggregation (CA) in a semi-and uncoordinated deployment of heterogeneous networks (HetNet). The algorithm uses the known Q-learning method enhanced...... and show increased cell throughput, while maintaining an adequate user throughput when employing Q-learning with positioning information....

  11. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  12. Effects of hardware heterogeneity on the performance of SVM Alzheimer's disease classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jack, Clifford R; Krueger, Gunnar; Klöppel, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    Fully automated machine learning methods based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can assist radiologists in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These algorithms require large data sets to learn the separation of subjects with and without AD. Training and test data may come from heterogeneous hardware settings, which can potentially affect the performance of disease classification. A total of 518 MRI sessions from 226 healthy controls and 191 individuals with probable AD from the multicenter Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) were used to investigate whether grouping data by acquisition hardware (i.e. vendor, field strength, coil system) is beneficial for the performance of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, compared to the case where data from different hardware is mixed. We compared the change of the SVM decision value resulting from (a) changes in hardware against the effect of disease and (b) changes resulting simply from rescanning the same subject on the same machine. Maximum accuracy of 87% was obtained with a training set of all 417 subjects. Classifiers trained with 95 subjects in each diagnostic group and acquired with heterogeneous scanner settings had an empirical detection accuracy of 84.2±2.4% when tested on an independent set of the same size. These results mirror the accuracy reported in recent studies. Encouragingly, classifiers trained on images acquired with homogenous and heterogeneous hardware settings had equivalent cross-validation performances. Two scans of the same subject acquired on the same machine had very similar decision values and were generally classified into the same group. Higher variation was introduced when two acquisitions of the same subject were performed on two scanners with different field strengths. The variation was unbiased and similar for both diagnostic groups. The findings of the study encourage the pooling of data from different sites to increase the number of

  13. Characterizing the metabolic heterogeneity in human breast cancer xenografts by 3D high resolution fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N; Zheng, Gang; Tchou, Julia; Nioka, Shoko; Li, Lin Z

    2013-12-01

    We previously reported that tumor mitochondrial redox state and its heterogeneity distinguished between the aggressive and the indolent breast cancer xenografts, suggesting novel metabolic indices as biomarkers for predicting tumor metastatic potential. Additionally, we reported that the identified redox biomarkers successfully differentiated between the normal breast tissue and the cancerous breast tissue from breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to further characterize intratumor heterogeneity by its distribution of mitochondrial redox state and glucose uptake pattern in tumor xenografts and to further investigate the metabolic heterogeneity of the clinical biopsy samples. We employed the Chance redox scanner, a multi-section cryogenic fluorescence imager to simultaneously image the intratumor heterogeneity in the mitochondrial redox state and glucose uptake at a high spatial resolution (down to 50 × 50 × 20 μm(3)). The mitochondrial redox state was determined by the ratio of the intrinsic fluorescence signals from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the glucose uptake was measured using a near-infrared fluorescent glucose-analogue, pyropheophorbide 2-deoxyglucosamide (Pyro-2DG). Significant inter- and intratumor metabolic heterogeneity were observed from our imaging data on various types of breast cancer xenografts. The patterns and degrees of heterogeneity of mitochondrial redox state appeared to relate to tumor size and metastatic potential. The glucose uptake was also heterogeneous and generally higher in tumor peripheries. The oxidized and reduced regions mostly corresponded with the lower and the higher pyro-2DG uptake, respectively. However, there were some regions where the glucose uptake did not correlate with the redox indices. Pronounced glucose uptake and high NADH were observed in certain localized areas within the tumor

  14. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuassba, Adnan O M; Zhang, Dezheng; Luo, Xiong; Shaheryar, Ahmad; Ali, Hazrat

    2017-01-01

    Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN). It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME) for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2), and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble). The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  15. Improving Classification Performance through an Advanced Ensemble Based Heterogeneous Extreme Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan O. M. Abuassba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Learning Machine (ELM is a fast-learning algorithm for a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN. It often has good generalization performance. However, there are chances that it might overfit the training data due to having more hidden nodes than needed. To address the generalization performance, we use a heterogeneous ensemble approach. We propose an Advanced ELM Ensemble (AELME for classification, which includes Regularized-ELM, L2-norm-optimized ELM (ELML2, and Kernel-ELM. The ensemble is constructed by training a randomly chosen ELM classifier on a subset of training data selected through random resampling. The proposed AELM-Ensemble is evolved by employing an objective function of increasing diversity and accuracy among the final ensemble. Finally, the class label of unseen data is predicted using majority vote approach. Splitting the training data into subsets and incorporation of heterogeneous ELM classifiers result in higher prediction accuracy, better generalization, and a lower number of base classifiers, as compared to other models (Adaboost, Bagging, Dynamic ELM ensemble, data splitting ELM ensemble, and ELM ensemble. The validity of AELME is confirmed through classification on several real-world benchmark datasets.

  16. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  17. High performance in software development

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Haapio, Petri; Liukkonen, Juha-Matti

    2015-01-01

    What are the ingredients of high-performing software? Software development, especially for large high-performance systems, is one the most complex tasks mankind has ever tried. Technological change leads to huge opportunities but challenges our old ways of working. Processing large data sets, possibly in real time or with other tight computational constraints, requires an efficient solution architecture. Efficiency requirements span from the distributed storage and large-scale organization of computation and data onto the lowest level of processor and data bus behavior. Integrating performance behavior over these levels is especially important when the computation is resource-bounded, as it is in numerics: physical simulation, machine learning, estimation of statistical models, etc. For example, memory locality and utilization of vector processing are essential for harnessing the computing power of modern processor architectures due to the deep memory hierarchies of modern general-purpose computers. As a r...

  18. Effect of reservior heterogeneities on waterflood and EOR chemical flood performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomutsa, L.; Knight, J.

    1988-10-01

    Simulations were performed to study the capability of a modified version of the black oil simulator BOAST to handle reservoir heterogeneities of the type encountered in the barrier bar depositional system studied in the geoscience research program being performed for the Department of Energy as project BE1. The cases studied consisted of two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations of layered reservoirs with different permeability contracts between the layers, different vertical permeability/horizontal permeability ratios and continuous and discontinuous shale layers. Software was developed to show graphically the residual oil saturation in the reservoir grid blocks at selected time intervals during the simulation. BOAST was modified for the residual oil saturation displays as well as for graphical displays of production rates and cumulative production versus time of oil, water and gas. 40 refs., 32 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. High Performance Tools And Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, M R; Corey, I R; Johnson, J R

    2005-01-24

    This goal of this project was to evaluate the capability and limits of current scientific simulation development tools and technologies with specific focus on their suitability for use with the next generation of scientific parallel applications and High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the authors, and reflect the authors' current understanding and functionality of the many tools investigated. As a deliverable for this effort, we are presenting this report describing our findings along with an associated spreadsheet outlining current capabilities and characteristics of leading and emerging tools in the high performance computing arena. This first chapter summarizes our findings (which are detailed in the other chapters) and presents our conclusions, remarks, and anticipations for the future. In the second chapter, we detail how various teams in our local high performance community utilize HPC tools and technologies, and mention some common concerns they have about them. In the third chapter, we review the platforms currently or potentially available to utilize these tools and technologies on to help in software development. Subsequent chapters attempt to provide an exhaustive overview of the available parallel software development tools and technologies, including their strong and weak points and future concerns. We categorize them as debuggers, memory checkers, performance analysis tools, communication libraries, data visualization programs, and other parallel development aides. The last chapter contains our closing information. Included with this paper at the end is a table of the discussed development tools and their operational environment.

  20. Homogenization of seismic surface wave profiling in highly heterogeneous improved ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C.; Chien, C.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic surface wave profiling is gaining popularity in engineering practice for determining shear-wave velocity profile since the two-station SASW (Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave) was introduced. Recent developments in the multi-station approach (Multi-station Analysis of Surface Wave, MASW) result in several convenient commercial tools. Unlike other geophysical tomography methods, the surface wave method is essentially a 1-D method assuming horizontally-layered medium. Nevertheless, MASW is increasingly used to map lateral variation of S-wave velocity by multiple surveys overlooking the effect of lateral heterogeneity. MASW typically requires long receiver spread in order to have enough depth coverage. The accuracy and lateral resolution of 2-D S-wave velocity imaging by surface wave is not clear. Many geotechnical applications involves lateral variation in a scale smaller than the geophone spread and wave length. For example, soft ground is often improved to increase strength and stiffness by methods such as jet grouting and stone column which result in heterogeneous ground with improved columns. Experimental methods (Standard Penetration Test, sampling and laboratory testing, etc.) used to assess such ground improvement are subjected to several limitations such as small sampling volume, time-consuming, and cost ineffectiveness. It's difficult to assess the average property of the improved ground and the actual replacement ratio of ground improvement. The use of seismic surface wave method for such a purpose seems to be a good alternative. But what MASW measures in such highly heterogeneous improved ground remains to be investigated. This study evaluated the feasibility of MASW in highly heterogeneous ground with improved columns and investigated the homogenization of shear wave velocity measured by MASW. Field experiments show that MASW testing in such a composite ground behaves similar to testing in horizontally layered medium. It seems to measure some sort

  1. Catalysts and conditions for the highly efficient, selective and stable heterogeneous oligomerisation of ethylene

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heveling, J

    1998-10-11

    Full Text Available The oligomerisation of ethylene into products in the C-4-C-20 range over heterogeneous nickel catalysts in a fixed-bed reactor at low temperature and high pressure (LT-HP) is reported. The catalysts were obtained by Ni (II) exchange or impregnation...

  2. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  3. The impact of aquifer heterogeneity on the performance of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.; Valstar, J.R.; Gaans, van P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in hydraulic properties of the subsurface is not accounted for in current design calculations of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). However, the subsurface is heterogeneous and thus affects the heat distribution around ATES wells. In this paper, the influence of heterogeneity on

  4. High resolution digital autoradiographic and dosimetric analysis of heterogeneous radioactivity distribution in xenografted prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermand, Oskar V; Nilsson, Jenny; Strand, Sven-Erik; Elgqvist, Jörgen

    2016-12-01

    The first main aim of this study was to illustrate the absorbed dose rate distribution from 177Lu in sections of xenografted prostate cancer (PCa) tumors using high resolution digital autoradiography (DAR) and compare it with hypothetical identical radioactivity distributions of 90Y or 7 MeV alpha-particles. Three dosimetry models based on either dose point kernels or Monte Carlo simulations were used and evaluated. The second and overlapping aim, was to perform DAR imaging and dosimetric analysis of the distribution of radioactivity, and hence the absorbed dose rate, in tumor sections at an early time point after injection during radioimmunotherapy using 177Lu-h11B6, directed against the human kallikrein 2 antigen. Male immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice, aged 6-8 w, were inoculated by subcutaneous injection of ∼107 LNCaP cells in a 200 μl suspension of a 1:1 mixture of medium and Matrigel. The antibody h11B6 was conjugated with the chelator CHX-A″-DTPA after which conjugated h11B6 was mixed with 177LuCl3. The incubation was performed at room temperature for 2 h, after which the labeling was terminated and the solution was purified on a NAP-5 column. About 20 MBq 177Lu-h11B6 was injected intravenously in the tail vein. At approximately 10 h postinjection (hpi), the mice were sacrificed and one tumor was collected from each of the five animals and cryosectioned into 10 μm thick slices. The tumor slices were measured and imaged using the DAR MicroImager system and the M3Vision software. Then the absorbed dose rate was calculated using a dose point kernel generated with the Monte Carlo code gate v7.0. The DAR system produced high resolution images of the radioactivity distribution, close to the resolution of single PCa cells. The DAR images revealed a pronounced heterogeneous radioactivity distribution, i.e., count rate per area, in the tumors, indicated by the normalized intensity variations along cross sections as mean ± SD: 0.15 ± 0.15, 0.20 ± 0.18, 0.12

  5. Using Mathematical Modeling Methods for Estimating Entrance Flow Heterogeneity Impact on Aviation GTE Parameters and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological approaches to the mathematical models (MM of various levels, dedicated to estimate an impact of the entrance flow heterogeneity on the main parameters and performances of the aviation GTE and it units. By an example of calculation of a twin-shaft turbofan engine in cruiser mode, demonstrates engineering mathematical model capabilities to define the impact of the total pressure field distortion on engine trust and air flow parameters, and also gas dynamic stability margin of the both compressors.It is shown that the presented first level mathematical model allows us to estimate sufficiently the impact of entrance total pressure heterogeneity on the engine parameters. Here reliability of calculations is proved to be true by their comparison with the results, obtained owing to well fulfilled 2D & 3D mathematical models of the engine, which have been repeatedly identified by the results of experiments.It is shown that received results including those on decreasing values of stability margin of both compressors can be used for tentative estimates when choosing a desirable stability margin, providing steady operation of compressors and engine in an entire range of its operating modes. Carrying out a definitive testing calculation using the specialized engine MM of a higher level will not only confirm the results obtained, but also reduce their expected error with regard to the real values reached as a result of tests.

  6. Neo4j high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional or enthusiast who has a basic understanding of graphs or has basic knowledge of Neo4j operations, this is the book for you. Although it is targeted at an advanced user base, this book can be used by beginners as it touches upon the basics. So, if you are passionate about taming complex data with the help of graphs and building high performance applications, you will be able to get valuable insights from this book.

  7. High-performance sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    High performance sports medicine involves the medical care of athletes, who are extraordinary individuals and who are exposed to intensive physical and psychological stresses during training and competition. The physician has a broad remit and acts as a 'medical guardian' to optimise health while minimising risks. This review describes this interesting field of medicine, its unique challenges and priorities for the physician in delivering best healthcare.

  8. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  9. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  10. High-performing physician executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Larson, S R; McCool, B P

    1988-01-01

    Physician leadership extends beyond traditional clinical disciplines to hospital administration, group practice management, health policy making, management of managed care programs, and many business positions. What kind of person makes a good physician executive? What stands out as the most important motivations, attributes, and interests of high-performing physician executives? How does this compare with non-physician health care executives? Such questions have long been high on the agenda of executives in other industries. This article builds on existing formal assessments of leadership attributes of high-performing business, government, and educational executives and on closer examination of health care executives. Previous studies looked at the need for innovative, entrepreneurial, energetic, community-oriented leaders for positions throughout health care. Traits that distinguish excellence and leadership were described by Brown and McCool.* That study characterized successful leaders in terms of physical strengths (high energy, good health, and propensity for hard work), mental strengths (creativity, intuition, and innovation), and organizational strengths (mission orientation, vision, and entrepreneurial spirit). In this investigation, a subset of health care executives, including physician executives, was examined more closely. It was initially assumed that successful physician executives exhibit many of the same positive traits as do nonphysician executives. This assumption was tested with physician leaders in a range of administrative and managerial positions. We also set out to identify key differences between physician and nonphysician executives. Even with our limited exploration, it seems to us that physician executives probably do differ from nonphysician executives.

  11. High temporal resolution mapping of seismic noise sources using heterogeneous supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Paitz, Patrick; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Time- and space-dependent distribution of seismic noise sources is becoming a key ingredient of modern real-time monitoring of various geo-systems. Significant interest in seismic noise source maps with high temporal resolution (days) is expected to come from a number of domains, including natural resources exploration, analysis of active earthquake fault zones and volcanoes, as well as geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring. Currently, knowledge of noise sources is insufficient for high-resolution subsurface monitoring applications. Near-real-time seismic data, as well as advanced imaging methods to constrain seismic noise sources have recently become available. These methods are based on the massive cross-correlation of seismic noise records from all available seismic stations in the region of interest and are therefore very computationally intensive. Heterogeneous massively parallel supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years combine conventional multi-core CPU with GPU accelerators and provide an opportunity for manifold increase and computing performance. Therefore, these systems represent an efficient platform for implementation of a noise source mapping solution. We present the first results of an ongoing research project conducted in collaboration with the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS). The project aims at building a service that provides seismic noise source maps for Central Europe with high temporal resolution (days to few weeks depending on frequency and data availability). The service is hosted on the CSCS computing infrastructure; all computationally intensive processing is performed on the massively parallel heterogeneous supercomputer "Piz Daint". The solution architecture is based on the Application-as-a-Service concept in order to provide the interested external researchers the regular access to the noise source maps. The solution architecture includes the following sub-systems: (1) data acquisition responsible for

  12. Highly linear heterogeneous-integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators on Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Morton, Paul A; Khurgin, Jacob B; Peters, Jon D; Bowers, John E

    2016-08-22

    In this paper we demonstrate highly linear Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators utilizing heterogeneous integration on a Si substrate (HS-MZM). A record high dynamic range was achieved for silicon devices, obtained using hybrid III-V/Si phase modulation sections and single drive push-pull operation, demonstrating a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 112 dB∙Hz2/3 at 10 GHz, comparable to commercial Lithium Niobate MZMs.

  13. Performance of a Heterogeneous Grid Partitioner for N-body Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Daniel J.; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    An important characteristic of distributed grids is that they allow geographically separated multicomputers to be tied together in a transparent virtual environment to solve large-scale computational problems. However, many of these applications require effective runtime load balancing for the resulting solutions to be viable. Recently, we developed a latency tolerant partitioner, called MinEX, specifically for use in distributed grid environments. This paper compares the performance of MinEX to that of METIS, a popular multilevel family of partitioners, using simulated heterogeneous grid configurations. A solver for the classical N-body problem is implemented to provide a framework for the comparisons. Experimental results show that MinEX provides superior quality partitions while being competitive to METIS in speed of execution.

  14. High Loading of Pd Nanoparticles by Interior Functionalization of MOFs for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Bappaditya; Sanyal, Udishnu; Banerjee, Rahul; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2016-03-07

    In this report, the issue related to nanoparticle (NP) agglomeration upon increasing their loading amount into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been addressed by functionalization of MOFs with alkyne groups. The alkynophilicity of the Pd(2+) (or other noble metals) ions has been utilized successfully for significant loading of Pd NPs into alkyne functionalized MOFs. It has been shown here that the size and loading amount of Pd NPs are highly dependent on the surface area and pore width of the MOFs. The loading amount of Pd NPs was increased monotonically without altering their size distribution on a particular MOF. Importantly, the distinct role of alkyne groups for Pd(2+) stabilization has also been demonstrated by performing a control experiment considering a MOF without an alkyne moiety. The preparation of NPs involved two distinct steps viz. adsorption of metal ions inside MOFs and reduction of metal ions. Both of these steps were monitored by microscopic techniques. This report also demonstrates the applicability of Pd@MOF NPs as extremely efficient heterogeneous catalysts for Heck-coupling and hydrogenation reactions of aryl bromides or iodides and alkenes, respectively.

  15. Robust Multiscale Iterative Solvers for Nonlinear Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Y.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we study robust iterative solvers for finite element systems resulting in approximation of steady-state Richards\\' equation in porous media with highly heterogeneous conductivity fields. It is known that in such cases the contrast, ratio between the highest and lowest values of the conductivity, can adversely affect the performance of the preconditioners and, consequently, a design of robust preconditioners is important for many practical applications. The proposed iterative solvers consist of two kinds of iterations, outer and inner iterations. Outer iterations are designed to handle nonlinearities by linearizing the equation around the previous solution state. As a result of the linearization, a large-scale linear system needs to be solved. This linear system is solved iteratively (called inner iterations), and since it can have large variations in the coefficients, a robust preconditioner is needed. First, we show that under some assumptions the number of outer iterations is independent of the contrast. Second, based on the recently developed iterative methods, we construct a class of preconditioners that yields convergence rate that is independent of the contrast. Thus, the proposed iterative solvers are optimal with respect to the large variation in the physical parameters. Since the same preconditioner can be reused in every outer iteration, this provides an additional computational savings in the overall solution process. Numerical tests are presented to confirm the theoretical results. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  16. Improving the performance of heterogeneous multi-core processors by modifying the cache coherence protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Juan; Hao, Xiaoting; Fan, Qingwen; Chang, Zeqing; Song, Shuying

    2017-05-01

    In the Heterogeneous multi-core architecture, CPU and GPU processor are integrated on the same chip, which poses a new challenge to the last-level cache management. In this architecture, the CPU application and the GPU application execute concurrently, accessing the last-level cache. CPU and GPU have different memory access characteristics, so that they have differences in the sensitivity of last-level cache (LLC) capacity. For many CPU applications, a reduced share of the LLC could lead to significant performance degradation. On the contrary, GPU applications can tolerate increase in memory access latency when there is sufficient thread-level parallelism. Taking into account the GPU program memory latency tolerance characteristics, this paper presents a method that let GPU applications can access to memory directly, leaving lots of LLC space for CPU applications, in improving the performance of CPU applications and does not affect the performance of GPU applications. When the CPU application is cache sensitive, and the GPU application is insensitive to the cache, the overall performance of the system is improved significantly.

  17. High performance MEAs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    The aim of the present project is through modeling, material and process development to obtain significantly better MEA performance and to attain the technology necessary to fabricate stable catalyst materials thereby providing a viable alternative to current industry standard. This project primarily focused on the development and characterization of novel catalyst materials for the use in high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). New catalysts are needed in order to improve fuel cell performance and reduce the cost of fuel cell systems. Additional tasks were the development of new, durable sealing materials to be used in PEMFC as well as the computational modeling of heat and mass transfer processes, predominantly in LT PEMFC, in order to improve fundamental understanding of the multi-phase flow issues and liquid water management in fuel cells. An improved fundamental understanding of these processes will lead to improved fuel cell performance and hence will also result in a reduced catalyst loading to achieve the same performance. The consortium have obtained significant research results and progress for new catalyst materials and substrates with promising enhanced performance and fabrication of the materials using novel methods. However, the new materials and synthesis methods explored are still in the early research and development phase. The project has contributed to improved MEA performance using less precious metal and has been demonstrated for both LT-PEM, DMFC and HT-PEM applications. New novel approach and progress of the modelling activities has been extremely satisfactory with numerous conference and journal publications along with two potential inventions concerning the catalyst layer. (LN)

  18. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, the author introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, they demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection. In the second part of this dissertation, the author used laser-induced native fluorescence coupled with capillary electrophoresis (LINF-CE) and microscope imaging to study the single cell degranulation. On the basis of good temporal correlation with events observed through an optical microscope, they have identified individual peaks in the fluorescence electropherograms as serotonin released from the granular core on contact with the surrounding fluid.

  20. Architecture-Aware Algorithms for Scalable Performance and Resilience on Heterogeneous Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2013-03-14

    There is a widening gap between the peak performance of high performance computers and the performance realized by full applications. Over the next decade, extreme-scale systems will present major new challenges to software development that could widen the gap so much that it prevents the productive use of future DOE Leadership computers.

  1. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    in a standard CMOS technology, they can be designed to yield 100 dB performance at 10 times oversampling. The proposed scaled-element mismatch-shaping D/A converters are well suited for use as the feedback stage in oversampled delta-sigma quantizers. It is, however, not easy to make full use of their potential...... this problem. This way, the delta-sigma quantizer's feedback signal is obtained by a multiple-stage quantization, where the loop quantizer (low-resolution and minimum-delay) implements only the last-stage quantization. Hence, high-speed, high-resolutiondelta-sigma quantization is feasible without using complex...... circuitry. An improved version of the MASH topology is also proposed. A delta-sigma quantizer is used to quantize the input signal into an oversampled digital representation of low-to-moderate resolution. The delta-sigma quantizer'struncation error is estimated either directly, or as the first...

  2. Performance of Goddard Earth Observing System GCM Column Radiation Models under Heterogeneous Cloud Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Chou, M.-D.; Khairoutdinov, M.; Barker, H. W.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2003-01-01

    We test the performance of the shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Column Radiation Models (CORAMs) of Chou and collaborators with heterogeneous cloud fields from a global single-day dataset produced by NCAR's Community Atmospheric Model with a 2-D CRM installed in each gridbox. The original SW version of the CORAM performs quite well compared to reference Independent Column Approximation (ICA) calculations for boundary fluxes, largely due to the success of a combined overlap and cloud scaling parameterization scheme. The absolute magnitude of errors relative to ICA are even smaller for the LW CORAM which applies similar overlap. The vertical distribution of heating and cooling within the atmosphere is also simulated quite well with daily-averaged zonal errors always below 0.3 K/d for SW heating rates and 0.6 K/d for LW cooling rates. The SW CORAM's performance improves by introducing a scheme that accounts for cloud inhomogeneity. These results suggest that previous studies demonstrating the inaccuracy of plane-parallel models may have unfairly focused on worst scenario cases, and that current radiative transfer algorithms of General Circulation Models (GCMs) may be more capable than previously thought in estimating realistic spatial and temporal averages of radiative fluxes, as long as they are provided with correct mean cloud profiles. However, even if the errors of the particular CORAMs are small, they seem to be systematic, and the impact of the biases can be fully assessed only with GCM climate simulations.

  3. Immobilizing LaFeO3 nanoparticles on carbon spheres for enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton like performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaixuan; Niu, Helin; Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi; Gao, Yuanhao

    2017-05-01

    LaFeO3 nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of monodisperse carbon spheres have been obtained through a facile and environmentally friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. The LaFeO3/C nanocomposite was evaluated as photo-Fenton like catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The LaFeO3/C nanocomposite possesses high specific surface area compared with pure LaFeO3 and significantly enhanced photo-Fenton like catalytic performance. The possible formation process of the LaFeO3/C nanocomposite and the mechanism for photo-Fenton like reaction were discussed. The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of carbon spheres. In addition, the heterogeneous process led to better recyclability of this type of catalyst.

  4. Mobility management for highly mobile users and vehicular networks in heterogeneous environments

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl; Åhlund, Christer; Gukhool, Balkrishna Sharma; Cherkaoui, Soumaya

    2008-01-01

      With the recent developments in wireless networks, different radio access technologies are used in different places depending on capacity in terms of throughput, cell size, scalability etc. In this context, mobile users, and in particular highly mobile users and vehicular networks, will see an increasing number and variety of wireless access points enabling Internet connectivity. Such a heterogeneous networking environment needs, however, an efficient mobility management scheme offering ...

  5. High-resolution mapping of the triangle of Koch: Spatial heterogeneity of fast pathway atrionodal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kelvin; Upadhyay, Gaurav; Lee, Elliot; Aziz, Zaid; Beaser, Andrew; Ozcan, Cevher; Broman, Michael; Nayak, Hemal; Tung, Roderick

    2017-11-24

    Dedicated mapping studies of the triangle of Koch to characterize retrograde fast pathway activation have not been previously performed using high-resolution, 3-dimensional, multielectrode mapping technology. To delineate the activation pattern and spatial distribution of the retrograde fast pathway within the triangle of Koch during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and right ventricular pacing in a consecutive series of patients using the Rhythmia mapping system (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). A total of 18 patients with symptomatic typical AVNRT referred for ablation underwent ultrahigh-density mapping of atrial activation with minielectrode basket configuration during tachycardia. The earliest atrial activation was mapped using automated annotation, with manual overreading by 2 independent observers. The triangle of Koch was classified into 3 anatomic regions: anteroseptal (His), midseptal, and posteroseptal (coronary sinus roof). Thirteen patients underwent mapping of atrial activation during ventricular pacing. A median of 422 mapping points (interquartile range 258-896 points) was acquired within the triangle of Koch during tachycardia. The most common site of earliest atrial activation within the triangle of Koch was anterior in 67% of patients (n = 12). Midseptal early atrial activation was seen in 17% (n = 3), and posteroseptal activation was observed in 11% (n = 2). One patient exhibited broad simultaneous activation of the entire triangle of Koch. Slow pathway potentials were not identified. With high-resolution multielectrode mapping, atrial activation during typical AVNRT exhibited anatomic variability and spatially heterogeneous activation within the triangle of Koch. These findings highlight the limitations of an anatomically based classification of atrioventricular nodal retrograde pathways. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial connectivity in a highly heterogeneous aquifer: From cores to preferential flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M.; Zheng, C.; Wilson, C.; Tick, G.R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Gorelick, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates connectivity in a small portion of the extremely heterogeneous aquifer at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi. A total of 19 fully penetrating soil cores were collected from a rectangular grid of 4 m by 4 m. Detailed grain size analysis was performed on 5 cm segments of each core, yielding 1740 hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates. Three different geostatistical simulation methods were used to generate 3-D conditional realizations of the K field for the sampled block. Particle tracking calculations showed that the fastest particles, as represented by the first 5% to arrive, converge along preferential flow paths and exit the model domain within preferred areas. These 5% fastest flow paths accounted for about 40% of the flow. The distribution of preferential flow paths and particle exit locations is clearly influenced by the occurrence of clusters formed by interconnected cells with K equal to or greater than the 0.9 decile of the data distribution (10% of the volume). The fraction of particle paths within the high-K clusters ranges from 43% to 69%. In variogram-based K fields, some of the fastest paths are through media with lower K values, suggesting that transport connectivity may not require fully connected zones of relatively homogenous K. The high degree of flow and transport connectivity was confirmed by the values of two groups of connectivity indicators. In particular, the ratio between effective and geometric mean K (on average, about 2) and the ratio between the average arrival time and the arrival time of the fastest particles (on average, about 9) are consistent with flow and advective transport behavior characterized by channeling along preferential flow paths. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Lin, Feng; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells fabricated from organometal halide light harvesters have captured significant attention due to their tremendously low device costs as well as unprecedented rapid progress on power conversion efficiency (PCE). A certified PCE of 20.1% was achieved in late 2014 following the first study of long‐term stable all‐solid‐state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, showing their promising potential towards future cost‐effective and high performance solar cells. Here, notable achievements of primary device configuration involving perovskite layer, hole‐transporting materials (HTMs) and electron‐transporting materials (ETMs) are reviewed. Numerous strategies for enhancing photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells, including morphology and crystallization control of perovskite layer, HTMs design and ETMs modifications are discussed in detail. In addition, perovskite solar cells outside of HTMs and ETMs are mentioned as well, providing guidelines for further simplification of device processing and hence cost reduction. PMID:27774402

  8. High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin; Lin, Feng; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Zhiming M

    2016-05-01

    Perovskite solar cells fabricated from organometal halide light harvesters have captured significant attention due to their tremendously low device costs as well as unprecedented rapid progress on power conversion efficiency (PCE). A certified PCE of 20.1% was achieved in late 2014 following the first study of long-term stable all-solid-state perovskite solar cell with a PCE of 9.7% in 2012, showing their promising potential towards future cost-effective and high performance solar cells. Here, notable achievements of primary device configuration involving perovskite layer, hole-transporting materials (HTMs) and electron-transporting materials (ETMs) are reviewed. Numerous strategies for enhancing photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells, including morphology and crystallization control of perovskite layer, HTMs design and ETMs modifications are discussed in detail. In addition, perovskite solar cells outside of HTMs and ETMs are mentioned as well, providing guidelines for further simplification of device processing and hence cost reduction.

  9. Is high-resolution inverse characterization of heterogeneous river bed hydraulic conductivities needed and possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kurtz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available River–aquifer exchange fluxes influence local and regional water balances and affect groundwater and river water quality and quantity. Unfortunately, river–aquifer exchange fluxes tend to be strongly spatially variable, and it is an open research question to which degree river bed heterogeneity has to be represented in a model in order to achieve reliable estimates of river–aquifer exchange fluxes. This research question is addressed in this paper with the help of synthetic simulation experiments, which mimic the Limmat aquifer in Zurich (Switzerland, where river–aquifer exchange fluxes and groundwater management activities play an important role. The solution of the unsaturated–saturated subsurface hydrological flow problem including river–aquifer interaction is calculated for ten different synthetic realities where the strongly heterogeneous river bed hydraulic conductivities (L are perfectly known. Hydraulic head data (100 in the default scenario are sampled from the synthetic realities. In subsequent data assimilation experiments, where L is unknown now, the hydraulic head data are used as conditioning information, with the help of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF. For each of the ten synthetic realities, four different ensembles of L are tested in the experiments with EnKF; one ensemble estimates high-resolution L fields with different L values for each element, and the other three ensembles estimate effective L values for 5, 3 or 2 zones. The calibration of higher-resolution L fields (i.e. fully heterogeneous or 5 zones gives better results than the calibration of L for only 3 or 2 zones in terms of reproduction of states, stream–aquifer exchange fluxes and parameters. Effective L for a limited number of zones cannot always reproduce the true states and fluxes well and results in biased estimates of net exchange fluxes between aquifer and stream. Also in case only 10 head data are used for conditioning, the high

  10. Performance analysis of general purpose and digital signal processor kernels for heterogeneous systems-on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Sydow

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reasons like technology progress, flexibility demands, shortened product cycle time and shortened time to market have brought up the possibility and necessity to integrate different architecture blocks on one heterogeneous System-on-Chip (SoC. Architecture blocks like programmable processor cores (DSP- and GPP-kernels, embedded FPGAs as well as dedicated macros will be integral parts of such a SoC. Especially programmable architecture blocks and associated optimization techniques are discussed in this contribution. Design space exploration and thus the choice which architecture blocks should be integrated in a SoC is a challenging task. Crucial to this exploration is the evaluation of the application domain characteristics and the costs caused by individual architecture blocks integrated on a SoC. An ATE-cost function has been applied to examine the performance of the aforementioned programmable architecture blocks. Therefore, representative discrete devices have been analyzed. Furthermore, several architecture dependent optimization steps and their effects on the cost ratios are presented.

  11. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  12. Performance analysis of coordination strategies in two-tier Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2016-08-11

    Large scale multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) are expected to ensure a consistent quality of service (QoS) in 5G systems. Such networks consist of a macro base station (BS) equipped with a large number of antennas and a dense overlay of small cells. The small cells could be deployed within the same coverage of the macro-cell BS, thereby causing high levels of inter-cell interference. In this regard, coordinated beamforming techniques are considered as a viable solution to counteract the arising interference. The goal of this work is to analyze the efficiency of coordinated beamforming techniques in mitigating both intra-cell and inter-cell interference. In particular, we consider the downlink of a Time-division duplexing (TDD) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) tier-HetNet and analyze different beamforming schemes together with different degrees of coordination between the BSs. We exploit random matrix theory tools in order to provide, in explicit form, deterministic equivalents for the average achievable rates in the macro-cell and the micro-cells. We prove that our theoretical derivations allow us to draw some conclusions regarding the role played by coordination strategies in reducing the inter-cell interference. These findings are finally validated by a selection of some numerical results. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. University Institutional Research and Student Recruitment Performance: Utilizing Marketing Communication for Knowledge Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GONG, Reuy-Wei; TSAI, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Institutional research constantly generate useful but heterogeneous knowledge for university administrations. Thus the effectiveness of institutional research dependes on the communication of those heterogeneous knowledge to major stakeholders (e.g., parents, students, teachers, etc.). A conceptual paper is developed in regards to the influences of institutional research, word-of-mouth (via internal students and faculties), quality signaling (to external prospect students and stakeh...

  14. Heterogeneous UO{sub 2} fuel irradiated up to a high burn-up: Investigation of the HBS and of fission product releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirot, J., E-mail: jean.noirot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Lamontagne, J. [CEA, DEN, DEC, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Nakae, N. [JNES, Toranomon Towers Office, 4-1-28, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan); Kitagawa, T. [MNF, 622-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1197 (Japan); Kosaka, Y. [NDC, 622-12 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1111 (Japan); Tverberg, T. [IFE, P.O. Box 173, NO-1751 Halden (Norway)

    2013-11-15

    A UO{sub 2} fuel with a heterogeneous distribution of {sup 235}U was irradiated up to a high burn-up in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The last 100 days of irradiation were performed with an increased level of linear power. The effect of the heterogeneous fissile isotope distribution on the formation of the HBS was studied free of the possible influence of Pu which exists in heterogeneous MOX fuels. The HBS formed in {sup 235}U-rich agglomerates and its main characteristics were very similar to those of the HBS formed in Pu-rich agglomerates of heterogeneous MOX fuels. The maximum local contents of Nd and Xe before HBS formation were studied in this fuel. In addition to a Pu effect that promotes the HBS phenomenon, comparison with previous results for heterogeneous MOX fuels showed that the local fission product concentration was not the only parameter that has to be taken into consideration. It appears that the local actinide depletion by fission and/or the energy locally deposited through electronic interactions in the fission fragment recoils also have an effect on the HBS formation threshold. Moreover, a major release of fission gases from the peripheral {sup 235}U-rich agglomerates of HBS bubbles and a Cs radial movement are also evidenced in this heterogeneous UO{sub 2}. Cs deposits on the peripheral grain boundaries, including the HBS grain boundaries, are considered to reveal the release paths.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Trucchi, Emiliano; Whittington, Jason D; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2015-01-01

    How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the importance of

  16. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Cristofari

    Full Text Available How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the

  17. Effect of spatial forcing data and landscape heterogeneity on performance and consistency of model structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Tanja; Winsemius, Hessel; Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the main questions in hydrological modelling is how to design conceptual rainfall-runoff models with a higher degree of realism. It is expected that if models have a higher degree of realism, their predictive power will increase. One frequently discussed option is the use of more spatial information, which is increasingly available. Information with spatial variability can be found for example for forcing data, elevation, land use, etc. The abundance of spatially variable data requires the modeller to carefully select which data add realism to the model and which data only add complexity. An additional complication is further that the spatial detail required is a function of the time scales of the forcing data and the required output. The amount of spatially variable data available can guide the choice of an adequate distribution level of a model. As it is often difficult to determine the most suitable level of distribution for a certain catchment, this study systematically evaluates the value of incorporating distributed forcing data and distributed model structures in a stepwise approach for the Ourthe catchment (Belgium). The distribution of the model structures is based on landscape heterogeneity, using both elevation data and land use data. Eight different model configurations are tested: a lumped and a distributed model structure, each with lumped and stepwise distributed fluxes and stocks. To stepwise distribute the fluxes and stocks, the distributed forcing data is sequentially kept distributed for each reservoir of the model. To compare the degree of realism of the different configurations, both model performance and consistency are compared. Performance describes the ability of a model configuration to mimic a specific part of the hydrological behaviour in a specific catchment. Consistency describes the ability of a model configuration to adequately reproduce several hydrological signatures simultaneously. FARM (Framework to Assess the Realism of

  18. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  19. High Performance Torso Cooling Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Bruce; Makinen, Janice

    2016-01-01

    The concept proposed in this paper is to improve thermal efficiencies of the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) in the torso area, which could facilitate removal of LCVG tubing from the arms and legs, thereby increasing suited crew member mobility. EVA space suit mobility in micro-gravity is challenging, and it becomes even more challenging in the gravity of Mars. By using shaped water tubes that greatly increase the contact area with the skin in the torso region of the body, the heat transfer efficiency can be increased. This increase in efficiency could provide the required liquid cooling via torso tubing only; no arm or leg LCVG tubing would be required. Benefits of this approach include increased crewmember mobility, enhanced evaporation cooling, increased comfort during Mars EVA tasks, and easing of the overly dry condition in the helmet associated with the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) ventilation loop currently under development. This report describes analysis and test activities performed to evaluate the potential improvements to the thermal performance of the LCVG. Analyses evaluated potential tube shapes for improving the thermal performance of the LCVG. The analysis results fed into the selection of flat flow strips to improve thermal contact with the skin of the suited test subject. Testing of small segments was performed to compare thermal performance of the tubing approach of the current LCVG to the flat flow strips proposed as the new concept. Results of the testing is presented along with recommendations for future development of this new concept.

  20. Heterogeneity of Rapid Sand Filters and Its Effect on Contaminant Transport and Nitrification Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure Rose; Galaj, Zofia; Delpont, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    flow. A first-order nitrification reaction with spatially variable pore-water velocity could be interpreted as a zero-order reaction with a constant pore-water velocity. A model demonstrated that filter heterogeneity could result in higher filter outlet ammonium concentrations.......Laboratory and full-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the development and effect of heterogeneity caused by filter media nonuniformity, biofilm, particles, precipitates, and gas bubbles in rapid sand filters used for drinking-water treatment. Salt tracer experiments were conducted...... dispersivity of more than 33% in the 116 h after the start of filtration with a constant pore-water velocity and a zero-order nitrification rate of 9 mgN=L=h. The full-scale experiments showed that the rapid sand filter was heterogeneous with pore-water velocities ranging from 2.2 to 3:3 m=h for the same inlet...

  1. Learning Apache Solr high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide, full of hands-on, real-world examples. Each topic is explained and demonstrated in a specific and user-friendly flow, from search optimization using Solr to Deployment of Zookeeper applications. This book is ideal for Apache Solr developers and want to learn different techniques to optimize Solr performance with utmost efficiency, along with effectively troubleshooting the problems that usually occur while trying to boost performance. Familiarity with search servers and database querying is expected.

  2. Toward High-Performance Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Edward E., III

    2002-01-01

    Reviews management changes that companies have made over time in adopting or adapting four approaches to organizational performance: employee involvement, total quality management, re-engineering, and knowledge management. Considers future possibilities and defines a new view of what constitutes effective organizational design in management.…

  3. High-Performance Composite Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with…

  4. Controllable synthesis of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with high homogeneity for a high-performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Zhuang; Bian, Zhenpan; Jin, Cuihong; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Baipeng; Wu, Tianhui; Wang, Lin; Tang, Shoufeng; Wang, Hongchao; Gao, Faming

    2017-08-01

    The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors might be associated with the homogeneous structure of the electrode materials. However, the relationship between the degree of uniformity for the electrode materials and the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is not clear. Herein, we synthesize two types of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with different degrees of uniformity to investigate this relationship. As the electroactive material, the nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with a homogeneous structure could provide a larger space and offer more exposed atoms for the electrochemical reaction than the nanocrystals with a heterogeneous structure. The homogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals exhibit better electrochemical performance and show excellent specific capacitance (1596 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 1260 F g-1 at 30 A g-1), which is approximately twice that of the heterogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals. The cycling stability for the homogeneity (˜80%) is higher than the inhomogeneity (˜61%) at a high current density of 5 A g-1.

  5. Quantifying heterogeneity in emphysema from high-resolution computed tomography: a lung tissue research consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Dane, Dan M; Patel, Nova C; Hsia, Connie C W

    2013-02-01

    To quantify spatial distribution of emphysema using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), we applied semiautomated analysis with internal attenuation calibration to measure regional air volume, tissue volume, and fractional tissue volume (FTV = tissue/[air + tissue] volume) in well-characterized patients studied by the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC). HRCT was obtained at supine end-inspiration and end-expiration, and prone end-inspiration from 31 patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very severe emphysema (stages II-V, forced expiratory volume at 1 second >75%, 51%-75%, 21%-50% and ≤20% predicted, respectively). Control data were from 20 healthy non-smokers (stage I). Each lobe was analyzed separately. Heterogeneity of FTV was assessed from coefficients of variation (CV) within and among lobes, and the kurtosis and skewness of FTV histograms. In emphysema, lobar air volume increased up to 177% above normal except in the right middle lobe. Lobar tissue volume increased up to 107% in mild-moderate stages then normalized in advanced stages. Normally, FTV was up to 82% higher in lower than upper lobes. In mild-moderate emphysema, lobar FTV increased by up to 74% above normal at supine inspiration. In severe emphysema, FTV declined below normal in all lobes and positions in correlation with pulmonary function (P < .05). Markers of FTV heterogeneity increased steadily with disease stage in correlation with pulmonary function (P < .05); the pattern is distinct from that seen in interstitial lung disease (ILD). CT-derived biomarkers differentiate the spatial patterns of emphysema distribution and heterogeneity from that in ILD. Early emphysema is associated with elevated tissue volume and FTV, consistent with hyperemia, inflammation or atelectasis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. MS-HRM assay identifies high levels of epigenetic heterogeneity in human immortalized cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Milica; Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Pournara, Angeliki; Vahter, Marie; Wallberg, Annika E

    2015-04-15

    Immortalized cell lines are widely used in genetic and epigenetic studies, from exploration of basic molecular pathways to evaluation of disease-specific cellular properties. They are also used in biotechnology, e.g., in drug toxicity tests and vaccine production. Cellular and genetic uniformity is the main feature of immortalized cell lines and it has been particularly advantageous in functional genomic research, which has in recent years been expanded to include epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Using the MS-HRM technique, we demonstrated heterogeneity in locus-specific methylation patterns in different cell cultures of four human cell lines: HEK293, HEK293T, LCL and DU145. Our results show that some human immortalized cell lines consist of cells that differ in the methylation status of specific loci, i.e., that they are epigenetically heterogeneous. We show that even two cultures of the same cell line obtained from different laboratories can differ in the methylation status of the specific loci. The results indicated that epigenetic uniformity of the cell lines cannot be assumed in experiments which utilize cell cultures and that the methylation status of the specific loci in the immortalized cell lines should be re-characterized and carefully profiled before epigenetic studies are performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  8. High performance Mo adsorbent PZC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-10-01

    We have developed Mo adsorbents for natural Mo(n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator. Among them, we called the highest performance adsorbent PZC that could adsorb about 250 mg-Mo/g. In this report, we will show the structure, adsorption mechanism of Mo, and the other useful properties of PZC when you carry out the examination of Mo adsorption and elution of {sup 99m}Tc. (author)

  9. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...... at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT...

  10. Reliability of long heterogeneous slopes in 3d : Model performance and conditional simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highway embankments, river dykes and sea dykes usually have a uniform cross-section and extend for a long distance in the third dimension. These long soil structures are generally characterised by spatially varying soil properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity. Slope stability failures of these

  11. Exploring the Performance of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction in Large Scale SNP Studies and in the Presence of Genetic Heterogeneity among Epistatic Disease Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L.; Lewis, Kenneth; Velez, Digna R.; Dudek, Scott; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims In genetic studies of complex disease a consideration for the investigator is detection of joint effects. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) algorithm searches for these effects with an exhaustive approach. Previously unknown aspects of MDR performance were the power to detect interactive effects given large numbers of non-model loci or varying degrees of heterogeneity among multiple epistatic disease models. Methods To address the performance with many non-model loci, datasets of 500 cases and 500 controls with 100 to 10,000 SNPs were simulated for two-locus models, and one hundred 500-case/500-control datasets with 100 and 500 SNPs were simulated for three-locus models. Multiple levels of locus heterogeneity were simulated in several sample sizes. Results These results show MDR is robust to locus heterogeneity when the definition of power is not as conservative as in previous simulation studies where all model loci were required to be found by the method. The results also indicate that MDR performance is related more strongly to broad-sense heritability than sample size and is not greatly affected by non-model loci. Conclusions A study in which a population with high heritability estimates is sampled predisposes the MDR study to success more than a larger ascertainment in a population with smaller estimates. PMID:19077437

  12. Exploring the performance of Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction in large scale SNP studies and in the presence of genetic heterogeneity among epistatic disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Todd L; Lewis, Kenneth; Velez, Digna R; Dudek, Scott; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2009-01-01

    In genetic studies of complex disease a consideration for the investigator is detection of joint effects. The Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) algorithm searches for these effects with an exhaustive approach. Previously unknown aspects of MDR performance were the power to detect interactive effects given large numbers of non-model loci or varying degrees of heterogeneity among multiple epistatic disease models. To address the performance with many non-model loci, datasets of 500 cases and 500 controls with 100 to 10,000 SNPs were simulated for two-locus models, and one hundred 500-case/500-control datasets with 100 and 500 SNPs were simulated for three-locus models. Multiple levels of locus heterogeneity were simulated in several sample sizes. These results show MDR is robust to locus heterogeneity when the definition of power is not as conservative as in previous simulation studies where all model loci were required to be found by the method. The results also indicate that MDR performance is related more strongly to broad-sense heritability than sample size and is not greatly affected by non-model loci. A study in which a population with high heritability estimates is sampled predisposes the MDR study to success more than a larger ascertainment in a population with smaller estimates.

  13. High-Performance Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1985-01-01

    Single vapor channel and single liquid channel joined by axial slot. New design, permits high heat-transport capacity without excessively reducing heat-transfer efficiency. Contains two large axial channels, one for vapor and one for liquid, permitting axial transport and radial heat-transfer requirements met independently. Heat pipe has capacity of approximately 10 to sixth power watt-inches (2.5 X 10 to sixth power watt-cm) orders of magnitude greater than heat capacity of existing heat pipes. Design has high radial-heat-transfer efficiency, structurally simple, and has large liquid and vapor areas.

  14. High-performance solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekley, D. C.; Mather, G. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Evacuated all-glass concentric tube collector using air or liquid transfer mediums is very efficient at high temperatures. Collector can directly drive existing heating systems that are presently driven by fossil fuel with relative ease of conversion and less expense than installation of complete solar heating systems.

  15. Detection of admittivity anomaly on high-contrast heterogeneous backgrounds using frequency difference EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J; Seo, J K

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a multiple background subtraction method in frequency difference electrical impedance tomography (fdEIT) to detect an admittivity anomaly from a high-contrast background conductivity distribution. The proposed method expands the use of the conventional weighted frequency difference EIT method, which has been used limitedly to detect admittivity anomalies in a roughly homogeneous background. The proposed method can be viewed as multiple weighted difference imaging in fdEIT. Although the spatial resolutions of the output images by fdEIT are very low due to the inherent ill-posedness, numerical simulations and phantom experiments of the proposed method demonstrate its feasibility to detect anomalies. It has potential application in stroke detection in a head model, which is highly heterogeneous due to the skull.

  16. Viscoelastic relaxations of high alcohols and alkanes: Effects of heterogeneous structure and translation-orientation coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    The frequency-dependent shear viscosity of high alcohols and linear alkanes, including 1-butanol, 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, n-hexane, n-decane, and n-tetradecane, was calculated using molecular dynamics simulation. The relaxation of all the liquids was bimodal. The correlation functions of the collective orientation were also evaluated. The analysis of these functions showed that the slower relaxation mode of alkanes is assigned to the translation-orientation coupling, while that of high alcohols is not. The X-ray structure factors of all the alcohols showed prepeaks, as have been reported in the literature, and the intermediate scattering functions were calculated at the prepeak. Comparing the intermediate scattering function with the frequency-dependent shear viscosity based on the mode-coupling theory, it was demonstrated that the slower viscoelastic relaxation of the alcohols is assigned to the relaxation of the heterogeneous structure described by the prepeak.

  17. Carpet Aids Learning in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy and High Performance Schools Act of 2002 has set specific federal guidelines for school design, and developed a federal/state partnership program to assist local districts in their school planning. According to the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS), high-performance schools are, among other things, healthy, comfortable,…

  18. High Performance JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Zakas, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    If you're like most developers, you rely heavily on JavaScript to build interactive and quick-responding web applications. The problem is that all of those lines of JavaScript code can slow down your apps. This book reveals techniques and strategies to help you eliminate performance bottlenecks during development. You'll learn how to improve execution time, downloading, interaction with the DOM, page life cycle, and more. Yahoo! frontend engineer Nicholas C. Zakas and five other JavaScript experts -- Ross Harmes, Julien Lecomte, Steven Levithan, Stoyan Stefanov, and Matt Sweeney -- demonstra

  19. Quantifying Heterogeneity in Emphysema from High Resolution Computed Tomography: A Lung Tissue Research Consortium Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Dane, Dan M.; Patel, Nova C.; Hsia, Connie C.W.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objective To quantify spatial distribution of emphysema using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), we applied semi-automated analysis with internal attenuation calibration to measure regional air volume, tissue volume, and fractional tissue volume (FTV=tissue/[air+tissue] volume) in well-characterized patients studied by the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC). Methods HRCT was obtained at supine end-inspiration and end-expiration, and prone end-inspiration from 31 patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very severe emphysema (stages II–V, FEV1>75%, 51–75%, 21–50% and ≤20% predicted, respectively). Control data were from 20 healthy non-smokers (stage I). Each lobe was analyzed separately. Heterogeneity of FTV was assessed from coefficients of variation (CV) within and among lobes, and the kurtosis and skewness of FTV histograms. Results In emphysema, lobar air volume increased up to 177% except in the right middle lobe. Lobar tissue volume increased up to 107% in mild-moderate stages then normalized in advanced stages. Normally, FTV was up to 82% higher in lower than upper lobes. In mild-moderate emphysema, lobar FTV increased by up to 74% above normal at supine inspiration. In severe emphysema FTV declined below normal in all lobes and positions in correlation with pulmonary function (pemphysema distribution and heterogeneity from that in ILD. Early emphysema is associated with elevated tissue volume and FTV, consistent with hyperemia, inflammation or atelectasis. PMID:23122057

  20. Immobilizing LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles on carbon spheres for enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton like performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kaixuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Niu, Helin, E-mail: niuhelin@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, Jingshuai; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Zhang, Shengyi [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Gao, Yuanhao [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles sub–10 nm were successfully immobilized on monodisperse carbon spheres for the first time through a facile and environmental friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. • LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite exhibits much higher photo-Fenton like catalytic activity than LaFeO{sub 3}. • The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of monodisperse carbon spheres. - Abstract: LaFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of monodisperse carbon spheres have been obtained through a facile and environmentally friendly ultrasonic assisted surface ions adsorption method. The LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite was evaluated as photo-Fenton like catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite possesses high specific surface area compared with pure LaFeO{sub 3} and significantly enhanced photo-Fenton like catalytic performance. The possible formation process of the LaFeO{sub 3}/C nanocomposite and the mechanism for photo-Fenton like reaction were discussed. The superior property was attributed to the synergistic effects from the photo-Fenton like process and the presence of carbon spheres. In addition, the heterogeneous process led to better recyclability of this type of catalyst.

  1. High intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity is related to worse outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Edmund A.; Tward, Aaron D.; Pickering, Curtis R.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Ferris, Robert L.; Rocco, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the presence of genetic heterogeneity within individual patients’ tumors is established, it is unclear whether greater heterogeneity predicts worse outcome. A quantitative measure of genetic heterogeneity based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH), was previously developed and applied to a data set on head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Whether this measure correlates with clinical outcome was not previously assessed. Methods We examined the association of MATH with clinical, pathological and overall-survival data for 74 HNSCC patients for whom exome sequencing was completed. Results High MATH (a MATH value above the median) was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.8). MATH was similarly associated with adverse outcomes in clinically high risk patients with advanced stage, and in tumors classified as high risk on the basis of validated biomarkers including those negative for human papillomavirus or having disruptive TP53 mutations. In patients who received chemotherapy, the hazard ratio for high MATH was 4.1 (95%CI: 1.6 to 10.2). Conclusions This novel measure of tumor genetic heterogeneity is significantly associated with tumor progression and adverse treatment outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that higher genetic heterogeneity portends worse clinical outcome in HNSCC. The prognostic value of some known biomarkers may be the result of their association with high genetic heterogeneity. MATH provides a useful measure of that heterogeneity, to be prospectively validated as NGS data from homogeneously treated patient cohorts becomes available. PMID:23696076

  2. High intratumor genetic heterogeneity is related to worse outcome in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Edmund A; Tward, Aaron D; Pickering, Curtis R; Myers, Jeffrey N; Ferris, Robert L; Rocco, James W

    2013-08-15

    Although the presence of genetic heterogeneity within the tumors of individual patients is established, it is unclear whether greater heterogeneity predicts a worse outcome. A quantitative measure of genetic heterogeneity based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, mutant-allele tumor heterogeneity (MATH), was previously developed and applied to a data set on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Whether this measure correlates with clinical outcome was not previously assessed. The authors examined the association between MATH and clinical, pathologic, and overall survival data for 74 patients with HNSCC for whom exome sequencing was completed. High MATH (a MATH value above the median) was found to be significantly associated with shorter overall survival (hazards ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.8). MATH was similarly found to be associated with adverse outcomes in clinically high-risk patients with an advanced stage of disease, and in those with tumors classified as high risk on the basis of validated biomarkers including those that were negative for human papillomavirus or having disruptive tumor protein p53 mutations. In patients who received chemotherapy, the hazards ratio for high MATH was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-10.2). This novel measure of tumor genetic heterogeneity is significantly associated with tumor progression and adverse treatment outcomes, thereby supporting the hypothesis that higher genetic heterogeneity portends a worse clinical outcome in patients with HNSCC. The prognostic value of some known biomarkers may be the result of their association with high genetic heterogeneity. MATH provides a useful measure of that heterogeneity to be prospectively validated as NGS data from homogeneously treated patient cohorts become available. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Heterogeneous esterification of oil with high amount of free fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Marchetti; V.U. Miguel; A.F. Errazu [Planta Piloto de Ingeniera Quimica (UNS-CONICET), Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2007-03-15

    Frying oils have become the newest raw material for the transesterification reaction for the production of biodiesel. However, these compounds usually come with a certain amount of free fatty acids. These impurities can be transformed into esters and the production of biodiesel could be increased. The use of basic resins to perform the esterification reaction into biodiesel is studied in this work. The effect of the most relevant variables of the process such as reaction temperature, molar ratio between alcohol and oil, amount of catalyst and amount of free fatty acids fed with the oil have been analyzed. For this purpose, an ideal frying oil using oleic acid and soybean oil was made. The alcohol used was ethanol. The esterification of free fatty acid using this heterogeneous catalyst appears as a great alternative to purify frying oil; in this case, the final conversion achieved was around 80%. Short communication. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  4. High-performance hierarchical fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nicolas B.; Zhang, Weidong

    2002-07-01

    We describe in more detail a mask data preparation (MDP) flow previously proposed. The focus on this paper is a performance comparison of hierarchical fracturing techniques compared to standard fracturing. Our flow uses GDSII data as input, including a GDSII-based job deck description. The output is maximally compacted, trapezoidal mask writer (MW) formatted data. Our flow takes advantage of hierarchy explicit in the GDSII file(s). This allows optimal determination of 'cover cells', which are repeatable groups of patterns within the data. The use of cover cells allows a reduction of fracturing runtime. In one case, a 21 GB MEBES file was fractured in 30 hours using the standard technique and 53 minutes using the hierarchical cover cell technique.

  5. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  6. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  7. Performance Analysis of Economic Model and Radio Resource Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nilkantha Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Radio resource management (RRM) is the system level control of co-channel interference and other radio transmission characteristics in wireless communication systems. In this paper we first analyze a utility function based access selection (UFAS) method. Thenwe investigate a radio resource management and network selection scheme in heterogeneous wireless network. We propose an economic model to allocate radio resources for Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) Networks and Wireless local Area ...

  8. An Improved STARFM with Help of an Unmixing-Based Method to Generate High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Remote Sensing Data in Complex Heterogeneous Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Xie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technology plays an important role in monitoring rapid changes of the Earth's surface. However, sensors that can simultaneously provide satellite images with both high temporal and spatial resolution haven’t been designed yet. This paper proposes an improved spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (STARFM with the help of an Unmixing-based method (USTARFM to generate the high spatial and temporal data needed for the study of heterogeneous areas. The results showed that the USTARFM had higher accuracy than STARFM methods in two aspects of analysis: individual bands and of heterogeneity analysis. Taking the predicted NIR band as an example, the correlation coefficients (r for the USTARFM, STARFM and unmixing methods were 0.96, 0.95, 0.90, respectively (p-value < 0.001; Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values were 0.0245, 0.0300, 0.0401, respectively; and ERGAS values were 0.5416, 0.6507, 0.8737, respectively. The USTARM showed consistently higher performance than STARM when the degree of heterogeneity ranged from 2 to 10, highlighting that the use of this method provides the capacity to solve the data fusion problems faced when using STARFM. Additionally, the USTARFM method could help researchers achieve better performance than STARFM at a smaller window size from its heterogeneous land surface quantitative representation.

  9. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Boron Trifluoride Doped High Performance Polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Basavaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report simple synthesis of boron trifluoride (BF3 doped defect free high performance polyaniline (HPPANI in two step method. Firstly, HPPANI was prepared via self-stabilization dispersion polymerization method in a heterogeneous reaction medium. Second step involves doping of emeraldine base form of HPPANI with boron trifluoride under reduced vacuum. The resultants BF3 doped HPPANI have been well characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetry. The spectroscopic data indicated that the interaction between HPPANI and BF3.Thermogravimetry studies revealed that the BF3 doping improved the thermal stability of defects free PANI.

  11. Multiscale Lattice Boltzmann method for flow simulations in highly heterogenous porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for flow simulations in highly heterogeneous porous media at both pore and Darcy scales is proposed in the paper. In the pore scale simulations, flow of two phases (e.g., oil and gas) or two immiscible fluids (e.g., water and oil) are modeled using cohesive or repulsive forces, respectively. The relative permeability can be computed using pore-scale simulations and seamlessly applied for intermediate and Darcy-scale simulations. A multiscale LBM that can reduce the computational complexity of existing LBM and transfer the information between different scales is implemented. The results of coarse-grid, reduced-order, simulations agree very well with the averaged results obtained using fine grid.

  12. Monodispersed ZIF-8 particles with enhanced performance for CO2 adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yebin; Shi, Juanjuan; Xia, Ming; Zhang, Jun; Pang, Zhenfeng; Marchetti, Alessandro; Wang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jingsong; Kong, Xueqian

    2017-11-01

    Monodispersed zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) were prepared with a simple method using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. This method yields ZIF-8 nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution of 90-110 nm and the dispersion is highly stable against agglomeration. These particles have larger nanosized porosity and enhanced CO2 adsorption capability compared to ZIF-8 prepared with different solvents such as methanol or N, N-dimethyl formamide. Their uniform size and surface chemistry also lead to superior performance in the Knoevenagel condensation reactions. The ZIF-8 nanoparticles possess high thermal stability up to 550 °C and the preparation steps are easy for scaling up which are favorable for industrial applications.

  13. An Associate Degree in High Performance Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Arnold

    In order for more individuals to enter higher paying jobs, employers must create a sufficient number of high-performance positions (the demand side), and workers must acquire the skills needed to perform in these restructured workplaces (the supply side). Creating an associate degree in High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) will help address four…

  14. Heterogeneous Uptake of Nanoparticles in Mouse Models of Pediatric High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan B Ghaghada

    Full Text Available Liposomal chemotherapeutics are exemplified by DOXIL® are commonly used in adult cancers. While these agents exhibit improved safety profile compared to their free drug counterparts, their treatment response rates have been ~ 20%, often attributed to the heterogeneous intratumoral uptake and distribution of liposomal nanoparticles. Non-invasive and quantitative monitoring of the uptake and distribution of liposomal nanoparticles in solid tumors could allow for patient stratification and personalized cancer nanomedicine. In this study, the variability of liposomal nanoparticle intratumoral distribution and uptake in orthotopic models of pediatric neuroblastoma was investigated using a liposomal nanoprobe visualized by high-resolution computed tomography (CT. Two human neuroblastoma cell lines (NGP: a MYCN-amplified line, and SH-SY5Y a MYCN non-amplified line were implanted in the renal capsule of nude mice to establish the model. Intratumoral nanoparticle uptake was measured at tumor ages 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks post implantation. The locations of uptake within the tumor were mapped in the 3-dimensional reconstructed images. Total uptake was measured by integration of the x-ray absorption signal over the intratumoral uptake locations. Both tumor models showed significant variation in nanoparticle uptake as the tumors aged. Observation of the uptake patterns suggested that the nanoparticle uptake was dominated by vascular leak at the surface/periphery of the tumor, and localized, heterogeneous vascular leak in the interior of the tumor. Slow growing SH-SY5Y tumors demonstrated uptake that correlated directly with the tumor volume. Faster growing NGP tumor uptake did not correlate with any tumor geometric parameters, including tumor volume, tumor surface area, and R30 and R50, measures of uptake localized to the interior of the tumor. However, uptake for both SH-SY5Y and NGP tumors correlated almost perfectly with the leak volume, as measured by CT

  15. Factors associated with high heterogeneity of malaria at fine spatial scale in the Western Kenyan highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidjoe, Amrish Y; Stevenson, Jennifer; Knight, Philip; Stone, William; Stresman, Gillian; Osoti, Victor; Makori, Euniah; Owaga, Chrispin; Odongo, Wycliffe; China, Pauline; Shagari, Shehu; Kariuki, Simon; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Bousema, Teun

    2016-06-04

    The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. A large cross-sectional survey including 17,503 individuals was conducted across all age groups in a 100 km(2) area in the Western Kenyan highlands of Rachuonyo South district. Households were geo-located and prevalence of malaria parasites and malaria-specific antibodies were determined by PCR and ELISA. Household and individual risk-factors were recorded. Geographical characteristics of the study area were digitally derived using high-resolution satellite images. Malaria antibody prevalence strongly related to altitude (1350-1600 m, p malaria infections were apparently asymptomatic. Malaria parasite prevalence was associated with age, bed net use, house construction features, altitude and topographical wetness index. Antibody prevalence was associated with all these factors and distance to the nearest water body. Altitude was a major driver of malaria transmission in this study area, even across narrow altitude bands. The large proportion of asymptomatic parasite carriers at all altitudes and the age-dependent acquisition of malaria antibodies indicate stable malaria transmission; the strong correlation between current parasite carriage and serological markers of malaria exposure indicate temporal stability of spatially heterogeneous transmission.

  16. High performance computing and communications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee

    1992-01-01

    A review of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is provided in vugraph format. The goals and objectives of this federal program are as follows: extend U.S. leadership in high performance computing and computer communications; disseminate the technologies to speed innovation and to serve national goals; and spur gains in industrial competitiveness by making high performance computing integral to design and production.

  17. Assessing spatial heterogeneity of MDR-TB in a high burden country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Helen E.; Plesca, Valeriu; Ciobanu, Anisoara; Crudu, Valeriu; Galusca, Irina; Soltan, Viorel; Serbulenco, Aliona; Zignol, Matteo; Dadu, Andrei; Dara, Masoud; Cohen, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major concern in countries of the former Soviet Union. The reported risk of resistance among TB cases in the Republic of Moldova is among the highest in the world. We aimed to produce high-resolution spatial maps of MDR-TB risk and burden in this setting. We analyzed national TB surveillance data collected between 2007 and 2010 in Moldova. High drug susceptibility testing coverage and detailed location data permitted identification of sub-regional areas of higher MDR-TB risk. We investigated whether the distribution of cases with MDR-TB risk factors could explain this observed spatial variation in MDR-TB. 3,447 MDR-TB cases were notified during this period; 24% of new and 62% of previously treated patients had MDR-TB. Nationally, the estimated annual MDR-TB incidence was 54 cases/100,000 persons and >1,000 cases/100,000 persons within penitentiaries. We identified substantial geographic variation in MDR-TB burden and hotspots of MDR-TB. Locations with a higher percentage of previously incarcerated TB cases were at greater risk of being MDR-TB hotspots. Spatial analyses revealed striking geographic heterogeneity of MDR-TB. Methods to identify locations of high MDR-TB risk and burden should allow for better resource allocation and more appropriate targeting of studies to understand local mechanisms driving resistance. PMID:23100496

  18. High Performance Spaceflight Computing (HPSC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In 2012, the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCDP), residing in the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD), commissioned a High Performance...

  19. High performance carbon nanocomposites for ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to composite electrodes for electrochemical devices, particularly to carbon nanotube composite electrodes for high performance electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors.

  20. Multi-Flow Carrier Aggregation in Heterogeneous Networks: Cross-Layer Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Alorainy, Abdulaziz

    2017-02-09

    Multi-flow carrier aggregation (CA) has recently been considered to meet the increasing demand for high data rates. In this paper, we investigate the cross-layer performance of multi-flow CA for macro user equipments (MUEs) in the expanded range (ER) of small cells. We develop a fork/join (F/J) queuing analytical model that takes into account the time varying channels, the channel scheduling algorithm, partial CQI feedback and the number of component carriers deployed at each tier. Our model also accounts for stochastic packet arrivals and the packet scheduling mechanism. The analytical model developed in this paper can be used to gauge various packet-level performance parameters e.g., packet loss probability (PLP) and queuing delay. For the queuing delay, our model takes out-of-sequence packet delivery into consideration. The developed model can also be used to find the amount of CQI feedback and the packet scheduling of a particular MUE in order to offload as much traffic as possible from the macrocells to the small cells while maintaining the MUE\\'s quality of service (QoS) requirements.

  1. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of tomato induced defense responses affects spider mite performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Ataide, Livia M S; Kant, Merijn R

    2017-10-03

    When feeding from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the generalist spider mite Tetranychus urticae induces jasmonate (JA)- and salicylate (SA)-regulated defense responses that hamper its performance. The related T. evansi, a Solanaceae-specialist, suppresses these defenses, thereby upholding a high performance. On a shared leaf, T. urticae can be facilitated by T. evansi, likely via suppression of defenses by the latter. Yet, when infesting the same plant, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae. Recently, we found that T. evansi intensifies suppression of defenses locally, i.e., at its feeding site, after T. urticae mites were introduced onto adjacent leaf tissue. This hyper-suppression is paralleled by an increased oviposition rate of T. evansi, probably promoting its competitive population growth. Here we present additional data that not only provide insight into the spatiotemporal dynamics of defense induction and suppression by mites, but that also suggest T. evansi to manipulate more than JA and SA defenses alone.

  2. Heterogeneous Single-Atom Catalyst for Visible-Light-Driven High-Turnover CO2Reduction: The Role of Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Chen, Shuangming; Wang, Ying; Wang, Jiawen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Song, Li; Zhang, Wenkai; Xiong, Yujie

    2018-02-14

    Visible-light-driven conversion of CO 2 into chemical fuels is an intriguing approach to address the energy and environmental challenges. In principle, light harvesting and catalytic reactions can be both optimized by combining the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysts; however, the efficiency of charge transfer between light absorbers and catalytic sites is often too low to limit the overall photocatalytic performance. In this communication, it is reported that the single-atom Co sites coordinated on the partially oxidized graphene nanosheets can serve as a highly active and durable heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 conversion, wherein the graphene bridges homogeneous light absorbers with single-atom catalytic sites for the efficient transfer of photoexcited electrons. As a result, the turnover number for CO production reaches a high value of 678 with an unprecedented turnover frequency of 3.77 min -1 , superior to those obtained with the state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalysts. This work provides fresh insights into the design of catalytic sites toward photocatalytic CO 2 conversion from the angle of single-atom catalysis and highlights the role of charge kinetics in bridging the gap between heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  4. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  5. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  6. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  7. Field testing the ENSEMBLE Minimum Dataset: performance of an instrument to address heterogeneity of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Susan K; Shen, Wei; Brekke, Lee; Paczkowski, Rosirene; Bancroft, Tim; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Greenfield, Sheldon; Berger, Marc; Buesching, Don P

    2014-09-01

    To assess the ability of ENterprising SElective Multi-instrument BLend for hEterogeneity analysis (ENSEMBLE) Minimum Dataset instrument dimensions to discriminate among subgroups of patients expected to have differential outcomes. Patients with Type 2 diabetes, knee osteoarthritis, ischemic heart disease or heart failure completed a survey designed to represent three dimensions (health, personality and behavior). Health-related outcomes and utilization were investigated using claims data. Discriminant validity and associations between the dimensions and outcomes were assessed. A total of 2625 patients completed the survey. The dimensions discriminated 50-100% of the outcome levels across disease cohorts; behavior dimension scores did not differ significantly among the healthcare utilization level subgroups in any disease cohort. ENSEMBLE Minimum Dataset dimensions discriminated health-related outcome levels among patients with varied diseases.

  8. The influence of facies heterogeneity on the doublet performance in low-enthalpy geothermal sedimentary reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crooijmans, R. A.; Willems, C. J L; Nick, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional model is used to study the influence of facies heterogeneity on energy production under different operational conditions of low-enthalpy geothermal doublet systems. Process-based facies modelling is utilised for the Nieuwerkerk sedimentary formation in the West Netherlands Basin...... and the energy recovery rate for different discharge rates and the production temperature (Tmin) above which the doublet is working. With respect to the results, we propose a design model to estimate the life time and energy recovery rate of the geothermal doublet. The life time is estimated as a function of N...... errors in predicting the life time of low-enthalpy geothermal systems for N/G values below 70%....

  9. Dose prediction accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm and pencil beam convolution algorithm beyond high density heterogeneity interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that photon beam radiation therapy requires dose calculation algorithms. The objective of this study was to measure and assess the ability of pencil beam convolution (PBC and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA to predict doses beyond high density heterogeneity. Materials and Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom of five layers was created in Eclipse planning system (version 8.6.15. Each layer of phantom was assigned in terms of water (first or top, air (second, water (third, bone (fourth, and water (fifth or bottom medium. Depth doses in water (bottom medium were calculated for 100 monitor units (MUs with 6 Megavoltage (MV photon beam for different field sizes using AAA and PBC with heterogeneity correction. Combinations of solid water, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC, and Styrofoam were then manufactured to mimic phantoms and doses for 100 MUs were acquired with cylindrical ionization chamber at selected depths beyond high density heterogeneity interface. The measured and calculated depth doses were then compared. Results: AAA′s values had better agreement with measurements at all measured depths. Dose overestimation by AAA (up to 5.3% and by PBC (up to 6.7% was found to be higher in proximity to the high-density heterogeneity interface, and the dose discrepancies were more pronounced for larger field sizes. The errors in dose estimation by AAA and PBC may be due to improper beam modeling of primary beam attenuation or lateral scatter contributions or combination of both in heterogeneous media that include low and high density materials. Conclusions: AAA is more accurate than PBC for dose calculations in treating deep-seated tumor beyond high-density heterogeneity interface.

  10. Locus heterogeneity disease genes encode proteins with high interconnectivity in the human protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eKeith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes potentially lead to a number of genetic diseases with differing severity. These disease genes have been the focus of research in recent years showing that the disease gene population as a whole is not homogeneous, and can be categorised according to their interactions. Locus heterogeneity describes a single disorder caused by mutations in different genes each acting individually to cause the same disease. Using datasets of experimentally derived human disease genes and protein interactions, we created a protein interaction network to investigate the relationships between the products of genes associated with a disease displaying locus heterogeneity, and use network parameters to suggest properties that distinguish these disease genes from the overall disease gene population. Through the manual curation of known causative genes of 100 diseases displaying locus heterogeneity and 397 single-gene Mendelian disorders, we use network parameters to show that our locus heterogeneity network displays distinct properties from the global disease network and a Mendelian network. Using the global human proteome, through random simulation of the network we show that heterogeneous genes display significant interconnectivity. Further topological analysis of this network revealed clustering of locus heterogeneity genes that cause identical disorders, indicating that these disease genes are involved in similar biological processes. We then use this information to suggest novel genes that may also contribute to diseases with locus heterogeneity.

  11. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodbury-Smith Marc

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed

  12. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Howard; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Watson, Peter; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Background Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. Methods We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Results Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. Conclusion These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed in those with an autistic

  13. Clinical heterogeneity among people with high functioning autism spectrum conditions: evidence favouring a continuous severity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Howard; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Watson, Peter; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-02-20

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASCs) are characterized by a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, but the extent to which this variation represents a severity gradient versus discrete phenotypes is unclear. This issue has complicated genetic studies seeking to investigate the genetic basis of the high hereditability observed clinically in those with an ASC. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of symptoms associated with ASCs to determine whether the observed distribution of symptom type and severity supported either a severity or a symptom subgroup model to account for the phenotypic variation observed within the ASCs. We investigated the responses of a group of adults with higher functioning ASCs on the fifty clinical features examined in the Autism Spectrum Quotient, a screening questionnaire used in the diagnosis of higher functioning ASCs. In contrast to previous studies we have used this instrument with no a priori assumptions about any underlying factor structure of constituent items. The responses obtained were analyzed using complete linkage hierarchical cluster analysis. For the members of each cluster identified the mean score on each Autism Spectrum Quotient question was calculated. Autism Spectrum Quotient responses from a total of 333 individuals between the ages of 16.6 and 78.0 years were entered into the hierarchical cluster analysis. The four cluster solution was the one that generated the largest number of clusters that did not also include very small cluster sizes, defined as a membership comprising 10 individuals or fewer. Examination of these clusters demonstrated that they varied in total Autism Spectrum Quotient but that the profiles across the symptoms comprising the Autism Spectrum Quotient did not differ independently of this severity factor. These results are consistent with a unitary spectrum model, suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity observed in those with an autistic spectrum condition at the higher-IQ end

  14. Three-dimensional optoacoustic mesoscopy of the tumor heterogeneity in vivo using high depth-to-resolution multispectral optoacoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Zhang, Songhe; Chekkoury, Andrei; Glasl, Sarah; Vetschera, Paul; Koberstein-Schwarz, Benno; Omar, Murad; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    Multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) has been recently introduced for cancer imaging, it has the potential for high resolution imaging of cancer development in vivo, at depths beyond the diffusion limit. Based on spectral features, optoacoustic imaging is capable of visualizing angiogenesis and imaging cancer heterogeneity of malignant tumors through endogenous hemoglobin. However, high-resolution structural and functional imaging of whole tumor mass is limited by modest penetration and image quality, due to the insufficient capability of ultrasound detectors and the twodimensional scan geometry. In this study, we introduce a novel multi-spectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) for imaging subcutaneous or orthotopic tumors implanted in lab mice, with the high-frequency ultrasound linear array and a conical scanning geometry. Detailed volumetric images of vasculature and oxygen saturation of tissue in the entire tumors are obtained in vivo, at depths up to 10 mm with the desirable spatial resolutions approaching 70μm. This unprecedented performance enables the visualization of vasculature morphology and hypoxia conditions has been verified with ex vivo studies. These findings demonstrate the potential of MSOM for preclinical oncological studies in deep solid tumors to facilitate the characterization of tumor's angiogenesis and the evaluation of treatment strategies.

  15. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Spatola, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mo...

  16. Probabilistic performance-based design for high performance control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Laura; Cao, Liang; Gong, Yongqiang; Cancelli, Alessandro; Laflamme, Simon; Alipour, Alice

    2017-04-01

    High performance control systems (HPCS) are advanced damping systems capable of high damping performance over a wide frequency bandwidth, ideal for mitigation of multi-hazards. They include active, semi-active, and hybrid damping systems. However, HPCS are more expensive than typical passive mitigation systems, rely on power and hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators) to operate, and require maintenance. In this paper, a life cycle cost analysis (LCA) approach is proposed to estimate the economic benefit these systems over the entire life of the structure. The novelty resides in the life cycle cost analysis in the performance based design (PBD) tailored to multi-level wind hazards. This yields a probabilistic performance-based design approach for HPCS. Numerical simulations are conducted on a building located in Boston, MA. LCA are conducted for passive control systems and HPCS, and the concept of controller robustness is demonstrated. Results highlight the promise of the proposed performance-based design procedure.

  17. High performance computing at Sandia National Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, R.M.; Noe, J.P.; Vandevender, W.H.

    1995-10-01

    Sandia`s High Performance Computing Environment requires a hierarchy of resources ranging from desktop, to department, to centralized, and finally to very high-end corporate resources capable of teraflop performance linked via high-capacity Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The mission of the Scientific Computing Systems Department is to provide the support infrastructure for an integrated corporate scientific computing environment that will meet Sandia`s needs in high-performance and midrange computing, network storage, operational support tools, and systems management. This paper describes current efforts at SNL/NM to expand and modernize centralized computing resources in support of this mission.

  18. Adaptive aspirations and performance heterogeneity : Attention allocation among multiple reference points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blettner, D.P.; He, Z.; Hu, S.; Bettis, R.

    Organizations learn and adapt their aspiration levels based on reference points (prior aspiration, prior performance, and prior performance of reference groups). The relative attention that organizations allocate to these reference points impacts organizational search and strategic decisions.

  19. Nanoscale high-content analysis using compositional heterogeneities of single proteoliposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe; Christensen, Sune M.; Fung, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Proteoliposome reconstitution is a standard method to stabilize purified transmembrane proteins in membranes for structural and functional assays. Here we quantified intrareconstitution heterogeneities in single proteoliposomes using fluorescence microscopy. Our results suggest that compositional...

  20. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  1. An Improved Discrete-Time Model for Heterogeneous High-Speed Train Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Jia, Bin; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Xin-Gang

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to present a simulation model for heterogeneous high-speed train traffic flow based on an improved discrete-time model (IDTM). In the proposed simulation model, four train control strategies, including departing strategy, traveling strategy, braking strategy, overtaking strategy, are well defined to optimize train movements. Based on the proposed simulation model, some characteristics of train traffic flow are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the departure time intervals, the station dwell time, the section length, and the ratio of fast trains have different influence on traffic capacity and train average velocity. The results can provide some theoretical support for the strategy making of railway departments. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2012CB725400, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 71222101, the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety under Grant No. RCS2014ZT16, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities No. 2015YJS088, Beijing Jiaotong University

  2. Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry in aircraft plumes - high sensitivity on local meteorology and atmospheric composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Meilinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An aircraft plume model has been developed on the basis of two coupled trajectory box models. Two boxes, one for plume and one for background conditions, are coupled by means of a mixing parameterization based on turbulence theory. The model considers comprehensive gas phase chemistry for the tropopause region including acetone, ethane and their oxidation products. Heterogeneous halogen, N2O5 and HOx chemistry on various types of background and aircraft-induced aerosols (liquid and ice is considered, using state-of-the-art solubility dependent uptake coefficients for liquid phase reactions. The microphysical scheme allows for coagulation, gas-diffusive particle growth and evaporation, so that the particle development from 1s after emission to several days can be simulated. Model results are shown, studying emissions into the upper troposphere as well as into the lowermost stratosphere for contrail and non-contrail conditions. We show the microphysical and chemical evolution of spreading plumes and use the concept of mean plume encounter time, tl, to define effective emission and perturbation indices (EEIs and EPIs for the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC showing EEI(NOy and EPI(O3 for various background conditions, such as relative humidity, local time of emission, and seasonal variations. Our results show a high sensitivity of EEI and EPIs on the exact conditions under which emissions take place. The difference of EEIs with and without considering plume processes indicates that these processes cannot be neglected.

  3. Chiral Covalent Organic Frameworks with High Chemical Stability for Heterogeneous Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xing; Xia, Qingchun; Huang, Jinjing; Liu, Yan; Tan, Chunxia; Cui, Yong

    2017-06-28

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) featuring chirality, stability, and function are of both fundamental and practical interest, but are yet challenging to achieve. Here we reported the metal-directed synthesis of two chiral COFs (CCOFs) by imine-condensations of enantiopure 1,2-diaminocyclohexane with C3-symmetric trisalicylaldehydes having one or zero 3-tert-butyl group. Powder X-ray diffraction and modeling studies, together with pore size distribution analysis demonstrate that the Zn(salen)-based CCOFs possess a two-dimensional hexagonal grid network with AA stacking. Dramatic enhancement in the chemical stability toward acidic (1 M HCl) and basic (9 M NaOH) conditions was observed for the COF incorporated with tert-butyl groups on the pore walls compared to the nonalkylated analog. The Zn(salen) modules in the CCOFs allow for installing multivariate metals into the frameworks by postsynthetic metal exchange. The exchanged CCOFs maintain high crystallinity and porosity and can serve as efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes, Diels-Alder reaction, alkene epoxidation, epoxide ring-opening, and related sequential reactions with up to 97% ee.

  4. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  5. Gene expression identifies heterogeneity of metastatic propensity in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skubitz, Keith M; Francis, Princy; Skubitz, Amy P N

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic propensity of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is heterogeneous and may be determined by gene expression patterns that do not correlate well with morphology. The authors have reported gene expression patterns that distinguish 2 broad classes of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC-gene set......), and other patterns that can distinguish heterogeneity of serous ovarian carcinoma (OVCA-gene set) and aggressive fibromatosis (AF-gene set); however, clinical follow-up data were not available for these samples....

  6. Heterogeneous carbon nano-tube window layer with higher sheet resistance improve the solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolson Singh, Khomdram; Jayenta Singh, Thokchom; Chettri, Dhanu; Sarkar, Subir kumar

    2017-06-01

    The heterogeneous Carbon Nano-Tube (CNT) layers deposited on the window surface of solar cells that allow better charge carrier collection was numerically analyzed and studied in modern TCAD tools. The quantum efficiency(EQE) as well as power conversion efficiency (η) were found to be improved significantly based on the light transmission capabilities of the CNT layer. Two CNT network models using experimental sheet resistance values of 75 Ω/□ and 128 Ω/□ as a top conducting layer in a GaAs solar cell were compared. It is found that the CNT networks allow for a greater area of charge collection as well as serve as a lower resistance path for charge carriers with minimum voltage loss to travel to the top contact. This model thus significantly improve the η up to 30% under AM0 with more than 90% EQE. The effect of cell width varying starting from 200 μm to 4000 μm with CNT top layer on Jsc, Voc and Pmax parameters were studied and found that these parameters remain almost constant irrespective of cell width. This work thus shown that a thin CNT top layers of lower sheet resistance with a higher light transmission can greatly improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  7. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  8. Dynamics of spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in Tradescantia virginiana altered by growth at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Harbinson, J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in response to rapid desiccation of excised well-watered Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown at moderate (55%) or high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) was studied using a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system under non-photorespiratory conditions.

  9. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  11. Editor's Choice-Medically managed patients with non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction have heterogeneous outcomes, based on performance of angiography and extent of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Laurent; Steg, Philippe G; Amsallem, Myriam; Puymirat, Etienne; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Elbaz, Meyer; Ritz, Bernard; Hueber, Arnaud; Cattan, Simon; Piot, Christophe; Ferrières, Jean; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Medically managed individuals represent a high-risk group among patients with non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTE-AMI). We hypothesized that prognosis in this group is heterogeneous, depending on whether medical management was decided with or without coronary angiography (CAG). Using data from the French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation or Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI), we analysed data from 798 patients with NSTE-AMI who were medically managed (i.e. without revascularization during the index hospitalization). Patients were categorized according to the performance of CAG and, if performed, to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). There were marked differences in baseline demographics, according to whether CAG was performed and to the extent of CAD. While the overall mortality rate at five years was high (56.2%), it differed greatly between groups, with patients who did not undergo CAG having a higher mortality rate (77.4%) than patients who underwent CAG (36.7%, p<0.001), and a higher mortality rate even than patients with multivessel CAD (54.2%, p<0.001). By multivariable analysis, non-performance of CAG was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality among medically managed NSTE-AMI patients (adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) 3.19 (1.79-5.67) at 30 days, 2.28 (1.60-3.26) at one year, and 1.63 (1.28-2.07) at five years; all p<0.001). Medically managed patients with NSTE-AMI are a heterogeneous group in terms of baseline characteristics and outcomes. The highest risk patients are those who do not undergo CAG. Non-performance of CAG is a strong predictor of death. (FAST-MI, NCT00673036).

  12. Radiation Hard High Performance Optoelectronic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-performance, radiation-hard, widely-tunable integrated laser/modulator chip and large-area avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are key components of optical...

  13. High Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMTC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a High-Performance Methane Thrust Chamber (HPMRE) to meet the demands of advanced chemical propulsion systems for deep-space mission...

  14. High-performance computing using FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Benkrid, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This book is concerned with the emerging field of High Performance Reconfigurable Computing (HPRC), which aims to harness the high performance and relative low power of reconfigurable hardware–in the form Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)–in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. It presents the latest developments in this field from applications, architecture, and tools and methodologies points of view. We hope that this work will form a reference for existing researchers in the field, and entice new researchers and developers to join the HPRC community.  The book includes:  Thirteen application chapters which present the most important application areas tackled by high performance reconfigurable computers, namely: financial computing, bioinformatics and computational biology, data search and processing, stencil computation e.g. computational fluid dynamics and seismic modeling, cryptanalysis, astronomical N-body simulation, and circuit simulation.     Seven architecture chapters which...

  15. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Anethole in Rat Plasma. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 5 (2014) > ... Results: GC determination showed that anethole in the essential oil of star anise exhibited a ...

  16. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  17. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  18. High performance computing in Windows Azure cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Ambruš, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    High performance, security, availability, scalability, flexibility and lower costs of maintenance have essentially contributed to the growing popularity of cloud computing in all spheres of life, especially in business. In fact cloud computing offers even more than this. With usage of virtual computing clusters a runtime environment for high performance computing can be efficiently implemented also in a cloud. There are many advantages but also some disadvantages of cloud computing, some ...

  19. Comparing Dutch and British high performing managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, A.A. de; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Selvarajah, C.; Meyer, D.

    2016-01-01

    National cultures have a strong influence on the performance of organizations and should be taken into account when studying the traits of high performing managers. At the same time, many studies that focus upon the attributes of successful managers show that there are attributes that are similar

  20. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  1. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-07

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  2. Heterogeneous Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Koldehofe, Boris; Mogensen, Martin; Monod, Maxime; Quéma, Vivien

    Gossip-based information dissemination protocols are considered easy to deploy, scalable and resilient to network dynamics. Load-balancing is inherent in these protocols as the dissemination work is evenly spread among all nodes. Yet, large-scale distributed systems are usually heterogeneous with respect to network capabilities such as bandwidth. In practice, a blind load-balancing strategy might significantly hamper the performance of the gossip dissemination.

  3. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated...... in the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM muting ratio...... in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  4. Spatial heterogeneity of denitrification genes in a highly homogenous urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Charles W; Dodds, Walter K; Wilson, Kymberly C; O'Brien, Jonathan M; Graham, David W

    2009-06-15

    Human modification of natural streams by urbanization has led to more homogeneous channel surfaces; however, the influence of channel simplification on in situ microbial distribution and function is poorly characterized. For example, denitrification, a microbial process that reduces soluble nitrogen (N) levels, requires peripheral anoxic zones that might be lost in artificial channels such as those with a concrete lining. To examine how microbial function might be influenced by channel simplification, we quantified denitrification rates and conditions in microbial mats within an urban concrete channel. We quantified spatial and diurnal patterns of nitrate uptake, diurnal dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, and nutrient conditions, along with the spatial distribution of DO, solids, chlorophyll a, and genes associated with denitrification (nirS and nirK), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), cyanobacteria, and algal chloroplasts. Despite the channel being superficially homogeneous, nir genes were distributed in a patchy manner. Two types of gene patches were observed: one associated with nirK, which had diurnally variable DO levels and high nocturnal nitrate uptake rates, and the other associated with nirS, which had elevated AOB genes, thicker layers of mud, and an apparent 24 h nitrate uptake. All active nir patches had elevated microbial photosynthetic genes. Results implythat even artificial channels, with reduced macroscale heterogeneity, can sustain significant rates of denitrification, although the responsible communities vary with space and time. This patchiness has significant implications to extending local data to landscape level predictions and field sampling strategies but also suggests alternate channel designs to increase N retention rates.

  5. High prevalence of diabetes and anthropometric heterogeneity among tuberculosis patients in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Huma; Ambreen, Atiqa; Jamil, Mohammad; Garred, Peter; Petersen, Jørgen H; Nielsen, Susanne D; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Christensen, Dirk L

    2017-04-01

    In Pakistan, the prevalence of diabetes (DM) among adults is 6.9% and expected to double by 2040. DM may facilitate transmission and halter the elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We aimed to determine the prevalence of DM among patients with TB in Pakistan, and to investigate anthropometric biochemical and haemodynamic associations between TB patients with and without DM. We conducted a cross-sectional study at Gulab Devi Chest Hospital in Lahore, Punjab. A total of 3027 newly diagnosed smear-positive TB patients ≥25 years of age were screened for DM by HbA1c regardless of previous DM history. The prevalence of screen-detected DM and known DM among the TB participants was 13.5% and 26.1%, respectively, resulting in a combined DM prevalence of 39.6%. Most participants were male (64.4%). Using bivariate analyses, participants with DM were significantly older (49.8 vs. 40.6 years) with higher haemoglobin (men, 12.1 vs. 11.8 g/dl, women 11.5 vs. 10.7 g/dl), body mass index (21.0 vs. 17.6 kg/m2 ) and waist-hip ratio (men, 0.87 vs. 0.81, women, 0.87 vs. 0.79) (all P < 0.05) than participants without DM. Stratifying by screen-detected and known DM, these differences remained significant when using multivariate analysis. We report a high prevalence of DM among patients with TB who may be anthropometrically and biochemically distinct from TB patients without DM, and this heterogeneity further transcends the different DM groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Iron modified bentonite: Enhanced adsorption performance for organic pollutant and its regeneration by heterogeneous visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yaowen; Guo, Yongzhao; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: eeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The iron modification markedly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB. • LED lamps emitting white light were employed as visible light source. • FeMB can be regenerated by visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH. • FeMB can be reused repeatedly after the heterogeneous photo-Fenton regeneration. - Abstract: Iron modified bentonite (FeMB) was prepared and used as an inexpensive adsorbent to rapidly remove organic pollutant (Rhodamine B, RhB) from aqueous solution. The iron modification significantly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB and permitted an easy separation of FeMB from the treated effluent. The equilibrium adsorption studies indicated that the dye molecules obeyed Langmuir type of adsorption with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity of 168.13 mg g{sup −1} for FeMB. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process operated at circumneutral pH in the presence of visible light irradiation was found to be effective for the regeneration of the spent FeMB. Furthermore, the regeneration efficiency of as high as 79% was still achieved after 5 consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles. Considering that, the visible light photo-Fenton approach could be applied as an excellent alternative for regenerating clay-based adsorbents by avoiding the use of dissolved iron salts.

  7. Blasting methods for heterogeneous rocks in hillside open-pit mines with high and steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chang, Z. G.; Chao, X. H.; Zhao, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    In the arid desert areas in Xinjiang, most limestone quarries are hillside open-pit mines (OPMs) where the limestone is hard, heterogeneous, and fractured, and can be easily broken into large blocks by blasting. This study tried to find effective technical methods for blasting heterogeneous rocks in such quarries based on an investigation into existing problems encountered in actual mining at Hongshun Limestone Quarry in Xinjiang. This study provided blasting schemes for hillside OPMs with different heights and slopes. These schemes involve the use of vertical deep holes, oblique shallow holes, and downslope hole-by-hole sublevel or simultaneous detonation techniques. In each bench, the detonations of holes in a detonation unit occur at intervals of 25-50 milliseconds. The research findings can offer technical guidance on how to blast heterogeneous rocks in hillside limestone quarries.

  8. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  9. Teacher Accountability at High Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Moises G.

    2016-01-01

    This study will examine the teacher accountability and evaluation policies and practices at three high performing charter schools located in San Diego County, California. Charter schools are exempted from many laws, rules, and regulations that apply to traditional school systems. By examining the teacher accountability systems at high performing…

  10. A note on variational multiscale methods for high-contrast heterogeneous porous media flows with rough source terms

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2011-09-01

    In this short note, we discuss variational multiscale methods for solving porous media flows in high-contrast heterogeneous media with rough source terms. Our objective is to separate, as much as possible, subgrid effects induced by the media properties from those due to heterogeneous source terms. For this reason, enriched coarse spaces designed for high-contrast multiscale problems are used to represent the effects of heterogeneities of the media. Furthermore, rough source terms are captured via auxiliary correction equations that appear in the formulation of variational multiscale methods [23]. These auxiliary equations are localized and one can use additive or multiplicative constructions for the subgrid corrections as discussed in the current paper. Our preliminary numerical results show that one can capture the effects due to both spatial heterogeneities in the coefficients (such as permeability field) and source terms (e.g., due to singular well terms) in one iteration. We test the cases for both smooth source terms and rough source terms and show that with the multiplicative correction, the numerical approximations are more accurate compared to the additive correction. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Performance analyses and improvements for the IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA scheme with heterogeneous buffered conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianping; Tao, Zhengsu; Lv, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme have been received considerable attention recently, with most of these studies focusing on homogeneous or saturated traffic. Two novel transmission schemes-OSTS/BSTS (One Service a Time Scheme/Bulk Service a Time Scheme)-are proposed in this paper to improve the behaviors of time-critical buffered networks with heterogeneous unsaturated traffic. First, we propose a model which contains two modified semi-Markov chains and a macro-Markov chain combined with the theory of M/G/1/K queues to evaluate the characteristics of these two improved CSMA/CA schemes, in which traffic arrivals and accessing packets are bestowed with non-preemptive priority over each other, instead of prioritization. Then, throughput, packet delay and energy consumption of unsaturated, unacknowledged IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled networks are predicted based on the overall point of view which takes the dependent interactions of different types of nodes into account. Moreover, performance comparisons of these two schemes with other non-priority schemes are also proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that delay and fairness of our schemes are superior to those of other schemes, while throughput and energy efficiency are superior to others in more heterogeneous situations. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate that the analysis results of these models match well with the simulation results.

  12. Performance Analyses and Improvements for the IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA Scheme with Heterogeneous Buffered Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Lv

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA scheme have been received considerable attention recently, with most of these studies focusing on homogeneous or saturated traffic. Two novel transmission schemes—OSTS/BSTS (One Service a Time Scheme/Bulk Service a Time Scheme—are proposed in this paper to improve the behaviors of time-critical buffered networks with heterogeneous unsaturated traffic. First, we propose a model which contains two modified semi-Markov chains and a macro-Markov chain combined with the theory of M/G/1/K queues to evaluate the characteristics of these two improved CSMA/CA schemes, in which traffic arrivals and accessing packets are bestowed with non-preemptive priority over each other, instead of prioritization. Then, throughput, packet delay and energy consumption of unsaturated, unacknowledged IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled networks are predicted based on the overall point of view which takes the dependent interactions of different types of nodes into account. Moreover, performance comparisons of these two schemes with other non-priority schemes are also proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that delay and fairness of our schemes are superior to those of other schemes, while throughput and energy efficiency are superior to others in more heterogeneous situations. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate that the analysis results of these models match well with the simulation results.

  13. The Pharmacological Heterogeneity of Nepenthone Analogs in Conferring Highly Selective and Potent κ-Opioid Agonistic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Long, Jian-Dong; Qian, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yu; Xu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yu-Jun; Shen, Qing; Wang, Zuo-Neng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Xiao, Li; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yi-Yi; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Jing-Gen; Qiu, Zhui-Bai; Fu, Wei

    2017-04-19

    To develop novel analgesics with no side effects or less side effects than traditional opioids is highly demanded to treat opioid receptor mediated pain and addiction issues. Recently, κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has been established as an attractive target, although its selective agonists could bear heterogeneous pharmacological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new series of nepenthone derivatives by inserting a spacer (carbonyl) between 6α,14α-endo-ethenylthebaine and the 7α-phenyl substitution of the skeleton and by substituting the 17-N-methyl group with a cyclopropylmethyl group. We performed in vitro tests (binding and functional assays) and molecular docking operations on our newly designed compounds. The results of wet-experimental measures and modeled binding structures demonstrate that these new compounds are selective KOR agonists with nanomolar level affinities. Compound 4 from these new derivatives showed the highest affinity (Ki = 0.4 ± 0.1 nM) and the highest selectivity (μ/κ = 339, δ/κ = 2034) toward KOR. The in vivo tests revealed that compound 4 is able to induce stronger (ED50 = 2.1 mg/kg) and much longer antinociceptive effect than that of the typical KOR agonist U50488H (ED50 = 4.4 mg/kg). Therefore, compound 4 can be used as a perfect lead compound for future design of potent analgesics acting through KOR.

  14. Chaotic genetic patchiness and high relatedness of a poecilogonous polychaete in a heterogeneous estuarine landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Banta, Gary Thomas; Kesäniemi, Jenni E

    2014-01-01

    locations from the heterogeneous Isefjord–Roskilde Fjord estuary complex in Denmark were found. There was no isolation by distance, and the geography of the estuary complex did not seem to pose a barrier to dispersal and gene flow in this species. We investigated whether characteristics of the environment...

  15. High-performance computing on GPUs for resistivity logging of oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinskikh, V.; Dudaev, A.; Nechaev, O.; Surodina, I.

    2017-10-01

    We developed and implemented into software an algorithm for high-performance simulation of electrical logs from oil and gas wells using high-performance heterogeneous computing. The numerical solution of the 2D forward problem is based on the finite-element method and the Cholesky decomposition for solving a system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE). Software implementations of the algorithm used the NVIDIA CUDA technology and computing libraries are made, allowing us to perform decomposition of SLAE and find its solution on central processor unit (CPU) and graphics processor unit (GPU). The calculation time is analyzed depending on the matrix size and number of its non-zero elements. We estimated the computing speed on CPU and GPU, including high-performance heterogeneous CPU-GPU computing. Using the developed algorithm, we simulated resistivity data in realistic models.

  16. Analysis of Energy Consumption Performance towards Optimal Radioplanning of Wireless Sensor Networks in Heterogeneous Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez Iturri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the impact of complex indoor environment in the deployment and energy consumption of a wireless sensor network infrastructure is analyzed. The variable nature of the radio channel is analyzed by means of deterministic in-house 3D ray launching simulation of an indoor scenario, in which wireless sensors, based on an in-house CyFi implementation, typically used for environmental monitoring, are located. Received signal power and current consumption measurement results of the in-house designed wireless motes have been obtained, stating that adequate consideration of the network topology and morphology lead to optimal performance and power consumption reduction. The use of radioplanning techniques therefore aid in the deployment of more energy efficient elements, optimizing the overall performance of the variety of deployed wireless systems within the indoor scenario.

  17. Predictive performance of microarray gene signatures: impact of tumor heterogeneity and multiple mechanisms of drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; A’Hern, Roger; Bidard, Francois-Clement; Lemetre, Christophe; Swanton, Charles; Shen, Ronglai; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.

    2014-01-01

    Gene signatures have failed to predict responses to breast cancer therapy in patients to date. In this study, we used bioinformatic methods to explore the hypothesis that the existence of multiple drug resistance mechanisms in different patients may limit the power of gene signatures to predict responses to therapy. Additionally, we explored whether sub-stratification of resistant cases could improve performance. Gene expression profiles from 1,550 breast cancers analyzed with the same microa...

  18. Heterogeneous pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer in multiple sclerosis. High resolution optical coherence tomography: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbecic, Nermin; Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Beutelspacher, Sven C; Graf, Martin; Kircher, Karl; Geitzenauer, Wolfgang; Brannath, Werner; Lang, Priska; Kristoferitsch, Wolfgang; Lassmann, Hans; Reitner, Andreas; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2010-11-08

    Recently the reduction of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) was suggested to be associated with diffuse axonal damage in the whole CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, several points are still under discussion. (1) Is high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) required to detect the partly very subtle RNFL changes seen in MS patients? (2) Can a reduction of RNFL be detected in all MS patients, even in early disease courses and in all MS subtypes? (3) Does an optic neuritis (ON) or focal lesions along the visual pathways, which are both very common in MS, limit the predication of diffuse axonal degeneration in the whole CNS? The purpose of our study was to determine the baseline characteristics of clinical definite relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS patients with high resolution OCT technique. Forty-two RRMS and 17 SPMS patients with and without history of uni- or bilateral ON, and 59 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analysed prospectively with the high resolution spectral-domain OCT device (SD-OCT) using the Spectralis 3.5mm circle scan protocol with locked reference images and eye tracking mode. Furthermore we performed tests for visual and contrast acuity and sensitivity (ETDRS, Sloan and Pelli-Robson-charts), for color vision (Lanthony D-15), the Humphrey visual field and visual evoked potential testing (VEP). All 4 groups (RRMS and SPMS with or without ON) showed significantly reduced RNFL globally, or at least in one of the peripapillary sectors compared to age-/sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with previous ON additional RNFL reduction was found. However, in many RRMS patients the RNFL was found within normal range. We found no correlation between RNFL reduction and disease duration (range 9-540 months). RNFL baseline characteristics of RRMS and SPMS are heterogeneous (range from normal to markedly reduced levels).

  19. Heterogeneous pattern of retinal nerve fiber layer in multiple sclerosis. High resolution optical coherence tomography: potential and limitations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Serbecic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently the reduction of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL was suggested to be associated with diffuse axonal damage in the whole CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS patients. However, several points are still under discussion. (1 Is high resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT required to detect the partly very subtle RNFL changes seen in MS patients? (2 Can a reduction of RNFL be detected in all MS patients, even in early disease courses and in all MS subtypes? (3 Does an optic neuritis (ON or focal lesions along the visual pathways, which are both very common in MS, limit the predication of diffuse axonal degeneration in the whole CNS? The purpose of our study was to determine the baseline characteristics of clinical definite relapsing-remitting (RRMS and secondary progressive (SPMS MS patients with high resolution OCT technique. METHODOLOGY: Forty-two RRMS and 17 SPMS patients with and without history of uni- or bilateral ON, and 59 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analysed prospectively with the high resolution spectral-domain OCT device (SD-OCT using the Spectralis 3.5mm circle scan protocol with locked reference images and eye tracking mode. Furthermore we performed tests for visual and contrast acuity and sensitivity (ETDRS, Sloan and Pelli-Robson-charts, for color vision (Lanthony D-15, the Humphrey visual field and visual evoked potential testing (VEP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All 4 groups (RRMS and SPMS with or without ON showed significantly reduced RNFL globally, or at least in one of the peripapillary sectors compared to age-/sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with previous ON additional RNFL reduction was found. However, in many RRMS patients the RNFL was found within normal range. We found no correlation between RNFL reduction and disease duration (range 9-540 months. CONCLUSIONS: RNFL baseline characteristics of RRMS and SPMS are heterogeneous (range from normal to markedly reduced levels.

  20. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant Wireless Devices for Heterogeneous Indoor Home Automation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Nazabal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of topology as well as morphology of complex indoor scenarios in the deployment of wireless sensor networks and wireless systems applied to home and building automation systems is analyzed. The existence of loss mechanisms such as material absorption (walls, furniture, etc. and strong multipath components as well as the increase in the number of wireless sensors within indoor scenarios increases the relevance in the configuration of the heterogeneous wireless systems. Simulation results by means of empirical-based models are compared with an in-house 3D ray launching code as well as measurement results from wireless sensor networks illustrate the strong influence of the indoor scenario in the overall performance. The use of adequate radioplanning strategies lead to optimal wireless network deployments in terms of capacity, quality of service, and reduced power consumption.

  1. vSphere high performance cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    vSphere High Performance Cookbook is written in a practical, helpful style with numerous recipes focusing on answering and providing solutions to common, and not-so common, performance issues and problems.The book is primarily written for technical professionals with system administration skills and some VMware experience who wish to learn about advanced optimization and the configuration features and functions for vSphere 5.1.

  2. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  3. Towards High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  4. High performance parallel I/O

    CERN Document Server

    Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Gain Critical Insight into the Parallel I/O EcosystemParallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing (HPC), especially in storing and processing very large datasets to facilitate scientific discovery. Revealing the state of the art in this field, High Performance Parallel I/O draws on insights from leading practitioners, researchers, software architects, developers, and scientists who shed light on the parallel I/O ecosystem.The first part of the book explains how large-scale HPC facilities scope, configure, and operate systems, with an emphasis on choices of I/O har

  5. Stochastic analysis of the efficiency of coupled hydraulic-physical barriers to contain solute plumes in highly heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Masetti, Marco; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro

    2017-10-01

    The expected long-term efficiency of vertical cutoff walls coupled to pump-and-treat technologies to contain solute plumes in highly heterogeneous aquifers was analyzed. A well-characterized case study in Italy, with a hydrogeological database of 471 results from hydraulic tests performed on the aquifer and the surrounding 2-km-long cement-bentonite (CB) walls, was used to build a conceptual model and assess a representative remediation site adopting coupled technologies. In the studied area, the aquifer hydraulic conductivity Ka [m/d] is log-normally distributed with mean E (Ya) = 0.32 , variance σYa2 = 6.36 (Ya = lnKa) and spatial correlation well described by an exponential isotropic variogram with integral scale less than 1/12 the domain size. The hardened CB wall's hydraulic conductivity, Kw [m/d], displayed strong scaling effects and a lognormal distribution with mean E (Yw) = - 3.43 and σYw2 = 0.53 (Yw =log10Kw). No spatial correlation of Kw was detected. Using this information, conservative transport was simulated across a CB wall in spatially correlated 1-D random Ya fields within a numerical Monte Carlo framework. Multiple scenarios representing different Kw values were tested. A continuous solute source with known concentration and deterministic drains' discharge rates were assumed. The efficiency of the confining system was measured by the probability of exceedance of concentration over a threshold (C∗) at a control section 10 years after the initial solute release. It was found that the stronger the aquifer heterogeneity, the higher the expected efficiency of the confinement system and the lower the likelihood of aquifer pollution. This behavior can be explained because, for the analyzed aquifer conditions, a lower Ka generates more pronounced drawdown in the water table in the proximity of the drain and consequently a higher advective flux towards the confined area, which counteracts diffusive fluxes across the walls. Thus, a higher σYa2 results

  6. Visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA is highly heterogeneous in primary cervical screening in Amazonian Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Almonte

    Full Text Available Conventional cytology (Pap and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI, a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV. We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention.At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor "D" (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention.Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values25, p-values0.05 for HR-HPV. No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed.The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement.

  7. Visual inspection after acetic acid (VIA) is highly heterogeneous in primary cervical screening in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Delgado, Jose M; Santos, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conventional cytology (Pap) and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas) project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI), a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV). We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention. At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor "D" (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom) was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention. Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-values25, p-values0.05 for HR-HPV). No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed. The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement.

  8. Nanoparticles for high performance concrete (HPC)

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Miraldo, Sérgio; Ding, Yining; J.A. Labrincha

    2013-01-01

    According to the 2011 ERMCO statistics, only 11% of the production of ready-mixed concrete relates to the high performance concrete (HPC) target. This percentage has remained unchanged since at least 2001 and appears a strange choice on the part of the construction industry, as HPC offers several advantages over normal-strength concrete, specifically those of high strength and durability. It allows for concrete structures requiring less steel reinforcement and offers a longer serviceable life...

  9. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect......% rejection for urea and a water permeability around 10 L/(m2h) with 2M NaCl as draw solution. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using aquaporin proteins in biomimetic membranes for technological applications....

  10. Intensive evaporation and boiling of a heterogeneous liquid droplet with an explosive disintegration in high-temperature gas area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskunov Maxim V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The using of the high-speed (not less than 105 frames per second video recording tools (“Phantom” and the software package ("TEMA Automotive" allowed carrying out an experimental research of laws of intensive vaporization with an explosive disintegration of heterogeneous (with a single solid nontransparent inclusion liquid droplet (by the example of water in high-temperature (500-800 K gases (combustion products. Times of the processes under consideration and stages (liquid heat-up, evaporation from an external surface, bubble boiling at internal interfaces, growth of bubble sizes, explosive droplet breakup were established. Necessary conditions of an explosive vaporization of a heterogeneous droplet were found out. Mechanisms of this process and an influence of properties of liquid and inclusion material on them were determined.

  11. Multimethod communication for high-performance metacomputing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Geisler, J.; Tuecke, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kesselman, C. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Metacomputing systems use high-speed networks to connect supercomputers, mass storage systems, scientific instruments, and display devices with the objective of enabling parallel applications to access geographically distributed computing resources. However, experience shows that high performance often can be achieved only if applications can integrate diverse communication substrates, transport mechanisms, and protocols, chosen according to where communication is directed, what is communicated, or when communication is performed. In this article, we describe a software architecture that addresses this requirement. This architecture allows multiple communication methods to be supported transparently in a single application, with either automatic or user-specified selection criteria guiding the methods used for each communication. We describe an implementation of this architecture, based on the Nexus communication library, and use this implementation to evaluate performance issues. The implementation supported a wide variety of applications in the I-WAY metacomputing experiment at Supercomputing 95; we use one of these applications to provide a quantitative demonstration of the advantages of multimethod communication in a heterogeneous networked environment.

  12. Heterogeneity in Perceptual Category Learning by High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eMercado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that high functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD sometimes have problems learning categories, but often appear to perform normally in categorization tasks. The deficits that individuals with ASD show when learning categories have been attributed to executive dysfunction, general deficits in implicit learning, atypical cognitive strategies, or abnormal perceptual biases and abilities. Several of these psychological explanations for category learning deficits have been associated with neural abnormalities such as cortical underconnectivity. The present study evaluated how well existing neurally-based theories account for atypical perceptual category learning shown by high functioning children with ASD across multiple category learning tasks involving novel, abstract shapes. Consistent with earlier results, children’s performances revealed two distinct patterns of learning and generalization associated with ASD: one was indistinguishable from performance in typically developing children; the other revealed dramatic impairments. These two patterns were evident regardless of training regimen or stimulus set. Surprisingly, some children with ASD showed both patterns. Simulations of perceptual category learning could account for the two observed patterns in terms of differences in neural plasticity. However, no current psychological or neural theory adequately explains why a child with ASD might show such large fluctuations in category learning ability across training conditions or stimulus sets.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  14. High prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of porcine astroviruses in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnić, Dragan; Jemeršić, Lorena; Keros, Tomislav; Prpić, Jelena

    2014-11-01

    Porcine astroviruses (PAstVs) are common and genetically diverse viruses of domestic pigs. In the present study, the prevalence of PAstV in healthy domestic pigs in Croatia was 89%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genetic heterogeneity among PAstV sequences; five lineages were detected, with PAstV-2 being predominant, while PAstV-3 was detected for the first time outside North America. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors associated with high heterogeneity of malaria at fine spatial scale in the Western Kenyan highlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Baidjoe, A.Y.; Stevenson, J.; Knight, P; Stone, W.J.R.; Stresman, G.; Osoti, V; Makori, E; OWAGA, C.; Odongo, W; China, P; Shagari, S; Kariuki, S; Drakeley, C; Cox, J; Bousema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The East African highlands are fringe regions between stable and unstable malaria transmission. What factors contribute to the heterogeneity of malaria exposure on different spatial scales within larger foci has not been extensively studied. In a comprehensive, community-based cross-sectional survey an attempt was made to identify factors that drive the macro- and micro epidemiology of malaria in a fringe region using parasitological and serological outcomes. Methods A large cross-...

  16. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  17. An Introduction to High Performance Fortran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Merlin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is an informal standard for extensions to Fortran 90 to assist its implementation on parallel architectures, particularly for data-parallel computation. Among other things, it includes directives for specifying data distribution across multiple memories, and concurrent execution features. This article provides a tutorial introduction to the main features of HPF.

  18. Debugging a high performance computing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus, and computer program products are disclosed for debugging a high performance computing program by gathering lists of addresses of calling instructions for a plurality of threads of execution of the program, assigning the threads to groups in dependence upon the addresses, and displaying the groups to identify defective threads.

  19. Supervising the highly performing general practice registrar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Simon

    2014-02-01

    There is extensive literature on the poorly performing learner. In contrast, there is very little written on supervising the highly performing registrar. Outstanding trainees with high-level knowledge and skills can be a challenge for supervisors to supervise and teach. Narrative review and discussion. As with all learners, a learning-needs analysis is fundamental to successful supervision. The key to effective teaching of the highly performing registrar is to contextualise clinical knowledge and skills with the wisdom of accumulated experience. Moreover, supervisors must provide a stimulating learning environment, with regular opportunities for intellectual challenge. The provision of specific, constructive feedback is essential. There are potential opportunities to extend the highly performing registrar in all domains of general practice, namely communication skills and patient-centred care, applied knowledge and skills, population health, professionalism, and organisation and legal issues. Specific teaching strategies include role-play, video-consultation review, random case analysis, posing hypothetical clinical scenarios, role modelling and teaching other learners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Optimization and validation of high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization and validation of high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet method for quantitation of metoprolol in rabbit plasma: application to ... Methods: Mobile phase of methanol and 50 mM ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution (50:50) at pH 3.05 was used for separation of metoprolol on BDS hypersil ...

  1. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  2. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid dosage form. Methods: HPLC determination was carried out on an Agilent XDB C-18 column (4.6 x 150mm, 5 μ particle size) with a gradient ...

  3. Technology Leadership in Malaysia's High Performance School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yieng, Wong Ai; Daud, Khadijah Binti

    2017-01-01

    Headmaster as leader of the school also plays a role as a technology leader. This applies to the high performance schools (HPS) headmaster as well. The HPS excel in all aspects of education. In this study, researcher is interested in examining the role of the headmaster as a technology leader through interviews with three headmasters of high…

  4. High Performance Computing and Communications Panel Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

    This report offers advice on the strengths and weaknesses of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative, one of five presidential initiatives launched in 1992 and coordinated by the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. The HPCC program has the following objectives: (1) to extend U.S.…

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, precise and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic technique coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of rutin, quercetin, luteolin, genistein, galangin and curcumin in propolis. Methods: Ultrasound-assisted extraction was applied to ...

  6. Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid high performance liquid chromatographic determination of chlorpropamide in human plasma. MTB Odunola, IS Enemali, M Garba, OO Obodozie. Abstract. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane and the organic layer evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in methanol, and 25 ìl aliquot injected ...

  7. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chromatography (HPLC) technique with UV-VIS detection method was developed for the determination of the compound in rat ... Keywords: Anethole, High performance liguid chromatography, Star anise, Essential oil, Rat plasma,. Illicium verum Hook. .... solution of anethole. Plasma proteins were precipitated by adding 0.3.

  8. Complex performance during exposure to high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-06-01

    The effects of high temperature on psychomotor performance and physiological function were studied on male pilots (age 30-51) holding a current medical certificate. A total of 41 runs were made at neutral (23.8C (75F), or hot (60.0C (140F), 71.1C (16...

  9. High-performance computing reveals missing genes

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    Scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute and the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech have used high-performance computing to locate small genes that have been missed by scientists in their quest to define the microbial DNA sequences of life.

  10. Performance analysis of memory hierachies in high performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogesh, Agrawel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This thesis studies memory bandwidth as a performance predictor of programs. The focus of this work is on computationally intensive programs. These programs are the most likely to access large amounts of data, stressing the memory system. Computationally intensive programs are also likely to use highly optimizing compilers to produce the fastest executables possible. Methods to reduce the amount of data traffic by increasing the average number of references to each item while it resides in the cache are explored. Increasing the average number of references to each cache item reduces the number of memory requests. Chapter 2 describes the DLX architecture. This is the architecture on which all the experiments were performed. Chapter 3 studies memory moves as a performance predictor for a group of application programs. Chapter 4 introduces a model to study the performance of programs in the presence of memory hierarchies. Chapter 5 explores some compiler optimizations that can help increase the references to each item while it resides in the cache.

  11. Analytical Study on Multi-Tier 5G Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks: Coverage Performance and Energy Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhu; Liu, Hongjing; Havyarimana, Vincent; Li, Tong; Wang, Dong

    2016-11-04

    In this paper, we investigate the coverage performance and energy efficiency of multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which are composed of macrocells and different types of small cells, i.e., picocells and femtocells. By virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we model the multi-tier HetNets based on a Poisson point process (PPP) and analyze the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) via studying the cumulative interference from pico-tier and femto-tier. We then derive the analytical expressions of coverage probabilities in order to evaluate coverage performance in different tiers and investigate how it varies with the small cells' deployment density. By taking the fairness and user experience into consideration, we propose a disjoint channel allocation scheme and derive the system channel throughput for various tiers. Further, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem for multi-tier HetNets in terms of throughput performance and resource allocation fairness. To solve this problem, we devise a linear programming based approach to obtain the available area of the feasible solutions. System-level simulations demonstrate that the small cells' deployment density has a significant effect on the coverage performance and energy efficiency. Simulation results also reveal that there exits an optimal small cell base station (SBS) density ratio between pico-tier and femto-tier which can be applied to maximize the energy efficiency and at the same time enhance the system performance. Our findings provide guidance for the design of multi-tier HetNets for improving the coverage performance as well as the energy efficiency.

  12. High-Performance, Low Environmental Impact Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. T.; Dhooge, P. M.; Glass, S. M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Refrigerants used in process and facilities systems in the US include R-12, R-22, R-123, R-134a, R-404A, R-410A, R-500, and R-502. All but R-134a, R-404A, and R-410A contain ozone-depleting substances that will be phased out under the Montreal Protocol. Some of the substitutes do not perform as well as the refrigerants they are replacing, require new equipment, and have relatively high global warming potentials (GWPs). New refrigerants are needed that addresses environmental, safety, and performance issues simultaneously. In efforts sponsored by Ikon Corporation, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), ETEC has developed and tested a new class of refrigerants, the Ikon (registered) refrigerants, based on iodofluorocarbons (IFCs). These refrigerants are nonflammable, have essentially zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP), low GWP, high performance (energy efficiency and capacity), and can be dropped into much existing equipment.

  13. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  14. Architecting Web Sites for High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Iyengar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Web site applications are some of the most challenging high-performance applications currently being developed and deployed. The challenges emerge from the specific combination of high variability in workload characteristics and of high performance demands regarding the service level, scalability, availability, and costs. In recent years, a large body of research has addressed the Web site application domain, and a host of innovative software and hardware solutions have been proposed and deployed. This paper is an overview of recent solutions concerning the architectures and the software infrastructures used in building Web site applications. The presentation emphasizes three of the main functions in a complex Web site: the processing of client requests, the control of service levels, and the interaction with remote network caches.

  15. Evaluation of Data Transfer Performance Between Moving Sender and Receiver in Mobile Communication Networks for Heterogeneous Service Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication networks are acquiring more and more commercial relevance because of recent advances in inter-vehicular communications via the DSRC/WAVE standard, which stimulates a brand new family of visionary services for vehicles, from road safety to entertainment and multimedia applications. After deep analysis of the literature it was decided to investigate evaluation of data transfer performance between moving sender and receiver in mobile communication network for heterogeneous service support. After careful analysis of the simulation tools the NCTUns 6.0 software package was chosen for planned investigations. The results illustrate that the longest communication can be maintained at the maximum number of vehicles participating on the network, but the quality of communication is inversely proportional to the number of vehicles. On this changing topology network when growing number of nodes (vehicles increases flooding of network with the data packages and it determines many collisions. The number of rejected packages increases directly in proportion to the number of vehicles. When the number of nodes (vehicle increases—it is increasing the number of the received same packages which are received from different nodes in the recipient node. On the sender node, the packages are rejected because the collisions occur due to improperly functioning access channel allocation mechanisms. It can be concluded that the routing protocols created for a normal MANET networks is useless in a fast-changing topology large-scale vehicle communication network. To provide heterogeneous services new routing protocols and channel access methods are needed, specifically for vehicle communication networks.

  16. Evaluation of Data Transfer Performance Between Moving Sender and Receiver in Mobile Communication Networks for Heterogeneous Service Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalė Dzemydienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication networks are acquiring more and more commercial relevance because of recent advances in inter-vehicular communications via the DSRC/WAVE standard, which stimulates a brand new family of visionary services for vehicles, from road safety to entertainment and multimedia applications. After deep analysis of the literature it was decided to investigate evaluation of data transfer performance between moving sender and receiver in mobile communication network for heterogeneous service support. After careful analysis of the simulation tools the NCTUns 6.0 software package was chosen for planned investigations. The results illustrate that the longest communication can be maintained at the maximum number of vehicles participating on the network, but the quality of communication is inversely proportional to the number of vehicles. On this changing topology network when growing number of nodes (vehicles increases flooding of network with the data packages and it determines many collisions. The number of rejected packages increases directly in proportion to the number of vehicles. When the number of nodes (vehicle increases—it is increasing the number of the received same packages which are received from different nodes in the recipient node. On the sender node, the packages are rejected because the collisions occur due to improperly functioning access channel allocation mechanisms. It can be concluded that the routing protocols created for a normal MANET networks is useless in a fast-changing topology large-scale vehicle communication network. To provide heterogeneous services new routing protocols and channel access methods are needed, specifically for vehicle communication networks.

  17. High performance anode for advanced Li batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Carla [Applied Sciences, Inc., Cedarville, OH (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The overall objective of this Phase I SBIR effort was to advance the manufacturing technology for ASI’s Si-CNF high-performance anode by creating a framework for large volume production and utilization of low-cost Si-coated carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) for the battery industry. This project explores the use of nano-structured silicon which is deposited on a nano-scale carbon filament to achieve the benefits of high cycle life and high charge capacity without the consequent fading of, or failure in the capacity resulting from stress-induced fracturing of the Si particles and de-coupling from the electrode. ASI’s patented coating process distinguishes itself from others, in that it is highly reproducible, readily scalable and results in a Si-CNF composite structure containing 25-30% silicon, with a compositionally graded interface at the Si-CNF interface that significantly improve cycling stability and enhances adhesion of silicon to the carbon fiber support. In Phase I, the team demonstrated the production of the Si-CNF anode material can successfully be transitioned from a static bench-scale reactor into a fluidized bed reactor. In addition, ASI made significant progress in the development of low cost, quick testing methods which can be performed on silicon coated CNFs as a means of quality control. To date, weight change, density, and cycling performance were the key metrics used to validate the high performance anode material. Under this effort, ASI made strides to establish a quality control protocol for the large volume production of Si-CNFs and has identified several key technical thrusts for future work. Using the results of this Phase I effort as a foundation, ASI has defined a path forward to commercialize and deliver high volume and low-cost production of SI-CNF material for anodes in Li-ion batteries.

  18. NINJA: Java for High Performance Numerical Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available When Java was first introduced, there was a perception that its many benefits came at a significant performance cost. In the particularly performance-sensitive field of numerical computing, initial measurements indicated a hundred-fold performance disadvantage between Java and more established languages such as Fortran and C. Although much progress has been made, and Java now can be competitive with C/C++ in many important situations, significant performance challenges remain. Existing Java virtual machines are not yet capable of performing the advanced loop transformations and automatic parallelization that are now common in state-of-the-art Fortran compilers. Java also has difficulties in implementing complex arithmetic efficiently. These performance deficiencies can be attacked with a combination of class libraries (packages, in Java that implement truly multidimensional arrays and complex numbers, and new compiler techniques that exploit the properties of these class libraries to enable other, more conventional, optimizations. Two compiler techniques, versioning and semantic expansion, can be leveraged to allow fully automatic optimization and parallelization of Java code. Our measurements with the NINJA prototype Java environment show that Java can be competitive in performance with highly optimized and tuned Fortran code.

  19. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  20. The path toward HEP High Performance Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, John; Carminati, Federico; Gheata, Andrei; Wenzel, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics code has been known for making poor use of high performance computing architectures. Efforts in optimising HEP code on vector and RISC architectures have yield limited results and recent studies have shown that, on modern architectures, it achieves a performance between 10% and 50% of the peak one. Although several successful attempts have been made to port selected codes on GPUs, no major HEP code suite has a 'High Performance' implementation. With LHC undergoing a major upgrade and a number of challenging experiments on the drawing board, HEP cannot any longer neglect the less-than-optimal performance of its code and it has to try making the best usage of the hardware. This activity is one of the foci of the SFT group at CERN, which hosts, among others, the Root and Geant4 project. The activity of the experiments is shared and coordinated via a Concurrency Forum, where the experience in optimising HEP code is presented and discussed. Another activity is the Geant-V project, centred on th...

  1. High performance HRM: NHS employee perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Paula; Sparrow, Paul; Boaden, Ruth; Harris, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine National Health Service (NHS) employee perspectives of how high performance human resource (HR) practices contribute to their performance. The paper draws on an extensive qualitative study of the NHS. A novel two-part method was used; the first part used focus group data from managers to identify high-performance HR practices specific to the NHS. Employees then conducted a card-sort exercise where they were asked how or whether the practices related to each other and how each practice affected their work. In total, 11 high performance HR practices relevant to the NHS were identified. Also identified were four reactions to a range of HR practices, which the authors developed into a typology according to anticipated beneficiaries (personal gain, organisation gain, both gain and no-one gains). Employees were able to form their own patterns (mental models) of performance contribution for a range of HR practices (60 interviewees produced 91 groupings). These groupings indicated three bundles particular to the NHS (professional development, employee contribution and NHS deal). These mental models indicate employee perceptions about how health services are organised and delivered in the NHS and illustrate the extant mental models of health care workers. As health services are rearranged and financial pressures begin to bite, these mental models will affect employee reactions to changes both positively and negatively. The novel method allows for identification of mental models that explain how NHS workers understand service delivery. It also delineates the complex and varied relationships between HR practices and individual performance.

  2. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli

    2010-01-31

    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  3. Visual Inspection after Acetic Acid (VIA) Is Highly Heterogeneous in Primary Cervical Screening in Amazonian Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Delgado, Jose M.; Santos, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; Cuzick, Jack; Sasieni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional cytology (Pap) and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) are currently used in primary screening in Peru. Studies suggest that the quality of VIA is highly variable. Over 36 000 women were screened with Pap and VIA in the TATI (Tamizaje y Tratamiento Inmediato de Lesiones Cervico-uterinas) project conducted in Amazonian Peru. Within a nested study to compare several screening techniques (C-TATI), a total of 5435 women were additionally screened with liquid-based cytology (LBC) and high-risk human papillomavirus testing (HR-HPV). We investigate the variation of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV in C-TATI and of VIA in the full TATI intervention. Methods At the screening visit, midwives collected three cervical samples for Pap, LBC and HC2 before performing VIA. The dispersion factor “D” (D = Pearson chi-square value/degrees-of-freedom) was used to measure the variability of tests results. Within C-TATI, the variability of positivity rates of VIA, Pap, LBC and HR-HPV was also graphically assessed with box- and scatter plots by midwife and month of screening. Funnel plots and smoothed scatter plots were used to correlate the variation of VIA by the number of examinations performed by each midwife over the full TATI intervention. Results Consistently over TATI, VIA results were highly variable, independently of the examiner, the time when the test was performed and the number of tests the examiner performed (D>6, p-valuesVIA results varied the most while those of HR-HPV varied the least (Ds>25, p-valuesVIA, Ds0.05 for HR-HPV). No evidence for correlation between the number of VIAs done per midwife and the variability of VIA results was observed. Conclusion The lack of over-dispersion for HR-HPV detection suggests that the variable VIA results do not reflect true variation in underlying disease, but a lack of consistency in human judgement. PMID:25635965

  4. Fracture toughness of ultra high performance concrete by flexural performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolova Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fracture toughness of the innovative structural material - Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC, evaluated by flexural performance. For determination the material behaviour by static loading are used adapted standard test methods for flexural performance of fiber-reinforced concrete (ASTM C 1609 and ASTM C 1018. Fracture toughness is estimated by various deformation parameters derived from the load-deflection curve, obtained by testing simple supported beam under third-point loading, using servo-controlled testing system. This method is used to be estimated the contribution of the embedded fiber-reinforcement into improvement of the fractural behaviour of UHPC by changing the crack-resistant capacity, fracture toughness and energy absorption capacity with various mechanisms. The position of the first crack has been formulated based on P-δ (load- deflection response and P-ε (load - longitudinal deformation in the tensile zone response, which are used for calculation of the two toughness indices I5 and I10. The combination of steel fibres with different dimensions leads to a composite, having at the same time increased crack resistance, first crack formation, ductility and post-peak residual strength.

  5. Correlation between heterogeneity index (HI) and gradient index (GI) for high dose stereotactic radiotherapy/radiosurgery (SRT/SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate between Heterogeneity Index (HI) and Gradient Index (GI) correlation for high dose Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) / Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using Versa HD® lineer accelerator. Nine patients with single metastasis were used in this study. Patient's treatment planning were performed using Monaco5.1® Treatment planning system (TPS) with non-coplanar 6MV Flattening filter free (FFF) beams by partial Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) tecnique for each patient. We determined three different size of metastasis catagory which are less than 1cc, between 1cc and 5cc and larger than 5cc volume. Also, three different HI were calculated for each patients. These are 1.10, 1.20 and 1.30. Mean GI was determined 8.57±2.2 for 1.10 HI, 7.23±1.7 for 1.20 HI and 6.0±1.1 for 1.30 HI for less than 1cc metastasis. Then GI was determined 4.77±0.4 for 1.10 HI, 4.37±0.3 for 1.20 HI and 3.97±0.3 for 1.30 HI for between 1cc and 5cc metastasis. Finally, GI was determined 4.00±0.5 for 1.10 HI,3.63±0.5 for 1.20 HI and 3.27±0.4 for 1.30 HI for larger than 5cc metastasis. These results show that GI depends on significantly size and HI of metastasis especially for less than 1cc.

  6. Playa: High-Performance Programmable Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria E. Howle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Playa, a high-level user interface layer for composing algorithms for complex multiphysics problems out of objects from other Trilinos packages. Among other features, Playa provides very high-performance overloaded operators implemented through an expression template mechanism. In this paper, we give an overview of the central Playa objects from a user's perspective, show application to a sequence of increasingly complex solver algorithms, provide timing results for Playa's overloaded operators and other functions, and briefly survey some of the implementation issues involved.

  7. High performance cloud auditing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Baek-Young; Song, Sejun

    2014-01-01

    This book mainly focuses on cloud security and high performance computing for cloud auditing. The book discusses emerging challenges and techniques developed for high performance semantic cloud auditing, and presents the state of the art in cloud auditing, computing and security techniques with focus on technical aspects and feasibility of auditing issues in federated cloud computing environments.   In summer 2011, the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) CyberBAT Cloud Security and Auditing Team initiated the exploration of the cloud security challenges and future cloud auditing research directions that are covered in this book. This work was supported by the United States government funds from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the AFOSR Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Visiting Faculty Research Program (VFRP), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Health (NIH). All chapters were partially suppor...

  8. Toward a theory of high performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Julia

    2005-01-01

    What does it mean to be a high-performance company? The process of measuring relative performance across industries and eras, declaring top performers, and finding the common drivers of their success is such a difficult one that it might seem a fool's errand to attempt. In fact, no one did for the first thousand or so years of business history. The question didn't even occur to many scholars until Tom Peters and Bob Waterman released In Search of Excellence in 1982. Twenty-three years later, we've witnessed several more attempts--and, just maybe, we're getting closer to answers. In this reported piece, HBR senior editor Julia Kirby explores why it's so difficult to study high performance and how various research efforts--including those from John Kotter and Jim Heskett; Jim Collins and Jerry Porras; Bill Joyce, Nitin Nohria, and Bruce Roberson; and several others outlined in a summary chart-have attacked the problem. The challenge starts with deciding which companies to study closely. Are the stars the ones with the highest market caps, the ones with the greatest sales growth, or simply the ones that remain standing at the end of the game? (And when's the end of the game?) Each major study differs in how it defines success, which companies it therefore declares to be worthy of emulation, and the patterns of activity and attitude it finds in common among them. Yet, Kirby concludes, as each study's method incrementally solves problems others have faced, we are progressing toward a consensus theory of high performance.

  9. High performance FDTD algorithm for GPGPU supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirov, Andrey; Levchenko, Vadim; Perepelkina, Anastasia; Zempo, Yasunari

    2016-10-01

    An implementation of FDTD method for solution of optical and other electrodynamic problems of high computational cost is described. The implementation is based on the LRnLA algorithm DiamondTorre, which is developed specifically for GPGPU hardware. The specifics of the DiamondTorre algorithms for staggered grid (Yee cell) and many-GPU devices are shown. The algorithm is implemented in the software for real physics calculation. The software performance is estimated through algorithms parameters and computer model. The real performance is tested on one GPU device, as well as on the many-GPU cluster. The performance of up to 0.65 • 1012 cell updates per second for 3D domain with 0.3 • 1012 Yee cells total is achieved.

  10. High Performance Computing Operations Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupps, Kimberly C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-19

    The High Performance Computing Operations Review (HPCOR) meeting—requested by the ASC and ASCR program headquarters at DOE—was held November 5 and 6, 2013, at the Marriott Hotel in San Francisco, CA. The purpose of the review was to discuss the processes and practices for HPC integration and its related software and facilities. Experiences and lessons learned from the most recent systems deployed were covered in order to benefit the deployment of new systems.

  11. High Performance High-Tc Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Li, Jing [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Heatherly Jr, Lee [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Lee, Dominic F [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated short segments of a superconducting wire that meets or exceeds performance requirements for many large-scale applications of high-temperature superconducting materials, especially those requiring a high supercurrent and/or a high engineering critical current density in applied magnetic fields. The performance requirements for these varied applications were met in 3-micrometer-thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films epitaxially grown via pulsed laser ablation on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrates. Enhancements of the critical current in self-field as well as excellent retention of this current in high applied magnetic fields were achieved in the thick films via incorporation of a periodic array of extended columnar defects, composed of self-aligned nanodots of nonsuperconducting material extending through the entire thickness of the film. These columnar defects are highly effective in pinning the superconducting vortices or flux lines, thereby resulting in the substantially enhanced performance of this wire.

  12. High Performance with Prescriptive Optimization and Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo

    Parallel programming is the dominant approach to achieve high performance in computing today. Correctly writing efficient and fast parallel programs is a big challenge mostly carried out by experts. We investigate optimization and debugging of parallel programs. We argue that automatic paralleliz......Parallel programming is the dominant approach to achieve high performance in computing today. Correctly writing efficient and fast parallel programs is a big challenge mostly carried out by experts. We investigate optimization and debugging of parallel programs. We argue that automatic...... analysis and vectorizer in GCC. Automatic optimizations often fail for theoretical and practical reasons. When they fail we argue that a hybrid approach can be effective. Using compiler feedback, we propose to use the programmer’s intuition and insight to achieve high performance. Compiler feedback...... the prescriptive debugging model, which is a user-guided model that allows the programmer to use his intuition to diagnose bugs in parallel programs. The model is scalable, yet capable enough, to be general-purpose. In our evaluation we demonstrate low run time overhead and logarithmic scalability. This enable...

  13. Computational Biology and High Performance Computing 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Zorn, Manfred D.; Spengler, Sylvia J.; Shoichet, Brian K.; Stewart, Craig; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2000-10-19

    The pace of extraordinary advances in molecular biology has accelerated in the past decade due in large part to discoveries coming from genome projects on human and model organisms. The advances in the genome project so far, happening well ahead of schedule and under budget, have exceeded any dreams by its protagonists, let alone formal expectations. Biologists expect the next phase of the genome project to be even more startling in terms of dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of human biology, the biology of health and of disease. Only today can biologists begin to envision the necessary experimental, computational and theoretical steps necessary to exploit genome sequence information for its medical impact, its contribution to biotechnology and economic competitiveness, and its ultimate contribution to environmental quality. High performance computing has become one of the critical enabling technologies, which will help to translate this vision of future advances in biology into reality. Biologists are increasingly becoming aware of the potential of high performance computing. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce the exciting new developments in computational biology and genomics to the high performance computing community.

  14. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  15. High Bee and Wasp Diversity in a Heterogeneous Tropical Farming System Compared to Protected Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüepp, Christof; Rittiner, Sarah; Entling, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity), as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity) of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity) increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems. PMID:23300598

  16. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  17. Highly Dispersed Pseudo-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Synthesized via Inverse Micelle Solutions for the Liquefaction of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampden-Smith, M.; Kawola, J.S.; Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Yamanaka, S.A.

    1999-01-05

    The mission of this project was to use inverse micelle solutions to synthesize nanometer sized metal particles and test the particles as catalysts in the liquefaction of coal and other related reactions. The initial focus of the project was the synthesis of iron based materials in pseudo-homogeneous form. The frost three chapters discuss the synthesis, characterization, and catalyst testing in coal liquefaction and model coal liquefaction reactions of iron based pseudo-homogeneous materials. Later, we became interested in highly dispersed catalysts for coprocessing of coal and plastic waste. Bifunctional catalysts . to hydrogenate the coal and depolymerize the plastic waste are ideal. We began studying, based on our previously devised synthesis strategies, the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with a bifunctional nature. In chapter 4, we discuss the fundamental principles in heterogeneous catalysis synthesis with inverse micelle solutions. In chapter 5, we extend the synthesis of chapter 4 to practical systems and use the materials in catalyst testing. Finally in chapter 6, we return to iron and coal liquefaction now studied with the heterogeneous catalysts.

  18. A high performance microfabricated surface ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobser, Daniel; Blain, Matthew; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Revelle, Melissa; Stick, Daniel; Yale, Christopher; Maunz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Microfabricated surface ion traps present a natural solution to the problem of scalability in trapped ion quantum computing architectures. We address some of the chief concerns about surface ion traps by demonstrating low heating rates, long trapping times as well as other high-performance features of Sandia's high optical access (HOA-2) trap. For example, due to the HOA's specific electrode layout, we are able to rotate principal axes of the trapping potential from 0 to 2 π without any change in the secular trap frequencies. We have also achieved the first single-qubit gates with a diamond norm below a rigorous fault tolerance threshold, and a two-qubit Mølmer-Sørensen gate with a process fidelity of 99.58(6). Here we present specific details of trap capabilities, such as shuttling and ion reordering, as well as details of our high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates.

  19. High Performance Database Management for Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishe, Naphtali; Barton, David; Urban, Frank; Chekmasov, Maxim; Martinez, Maria; Alvarez, Elms; Gutierrez, Martha; Pardo, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    The High Performance Database Research Center at Florida International University is completing the development of a highly parallel database system based on the semantic/object-oriented approach. This system provides exceptional usability and flexibility. It allows shorter application design and programming cycles and gives the user control via an intuitive information structure. It empowers the end-user to pose complex ad hoc decision support queries. Superior efficiency is provided through a high level of optimization, which is transparent to the user. Manifold reduction in storage size is allowed for many applications. This system allows for operability via internet browsers. The system will be used for the NASA Applications Center program to store remote sensing data, as well as for Earth Science applications.

  20. High Performance OLED Panel and Luminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2017-02-20

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the technology required to produce OLED lighting panels with high energy efficiency and excellent light quality. OLED panels developed in this program produce high quality warm white light with CRI greater than 85 and efficacy up to 80 lumens per watt (LPW). An OLED luminaire employing 24 of the high performance panels produces practical levels of illumination for general lighting, with a flux of over 2200 lumens at 60 LPW. This is a significant advance in the state of the art for OLED solid-state lighting (SSL), which is expected to be a complementary light source to the more advanced LED SSL technology that is rapidly replacing all other traditional forms of lighting.

  1. High prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of rodent-borne Bartonella species on Heixiazi Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2015-12-01

    We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  3. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning

    2009-07-01

    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  5. Statistics of highly heterogeneous flow fields confined to three-dimensional random porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, C.; Langston, P. A.; Pavlovskaya, G. E.; Hall, M. R.; Rigby, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a strong relationship between the microstructural characteristics of, and the fluid velocity fields confined to, three-dimensional random porous materials. The relationship is revealed through simultaneously extracting correlation functions Ru u(r ) of the spatial (Eulerian) velocity fields and microstructural two-point correlation functions S2(r ) of the random porous heterogeneous materials. This demonstrates that the effective physical transport properties depend on the characteristics of complex pore structure owing to the relationship between Ru u(r ) and S2(r ) revealed in this study. Further, the mean excess plot was used to investigate the right tail of the streamwise velocity component that was found to obey light-tail distributions. Based on the mean excess plot, a generalized Pareto distribution can be used to approximate the positive streamwise velocity distribution.

  6. Pinning of scroll waves to flat and highly branched unexcitable heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Dhriti; Dutta, Sumana; Steinbock, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    System heterogeneities such as organelles, cells, and anatomical features strongly affect nonlinear wave patterns in biological systems. These effects are more readily studied in otherwise homogeneous chemical reactions that allow the introduction of tailored structures. Following this approach, we investigate the dynamics of three-dimensional excitation vortices pinned to inert sheets with circular holes arranged on a hexagonal lattice. Experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations of an excitable reaction-diffusion model reveal vortex pinning that circumvents the rapid collapse of free vortex rings. The pinned scroll waves are affected by the topological mismatch between their looplike rotation backbone and the branched pinning structure. Depending on the initial condition, a multitude of stable vortex states exist, all of which obey topological constraints, suggesting spinlike states for the involved obstacle holes.

  7. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  8. Building Trust in High-Performing Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Soudunsaari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Facilitation of growth is more about good, trustworthy contacts than capital. Trust is a driving force for business creation, and to create a global business you need to build a team that is capable of meeting the challenge. Trust is a key factor in team building and a needed enabler for cooperation. In general, trust building is a slow process, but it can be accelerated with open interaction and good communication skills. The fast-growing and ever-changing nature of global business sets demands for cooperation and team building, especially for startup companies. Trust building needs personal knowledge and regular face-to-face interaction, but it also requires empathy, respect, and genuine listening. Trust increases communication, and rich and open communication is essential for the building of high-performing teams. Other building materials are a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, willingness for cooperation, and supporting and encouraging leadership. This study focuses on trust in high-performing teams. It asks whether it is possible to manage trust and which tools and operation models should be used to speed up the building of trust. In this article, preliminary results from the authors’ research are presented to highlight the importance of sharing critical information and having a high level of communication through constant interaction.

  9. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The high performance solar array GSR3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamode, A.; Bartevian, J.; Bastard, J. L.; Auffray, P.; Plagne, A.

    A foldout solar array for communication satellites was developed. A wing composed of 4 panels of 1.6 x 1.5 m and a Y-shaped yoke, and a wing with 3 panels of 2.4 x 2.4 m were made. End of life performance goal is greater than 35 W/kg with BSR 180 micron solar cells, and 50 W/kg using 50 micron BSFR cells. Analysis shows that all identified requirements can be covered with current skin made of open weave very high modulus carbon fiber; reinforcements of unidirectional carbon fiber; honeycomb in current section; hold-down inserts made of wound carbon fibers; titanium hinge fitting; and Kapton foil (25 or 50 micron thickness). Tests confirm performance predictions.

  11. High-performance arrayed waveguide grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondeur, Bart; Sala, Anca; Thekdi, Sanjay; Gopinathan, Niranjan; Nakamoto, David; Aghel, Masoud; Brainard, Bob; Vaidyanathan, Anant

    2004-06-01

    Planar technology and design have evolved significantly in the past decade, both in terms of performance and yield, reducing the cost/performance advantage of thin-film filters (TFF) over Array-Waveguide Grating (AWG) devices. This evolution is primarily due to two reasons. One of the reasons for this is the adoption of the latest in semi-conductor fabrication techniques with respect to wafer scale, process equipment automation, and yield engineering. The other reason is the many advancements made in the Planar Light Circuit (PLC) design front which have resulted in lower optical insertion loss, reduced crosstalk, increased channel bandwidth, decreased channel spacing, and minimal chromatic dispersion. We demonstrate here how such state-of-the-art fabrication technology in combination with advanced PLC designs can be effectively used to engineer the filter shape (ripple, bandwidth, and flatness) and chromatic dispersion of AWG's to match or exceed that of their thin-film counterparts. Low passband ripple is critical for cascading multiple nodes in ring network architecture whereas minimal chromatic dispersion (CD) is desired in high rate data systems to avoid signal distortion. The AWG device presented here has a 1dB bandwidth that exceeds 80% of the channel spacing awhile exhibiting a high flatness (25dB/1dB ratio < 1.7), both of which are at least a 50% improvement over generic flat-top AWG designs available in the market and are equivalent in performance to TFF devices. At 100 GHz spacing, AWG's have intrinsic low-dispersion, but narrowing the spacing to 50GHz leads to a four fold increase in the CD. Here, we have successfully overcome this limitation and have been able to design and fabricate a 50GHz wide-band AWG with less than 1ps/nm chromatic dispersion, which exceeds TFF performance.

  12. Design and implementation of a high performance network security processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixin; Bai, Guoqiang; Chen, Hongyi

    2010-03-01

    The last few years have seen many significant progresses in the field of application-specific processors. One example is network security processors (NSPs) that perform various cryptographic operations specified by network security protocols and help to offload the computation intensive burdens from network processors (NPs). This article presents a high performance NSP system architecture implementation intended for both internet protocol security (IPSec) and secure socket layer (SSL) protocol acceleration, which are widely employed in virtual private network (VPN) and e-commerce applications. The efficient dual one-way pipelined data transfer skeleton and optimised integration scheme of the heterogenous parallel crypto engine arrays lead to a Gbps rate NSP, which is programmable with domain specific descriptor-based instructions. The descriptor-based control flow fragments large data packets and distributes them to the crypto engine arrays, which fully utilises the parallel computation resources and improves the overall system data throughput. A prototyping platform for this NSP design is implemented with a Xilinx XC3S5000 based FPGA chip set. Results show that the design gives a peak throughput for the IPSec ESP tunnel mode of 2.85 Gbps with over 2100 full SSL handshakes per second at a clock rate of 95 MHz.

  13. The monogroove high performance heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1981-06-01

    The development of the monogroove heat pipe, a fundamentally new high-performance device suitable for multi-kilowatt space radiator heat-rejection systems, is reported. The design separates heat transport and transfer functions, so that each can be separately optimized to yield heat transport capacities on the order of 25 kW/m. Test versions of the device have proven the concept of heat transport capacity control by pore dimensions and the permeability of the circumferential wall wick structure, which together render it insensitive to tilt. All cases tested were for localized, top-side heat input and cooling and produced results close to theoretical predictions.

  14. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuated Gimbal (HIERAX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Tschaggeny; Warren Jones; Eberhard Bamberg

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-axis gimbal whose three rotational axes are actuated by a novel drive system: linear piezoelectric motors whose linear output is converted to rotation by using drive disks. Advantages of this technology are: fast response, high accelerations, dither-free actuation and backlash-free positioning. The gimbal was developed to house a laser range finder for the purpose of tracking and guiding unmanned aerial vehicles during landing maneuvers. The tilt axis was built and the test results indicate excellent performance that meets design specifications.

  15. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  16. Portability Support for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Doreen Y.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    While a large number of tools have been developed to support application portability, high performance application developers often prefer to use vendor-provided, non-portable programming interfaces. This phenomena indicates the mismatch between user priorities and tool capabilities. This paper summarizes the results of a user survey and a developer survey. The user survey has revealed the user priorities and resulted in three criteria for evaluating tool support for portability. The developer survey has resulted in the evaluation of portability support and indicated the possibilities and difficulties of improvements.

  17. Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Methods - High Performance Preconditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, U M

    2004-11-11

    The development of high performance, massively parallel computers and the increasing demands of computationally challenging applications have necessitated the development of scalable solvers and preconditioners. One of the most effective ways to achieve scalability is the use of multigrid or multilevel techniques. Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a very efficient algorithm for solving large problems on unstructured grids. While much of it can be parallelized in a straightforward way, some components of the classical algorithm, particularly the coarsening process and some of the most efficient smoothers, are highly sequential, and require new parallel approaches. This chapter presents the basic principles of AMG and gives an overview of various parallel implementations of AMG, including descriptions of parallel coarsening schemes and smoothers, some numerical results as well as references to existing software packages.

  18. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  19. Simulation-based hypothesis testing of high dimensional means under covariance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinyuan; Zheng, Chao; Zhou, Wen-Xin; Zhou, Wen

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we study the problem of testing the mean vectors of high dimensional data in both one-sample and two-sample cases. The proposed testing procedures employ maximum-type statistics and the parametric bootstrap techniques to compute the critical values. Different from the existing tests that heavily rely on the structural conditions on the unknown covariance matrices, the proposed tests allow general covariance structures of the data and therefore enjoy wide scope of applicability in practice. To enhance powers of the tests against sparse alternatives, we further propose two-step procedures with a preliminary feature screening step. Theoretical properties of the proposed tests are investigated. Through extensive numerical experiments on synthetic data sets and an human acute lymphoblastic leukemia gene expression data set, we illustrate the performance of the new tests and how they may provide assistance on detecting disease-associated gene-sets. The proposed methods have been implemented in an R-package HDtest and are available on CRAN. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  20. High-performance laboratories and cleanrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan; Xu, Tengfang

    2002-07-01

    The California Energy Commission sponsored this roadmap to guide energy efficiency research and deployment for high performance cleanrooms and laboratories. Industries and institutions utilizing these building types (termed high-tech buildings) have played an important part in the vitality of the California economy. This roadmap's key objective to present a multi-year agenda to prioritize and coordinate research efforts. It also addresses delivery mechanisms to get the research products into the market. Because of the importance to the California economy, it is appropriate and important for California to take the lead in assessing the energy efficiency research needs, opportunities, and priorities for this market. In addition to the importance to California's economy, energy demand for this market segment is large and growing (estimated at 9400 GWH for 1996, Mills et al. 1996). With their 24hr. continuous operation, high tech facilities are a major contributor to the peak electrical demand. Laboratories and cleanrooms constitute the high tech building market, and although each building type has its unique features, they are similar in that they are extremely energy intensive, involve special environmental considerations, have very high ventilation requirements, and are subject to regulations--primarily safety driven--that tend to have adverse energy implications. High-tech buildings have largely been overlooked in past energy efficiency research. Many industries and institutions utilize laboratories and cleanrooms. As illustrated, there are many industries operating cleanrooms in California. These include semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor suppliers, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, disk drive manufacturing, flat panel displays, automotive, aerospace, food, hospitals, medical devices, universities, and federal research facilities.

  1. High-performance computing for airborne applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairbanks, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desgeorges, Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-06-28

    Recently, there has been attempts to move common satellite tasks to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are significantly cheaper to buy than satellites and easier to deploy on an as-needed basis. The more benign radiation environment also allows for an aggressive adoption of state-of-the-art commercial computational devices, which increases the amount of data that can be collected. There are a number of commercial computing devices currently available that are well-suited to high-performance computing. These devices range from specialized computational devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs), to traditional computing platforms, such as microprocessors. Even though the radiation environment is relatively benign, these devices could be susceptible to single-event effects. In this paper, we will present radiation data for high-performance computing devices in a accelerated neutron environment. These devices include a multi-core digital signal processor, two field-programmable gate arrays, and a microprocessor. From these results, we found that all of these devices are suitable for many airplane environments without reliability problems.

  2. Low cost high performance uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Bekas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in risk analysis has become a key application. In this context, computing the diagonal of inverse covariance matrices is of paramount importance. Standard techniques, that employ matrix factorizations, incur a cubic cost which quickly becomes intractable with the current explosion of data sizes. In this work we reduce this complexity to quadratic with the synergy of two algorithms that gracefully complement each other and lead to a radically different approach. First, we turned to stochastic estimation of the diagonal. This allowed us to cast the problem as a linear system with a relatively small number of multiple right hand sides. Second, for this linear system we developed a novel, mixed precision, iterative refinement scheme, which uses iterative solvers instead of matrix factorizations. We demonstrate that the new framework not only achieves the much needed quadratic cost but in addition offers excellent opportunities for scaling at massively parallel environments. We based our implementation on BLAS 3 kernels that ensure very high processor performance. We achieved a peak performance of 730 TFlops on 72 BG/P racks, with a sustained performance 73% of theoretical peak. We stress that the techniques presented in this work are quite general and applicable to several other important applications. Copyright © 2009 ACM.

  3. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  4. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  5. Wearable Accelerometers in High Performance Jet Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, G Merrill; VanBrunt, Thomas B; Snider, Dallas H; Hoyt, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Wearable accelerometers have become ubiquitous in the fields of exercise physiology and ambulatory hospital settings. However, these devices have yet to be validated in extreme operational environments. The objective of this study was to correlate the gravitational forces (G forces) detected by wearable accelerometers with the G forces detected by high performance aircraft. We compared the in-flight G forces detected by the two commercially available portable accelerometers to the F/A-18 Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (CAINS-2) during 20 flights performed by the Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels). Postflight questionnaires were also used to assess the perception of distractibility during flight. Of the 20 flights analyzed, 10 complete in-flight comparisons were made, accounting for 25,700 s of correlation between the CAINS-2 and the two tested accelerometers. Both accelerometers had strong correlations with that of the F/A-18 Gz axis, averaging r = 0.92 and r = 0.93, respectively, over 10 flights. Comparison of both portable accelerometer's average vector magnitude to each other yielded an average correlation of r = 0.93. Both accelerometers were found to be minimally distracting. These results suggest the use of wearable accelerometers is a valid means of detecting G forces during high performance aircraft flight. Future studies using this surrogate method of detecting accelerative forces combined with physiological information may yield valuable in-flight normative data that heretofore has been technically difficult to obtain and hence holds the promise of opening the door for a new golden age of aeromedical research.

  6. PREFACE: High Performance Computing Symposium 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, Suzanne; Mousseau, Normand; Peslherbe, Gilles; Bertrand, François; Gauthier, Pierre; Kadem, Lyes; Moitessier, Nicolas; Rouleau, Guy; Wittig, Rod

    2012-02-01

    HPCS (High Performance Computing Symposium) is a multidisciplinary conference that focuses on research involving High Performance Computing and its application. Attended by Canadian and international experts and renowned researchers in the sciences, all areas of engineering, the applied sciences, medicine and life sciences, mathematics, the humanities and social sciences, it is Canada's pre-eminent forum for HPC. The 25th edition was held in Montréal, at the Université du Québec à Montréal, from 15-17 June and focused on HPC in Medical Science. The conference was preceded by tutorials held at Concordia University, where 56 participants learned about HPC best practices, GPU computing, parallel computing, debugging and a number of high-level languages. 274 participants from six countries attended the main conference, which involved 11 invited and 37 contributed oral presentations, 33 posters, and an exhibit hall with 16 booths from our sponsors. The work that follows is a collection of papers presented at the conference covering HPC topics ranging from computer science to bioinformatics. They are divided here into four sections: HPC in Engineering, Physics and Materials Science, HPC in Medical Science, HPC Enabling to Explore our World and New Algorithms for HPC. We would once more like to thank the participants and invited speakers, the members of the Scientific Committee, the referees who spent time reviewing the papers and our invaluable sponsors. To hear the invited talks and learn about 25 years of HPC development in Canada visit the Symposium website: http://2011.hpcs.ca/lang/en/conference/keynote-speakers/ Enjoy the excellent papers that follow, and we look forward to seeing you in Vancouver for HPCS 2012! Gilles Peslherbe Chair of the Scientific Committee Normand Mousseau Co-Chair of HPCS 2011 Suzanne Talon Chair of the Organizing Committee UQAM Sponsors The PDF also contains photographs from the conference banquet.

  7. Scalable resource management in high performance computers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frachtenberg, E. (Eitan); Petrini, F. (Fabrizio); Fernandez Peinador, J. (Juan); Coll, S. (Salvador)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of workstations have emerged as an important platform for building cost-effective, scalable and highly-available computers. Although many hardware solutions are available today, the largest challenge in making large-scale clusters usable lies in the system software. In this paper we present STORM, a resource management tool designed to provide scalability, low overhead and the flexibility necessary to efficiently support and analyze a wide range of job scheduling algorithms. STORM achieves these feats by closely integrating the management daemons with the low-level features that are common in state-of-the-art high-performance system area networks. The architecture of STORM is based on three main technical innovations. First, a sizable part of the scheduler runs in the thread processor located on the network interface. Second, we use hardware collectives that are highly scalable both for implementing control heartbeats and to distribute the binary of a parallel job in near-constant time, irrespective of job and machine sizes. Third, we use an I/O bypass protocol that allows fast data movements from the file system to the communication buffers in the network interface and vice versa. The experimental results show that STORM can launch a job with a binary of 12MB on a 64 processor/32 node cluster in less than 0.25 sec on an empty network, in less than 0.45 sec when all the processors are busy computing other jobs, and in less than 0.65 sec when the network is flooded with a background traffic. This paper provides experimental and analytical evidence that these results scale to a much larger number of nodes. To the best of our knowledge, STORM is at least two orders of magnitude faster than existing production schedulers in launching jobs, performing resource management tasks and gang scheduling.

  8. High-performance phase-field modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-04-27

    Many processes in engineering and sciences involve the evolution of interfaces. Among the mathematical frameworks developed to model these types of problems, the phase-field method has emerged as a possible solution. Phase-fields nonetheless lead to complex nonlinear, high-order partial differential equations, whose solution poses mathematical and computational challenges. Guaranteeing some of the physical properties of the equations has lead to the development of efficient algorithms and discretizations capable of recovering said properties by construction [2, 5]. This work builds-up on these ideas, and proposes novel discretization strategies that guarantee numerical energy dissipation for both conserved and non-conserved phase-field models. The temporal discretization is based on a novel method which relies on Taylor series and ensures strong energy stability. It is second-order accurate, and can also be rendered linear to speed-up the solution process [4]. The spatial discretization relies on Isogeometric Analysis, a finite element method that possesses the k-refinement technology and enables the generation of high-order, high-continuity basis functions. These basis functions are well suited to handle the high-order operators present in phase-field models. Two-dimensional and three dimensional results of the Allen-Cahn, Cahn-Hilliard, Swift-Hohenberg and phase-field crystal equation will be presented, which corroborate the theoretical findings, and illustrate the robustness of the method. Results related to more challenging examples, namely the Navier-Stokes Cahn-Hilliard and a diusion-reaction Cahn-Hilliard system, will also be presented. The implementation was done in PetIGA and PetIGA-MF, high-performance Isogeometric Analysis frameworks [1, 3], designed to handle non-linear, time-dependent problems.

  9. Development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide applying high throughput methods; Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren zur Spaltung von Methanol in Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid mittels Hochdurchsatz-Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Torsten

    2008-07-11

    The topic of this thesis has been the development of new heterogeneous catalysts for the decomposition of methanol into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. As an important constraint here, the content of noble metals of the catalysts should be as low as possible. High-throughput-methods were applied in some of the syntheses and experiments to accelerate the development, as, for example, the use of liquid based sol-gel syntheses and the examination of catalyst libraries by spatial resolution gas chromatography. This screening technique allowed to test up to 207 different substances during one single experiment. Then, different combinatorial strategies were applied. First, these methods led to a highly active and stable catalyst in the ternary system of Cu-Ni-Zn, which showed high conversion and selectivity comparable to an industrial reference catalyst. Its activity during an 18 hour long term run was constant in contrast to the reference. Second, an additional approach starting from a broader variety of elements led to a Ce- Ru- and to a Cr-Ru-catalyst. Both of them were highly active in short term experiments, but lost their outstanding performances during long term runs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasste sich mit der Entwicklung neuer heterogener Katalysatoren fuer die Spaltung von Methanol zu Wasserstoff und Kohlenmonoxid, die einen moeglichst geringen Gehalt an Edelmetallen aufweisen sollten. Um diesen Prozess zu beschleunigen, wurden in einem Teil der Synthesen und Experimente Hochdurchsatzmethoden verwendet. Neben der Roboter gestuetzten Sol-Gel-Synthese umfasste dies die Untersuchung von Katalysatorbibliotheken mittels ortsaufgeloester Gaschromatographie, die es ermoeglichte, in einem Experiment bis zu 207 verschiedene Substanzen auf ihre katalytische Aktivitaet zu testen. Unter Anwendung verschiedener kombinatorischer Strategien wurde zunaechst ein sehr aktiver und stabiler Katalysator im ternaeren Cu-Ni-Zn-System entdeckt. Neben Umsaetzen und

  10. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  11. Development of high performance ODS alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lin; Gao, Fei; Garner, Frank

    2018-01-29

    This project aims to capitalize on insights developed from recent high-dose self-ion irradiation experiments in order to develop and test the next generation of optimized ODS alloys needed to meet the nuclear community's need for high strength, radiation-tolerant cladding and core components, especially with enhanced resistance to void swelling. Two of these insights are that ferrite grains swell earlier than tempered martensite grains, and oxide dispersions currently produced only in ferrite grains require a high level of uniformity and stability to be successful. An additional insight is that ODS particle stability is dependent on as-yet unidentified compositional combinations of dispersoid and alloy matrix, such as dispersoids are stable in MA957 to doses greater than 200 dpa but dissolve in MA956 at doses less than 200 dpa. These findings focus attention on candidate next-generation alloys which address these concerns. Collaboration with two Japanese groups provides this project with two sets of first-round candidate alloys that have already undergone extensive development and testing for unirradiated properties, but have not yet been evaluated for their irradiation performance. The first set of candidate alloys are dual phase (ferrite + martensite) ODS alloys with oxide particles uniformly distributed in both ferrite and martensite phases. The second set of candidate alloys are ODS alloys containing non-standard dispersoid compositions with controllable oxide particle sizes, phases and interfaces.

  12. Design of high performance CMC brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenkel, W.; Henke, T. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials based on 2D-carbon fibre preforms show high heat-absorption capacities and good tribological as well as thermomechanical properties. To take advantage of the full lightweight potential of these new materials in high performance automotive brake discs, the thermal conductivity transverse to the friction surface has to be high in order to reduce the surface temperature. Experimental tests showed, that lower surface temperatures prevent overheating of the brake`s periphery and stabilizes the friction behaviour. In this study different design approaches with improved transverse heat conductivity have been investigated by finite element analysis. C/C-SiC bolts as well as SiC coatings and combinations of them have been investigated and compared with an orthotropic brake disc, showing a reduction of temperature of up to 50%. Original sized brake discs with C/C-SiC have been manufactured and tested under real conditions which verified the calculations. Using only low-cost CMC materials and avoiding any additional processing steps, the potential of C/C-SiC brake discs are very attractive under tribological as well as under economical aspects. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '17 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael; HLRS 2017

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2017. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance.The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  14. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '15 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Kröner, Dietmar; Resch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in supercomputer simulation. It includes the latest findings from leading researchers using systems from the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) in 2015. The reports cover all fields of computational science and engineering ranging from CFD to computational physics and from chemistry to computer science with a special emphasis on industrially relevant applications. Presenting findings of one of Europe’s leading systems, this volume covers a wide variety of applications that deliver a high level of sustained performance. The book covers the main methods in high-performance computing. Its outstanding results in achieving the best performance for production codes are of particular interest for both scientists and engineers. The book comes with a wealth of color illustrations and tables of results.

  15. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical depositing rGO-Ti-rGO heterogeneous substrates with higher thermal conductivity and heat transfer performance compared to pure Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Huatao; Zhang, Wenying; Yang, Xinyi; Wen, Guangwu; Wang, Yijie; Zhou, Weiwei

    2017-02-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely applied in many high strength, light weight applications, but their thermal conductivity is lower compared to that of other metals, which limits their further applications. In this paper, we demonstrated experimentally that rGO-Ti-rGO heterogeneous substrates with higher thermal conductivity, up to ˜38.8% higher than Ti, could be fabricated by electrochemical depositing rGO on their surface. The rGO layers are grown on the surface of Ti substrates, with appearance of bedclothes on the beds. The thickness of rGO layers is around 300-500 nm and around 600-1000 nm when deposited for 5 cycles and 10 cycles, respectively. According to the cooling experiment results, as-prepared Ti + rGO substrates can present excellent thermal conduction performance, and reduce the chip temperature close to 3.2 °C-13.1 °C lower than Ti alloy substrates with the heat flow density of 0.4-3.6 W cm-2. Finally, the approach to electro-chemically deposit hundreds of nanometer rGO layers on the surface of Ti substrates can improve their thermal conductivity and heat transfer performance, which may have further application in the increasing thermal conduction of other metal-alloys, ceramics and polymers.

  17. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-05-01

    Glass is a remarkable material but its functionality is significantly enhanced when it is processed or altered to provide added intrinsic capabilities. The overall performance of glass elements in a building can be further enhanced when they are designed to be part of a complete facade system. Finally the facade system delivers the greatest performance to the building owner and occupants when it becomes an essential element of a fully integrated building design. This presentation examines the growing interest in incorporating advanced glazing elements into more comprehensive facade and building systems in a manner that increases comfort, productivity and amenity for occupants, reduces operating costs for building owners, and contributes to improving the health of the planet by reducing overall energy use and negative environmental impacts. We explore the role of glazing systems in dynamic and responsive facades that provide the following functionality: Enhanced sun protection and cooling load control while improving thermal comfort and providing most of the light needed with daylighting; Enhanced air quality and reduced cooling loads using natural ventilation schemes employing the facade as an active air control element; Reduced operating costs by minimizing lighting, cooling and heating energy use by optimizing the daylighting-thermal tradeoffs; Net positive contributions to the energy balance of the building using integrated photovoltaic systems; Improved indoor environments leading to enhanced occupant health, comfort and performance. In addressing these issues facade system solutions must, of course, respect the constraints of latitude, location, solar orientation, acoustics, earthquake and fire safety, etc. Since climate and occupant needs are dynamic variables, in a high performance building the facade solution have the capacity to respond and adapt to these variable exterior conditions and to changing occupant needs. This responsive performance capability

  18. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen [Sandy Hook, CT; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan [New Milford, CT; Novacco, Lawrence J [Brookfield, CT

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  19. High performance platforms for integrated nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear photonic chips have succeeded in generating and processing signals all-optically with performance far superior to that possible electronically - particularly with respect to speed. Although silicon-on-insulator has been the leading platform for nonlinear optics, its high two-photon absorption at telecommunications wavelengths poses a fundamental limitation. This paper reviews some of the recent achievements in CMOS-compatible platforms for nonlinear optics, focusing on amorphous silicon and Hydex glass, highlighting their potential future impact as well as the challenges to achieving practical solutions for many key applications. These material systems have opened up many new capabilities such as on-chip optical frequency comb generation and ultrafast optical pulse generation and measurement.

  20. How to create high-performing teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    This article is intended to discuss inspirational aspects on how to lead a high-performance team. Cogent topics discussed include how to hire staff through methods of "topgrading" with reference to Geoff Smart and "getting the right people on the bus" referencing Jim Collins' work. In addition, once the staff is hired, this article covers how to separate the "eagles from the ducks" and how to inspire one's staff by creating the right culture with suggestions for further reading by Don Miguel Ruiz (The four agreements) and John Maxwell (21 Irrefutable laws of leadership). In addition, Simon Sinek's concept of "Start with Why" is elaborated to help a leader know what the core element should be with any superior culture. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  1. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  2. High performance stepper motors for space mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Patrick; Estevenon, Christine

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid stepper motors are very well adapted to high performance space mechanisms. They are very simple to operate and are often used for accurate positioning and for smooth rotations. In order to fulfill these requirements, the motor torque, its harmonic content, and the magnetic parasitic torque have to be properly designed. Only finite element computations can provide enough accuracy to determine the toothed structures' magnetic permeance, whose derivative function leads to the torque. It is then possible to design motors with a maximum torque capability or with the most reduced torque harmonic content (less than 3 percent of fundamental). These later motors are dedicated to applications where a microstep or a synchronous mode is selected for minimal dynamic disturbances. In every case, the capability to convert electrical power into torque is much higher than on DC brushless motors.

  3. High performance computing applications in neurobiological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cheng, Rei; Doshay, David G.; Linton, Samuel W.; Montgomery, Kevin; Parnas, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The human nervous system is a massively parallel processor of information. The vast numbers of neurons, synapses and circuits is daunting to those seeking to understand the neural basis of consciousness and intellect. Pervading obstacles are lack of knowledge of the detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) organization of even a simple neural system and the paucity of large scale, biologically relevant computer simulations. We use high performance graphics workstations and supercomputers to study the 3-D organization of gravity sensors as a prototype architecture foreshadowing more complex systems. Scaled-down simulations run on a Silicon Graphics workstation and scale-up, three-dimensional versions run on the Cray Y-MP and CM5 supercomputers.

  4. Materials for high performance light water reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, K.; Konys, J.; Heikinheimo, L.

    2004-05-01

    A state-of-the-art study was performed to investigate the operational conditions for in-core and out-of-core materials in a high performance light water reactor (HPLWR) and to evaluate the potential of existing structural materials for application in fuel elements, core structures and out-of-core components. In the conventional parts of a HPLWR-plant the approved materials of supercritical fossil power plants (SCFPP) can be used for given temperatures (⩽600 °C) and pressures (≈250 bar). These are either commercial ferritic/martensitic or austenitic stainless steels. Taking the conditions of existing light water reactors (LWR) into account an assessment of potential cladding materials was made, based on existing creep-rupture data, an extensive analysis of the corrosion in conventional steam power plants and available information on material behaviour under irradiation. As a major result it is shown that for an assumed maximum temperature of 650 °C not only Ni-alloys, but also austenitic stainless steels can be used as cladding materials.

  5. Optimizing High Performance Self Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Yonathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s objectives are to learn the effect of glass powder, silica fume, Polycarboxylate Ether, and gravel to optimizing composition of each factor in making High Performance SCC. Taguchi method is proposed in this paper as best solution to minimize specimen variable which is more than 80 variations. Taguchi data analysis method is applied to provide composition, optimizing, and the effect of contributing materials for nine variable of specimens. Concrete’s workability was analyzed using Slump flow test, V-funnel test, and L-box test. Compressive and porosity test were performed for the hardened state. With a dimension of 100×200 mm the cylindrical specimens were cast for compressive test with the age of 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Porosity test was conducted at 28 days. It is revealed that silica fume contributes greatly to slump flow and porosity. Coarse aggregate shows the greatest contributing factor to L-box and compressive test. However, all factors show unclear result to V-funnel test.

  6. Cell surface profiling using high-throughput flow cytometry: a platform for biomarker discovery and analysis of cellular heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Gedye

    Full Text Available Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profiles would thus be of great value in a wide range of fields. There are however currently few available methods for high-throughput analysis of large numbers of cell surface proteins. We describe here a high-throughput flow cytometry (HT-FC platform for rapid analysis of 363 cell surface antigens. Here we demonstrate that HT-FC provides reproducible results, and use the platform to identify cell surface antigens that are influenced by common cell preparation methods. We show that multiple populations within complex samples such as primary tumors can be simultaneously analyzed by co-staining of cells with lineage-specific antibodies, allowing unprecedented depth of analysis of heterogeneous cell populations. Furthermore, standard informatics methods can be used to visualize, cluster and downsample HT-FC data to reveal novel signatures and biomarkers. We show that the cell surface profile provides sufficient molecular information to classify samples from different cancers and tissue types into biologically relevant clusters using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Finally, we describe the identification of a candidate lineage marker and its subsequent validation. In summary, HT-FC combines the advantages of a high-throughput screen with a detection method that is sensitive, quantitative, highly reproducible, and allows in-depth analysis of heterogeneous samples. The use of commercially available antibodies means that high quality reagents are immediately available for follow-up studies. HT-FC has a wide range of applications, including biomarker discovery, molecular classification of cancers, or identification of novel lineage specific or stem cell

  7. Application of High Resolution Satellite Imagery to Characterize Individual-Based Environmental Heterogeneity in a Wild Blue Tit Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heterogeneity in space and time plays a key role in influencing trait variability in animals, and can be particularly relevant to animal phenology. Until recently, the use of remotely sensed imagery in understanding animal variation was limited to analyses at the population level, largely because of a lack of high-resolution data that would allow inference at the individual level. We evaluated the potential of SPOT 4 (Take 5 satellite imagery data (with observations every fifth day at 20 m resolution and equivalent to acquisition parameters of Sentinel-2 in animal ecology research. We focused on blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus reproduction in a study site containing 227 nestboxes scattered in a Mediterranean forest dominated by deciduous downy oaks Quercus pubescens with a secondary cover of evergreen holm oaks Quercus ilex. We observed high congruence between ground data collected in a 50 m radius around each nestbox and NDVI values averaged across a 5 by 5 pixel grid centered around each nestbox of the study site. The number of deciduous and evergreen oaks around nestboxes explained up to 66% of variance in nestbox-centered, SPOT-derived NDVI values. We also found highly equivalent patterns of spatial autocorrelation for both ground- and satellite-derived indexes of environmental heterogeneity. For deciduous and evergreen oaks, the derived NDVI signal was highly distinctive in winter and early spring. June NDVI values for deciduous and evergreen oaks were higher by 58% and 8% relative to February values, respectively. The number of evergreen oaks was positively associated with later timing of breeding in blue tits. SPOT-derived, Sentinel-2 like imagery thus provided highly reliable, ground-validated information on habitat heterogeneity of direct relevance to a long-term field study of a free-living passerine bird. Given that the logistical demands of gathering ground data often limit our understanding of variation in animal

  8. NCI's Transdisciplinary High Performance Scientific Data Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben; Antony, Joseph; Bastrakova, Irina; Car, Nicholas; Cox, Simon; Druken, Kelsey; Evans, Bradley; Fraser, Ryan; Ip, Alex; Kemp, Carina; King, Edward; Minchin, Stuart; Larraondo, Pablo; Pugh, Tim; Richards, Clare; Santana, Fabiana; Smillie, Jon; Trenham, Claire; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) manages Earth Systems data collections sourced from several domains and organisations onto a single High Performance Data (HPD) Node to further Australia's national priority research and innovation agenda. The NCI HPD Node has rapidly established its value, currently managing over 10 PBytes of datasets from collections that span a wide range of disciplines including climate, weather, environment, geoscience, geophysics, water resources and social sciences. Importantly, in order to facilitate broad user uptake, maximise reuse and enable transdisciplinary access through software and standardised interfaces, the datasets, associated information systems and processes have been incorporated into the design and operation of a unified platform that NCI has called, the National Environmental Research Data Interoperability Platform (NERDIP). The key goal of the NERDIP is to regularise data access so that it is easily discoverable, interoperable for different domains and enabled for high performance methods. It adopts and implements international standards and data conventions, and promotes scientific integrity within a high performance computing and data analysis environment. NCI has established a rich and flexible computing environment to access to this data, through the NCI supercomputer; a private cloud that supports both domain focused virtual laboratories and in-common interactive analysis interfaces; as well as remotely through scalable data services. Data collections of this importance must be managed with careful consideration of both their current use and the needs of the end-communities, as well as its future potential use, such as transitioning to more advanced software and improved methods. It is therefore critical that the data platform is both well-managed and trusted for stable production use (including transparency and reproducibility), agile enough to incorporate new technological advances and

  9. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in a nonlinear heterogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, S.; Glinsky, N.; Mercerat, E. D.; Bonilla Hidalgo, L. F.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a nodal high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for 1D wave propagation in nonlinear media. We solve the elastodynamic equations written in the velocity-strain formulation and apply an upwind flux adapted to heterogeneous media with nonlinear constitutive behavior coupling stress and strain. Accuracy, convergence and stability of the method are studied through several numerical applications. Hysteresis loops distinguishing loading and unloading-reloading paths are also taken into account. We investigate several effects of nonlinearity in wave propagation, such as the generation of high frequencies and the frequency shift of resonant peaks to lower frequencies. Finally, we compare the results for both nonlinear models, with and without hysteresis, and highlight the effects of the former on the stabilization of the numerical scheme.

  10. Mathematical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Heterogenous Forest Fuel Layer Influenced by Heated Up to High Temperatures Steel Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskiy Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of forest fuel layer renders the important influence on forest fire occurrence processes. One of sources of the raised temperature on forested territories is metal particles heated up to high temperatures. Such particles can be formed as a result of welding of metals on forested territories. The present paper represents the heat transfer research in forest fuel at the influence of metal particle heated up to high temperatures. The heterogonous forest fuel layer with inclusions of small wooden branches and chips is considered. Such object research is urgent especially at fire forecasting on forest cutting. The technology of mathematical simulation is used. The two-dimensional problem of heat transfer in forest fuel layer structure with wood inclusions is solved.

  11. DAVID Knowledgebase: a gene-centered database integrating heterogeneous gene annotation resources to facilitate high-throughput gene functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseler Michael W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the complex and distributed nature of biological research, our current biological knowledge is spread over many redundant annotation databases maintained by many independent groups. Analysts usually need to visit many of these bioinformatics databases in order to integrate comprehensive annotation information for their genes, which becomes one of the bottlenecks, particularly for the analytic task associated with a large gene list. Thus, a highly centralized and ready-to-use gene-annotation knowledgebase is in demand for high throughput gene functional analysis. Description The DAVID Knowledgebase is built around the DAVID Gene Concept, a single-linkage method to agglomerate tens of millions of gene/protein identifiers from a variety of public genomic resources into DAVID gene clusters. The grouping of such identifiers improves the cross-reference capability, particularly across NCBI and UniProt systems, enabling more than 40 publicly available functional annotation sources to be comprehensively integrated and centralized by the DAVID gene clusters. The simple, pair-wise, text format files which make up the DAVID Knowledgebase are freely downloadable for various data analysis uses. In addition, a well organized web interface allows users to query different types of heterogeneous annotations in a high-throughput manner. Conclusion The DAVID Knowledgebase is designed to facilitate high throughput gene functional analysis. For a given gene list, it not only provides the quick accessibility to a wide range of heterogeneous annotation data in a centralized location, but also enriches the level of biological information for an individual gene. Moreover, the entire DAVID Knowledgebase is freely downloadable or searchable at http://david.abcc.ncifcrf.gov/knowledgebase/.

  12. Bayesian Uncertainty Quantification in Predictions of Flows in Highly Heterogeneous Media and Its Applications to the CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efendiev, Yalchin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Datta-Gupta, Akhil [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Jafarpour, Behnam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mallick, Bani [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-11-09

    In this proposal, we have worked on Bayesian uncertainty quantification for predictions of fows in highly heterogeneous media. The research in this proposal is broad and includes: prior modeling for heterogeneous permeability fields; effective parametrization of heterogeneous spatial priors; efficient ensemble- level solution techniques; efficient multiscale approximation techniques; study of the regularity of complex posterior distribution and the error estimates due to parameter reduction; efficient sampling techniques; applications to multi-phase ow and transport. We list our publications below and describe some of our main research activities. Our multi-disciplinary team includes experts from the areas of multiscale modeling, multilevel solvers, Bayesian statistics, spatial permeability modeling, and the application domain.

  13. Ceph: A Scalable, High-Performance Distributed File System

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, Sage; Brandt, Scott A.; Miller, Ethan L; Long, Darrell D. E.; Maltzahn, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    We have developed Ceph, a distributed file system that provides excellent performance, reliability, and scala- bility. Ceph maximizes the separation between data and metadata management by replacing allocation ta- bles with a pseudo-random data distribution function (CRUSH) designed for heterogeneous and dynamic clus- ters of unreliable object storage devices (OSDs). We leverage device intelligence by distributing data replica- tion, failure detection and recovery to semi-autonomous ...

  14. Heterogeneity of Psychosis Risk Within Individuals at Clinical High Risk: A Meta-analytical Stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Cappucciati, Marco; Borgwardt, Stefan; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean; Nelson, Barnaby; Nieman, Dorien H.; Stahl, Daniel R.; Rutigliano, Grazia; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Simon, Andor E.; Mizuno, Masafumi; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lam, May M. L.; Perez, Jesus; Keri, Szabolcs; Amminger, Paul; Metzler, Sibylle; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf; Lee, Jimmy; Labad, Javier; Ziermans, Tim; An, Suk Kyoon; Liu, Chen-Chung; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Braham, Amel; Corcoran, Cheryl; McGorry, Patrick; Yung, Alison R.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals can be classified as being at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis if they meet at least one of the ultra-high-risk (UHR) inclusion criteria (brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms [BLIPS] and/or attenuated psychotic symptoms [APS] and/or genetic risk and deterioration syndrome

  15. A case study of Markdale High School's implementation of heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006) experienced during this effort. The researcher used Hall and Hord's (2006) Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework. Specifically, the researcher applied three elements of the CBAM model: (a) the Twelve Principles of Change, (b) the Change Facilitator Styles, and (c) the Stages of Concerns. Hall and Hord's framework served as a lens through which the researcher analyzed all data. The researcher used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to answer the four research questions. The participants completed three instruments: (a) the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), (b) the Principles of Change Survey, and (c) the Facilitator Style Survey. All three instruments were self-report, paper-pencil surveys. The sample included 72 faculty members who experienced the change over the past three years. Findings from the three data sources and the school principal's comments during debriefing are indicated for each research question and reported by unit of analysis. Respective to the research questions, the researcher concluded that: (1) Markdale High School accomplished the change by implementing both structural and instructional changes supporting to the change to heterogeneous grouping; (2) even though teachers had divergent opinions on the school principal's facilitation style, the principal thought of himself as an incrementalist and a practitioner of differentiated facilitation styles; (3) while half of the faculty felt that they received formal training on heterogeneous grouping, (4) half felt that they did not have a choice in the decision-making process as it occurred with college preparatory and

  16. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.M.

    1998-04-28

    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  17. Initial rheological description of high performance concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lorenzetti de Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is defined as a composite material and, in rheological terms, it can be understood as a concentrated suspension of solid particles (aggregates in a viscous liquid (cement paste. On a macroscopic scale, concrete flows as a liquid. It is known that the rheological behavior of the concrete is close to that of a Bingham fluid and two rheological parameters regarding its description are needed: yield stress and plastic viscosity. The aim of this paper is to present the initial rheological description of high performance concretes using the modified slump test. According to the results, an increase of yield stress was observed over time, while a slight variation in plastic viscosity was noticed. The incorporation of silica fume showed changes in the rheological properties of fresh concrete. The behavior of these materials also varied with the mixing procedure employed in their production. The addition of superplasticizer meant that there was a large reduction in the mixture's yield stress, while plastic viscosity remained practically constant.

  18. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  19. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  20. The Simple, Effective Synthesis of Highly Dispersed Pd/C and CoPd/C Heterogeneous Catalysts via Charge-Enhanced Dry Impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D’Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pd/C and CoPd/C heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized by adopting Charge Enhanced Dry Impregnation (CEDI. The particles size distribution, their high metal surface-to-bulk ratios, and synthesis feasibility are unmatchable to any known noble metal bimetallic heterogeneous catalyst preparation techniques. Next generation Fuel Cells and Fischer-Tropsch catalytic processes economy will be benefited from the proposed methodology.

  1. Heterogeneous Network Evolution Studies for a Dense Urban High Rise Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Maria Laura Luque; Maternia, Michal; Vejlgaard, Benny

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the capability of Long-Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) together with WiFi 802.11ac to accommodate the traffic growths of 80x, 500x and 1000x in a high rise building scenario. It provides a guideline on the configuration of the spectrum and the best deployment options...... coverage and capacity for the future wireless service consumers, specially those located in the high rise buildings....

  2. Preparation and investigation of the heterogeneous systems, containing highly dispersed components

    OpenAIRE

    Lesnikovich, A. I.; Vorobyova, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the investigation of the different materials containing highly dispersed substances are reported. The following materials, in-cluding colloidal, supported and fibrous regulators of intraballistic char-acteristics of composite solid propellents; X-ray contrast neutron-capturing magnetic liquid for radiation examinations, neutron-capture therapy of malignant neoplasms and X-ray diagnostics; magnetoabrasive tools combining high magnetic, cutting and abrasive characteristics; magne...

  3. Development of a highly sensitive three-dimensional gel electrophoresis method for characterization of monoclonal protein heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Keiichi; Tamura, Shogo; Otuka, Kohei; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Shigemura, Masahiko; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Moriyama, Takanori

    2013-07-15

    Three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (3-DE), which combines agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing/SDS-PAGE, was developed to characterize monoclonal proteins (M-proteins). However, the original 3-DE method has not been optimized and its specificity has not been demonstrated. The main goal of this study was to optimize the 3-DE procedure and then compare it with 2-DE. We developed a highly sensitive 3-DE method in which M-proteins are extracted from a first-dimension agarose gel, by diffusing into 150 mM NaCl, and the recovery of M-proteins was 90.6%. To validate the utility of the highly sensitive 3-DE, we compared it with the original 3-DE method. We found that highly sensitive 3-DE provided for greater M-protein recovery and was more effective in terms of detecting spots on SDS-PAGE gels than the original 3-DE. Moreover, highly sensitive 3-DE separates residual normal IgG from M-proteins, which could not be done by 2-DE. Applying the highly sensitive 3-DE to clinical samples, we found that the characteristics of M-proteins vary tremendously between individuals. We believe that our highly sensitive 3-DE method described here will prove useful in further studies of the heterogeneity of M-proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  5. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.71 Incentives for high performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be...

  6. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp...

  7. Iron modified bentonite: Enhanced adsorption performance for organic pollutant and its regeneration by heterogeneous visible light photo-Fenton process at circumneutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yaowen; Guo, Yongzhao; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-25

    Iron modified bentonite (FeMB) was prepared and used as an inexpensive adsorbent to rapidly remove organic pollutant (Rhodamine B, RhB) from aqueous solution. The iron modification significantly improved the adsorption performance of FeMB for RhB and permitted an easy separation of FeMB from the treated effluent. The equilibrium adsorption studies indicated that the dye molecules obeyed Langmuir type of adsorption with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity of 168.13 mg g(-1) for FeMB. The heterogeneous photo-Fenton process operated at circumneutral pH in the presence of visible light irradiation was found to be effective for the regeneration of the spent FeMB. Furthermore, the regeneration efficiency of as high as 79% was still achieved after 5 consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles. Considering that, the visible light photo-Fenton approach could be applied as an excellent alternative for regenerating clay-based adsorbents by avoiding the use of dissolved iron salts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the assumption of power-law late time scaling of breakthrough curves in highly heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Power-law (PL) distributions are widely adopted to define the late-time scaling of solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) during transport experiments in highly heterogeneous media. However, from a statistical perspective, distinguishing between a PL distribution and another tailed distribution is difficult, particularly when a qualitative assessment based on visual analysis of double-logarithmic plotting is used. This presentation aims to discuss the results from a recent analysis where a suite of statistical tools was applied to evaluate rigorously the scaling of BTCs from experiments that generate tailed distributions typically described as PL at late time. To this end, a set of BTCs from numerical simulations in highly heterogeneous media were generated using a transition probability approach (T-PROGS) coupled to a finite different numerical solver of the flow equation (MODFLOW) and a random walk particle tracking approach for Lagrangian transport (RW3D). The T-PROGS fields assumed randomly distributed hydraulic heterogeneities with long correlation scales creating solute channeling and anomalous transport. For simplicity, transport was simulated as purely advective. This combination of tools generates strongly non-symmetric BTCs visually resembling PL distributions at late time when plotted in double log scales. Unlike other combination of modeling parameters and boundary conditions (e.g. matrix diffusion in fractures), at late time no direct link exists between the mathematical functions describing scaling of these curves and physical parameters controlling transport. The results suggest that the statistical tests fail to describe the majority of curves as PL distributed. Moreover, they suggest that PL or lognormal distributions have the same likelihood to represent parametrically the shape of the tails. It is noticeable that forcing a model to reproduce the tail as PL functions results in a distribution of PL slopes comprised between 1.2 and 4, which are the

  9. Prediction of Fluid Velocity in Highly Heterogeneous Conductivity Fields Using a Genetic Algorithm-Designed Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, C.

    2003-12-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to select the operational parameters of artificial neural networks (ANN) which are trained to predict fluid velocity. Populations of three-layer, feedforward backpropagation ANN's with varying numbers of hidden nodes, types and slopes of activation functions, alpha and beta learning rates and initial distributions of weights for both the input and hidden layers are created by the GA. The GA- defined ANN's are trained with inputs-output pairs of hydraulic conductivity neighborhoods and resulting fluid velocities at certain points in the simulation domain. The hydraulic conductivity fields are highly heterogeneous with an ensemble log conductivity variance of 1.0. Results of the GA are defined and selected ANN velocity predictions are presented.

  10. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  11. Heterogeneity in Human Capital Investments: High School Curriculum, College Major, and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altonji, Joseph G.; Blom, Erica; Meghir, Costas

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the large differences in labor market outcomes across college majors, we survey the literature on the demand for and return to high school and postsecondary education by field of study. We combine elements from several papers to provide a dynamic model of education and occupation choice that stresses the roles of the specificity of…

  12. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  13. Forms of Self-Concept in Gifted High School Students Enrolled in Heterogeneous Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatte, Aude; Hugon, Mandarine; de Leonardis, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has been devoted to understanding how to facilitate the integration of gifted young people (Intelligence Quotient, greater than or equal to 130) into classroom settings. This study investigated a typology of self-concept in gifted French high school students. Eighty-four participants, between the ages of 13 and 18 (mean age, 15.5;…

  14. Flow simulation and high performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezduyar, T.; Aliabadi, S.; Behr, M.; Johnson, A.; Kalro, V.; Litke, M.

    1996-10-01

    Flow simulation is a computational tool for exploring science and technology involving flow applications. It can provide cost-effective alternatives or complements to laboratory experiments, field tests and prototyping. Flow simulation relies heavily on high performance computing (HPC). We view HPC as having two major components. One is advanced algorithms capable of accurately simulating complex, real-world problems. The other is advanced computer hardware and networking with sufficient power, memory and bandwidth to execute those simulations. While HPC enables flow simulation, flow simulation motivates development of novel HPC techniques. This paper focuses on demonstrating that flow simulation has come a long way and is being applied to many complex, real-world problems in different fields of engineering and applied sciences, particularly in aerospace engineering and applied fluid mechanics. Flow simulation has come a long way because HPC has come a long way. This paper also provides a brief review of some of the recently-developed HPC methods and tools that has played a major role in bringing flow simulation where it is today. A number of 3D flow simulations are presented in this paper as examples of the level of computational capability reached with recent HPC methods and hardware. These examples are, flow around a fighter aircraft, flow around two trains passing in a tunnel, large ram-air parachutes, flow over hydraulic structures, contaminant dispersion in a model subway station, airflow past an automobile, multiple spheres falling in a liquid-filled tube, and dynamics of a paratrooper jumping from a cargo aircraft.

  15. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  16. Parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, K L; Dornbusch, S M; Troyer, L; Steinberg, L; Ritter, P L

    1997-06-01

    This article examined the contemporaneous and predictive relations between parenting styles, adolescents' attributions, and 4 educational outcomes. Data were collected from adolescents attending 6 high schools in California and 3 high schools in Wisconsin during the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 school years. The results of path analyses partially confirmed the central hypotheses. Adolescents who perceived their parents as being nonauthoritative were more likely than their peers to attribute achievement outcomes to external causes or to low ability. Furthermore, the higher the proportion of dysfunctional attributions made for academic successes and failures, the lower the levels of classroom engagement and homework 1 year later. Although adolescents' attributional style provided a bridge between parenting style and 2 educational outcomes, it did not fully explain the impact of parenting on those outcomes. Additional analyses within gender and ethnic subgroups reinforced the overall pattern of findings observed within the entire sample.

  17. X-Graphs: Language and Algorithms for Heterogeneous Graph Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    X-GRAPHS: LANGUAGE AND ALGORITHMS FOR HETEROGENEOUS GRAPH STREAMS THE LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY SEPTEMBER 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) SEP 2012 – MAR 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE X-GRAPHS: LANGUAGE AND ALGORITHMS FOR HETEROGENEOUS GRAPH STREAMS 5a...high-performance Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) that can be used to target heterogeneous architectures (multicore, GPU, cluster, FPGA). These tools

  18. Improving the high performance concrete (HPC behaviour in high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattelan Antocheves De Lima, R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available High performance concrete (HPC is an interesting material that has been long attracting the interest from the scientific and technical community, due to the clear advantages obtained in terms of mechanical strength and durability. Given these better characteristics, HFC, in its various forms, has been gradually replacing normal strength concrete, especially in structures exposed to severe environments. However, the veiy dense microstructure and low permeability typical of HPC can result in explosive spalling under certain thermal and mechanical conditions, such as when concrete is subject to rapid temperature rises, during a f¡re. This behaviour is caused by the build-up of internal water pressure, in the pore structure, during heating, and by stresses originating from thermal deformation gradients. Although there are still a limited number of experimental programs in this area, some researchers have reported that the addition of polypropylene fibers to HPC is a suitable way to avoid explosive spalling under f re conditions. This change in behavior is derived from the fact that polypropylene fibers melt in high temperatures and leave a pathway for heated gas to escape the concrete matrix, therefore allowing the outward migration of water vapor and resulting in the reduction of interned pore pressure. The present research investigates the behavior of high performance concrete on high temperatures, especially when polypropylene fibers are added to the mix.

    El hormigón de alta resistencia (HAR es un material de gran interés para la comunidad científica y técnica, debido a las claras ventajas obtenidas en término de resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. A causa de estas características, el HAR, en sus diversas formas, en algunas aplicaciones está reemplazando gradualmente al hormigón de resistencia normal, especialmente en estructuras expuestas a ambientes severos. Sin embargo, la microestructura muy densa y la baja permeabilidad t

  19. High Performance Input/Output Systems for High Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geoffrey C.; Ou, Chao-Wei

    1997-01-01

    The approach of this task was to apply leading parallel computing research to a number of existing techniques for assimilation, and extract parameters indicating where and how input/output limits computational performance. The following was used for detailed knowledge of the application problems: 1. Developing a parallel input/output system specifically for this application 2. Extracting the important input/output characteristics of data assimilation problems; and 3. Building these characteristics s parameters into our runtime library (Fortran D/High Performance Fortran) for parallel input/output support.

  20. High performance MEMS micro-gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, S. Y.; Hayworth, K. J.; Yee, K. Y.; Shcheglov, K.; Challoner, A. D.; Wiberg, D. V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on JPL's on-going research into MEMS gyroscopes. This paper will describe the gyroscope's fabrication-methods, a new 8-electrode layout developed to improve performance, and performance statistics of a batch of six gyroscopes recently rate tested.

  1. High speed curving performance of rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    On March 13, 2013, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) published a final rule titled Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations which amended the Track Safety Standards (49 CFR Part213) and ...

  2. Genetic heterogeneity of oesophageal cancer in high-incidence areas of southern and northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guohong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common and deadliest cancers worldwide. Our previous population-based study reported a high prevalence of oesophageal cancer in Chaoshan, Guangdong Province, China. Ancestors of the Chaoshan population migrated from the Taihang Mountain region of north-central China, which is another high-incidence area for oesophageal cancer. The purpose of the present study was to obtain evidence of inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in the Chaoshan population, with reference to the Taihang Mountain population, with the eventual goal of molecular identification of the disease genes. METHODS: We conducted familial correlation, commingling, and complex segregation analyses of 224 families from the Chaoshan population and 403 families from the Taihang population using the FPMM program of S.A.G.E. version 5.3.0. A second analysis focused on specific families having large numbers of affected individuals or early onset of the disease. RESULTS: For the general population, moderate sib-sib correlation was noticed for esophageal cancer. Additionally, brother-brother correlation was even higher. Commingling analyses indicated that a three-component distribution model best accounts for the variation in age of onset of oesophageal cancer, and that a multifactorial model provides the best fit to the general population data. An autosomal dominant mode and a dominant or recessive major gene with polygenic inheritance were found to be the best models of inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in some large families. CONCLUSIONS: The current results provide evidence for inherited susceptibility to oesophageal cancer in certain high-risk groups in China, and support efforts to identify the susceptibility genes.

  3. High-throughput heterogeneous integration of diverse nanomaterials on a single chip for sensing applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel MacNaughton

    Full Text Available There is a large variety of nanomaterials each with unique electronic, optical and sensing properties. However, there is currently no paradigm for integration of different nanomaterials on a single chip in a low-cost high-throughput manner. We present a high throughput integration approach based on spatially controlled dielectrophoresis executed sequentially for each nanomaterial type to realize a scalable array of individually addressable assemblies of graphene, carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanowires and conductive polymers on a single chip. This is a first time where such a diversity of nanomaterials has been assembled on the same layer in a single chip. The resolution of assembly can range from mesoscale to microscale and is limited only by the size and spacing of the underlying electrodes on chip used for assembly. While many applications are possible, the utility of such an array is demonstrated with an example application of a chemical sensor array for detection of volatile organic compounds below parts-per-million sensitivity.

  4. glbase: a framework for combining, analyzing and displaying heterogeneous genomic and high-throughput sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Hutchins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic datasets and the tools to analyze them have proliferated at an astonishing rate. However, such tools are often poorly integrated with each other: each program typically produces its own custom output in a variety of non-standard file formats. Here we present glbase, a framework that uses a flexible set of descriptors that can quickly parse non-binary data files. glbase includes many functions to intersect two lists of data, including operations on genomic interval data and support for the efficient random access to huge genomic data files. Many glbase functions can produce graphical outputs, including scatter plots, heatmaps, boxplots and other common analytical displays of high-throughput data such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and microarray expression data. glbase is designed to rapidly bring biological data into a Python-based analytical environment to facilitate analysis and data processing. In summary, glbase is a flexible and multifunctional toolkit that allows the combination and analysis of high-throughput data (especially next-generation sequencing and genome-wide data, and which has been instrumental in the analysis of complex data sets. glbase is freely available at http://bitbucket.org/oaxiom/glbase/.

  5. Toward high performance in Powder Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torralba, José M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Powder Metallurgy (PM is technology well known for mass production of parts at low cost but usually with worse mechanical properties than same parts obtained by alternative routes. But using this technology, high performance materials can be obtained, depending of the processing route and the type and amount of porosity. In this paper, a brief review of the capabilities of powder technology is made with the objective of attaining the highest level of mechanical and physical properties. For this purpose, different strategies over the processing can be chosen: to act over the density/porosity level and properties of the pores, to act over strengthening mechanisms apart from the density of the material (the alloying system, the microstructure, the grain size,.., to improve the sintering activity by different routes and to use techniques that avoid the grain growth during sintering.La Pulvimetalurgia es una tecnología bien conocida por su faceta de producir piezas de forma masiva a bajo coste, pero habitualmente con una pérdida de propiedades mecánicas si se la compara con tecnologías alternativas para obtener las mismas piezas. Sin embargo, mediante esta tecnología, también se pueden obtener piezas de altas prestaciones, dependiendo de la ruta de procesado y del nivel de porosidad. En este trabajo, se realiza una sucinta revisión de las posibilidades de la tecnología de polvos que permitirían obtener los mayores niveles de prestaciones en cuanto a propiedades mecánicas y físicas. Se pueden elegir distintas estrategias en el procesado: actuar sobre el nivel de densidad/porosidad y las propiedades de los poros, actuar sobre mecanismos de endurecimiento distintos a la densidad (el sistema de aleación, la microestructura, el tamaño de grano,…, mejorar la activación durante la sinterización y utilizar técnicas que inhiban el tamaño de grano durante la sinterización.

  6. High performance linear algebra algorithms: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, F.G.; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    . In talk two, Jerzy Waśniewski presented the recursive packed format and its related Cholesky factorization algorithm, [2]. This novel format gave especially good Cholesky performance for very large matrices. In talk three, Jerzy Waśniewski demonstrated a detailed tuning strategy for talk one and presented...... performance results on six important platforms, Alpha, IBM, Intel, Itanium, SGI and Sun. The performance runs covered the algorithms of talks one and two as well as Lapack’s full and packed Cholesky codes, [3]. Overall, the square block hybrid method was best but was not a clear winner. The recursive method...

  7. 7 CFR 275.24 - High performance bonuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High performance bonuses. 275.24 Section 275.24... High performance bonuses. (a) General rule. (1) FNS will award bonuses totaling $48 million for each fiscal year to State agencies that show high or improved performance in accordance with the performance...

  8. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '02 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    2003-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in modeling and simulation on supercomputers. Leading German research groups present their results achieved on high-end systems of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) for the year 2002. Reports cover all fields of supercomputing simulation ranging from computational fluid dynamics to computer science. Special emphasis is given to industrially relevant applications. Moreover, by presenting results for both vector sytems and micro-processor based systems the book allows to compare performance levels and usability of a variety of supercomputer architectures. It therefore becomes an indispensable guidebook to assess the impact of the Japanese Earth Simulator project on supercomputing in the years to come.

  9. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya; Sohn, Michael D.; Nazaroff, William W.; J. Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-06-30

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door position sensors. The added information from door position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement.

  10. Towards improved characterization of high-risk releases using heterogeneous indoor sensor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Priya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nazaroff, William W.; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Indoor Environment Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The sudden release of toxic contaminants that reach indoor spaces can be hazardous to building occupants. For an acutely toxic contaminant, the speed of the emergency response strongly influences the consequences to occupants. The design of a real-time sensor system is made challenging both by the urgency and complex nature of the event, and by the imperfect sensors and models available to describe it. In this research, we use Bayesian modeling to combine information from multiple types of sensors to improve the characterization of a release. We discuss conceptual and algorithmic considerations for selecting and fusing information from disparate sensors. To explore system performance, we use both real tracer gas data from experiments in a three-story building, along with synthetic data, including information from door-position sensors. The added information from door-position sensors is found to be useful for many scenarios, but not always. We discuss the physical conditions and design factors that affect these results, such as the influence of the door positions on contaminant transport. We highlight potential benefits of multisensor data fusion, challenges in realizing those benefits, and opportunities for further improvement. (author)

  11. Exome sequencing reveals a high genetic heterogeneity on familial Hirschsprung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón-Toro, Berta; Gui, Hongsheng; Ruiz-Ferrer, Macarena; Sze-Man Tang, Clara; Fernández, Raquel M.; Sham, Pak-Chung; Torroglosa, Ana; Kwong-Hang Tam, Paul; Espino-Paisán, Laura; Cherny, Stacey S.; Bleda, Marta; Enguix-Riego, María del Valle; Dopazo, Joaquín; Antiñolo, Guillermo; García-Barceló, María-Mercé; Borrego, Salud

    2015-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR; OMIM 142623) is a developmental disorder characterized by aganglionosis along variable lengths of the distal gastrointestinal tract, which results in intestinal obstruction. Interactions among known HSCR genes and/or unknown disease susceptibility loci lead to variable severity of phenotype. Neither linkage nor genome-wide association studies have efficiently contributed to completely dissect the genetic pathways underlying this complex genetic disorder. We have performed whole exome sequencing of 16 HSCR patients from 8 unrelated families with SOLID platform. Variants shared by affected relatives were validated by Sanger sequencing. We searched for genes recurrently mutated across families. Only variations in the FAT3 gene were significantly enriched in five families. Within-family analysis identified compound heterozygotes for AHNAK and several genes (N = 23) with heterozygous variants that co-segregated with the phenotype. Network and pathway analyses facilitated the discovery of polygenic inheritance involving FAT3, HSCR known genes and their gene partners. Altogether, our approach has facilitated the detection of more than one damaging variant in biologically plausible genes that could jointly contribute to the phenotype. Our data may contribute to the understanding of the complex interactions that occur during enteric nervous system development and the etiopathology of familial HSCR. PMID:26559152

  12. Highly Heterogeneous Probiotic Lactobacillus Species in Healthy Iranians with Low Functional Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani, Mahdi; Noohi, Nasrin; Talebi, Malihe; Katouli, Mohammad; Pourshafie, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been considered as potentially probiotic organisms due to their potential human health properties. This study aimed to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo, the potential probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from fecal samples of healthy humans in Iran. Methods and Results A total of 470 LAB were initially isolated from 53 healthy individual and characterized to species level. Of these, 88 (86%) were Lactobacillus species. Biochemical and genetic fingerprinting with Phene-Plate system (PhP-LB) and RAPD-PCR showed that the isolates were highly diverse consisted of 67(76.1%) and 75 (85.2%) single types (STs) and a diversity indices of 0.994 and 0.997, respectively. These strains were tested for production of adhesion to Caco-2 cells, antibacterial activity, production of B12, anti-proliferative effect and interleukin-8 induction on gut epithelial cell lines and antibiotic resistance against 9 commonly used antibiotics. Strains showing the characteristics consistent with probiotic strains, were further tested for their anti-inflammatory effect in mouse colitis model. Only one L. brevis; one L. rhamnosus and two L. plantarum were shown to have significant probiotic properties. These strains showed shortening the length of colon compared to dextran sulfate sodium and disease activity index (DAI) was also significantly reduced in mouse. Conclusion Low number of LAB with potential probiotic activity as well as high diversity of lactobacilli species was evident in Iranian population. It also suggest that specific strains of L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. rhamnosus with anti-inflammatory effect in mouse model of colitis could be used as a potential probiotic candidate in inflammatory bowel disease to decrease the disease activity index. PMID:26645292

  13. 'High' achievers? Cannabis access and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, O.; Zölitz, U.N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals’ nationality. We apply a difference in-difference approach using administrative

  14. From adaptive to high-performance structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuffel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple design aspects influence the building performance such as architectural criteria, various environmental impacts and user behaviour. Specific examples are sun, wind, temperatures, function, occupancy, socio-cultural aspects and other contextual aspects and needs. Even though these aspects

  15. High Performance Human-Computer Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Despain, a

    1997-01-01

    Human interfaces to the computer have remained fairly crude since the use of teletypes despite the fact that computer, storage and communication performance have continued to improve by many orders of magnitude...

  16. Upconverting nanophosphors as reporters in a highly sensitive heterogeneous immunoassay for cardiac troponin I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkka, Nina, E-mail: nkelon@utu.fi; Lyytikäinen, Annika; Savukoski, Tanja; Soukka, Tero

    2016-06-21

    Photon upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) have a unique capability to produce anti-Stokes emission at visible wavelengths via sequential multiphoton absorption upon infrared excitation. Since the anti-Stokes emission can be easily spectrally resolved from the Stokes' shifted autofluorescence, the upconversion luminescence (UCL) is a highly attractive reporter technology for optical biosensors and biomolecular binding assays – potentially enabling unprecedented sensitivity in separation-based solid-phase immunoassays. UCL technology has not previously been applied in sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), which requires highly sensitive detection to enable accurate and timely diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We have developed an UCL-based immunoassay for cTnI using NaYF{sub 4}: Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} UCNPs as reporters. Biotinylated anti-cTnI monoclonal antibody (Mab) and Fab fragment immobilized to streptavidin-coated wells were used to capture cTnI. Captured cTnI was detected from dry well surface after a 15 min incubation with poly(acrylic acid) coated UCNPs conjugated to second anti-cTnI Mab. UCL was measured with a dedicated UCL microplate reader. The UCL-based immunoassay allowed sensitive detection of cTnI. The limit of detection was 3.14 ng L{sup −1}. The calibration curve was linear up to cTnI concentration 50,000 ng L{sup −1}. Plasma recoveries of added cTnI were 92–117%. Obtained cTnI concentrations from five normal plasma samples were 4.13–10.7 ng L{sup −1} (median 5.06 ng L{sup −1}). There is yet significant potential for even further improved limit of detection by reducing non-specifically bound fraction of the Mab-conjugated UCNPs. The assay background with zero calibrator was over 40-fold compared to the background obtained from wells where the reporter conjugate had been excluded. - Highlights: • Detection of attomole analyte quantity in microwell using upconversion luminescence. • Upconverting

  17. Incorporation of Molecular Catalysts in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-De; Zhao, Min

    2017-04-01

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are built from periodically alternate organic moieties and metal ions/clusters. The unique features of the open framework structures, the high surface areas, the permanent porosity, and the appropriate hydrophilic and hydrophobic pore nature mean that MOF materials are a class of ideal host matrices for immobilization of molecular catalysts. The emerging porous materials can not only retain but are also able to enhance the catalytic functions of the single individuals. MOF catalysts have the following super characters: i) uniformly dispersed catalytic sites on the pore surfaces to improve the utility, ii) appropriate hydrophilic and hydrophobic pore nature to facilitate the recognition and transportation of reactant and product molecules, iii) a collaborative microenvironment to realize synergistic catalysis, and iv) simple separation and recovery for long-term usage. Accompanying the development of the synthetic strategies and the technologies for the characterization of MOF materials, MOF catalysis has undergone an upsurge, which has transcended the stage of opportunism. Here, the rational design and synthesis of MOF catalysts are discussed, along with the key factors of active sites, microenvironments, and transmission channels that lead to the distinct catalytic properties of MOF catalysts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Molecular heterogeneity at the network level: high-dimensional testing, clustering and a TCGA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Städler, Nicolas; Dondelinger, Frank; Hill, Steven M; Akbani, Rehan; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Mukherjee, Sach

    2017-09-15

    Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging. Furthermore, since network differences could provide important and biologically interpretable information to identify molecular subgroups, there is a need to consider the unsupervised task of learning subgroups and networks that define them. This is a nontrivial clustering problem, with neither subgroups nor subgroup-specific networks known at the outset. We leverage recent ideas from high-dimensional statistics for testing and clustering in the network biology setting. The methods we describe can be applied directly to most continuous molecular measurements and networks do not need to be specified beforehand. We illustrate the ideas and methods in a case study using protein data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This provides evidence that patterns of interplay between signalling proteins differ significantly between cancer types. Furthermore, we show how the proposed approaches can be used to learn subtypes and the molecular networks that define them. As the Bioconductor package nethet. staedler.n@gmail.com or sach.mukherjee@dzne.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Heterogeneously integrated long-wavelength VCSEL using silicon high contrast grating on an SOI substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, James; Yang, Weijian; Zhu, Li; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-02-09

    We report an electrically pumped hybrid cavity AlGaInAs-silicon long-wavelength VCSEL using a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The VCSEL operates at silicon transparent wavelengths ~1.57 μm with >1 mW CW power outcoupled from the semiconductor DBR, and single-mode operation up to 65 °C. The thermal resistance of our device is measured to be 1.46 K/mW. We demonstrate >2.5 GHz 3-dB direct modulation bandwidth, and show error-free transmission over 2.5 km single mode fiber under 5 Gb/s direct modulation. We show a theoretical design of SOI-HCG serving both as a VCSEL reflector as well as waveguide coupler for an in-plane SOI waveguide, facilitating integration of VCSEL with in-plane silicon photonic circuits. The novel HCG-VCSEL design, which employs scalable flip-chip eutectic bonding, may enable low cost light sources for integrated optical links.

  20. Heterogeneous Multicore Processor Technologies for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, Kunio; Kasahara, Hironori; Nojiri, Tohru; Noda, Hideyuki; Tawara, Yasuhiro; Idehara, Akio; Iwata, Kenichi; Shikano, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the higher requirements of digitally converged embedded systems, this book describes heterogeneous multicore technology that uses various kinds of low-power embedded processor cores on a single chip. With this technology, heterogeneous parallelism can be implemented on an SoC, and greater flexibility and superior performance per watt can then be achieved. This book defines the heterogeneous multicore architecture and explains in detail several embedded processor cores including CPU cores and special-purpose processor cores that achieve highly arithmetic-level parallelism. The authors developed three multicore chips (called RP-1, RP-2, and RP-X) according to the defined architecture with the introduced processor cores. The chip implementations, software environments, and applications running on the chips are also explained in the book. Provides readers an overview and practical discussion of heterogeneous multicore technologies from both a hardware and software point of view; Discusses a new, high-p...

  1. Genetic heterogeneity after first-line chemotherapy in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Sandrina; Smeets, Dominiek; Moisse, Matthieu; Braicu, Elena Ioana; Vanderstichele, Adriaan; Zhao, Hui; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Berns, Els; Sehouli, Jalid; Zeillinger, Robert; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Cacsire Castillo-Tong, Dan; Lambrechts, Diether; Vergote, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    Most high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) patients benefit from first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, but progressively develop resistance during subsequent lines. Re-activating BRCA1 or MDR1 mutations can underlie platinum resistance in end-stage patients. However, little is known about resistance mechanisms occurring after a single line of platinum, when patients still qualify for other treatments. In 31 patients with primary platinum-sensitive HGSOC, we profiled tumours collected during debulking surgery before and after first-line chemotherapy using whole-exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism profiling. Besides germline BRCA1/2 mutations, we observed frequent loss-of-heterozygosity in homologous recombination (HR) genes and mutation spectra characteristic of HR-deficiency in all tumours. At relapse, tumours differed considerably from their primary counterparts. There was, however, no evidence of events reactivating the HR pathway, also not in tumours resistant to second-line platinum. Instead, a platinum score of 13 copy number regions, among other genes including MECOM, CCNE1 and ERBB2, correlated with platinum-free interval (PFI) after first-line therapy, whereas an increase of this score in recurrent tumours predicted the change in PFI during subsequent therapy. Already after a single line of platinum, there is huge variability between primary and recurrent tumours, advocating that in HGSOC biopsies need to be collected at relapse to tailor treatment options to the underlying genetic profile. Nevertheless, all primary platinum-sensitive HGSOCs remained HR-deficient, irrespective of whether they became resistant to second-line platinum, further suggesting these tumours qualify for second-line Poly APD ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor treatment. Finally, chromosomal instability contributes to acquired resistance after a single line of platinum therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Benchmarking: More Aspects of High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindrudu, Rahul [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The original HPL algorithm makes the assumption that all data can be fit entirely in the main memory. This assumption will obviously give a good performance due to the absence of disk I/O. However, not all applications can fit their entire data in memory. These applications which require a fair amount of I/O to move data to and from main memory and secondary storage, are more indicative of usage of an Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) System. Given this scenario a well designed I/O architecture will play a significant part in the performance of the MPP System on regular jobs. And, this is not represented in the current Benchmark. The modified HPL algorithm is hoped to be a step in filling this void. The most important factor in the performance of out-of-core algorithms is the actual I/O operations performed and their efficiency in transferring data to/from main memory and disk, Various methods were introduced in the report for performing I/O operations. The I/O method to use depends on the design of the out-of-core algorithm. Conversely, the performance of the out-of-core algorithm is affected by the choice of I/O operations. This implies, good performance is achieved when I/O efficiency is closely tied with the out-of-core algorithms. The out-of-core algorithms must be designed from the start. It is easily observed in the timings for various plots, that I/O plays a significant part in the overall execution time. This leads to an important conclusion, retro-fitting an existing code may not be the best choice. The right-looking algorithm selected for the LU factorization is a recursive algorithm and performs well when the entire dataset is in memory. At each stage of the loop the entire trailing submatrix is read into memory panel by panel. This gives a polynomial number of I/O reads and writes. If the left-looking algorithm was selected for the main loop, the number of I/O operations involved will be linear on the number of columns. This is due to the data access

  3. A Green Solventless Protocol for the Synthesis of β-Enaminones and β-Enamino Esters Using Silica Sulfuric Acid as a Highly Efficient, Heterogeneous and Reusable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasaninejad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica sulfuric acid is utilized as a green, highly efficient, heterogeneous and recyclable catalyst for the preparation of β-enaminones and β-enamino esters from amines and β-dicarbonyl compounds under solvent-free conditions at 80 °C. Using this method, the title compounds are produced in high to excellent yields and in short reaction times.

  4. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.

  5. Percentage depth dose calculation accuracy of model based algorithms in high energy photon small fields through heterogeneous media and comparison with plastic scintillator dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagar, Ananda Giri Babu; Mani, Ganesh Kadirampatti; Karunakaran, Kaviarasu

    2016-01-08

    Small fields smaller than 4 × 4 cm2 are used in stereotactic and conformal treatments where heterogeneity is normally present. Since dose calculation accuracy in both small fields and heterogeneity often involves more discrepancy, algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated for achieving better treatment results. This report aims at evaluating accuracy of four model-based algorithms, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) from Monaco, Superposition (SP) from CMS-Xio, AcurosXB (AXB) and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) from Eclipse are tested against the measurement. Measurements are done using Exradin W1 plastic scintillator in Solid Water phantom with heterogeneities like air, lung, bone, and aluminum, irradiated with 6 and 15 MV photons of square field size ranging from 1 to 4 cm2. Each heterogeneity is introduced individually at two different depths from depth-of-dose maximum (Dmax), one setup being nearer and another farther from the Dmax. The central axis percentage depth-dose (CADD) curve for each setup is measured separately and compared with the TPS algorithm calculated for the same setup. The percentage normalized root mean squared deviation (%NRMSD) is calculated, which represents the whole CADD curve's deviation against the measured. It is found that for air and lung heterogeneity, for both 6 and 15 MV, all algorithms show maximum deviation for field size 1 × 1 cm2 and gradually reduce when field size increases, except for AAA. For aluminum and bone, all algorithms' deviations are less for 15 MV irrespective of setup. In all heterogeneity setups, 1 × 1 cm2 field showed maximum deviation, except in 6MV bone setup. All algorithms in the study, irrespective of energy and field size, when any heterogeneity is nearer to Dmax, the dose deviation is higher compared to the same heterogeneity far from the Dmax. Also, all algorithms show maximum deviation in lower-density materials compared to high-density materials.

  6. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concluding that Africa's poor organisational performances are attributable to some inadequacies in the cultural foundations of countries and organisations, this paper argues for internal branding as the way forward for African organisations. Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and ...

  7. High Performance Expectations: Concept and causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2017-01-01

    literature research, HPE is defined as the degree to which leaders succeed in expressing ambitious expectations to their employees’ achievement of given performance criteria, and it is analyzed how leadership behavior affects employee-perceived HPE. This study applies a large-scale leadership field...

  8. Green Schools as High Performance Learning Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    In practice, a green school is the physical result of a consensus process of planning, design, and construction that takes into account a building's performance over its entire 50- to 60-year life cycle. The main focus of the process is to reinforce optimal learning, a goal very much in keeping with the parallel goals of resource efficiency and…

  9. Workplace Learning of High Performance Sports Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, Steven B.; Mallett, Clifford J.; Tinning, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Australian coaching workplace (to be referred to as the State Institute of Sport; SIS) under consideration in this study employs significant numbers of full-time performance sport coaches and can be accurately characterized as a genuine workplace. Through a consideration of the interaction between what the workplace (SIS) affords the…

  10. Mastering JavaScript high performance

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer with some experience in development and want to increase the performance of JavaScript projects by building faster web apps, then this book is for you. You should know the basic concepts of JavaScript.

  11. Engendering a high performing organisational culture through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through internal branding an African organization can use a systematic and comprehensive approach that takes into view factors impacting organisational performance with the required attention to people who must deliver the corporate brand promise. This paper demonstrates that internal branding of African organisations ...

  12. Design and Testing of High Performance Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    Electric Brushes SARA DILLICH AND DORIS KUHLMANN-WILSDORF Abi Vtcv-The brus resitance of silver graphite (Stackpole SG142, 75 TABLE I wt% All, 25 wt...the performance of Stackpole SG 142 sliding contacts themselves produce (75 w/o Ag, 25 w/o C) silver graphite heat and are thus prone to introduce

  13. Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a heterogeneous catalysis course which has elements of materials processing embedded in the classical format of catalytic mechanisms and surface chemistry. A course outline and list of examples of recent review papers written by students are provided. (MVL)

  14. Carbon nanomaterials for high-performance supercapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tao; Dai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    .... Recently, carbon nanomaterials (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphene) have been widely investigated as effective electrodes in supercapacitors due to their high specific surface area, excellent electrical and mechanical properties...

  15. High performance S-type cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.Y.; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C. [PolyPlus Battery Co., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    PolyPlus Battery Company (PPBC) is developing an advanced lithium polymer rechargeable battery based on proprietary positive electrode chemistry. In one formulation, this electrode contains elemental sulfur, either free or in association with secondary materials that promote its utilization. Batteries based on this cathode chemistry offer high steady-state (>250 W/kg) and high peak power densities (3,000 W/kg), in a low cost and environmentally benign format. High energy density, in excess of 500 Wh/kg (600 Wh/l) can also be achieved. The high power and energy densities, along with the low toxicity and low cost of materials used in the PolyPlus solid-state cells make this battery exceptionally attractive for both hybrid and electric vehicles, and for consumer electronic applications.

  16. High Power Performance of Rod Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Michieletto, Mattia; Kristensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W.......An improved version of the DMF rod fiber is tested in a high power setup delivering 360W of stable signal power. Multiple testing degrades the fiber and transverse modal instability threshold from >360W to ~290W....

  17. Ultra-High Voltage DC Convertor Station Equipment Condition Data Access Technology Based on multi-Source Heterogeneous Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bo-wen; Han, Shuai; Ren, Wei; Xu, Hai-jun; Fu, Long-ming

    2017-07-01

    With the large-scale construction of special high-voltage project, as well as power supply reliability, security, economic and other increasingly demanding, state monitoring equipment involved in more and more monitoring projects and more and more monitoring data, because these data exist in multiple isolated systems in the Ultra-High Voltage(UHV) AC-DC substation, there is no data sharing mechanism, so a holistic analysis, application and sharing approach for the data set will need a deep consideration. In this paper, the equipment condition monitoring system frame of the UHV converter station and the scheme of the equipment state data access of UHV converter station based on the multi-source and heterogeneous data fusion are presented. Then, data exchange technology of UHV equipment state early warning center was introduced, and a data access and conversion device in the Zhongzhou converter station was deployed to solve the timeliness and functionality difficult of the existing system to meet the requirements of UHV operation and maintenance support.

  18. A safe, efficient and cost effective process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from a highly heterogeneous and relatively inaccessible shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2015-10-01

    A rocky, intractable and highly heterogeneous, intertidal zone, was contaminated from a diesel fuel spill that occurred during refuelling of a grader used in road construction, on an operational mine's shiploading facility. A practical, cost-effective, and safer (to personnel by avoiding drilling and earthworks), and non-invasive sampling and remediation strategy was designed and implemented since the location and nature of the impacted geology (rock fill) and sediment, precluded conventional ex-situ and any in-situ treatment where drilling would be required. Enhanced biostimulation with surfactant, available N & P (which were highly constrained), and increased aeration, increased the degradation rate from no discernable change for 2 years post-spill, to 170 mg/kg/day; the maximum degradation rate after intervention. While natural attenuation was ineffective in this application, the low-cost, biostimulation intervention proved successful, allowing the site owner to meet their regulatory obligations. Petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic fraction) decreased from ∼20,000 mg/kg to <200 mg/kg at the completion of 180 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  20. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  1. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  2. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Chee Leong; Mohseni Hooman

    2018-01-01

    Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs) have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as...

  3. High Performance Concrete Pavement in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nantung, Tommy E

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 1990s, curling and warping of Portland cement concrete pavement did not concern pavement engineers in many transportation agencies. Since beginning construction of the interstate system in the United States in the late 1950s through the late 1980s, the performance of Portland cement concrete pavement has been associated with properties of concrete as a pavement material. In those years developed standards and design guidelines emphasized better concrete materials and construct...

  4. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '99 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    2000-01-01

    The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and engineering of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases of an innovative combination of state-of-the-art modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. The projects of HLRS are using supercomputer systems operated jointly by university and industry and therefore a special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.

  5. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering '98 : Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center

    CERN Document Server

    Jäger, Willi

    1999-01-01

    The book contains reports about the most significant projects from science and industry that are using the supercomputers of the Federal High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS). These projects are from different scientific disciplines, with a focus on engineering, physics and chemistry. They were carefully selected in a peer-review process and are showcases for an innovative combination of state-of-the-art physical modeling, novel algorithms and the use of leading-edge parallel computer technology. As HLRS is in close cooperation with industrial companies, special emphasis has been put on the industrial relevance of results and methods.

  6. High-Performance Cellulose Nanofibril Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; Yiqiang Wu; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibril/phenol formaldehyde (CNF/PF) composite films with high work of fracture were prepared by filtering a mixture of 2,2,6,6tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized wood nanofibers and water-soluble phenol formaldehyde with resin contents ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, followed by hot pressing. The composites were characterized by tensile testing,...

  7. High Rate Performing Li-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    permeable to lithium ions and efficient in transferring the electrons into/from the LVP surface to the corresponding current collector. a) b) c) d) e...PO4)3/C for High Rate Lithium-ion Battery Applications”, Lee Hwang Sheng, Nail Suleimanov, Vishwanathan Ramar, Mangayarkarasi Murugan, Kuppan

  8. HIGH PERFORMANCE CERIA BASED OXYGEN MEMBRANE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention describes a new class of highly stable mixed conducting materials based on acceptor doped cerium oxide (CeO2-8 ) in which the limiting electronic conductivity is significantly enhanced by co-doping with a second element or co- dopant, such as Nb, W and Zn, so that cerium and the co-...... thin film membrane devices using these materials....

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... calibration curve which indicated a strong relationship between the instrument response and the concentration of proguanil. The discussion also summarizes the derivatisation chemistry that have not being fully explored to date but may find utility in future development of highly sensitive analytical methods for biquanide ...

  10. High Performance Building Mockup in FLEXLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Genentech has ambitious energy and indoor environmental quality performance goals for Building 35 (B35) being constructed by Webcor at the South San Francisco campus. Genentech and Webcor contracted with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test building systems including lighting, lighting controls, shade fabric, and automated shading controls in LBNL’s new FLEXLAB facility. The goal of the testing is to ensure that the systems installed in the new office building will function in a way that reduces energy consumption and provides a comfortable work environment for employees.

  11. High Performance Modeling of Novel Diagnostics Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dalton; Gibson, John; Lodes, Rylie; Malcolm, Hayden; Nakamoto, Teagan; Parrack, Kristina; Trujillo, Christopher; Wilde, Zak; Los Alamos Laboratories Q-6 Students Team

    2017-06-01

    A novel diagnostics method to measure the Hayes Electric Effect was tested and verified against computerized models. Where standard PVDF diagnostics utilize piezoelectric materials to measure detonation pressure through strain-induced electrical signals, the PVDF was used in a novel technique by also detecting the detonation's induced electric field. The ALE-3D Hydro Codes predicted the performance by calculating detonation velocities, pressures, and arrival times. These theoretical results then validated the experimental use of the PVDF repurposed to specifically track the Hayes Electric Effect. Los Alamos National Laboratories Q-6.

  12. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  13. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  14. High performance image processing of SPRINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGroot, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    This talk will describe computed tomography (CT) reconstruction using filtered back-projection on SPRINT parallel computers. CT is a computationally intensive task, typically requiring several minutes to reconstruct a 512x512 image. SPRINT and other parallel computers can be applied to CT reconstruction to reduce computation time from minutes to seconds. SPRINT is a family of massively parallel computers developed at LLNL. SPRINT-2.5 is a 128-node multiprocessor whose performance can exceed twice that of a Cray-Y/MP. SPRINT-3 will be 10 times faster. Described will be the parallel algorithms for filtered back-projection and their execution on SPRINT parallel computers.

  15. Static Aeroelastic Effects on High Performance Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    conditions d’quilibre. Dans ]a mesure ou Ion veut 6tre performant. iI est necessalre deliminer au maximum les incertitudes . 5-6 II faut donc tre...cours des essais sur maquette en soufflene. en particulier en cc u concerne la mesure des deformations statiques observees sur des maquettes en...IN THE UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC par R.Destuynder I I MESURE DES DEFORMATIONS DES MAQUET’ES EN SOUFFLERIE par M.Charpin, C.Armand el R.Selvaggini 12

  16. High-frequency seismic wave propagation within the heterogeneous crust: effects of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation on ground motion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Manabu; Yoshimoto, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    For practical modelling of high-frequency (>1 Hz) seismic wave propagation, we analysed the apparent radiation patterns and attenuations of P and S waves using observed Hi-net velocity seismograms for small-to-moderate crustal earthquakes in the Chugoku region, southwestern Japan. By comparing observed and simulated seismograms, we estimated practical parameter sets of crustal small-scale velocity heterogeneity and intrinsic attenuations of P and S waves (QP.int-1 and QS.int-1). Numerical simulations of seismic wave propagation were conducted via the finite-difference method using a 1-D crustal velocity structure model with additional 3-D small-scale velocity heterogeneity and intrinsic attenuation. The estimated crustal small-scale velocity heterogeneity is stochastically characterized by an exponential-type power spectral density function with correlation length of 1 km and root-mean-square value of 0.03. Estimated QP.int-1 and QS.int-1 values range from 10-2.6 to 10-2.0 and 10-2.8 to 10-2.4, respectively, indicating QP.int-1 > QS.int-1 for high frequencies (>1 Hz). Intrinsic attenuation dominates over scattering attenuation, which is caused by small-scale velocity heterogeneity. The crustal parameters obtained in this study are useful for evaluating peak ground velocities and coda envelopes for moderate crustal earthquakes via physical-based simulations using a 3-D heterogeneous structure model.

  17. An efficient implementation of 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data with GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Linong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-02-01

    De-absorption pre-stack time migration (QPSTM) compensates for the absorption and dispersion of seismic waves by introducing an effective Q parameter, thereby making it an effective tool for 3D, high-resolution imaging of seismic data. Although the optimal aperture obtained via stationary-phase migration reduces the computational cost of 3D QPSTM and yields 3D stationary-phase QPSTM, the associated computational efficiency is still the main problem in the processing of 3D, high-resolution images for real large-scale seismic data. In the current paper, we proposed a division method for large-scale, 3D seismic data to optimize the performance of stationary-phase QPSTM on clusters of graphics processing units (GPU). Then, we designed an imaging point parallel strategy to achieve an optimal parallel computing performance. Afterward, we adopted an asynchronous double buffering scheme for multi-stream to perform the GPU/CPU parallel computing. Moreover, several key optimization strategies of computation and storage based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) were adopted to accelerate the 3D stationary-phase QPSTM algorithm. Compared with the initial GPU code, the implementation of the key optimization steps, including thread optimization, shared memory optimization, register optimization and special function units (SFU), greatly improved the efficiency. A numerical example employing real large-scale, 3D seismic data showed that our scheme is nearly 80 times faster than the CPU-QPSTM algorithm. Our GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing framework significant reduces the computational cost and facilitates 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data.

  18. High Performance Photogrammetric Processing on Computer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrov, V. N.; Drakin, M. A.; Sechin, A. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Most cpu consuming tasks in photogrammetric processing can be done in parallel. The algorithms take independent bits as input and produce independent bits as output. The independence of bits comes from the nature of such algorithms since images, stereopairs or small image blocks parts can be processed independently. Many photogrammetric algorithms are fully automatic and do not require human interference. Photogrammetric workstations can perform tie points measurements, DTM calculations, orthophoto construction, mosaicing and many other service operations in parallel using distributed calculations. Distributed calculations save time reducing several days calculations to several hours calculations. Modern trends in computer technology show the increase of cpu cores in workstations, speed increase in local networks, and as a result dropping the price of the supercomputers or computer clusters that can contain hundreds or even thousands of computing nodes. Common distributed processing in DPW is usually targeted for interactive work with a limited number of cpu cores and is not optimized for centralized administration. The bottleneck of common distributed computing in photogrammetry can be in the limited lan throughput and storage performance, since the processing of huge amounts of large raster images is needed.

  19. High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, Richard L

    2011-11-01

    The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so.

  20. HIGH PERFORMANCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSING ON COMPUTER CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Adrov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Most cpu consuming tasks in photogrammetric processing can be done in parallel. The algorithms take independent bits as input and produce independent bits as output. The independence of bits comes from the nature of such algorithms since images, stereopairs or small image blocks parts can be processed independently. Many photogrammetric algorithms are fully automatic and do not require human interference. Photogrammetric workstations can perform tie points measurements, DTM calculations, orthophoto construction, mosaicing and many other service operations in parallel using distributed calculations. Distributed calculations save time reducing several days calculations to several hours calculations. Modern trends in computer technology show the increase of cpu cores in workstations, speed increase in local networks, and as a result dropping the price of the supercomputers or computer clusters that can contain hundreds or even thousands of computing nodes. Common distributed processing in DPW is usually targeted for interactive work with a limited number of cpu cores and is not optimized for centralized administration. The bottleneck of common distributed computing in photogrammetry can be in the limited lan throughput and storage performance, since the processing of huge amounts of large raster images is needed.

  1. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  2. High performance hydrophobic solvent, carbon dioxide capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulwala, Hunaid; Luebke, David

    2017-05-09

    Methods and compositions useful, for example, for physical solvent carbon capture. A method comprising: contacting at least one first composition comprising carbon dioxide with at least one second composition to at least partially dissolve the carbon dioxide of the first composition in the second composition, wherein the second composition comprises at least one siloxane compound which is covalently modified with at least one non-siloxane group comprising at least one heteroatom. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials and ethylene-glycol based materials have high carbon dioxide solubility but suffer from various problems. PDMS is hydrophobic but suffers from low selectivity. Ethylene-glycol based systems have good solubility and selectivity, but suffer from high affinity to water. Solvents were developed which keep the desired combinations of properties, and result in a simplified, overall process for carbon dioxide removal from a mixed gas stream.

  3. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, M V; Sudor, J

    1993-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has recently emerged as a highly promising technique for the analysis and structural study of glycoconjugates. This article reviews the current status of CE and its potential in glycobiology. The separation media suitable for the analysis of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and very large carbohydrate-based biomolecules are discussed. The detection aspects emphasize chemical derivatization approaches to tagging the glycoconjugates of interest for enhanced response in absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. High-Performance Filleting and Channel Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Filleting and channel sealants developed for sealing cavities in wings and fusealage of aircraft. Both sealants function well at 177 degrees C, as required in current specifications for supersonic aircraft. Sealants have excellent resistance to fuel and other solvents. They stay flexible, resistant to vibrational, thermal, and mechanical stresses, and adhere well to aluminum. Prove useful in industrial applications requiring resistance to solvents at high temperatures.

  5. High Throughput Architecture for High Performance NoC

    OpenAIRE

    Ghany, Mohamed A. Abd El; El-Moursy, Magdy A.; Ismail, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the high throughput NoC architecture is proposed to increase the throughput of the switch in NoC. The proposed architecture can also improve the latency of the network. The proposed high throughput interconnect architecture is applied on different NoC architectures. The architecture increases the throughput of the network by more than 38% while preserving the average latency. The area of high throughput NoC switch is decreased by 18% as compared to the area of BFT switch. The...

  6. Information processing among high-performance managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Garcia-Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the information processing of 43 business managers with a professional superior performance. The theoretical framework considers three models: the Theory of Managerial Roles of Henry Mintzberg, the Theory of Information Processing, and Process Model Response to Rorschach by John Exner. The participants have been evaluated by Rorschach method. The results show that these managers are able to collect data, evaluate them and establish rankings properly. At same time, they are capable of being objective and accurate in the problems assessment. This information processing style permits an interpretation of the world around on basis of a very personal and characteristic processing way or cognitive style.

  7. Incentive System in Hungarian High Performance Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterbenz Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study will attempt to describe the role of existing incentives which have a significant effect on Hungarian sport's performance. The aim of the paper is to understand why a large gap has emerged between successful elite sports and the popular but underperforming spectacular sport. According to the concept of dual competition, in addition to sport results, the analyzed fields also concern competition for resources, particularly for the attention of supporters and sponsors. The methodology of the analysis is fundamentally economic in nature; however, qualitative methods are also given emphasis, as the analyzed topic has specific characteristics. Based on new institutional economics, the study presumes that the behavior of organizations is determined by the decisions of bounded rational individuals, and highlights the significance of the created mechanisms and institutions.

  8. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  9. Idle waves in high-performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidis, Stefano; Vencels, Juris; Peng, Ivy Bo; Akhmetova, Dana; Laure, Erwin; Henri, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of parallel scientific applications distributes computation among processes that are in a busy state when computing and in an idle state when waiting for information from other processes. We identify the propagation of idle waves through processes in scientific applications with a local information exchange between the two processes. Idle waves are nondispersive and have a phase velocity inversely proportional to the average busy time. The physical mechanism enabling the propagation of idle waves is the local synchronization between two processes due to remote data dependency. This study provides a description of the large number of processes in parallel scientific applications as a continuous medium. This work also is a step towards an understanding of how localized idle periods can affect remote processes, leading to the degradation of global performance in parallel scientific applications.

  10. High-Speed Live-Cell Interferometry: A New Method for Quantifying Tumor Drug Resistance and Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dian; Leslie, Kevin A; Guest, Daniel; Yeshcheulova, Olga; Roy, Irena J; Piva, Marco; Moriceau, Gatien; Zangle, Thomas A; Lo, Roger S; Teitell, Michael A; Reed, Jason

    2018-02-13

    We report the development of high-speed live-cell interferometry (HSLCI), a new multisample, multidrug testing platform for directly measuring tumor therapy response via real-time optical cell biomass measurements. As a proof of concept, we show that HSLCI rapidly profiles changes in biomass in BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi)-sensitive parental melanoma cell lines and in their isogenic BRAFi-resistant sublines. We show reproducible results from two different HSLCI platforms at two institutions that generate biomass kinetic signatures capable of discriminating between BRAFi-sensitive and -resistant melanoma cells within 24 h. Like other quantitative phase imaging (QPI) modalities, HSLCI is well-suited to noninvasive measurements of single cells and cell clusters, requiring no fluorescence or dye labeling. HSLCI is substantially faster and more sensitive than field-standard growth inhibition assays, and in terms of the number of cells measured simultaneously, the number of drugs tested in parallel, and temporal measurement range, it exceeds the state of the art by more than 10-fold. The accuracy and speed of HSLCI in profiling tumor cell heterogeneity and therapy resistance are promising features of potential tools to guide patient therapeutic selections.

  11. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Frameshift Mutations in MECOM Gene is Frequent in Colorectal Cancers with High Microsatellite Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Ji; Kim, Min Sung; Song, Sang Yong; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2017-01-01

    MECOM gene, also known as EVI, encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in hematopoiesis, apoptosis, development and proliferation. In blood system, MECOM is considered an oncogene, but in solid tumors it has both oncogenic and tumor suppressor activities. Low frequent somatic mutations of MECOM have been detected in many cancers including colorectal cancers (CRC), but the mutation status with respect to the microsatellite instability (MSI) has not been studied. There is an A7 mononucleotide repeat in MECOM coding sequences that could be a mutation target in the cancers with MSI. We analyzed the A7 of MECOM in 79 CRCs with high MSI (MSI-H) and 65 microsatellite stable/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L) CRCs by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. Overall, we found MECOM frameshift mutations in 6 (7.6 %) CRCs with MSI-H, but not in MSS/MSI-L cancers (0/65) (p < 0.025). We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the MECOM frameshift mutation in 16 CRCs and found that four CRCs (25.0 %) harbored regional ITH of the frameshift mutations. Our data indicate that MECOM gene harbors both somatic frameshift mutations and mutational ITH, which together may be features of CRC with MSI-H.

  12. Diffusion behavior of Cu/Ta heterogeneous interface under high temperature and high strain: An atomistic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganglong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D integration technology using Cu interconnections has emerged as a promising solution to improve the performance of silicon microelectronic devices. However, Cu diffuses into SiO2 and requires a barrier layer such as Ta to ensure acceptable reliability. In this paper, the effects of temperature and strain normal to the interface on the inter-diffusion of Cu and Ta at annealing conditions are investigated using a molecular dynamics (MD technique with embedded atomic method (EAM potentials. Under thermal annealing conditions without strain, it is found that a Cu-rich diffusion region approximately 2 nm thick is formed at 1000 K after 10 ns of annealing. Ta is capable of diffusing into the interior of Cu but Cu hardly diffuses into the inner lattice of Ta. At the Cu side near the interface an amorphous structure is formed due to the process of diffusion. The diffusion activation energy of Cu and Ta are found to be 0.9769 and 0.586 eV, respectively. However, when a strain is applied, a large number of crystal defects are generated in the sample. As the strain is increased, extrinsic stacking faults (ESFs and lots of Shockley partial dislocations appear. The density of the dislocations and the diffusion channels increase, promoting the diffusion of Cu atoms into the inner lattice of Ta. The thickness of the diffusion layer increases to 4 times the value when only a temperature load of 700 K is applied. The MD simulations demonstrated that Ta is very effective as a barrier layer under thermal loading only, and its effectiveness is impaired by tensile strain at the Cu/Ta interface. The simulations also clarified the mechanism that caused the impairment. The methodology and approach described in this paper can be followed further to study the effectiveness of barrier layers under various annealing and strain conditions, and to determine the minimum thickness of barrier layers required for a particular application.

  13. Diffusion behavior of Cu/Ta heterogeneous interface under high temperature and high strain: An atomistic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ganglong; Wu, Houya; Luo, Honglong; Chen, Zhuo; Tay, Andrew A. O.; Zhu, Wenhui

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) integration technology using Cu interconnections has emerged as a promising solution to improve the performance of silicon microelectronic devices. However, Cu diffuses into SiO2 and requires a barrier layer such as Ta to ensure acceptable reliability. In this paper, the effects of temperature and strain normal to the interface on the inter-diffusion of Cu and Ta at annealing conditions are investigated using a molecular dynamics (MD) technique with embedded atomic method (EAM) potentials. Under thermal annealing conditions without strain, it is found that a Cu-rich diffusion region approximately 2 nm thick is formed at 1000 K after 10 ns of annealing. Ta is capable of diffusing into the interior of Cu but Cu hardly diffuses into the inner lattice of Ta. At the Cu side near the interface an amorphous structure is formed due to the process of diffusion. The diffusion activation energy of Cu and Ta are found to be 0.9769 and 0.586 eV, respectively. However, when a strain is applied, a large number of crystal defects are generated in the sample. As the strain is increased, extrinsic stacking faults (ESFs) and lots of Shockley partial dislocations appear. The density of the dislocations and the diffusion channels increase, promoting the diffusion of Cu atoms into the inner lattice of Ta. The thickness of the diffusion layer increases to 4 times the value when only a temperature load of 700 K is applied. The MD simulations demonstrated that Ta is very effective as a barrier layer under thermal loading only, and its effectiveness is impaired by tensile strain at the Cu/Ta interface. The simulations also clarified the mechanism that caused the impairment. The methodology and approach described in this paper can be followed further to study the effectiveness of barrier layers under various annealing and strain conditions, and to determine the minimum thickness of barrier layers required for a particular application.

  14. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst of oxone for the degradation of diclofenac in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Yisheng, E-mail: shaoyisheng2011@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China); Gao, Naiyun; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhou, Shiqing; Hu, Xuhao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs tested as heterogeneous catalyst for the activation of oxone. • The catalytic performance was typically affected by several key operating parameters. • The catalyst exhibited good stability and easily recovered with excellent reusability. • Degradation pathway was proposed according to the results of LC-MS/MS analysis. -- Abstract: A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15 min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5–9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed.

  15. Scientific and high-performance computing at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisel Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Future FAIR experiments have to deal with very high input rates, large track multiplicities, make full event reconstruction and selection on-line on a large dedicated computer farm equipped with heterogeneous many-core CPU/GPU compute nodes. To develop efficient and fast algorithms, which are optimized for parallel computations, is a challenge for the groups of experts dealing with the HPC computing. Here we present and discuss the status and perspectives of the data reconstruction and physics analysis software of one of the future FAIR experiments, namely, the CBM experiment.

  16. A high performance field-reversed configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Garate, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Gota, H.; Barnes, D.; Deng, B. H.; Thompson, M. C.; Trask, E.; Yang, X.; Putvinski, S.; Rostoker, N.; Andow, R.; Aefsky, S.; Bolte, N.; Bui, D. Q.; Ceccherini, F.; Clary, R. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Conventional field-reversed configurations (FRCs), high-beta, prolate compact toroids embedded in poloidal magnetic fields, face notable stability and confinement concerns. These can be ameliorated by various control techniques, such as introducing a significant fast ion population. Indeed, adding neutral beam injection into the FRC over the past half-decade has contributed to striking improvements in confinement and stability. Further, the addition of electrically biased plasma guns at the ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved stability. Together, these enabled the build-up of a well-confined and dominant fast-ion population. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable hot FRCs (with total plasma temperature of ∼1 keV) with record lifetimes were achieved. These accomplishments point to the prospect of advanced, beam-driven FRCs as an intriguing path toward fusion reactors. This paper reviews key results and presents context for further interpretation.

  17. Performance evaluation of a motor-imagery-based EEG-Brain computer interface using a combined cue with heterogeneous training data in BCI-Naive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Youngbum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subjects in EEG-Brain computer interface (BCI system experience difficulties when attempting to obtain the consistent performance of the actual movement by motor imagery alone. It is necessary to find the optimal conditions and stimuli combinations that affect the performance factors of the EEG-BCI system to guarantee equipment safety and trust through the performance evaluation of using motor imagery characteristics that can be utilized in the EEG-BCI testing environment. Methods The experiment was carried out with 10 experienced subjects and 32 naive subjects on an EEG-BCI system. There were 3 experiments: The experienced homogeneous experiment, the naive homogeneous experiment and the naive heterogeneous experiment. Each experiment was compared in terms of the six audio-visual cue combinations and consisted of 50 trials. The EEG data was classified using the least square linear classifier in case of the naive subjects through the common spatial pattern filter. The accuracy was calculated using the training and test data set. The p-value of the accuracy was obtained through the statistical significance test. Results In the case in which a naive subject was trained by a heterogeneous combined cue and tested by a visual cue, the result was not only the highest accuracy (p Conclusions We propose the use of this measuring methodology of a heterogeneous combined cue for training data and a visual cue for test data by the typical EEG-BCI algorithm on the EEG-BCI system to achieve effectiveness in terms of consistence, stability, cost, time, and resources management without the need for a trial and error process.

  18. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  19. Development of high performance hybrid rocket fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Christopher R.

    . In order to examine paraffin/additive combustion in a motor environment, I conducted experiments on well characterized aluminum based additives. In particular, I investigate the influence of aluminum, unpassivated aluminum, milled aluminum/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and aluminum hydride on the performance of paraffin fuels for hybrid rocket propulsion. I use an optically accessible combustor to examine the performance of the fuel mixtures in terms of characteristic velocity efficiency and regression rate. Each combustor test consumes a 12.7 cm long, 1.9 cm diameter fuel strand under 160 kg/m 2s of oxygen at up to 1.4 MPa. The experimental results indicate that the addition of 5 wt.% 30 mum or 80 nm aluminum to paraffin increases the regression rate by approximately 15% compared to neat paraffin grains. At higher aluminum concentrations and nano-scale particles sizes, the increased melt layer viscosity causes slower regression. Alane and Al/PTFE at 12.5 wt.% increase the regression of paraffin by 21% and 32% respectively. Finally, an aging study indicates that paraffin can protect air and moisture sensitive particles from oxidation. The opposed burner and aluminum/paraffin hybrid rocket experiments show that additives can alter bulk fuel properties, such as viscosity, that regulate entrainment. The general effect of melt layer properties on the entrainment and regression rate of paraffin is not well understood. Improved understanding of how solid additives affect the properties and regression of paraffin is essential to maximize performance. In this document I investigate the effect of melt layer properties on paraffin regression using inert additives. Tests are performed in the optical cylindrical combustor at ˜1 MPa under a gaseous oxygen mass flux of ˜160 kg/m2s. The experiments indicate that the regression rate is proportional to mu0.08rho 0.38kappa0.82. In addition, I explore how to predict fuel viscosity, thermal conductivity, and density prior to testing

  20. Emerging technologies for high performance infrared detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chee Leong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photodetectors (IRPDs have become important devices in various applications such as night vision, military missile tracking, medical imaging, industry defect imaging, environmental sensing, and exoplanet exploration. Mature semiconductor technologies such as mercury cadmium telluride and III–V material-based photodetectors have been dominating the industry. However, in the last few decades, significant funding and research has been focused to improve the performance of IRPDs such as lowering the fabrication cost, simplifying the fabrication processes, increasing the production yield, and increasing the operating temperature by making use of advances in nanofabrication and nanotechnology. We will first review the nanomaterial with suitable electronic and mechanical properties, such as two-dimensional material, graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and metal oxides. We compare these with more traditional low-dimensional material such as quantum well, quantum dot, quantum dot in well, semiconductor superlattice, nanowires, nanotube, and colloid quantum dot. We will also review the nanostructures used for enhanced light-matter interaction to boost the IRPD sensitivity. These include nanostructured antireflection coatings, optical antennas, plasmonic, and metamaterials.